# Group 3 De Guzman, Numeriano Rapanut, Peter John Samson, Nico Angelo Trinidad, Leona Gay 5ChE-A

PROBLEM A1 STUDY OF BERNOULLI’S THEOREM I. ABSTRACT The Bernoulli equation states that in a steady flow the work on a particle by all force acting on the particle is equal to the change of the kinetic energy of the particle. This equation is generally restricted by the assumptions that the flow is streamline, steady, in viscid and incompressible as well as the fluid’s density remains constant. In this experiment, the Bernoulli’s theorem demonstration apparatus was used to analyze the flow of fluid along a vessel. Results show that the Bernoulli’s equation is applicable to laminar flow. There is a significant percentage error for turbulent flow because under this condition, eddies cause the fluid to move rapidly in the system. II. OBJECTIVES This experiment aims to determine the validity of the Bernoulli’s theorem on the flow of water in the tapering circular duct by comparing the theoretical total head and the observed total head at a given flow rate. Moreover, it also intends to determine the range of the validity of the Bernoulli theorem using water flowing at different flow rates. III. REFERENCES Batchelor, G.K. (1967). An Introduction to Fluid Dynamics. Cambridge University Press Streeter, V.L., Fluid Mechanics, Example 3.5, McGraw–Hill Inc. (1966), New York Mulley, Raymond (2004). Flow of Industrial Fluids: Theory and Equations. CRC Press. Lamb, H. (1993). Hydrodynamics (6th ed.). Cambridge University Press. www.complore.com www.thefreedictionary.com

Consequently. it can only be because it has moved from a region of lower pressure to a region of higher pressure. If the fluid is flowing out of a reservoir the sum of all forms of energy is the same on all streamlines because in a reservoir the energy per unit mass (the sum of pressure and gravitational potential ρgh) is the same everywhere. the highest speed occurs where the pressure is lowest. If a fluid is flowing horizontally and along a section of a streamline. EQUIPMENT/MATERIALS V. Fluid particles are subject only to pressure and their own weight. resulting in what is loosely denoted as Bernoulli's equation. This states that the sum of all forms of mechanical energy in a fluid along a streamline is the same at all points on that streamline. and the lowest speed occurs where the pressure is highest. There are different forms of the Bernoulli equation for different types of flow. . within a fluid flowing horizontally.IV. This requires that the sum of kinetic energy and potential energy remains constant. THEORY Bernoulli's principle can be applied to different types of fluid flow. The simple form of Bernoulli's principle is valid for incompressible flows and also for compressible flows moving at low Mach numbers. and if its speed decreases. Bernoulli's principle is equivalent to the principle of conservation of energy. where the speed increases it can only be because the fluid on that section has moved from a region of higher pressure to a region of lower pressure.

In many applications of Bernoulli's equation. (Bernoulli's equation is not applicable where there are viscous forces. The above equations use a linear relationship between velocity squared and pressure. such as in the boundary layer. the change in the ρgz term along streamlines is zero or so small it can be ignored. the mass density of a fluid parcel can be considered to be constant. so clearly Bernoulli's equation ceases to be valid before zero pressure is reached. non-linear processes such as (viscous) turbulent flow and cavitation occur. Gases and liquids are not capable of negative absolute pressure. At higher velocities in gases the changes in pressure become significant so that the assumption of constant density is invalid. The original form of Bernoulli's equation is: where: is the fluid velocity at a point on a streamline is the acceleration due to gravity is the height of the point above a reference plane is the pressure at the point is the density of the fluid at all points in the fluid The assumptions that must be met for the equation to apply are the fluid must be incompressible. Bernoulli performed his experiments on liquids and his equation in its original form is valid only for incompressible flow. This allows the above equation to be presented in the following simplified form: . At higher velocities in liquids.In most flows of liquids and of gases at low Mach number. or even zero pressure. even though pressure varies.) The above equation can be rewritten as: where: is dynamic pressure The above equations suggest there is a velocity at which pressure is zero and at higher velocities the pressure is negative. regardless of pressure variations in the flow. For this reason the fluid in such flows can be considered to be incompressible and these flows can be described as incompressible flow. the density must remain constant and the streamline must not enter the boundary layer.

Values of high and low rates at both high and low static pressure was obtained for different combinations of valve openings. The apparatus was filled with water to discharge all the pockets of air from the system and ensured that all connecting tubes were free form air. DATA AND RESULTS The data gathered from the experiment are shown below in tabulated form from table 1 to table 3. VI.where is called total pressure.9 160 160 . Many authors refer to the pressure as static pressure to distinguish it from total pressure and dynamic pressure . While the drain valve connected to the test section is opened. To distinguish it from the total and dynamic pressures. which is associated not with its motion but with its state. the inlet flow was stopped and the apparatus was drained. the apparatus was connected in the faucet.0125 158.0125 0.6 0. The probe was inserted to the end of the parallel position of the duct was then move it to the tapered 1 cm at a time. the actual pressure of the fluid. OPERATING CONDITIONS AND PROCEDURE The apparatus was levelled in the bench. Crossmanometer rate(L/s) levels(mm) section(mm) level(mm) 10 10. but where the term pressure alone is used it refers to this static pressure. 1 2 Diameter of Probe Flow Manometer diff. The scale reading of each manometer levels was noted and three sets of readings of volume and time to find the flow rate using the volumetric flask was taken. In shutting down. The distance was noted from the end of the parallel position and the scale reading of its manometer level was recorded. is often referred to as the static pressure. Tube no. The last table(table 3) are the data drawn upon the set up for different probe distances. The inlet feed and the flow control valves was adjusted to provide the combination of flow rate and the system pressure that will give the largest convenient difference between the highest and lowest manometer levels. Table 1. The hand pump was used at the air inlet to raise the air pressure above the liquid column for finite lowering of levels. The first table(table1) presents the data collected from the laminar flow basing from pretreatment of the flow regime while table 2 presents the data for turbulent flow. VII. The levels was raised or lowered as required through adjustments of the feed water and the flow valve. and is dynamic pressure.6 158.

5 66.0125 0.18245 Probe distance (mm) 58.18245 0.6 25 Diameter of diff. 1 2 3 4 5 6 Area of cross section (mm^2) 78. Actual Fluid velocity is the average velocity calculated from the measure flow rate. and the diameter of the different cross sections. Diameter of diff.5 291. Crosssection(mm) 10 10. .184502 0.0906458 1.184502 0.18245 0.0125 0.4 14.0125 0. 11.6 25 Flow rate(L/s) 0. The Fluid velocity calculated from Bernoulli and % difference of the velocities are added up for further analysis.18245 0.184502 0.42 VIII.4 125 Probe manometer level(mm) 295 303 307 310 307 311 Fluid velocity (m/s) 2. 1 2 3 4 5 6 Table 3. TREATMENT OF RESULTS The table below is the result of the treated data of table 1 and table 2 for data and results.184502 Probe Manometer manometer levels(mm) level(mm) 5.1324165 2.6 307 307 307 307 307 307 Tube no.1 63 67.247544 100.18245 0.7 159.5 122.4 14.3 159.6 25 0.5 60.5 159.3 75.5 212. the density and viscosity were calculated from Perry’s Chemical engineers’ Handbook at 25oC.287726 120.4 14.184502 0.415864 490.0125 159.6 11.2747308 2.8835074 1.3 62.184502 0.875 Manometer Flow levels(mm) rate(L/s) 31 71 84 129 222 302 0.3 12. The calculation of Reynolds number is added for the flow regime.3 12.3 12.6 11.763104 167. the time it takes to fill a 1 liter beaker.99 160 160 160 160 Tube no.2907362 0.54 88. Furthermore. Crosssection(mm) 10 10.18245 0.3 4 5 6 Table 2.

184502 0.4 14.647 1538.3 75. .18245 58.184502 1738.4 14.3 12.5 212.184502 0.3 159.99 5.3 12. Crossdistance section levels(mm) rate(L/s) section(mm) (mm) (mm^2) 10 10.45867 25.184502 0.1546 1640.357 20695.0125 0.9 159.46473 25662.6 25 Flow rate(L/s) Probe Manometer manometer levels(mm) level(mm) 158.5 159.727 1527.6 160 160 160 160 160 160 307 307 307 307 307 307 Nre % difference 1 2 3 4 5 6 1 2 3 4 5 6 0.5 122.3 12.022 3. Table 5 Area of Diameter of Probe cross Manometer Flow diff.3 62. Crosssection(mm) 10 10.732 2189.661382 6.097 22710.1 63 67.058 375.68116 14 2431.184502 0.8635 4.0125 0.99495 76.8332 117.5 66.49218 46.5084 1190.4 14.8539 74.109 2171.3997 Tube no.7 159.184502 0.18245 0.46849 23.703 2349.2327 141.6254 124.6502 146.18245 0.2747308 2.3605 2.247544 100.6 11.081 2090.0125 0.763104 167.6 11.0906458 1.6 25 10 10.18245 0.5 291.194 10265.147 24210.701139 45.0125 0.6 11.287726 120.6414 1402.4 125 Probe Fluid manometer velocity level(mm) (m/s) 295 303 307 310 307 311 2.1324165 2.5 60.801 1102.1344 103.631 1360.51553 4.728 17577.42 Tube no. Diameter of diff.2907362 0.02446 4.129 1901.705385 18.6 158.732 1839.8835074 1.18245 0.54 88.6 25 78.956 549. The computation of the dynamic head was calculated using the actual velocity.Table 4 Actual Fluid velocity (mm/s) Fluid velocity calculated from bernoulli 165.0125 0.1324 98.66437 695.875 31 71 84 129 222 302 0.415864 490.081355 3. Theoretical head is the sum of the dynamic and measured static head. 1 2 3 4 5 6 The table below presents the treated data of table 1 for the theoretical head.16999 The table below represents the treated data of table 3 in data and results and summarizes the different important points to be considered.0125 0.01366 24.18245 0.6467 159.

0466321 159.02366697 0.0673225 0.8923565 159.3 159.5 212.292356464 1. In table 4 the calculation of the actual velocity was derived from the measured flow rate and the diameter of cross section specified in the apparatus while the velocity from Bernoulli was derived from the equation above. Although taking into account the last reading for the laminar flow which is 159.207825032 Actual Velocity 159.801 1102.0224524 7.5 159. ANALYSIS OF RESULTS The Bernoulli equation states that.074477 11. where points 1 and 2 lie on a streamline.5 122.Table 6 Measured Static head 158.8536 2. it can be noted that the flow is more applicable for laminar flow.5084 74. These assumptions made seem severe but although the simplicity of the equation gives the major importance of giving great insight into the balance between pressure. it can be noted of the high difference.5 66.792626459 0.5556953 223.74162 Theoretical head 159.96590997 7.923667 160.0097341 0.03308431 281.5183824 239.6834405 119.9844269 160.9 159. and there is no friction. In comparison of these velocities taking into account the type of flow.284426946 0.6414 103.7 159. the flow is steady.01442561 7.99 5.353367 27. It is evident in table 4 considering the % difference.5237249 28.147 2090.807825 IX.0230843 286.1834405 241. velocity and elevation. that as the flow rate together with the Reynolds number increases the percent error or difference goes high. This is because of the graduation of the apparatus’s manometer.02913656 0.0477309 0. the fluid has constant density.When there is no elevation the potential energy is zero thus the Bernoulli equation give.1546 141. the reading becomes harsh and difficult.8556953 285.0926265 160.727 1527.0906069 61.05785804 0.5906069 274. However it is still able to imply that laminar flow is more applicable for the Bernoulli equation for the reason that eddies formed in turbulent flow causes the velocity stream to move rapidly .6 158.46473 2349.647 124.058 375. respectively.732 1839.6 Calculated Dynamic head 1.46591 298.3 62.0183824 172.8635 Measured theoretical head 160 160 160 160 160 160 307 307 307 307 307 307 % Difference 0.546632085 0.99mm.66437 25.5 291.

without losses due to friction. the fluid moves towards the plate. Bernoulli's equation leads to some interesting conclusions regarding the variation of pressure along a streamline. it ``stagnates. it is important to remember that Bernoulli's principle does not apply in the boundary layer or in fluid flow through long pipes. except for hydrostatic head differences if we ignore gravity. and ships moving in open bodies of water.There is one streamline that divides the flow in half: above this streamline all the flow goes over the plate. . regardless of the fluid speed at that point. the total pressure on every streamline is the same and Bernoulli's principle can be summarized as total pressure is constant everywhere in the fluid flow. Turbulent flow will somehow violate the assumption made that fluid must be of constant density. Along this dividing streamline. has its own unique static pressure (p) and dynamic pressure (q). When streamlines are parallel the pressure is constant across them. It is reasonable to assume that irrotational flow exists in any situation where a large body of fluid is flowing past a solid body. Upstream and downstream of the contraction makes the one-dimensional assumption that the velocity is constant over the inlet and outlet areas and parallel. the total pressure represented by the theoretical head is nearly constant for the laminar flow.anywhere in the flow system. Examples are aircraft in flight.'' The fluid along the dividing. Convergent flow happens in from tube 6 to 1 for the gradual decrease of the diameter of cross section together with its area. At this point velocity is zero and every point in a steadily flowing fluid. Since the flow cannot pass through the plate. or ``stagnation streamline'' slows down and eventually comes to rest without deflection at the stagnation point. In other words. Along a streamline on the centreline In the Bernoulli equation and the one-dimensional continuity equation. Table 5 represents the data for convergence and divergence. Evident in table 6. the fluid must come to rest at the point where it meets the plate. However. The flow therefore satisfies all the restrictions governing the use of Bernoulli's equation. The significance of Bernoulli's principle can now be summarized as total pressure is constant along a streamline. If the fluid flow is irrotational. it happens at tube 1 to 6 where there is a gradual increase in cross sectional area. flow of a constant density fluid in a converging duct. Consider a steady flow impinging on a perpendicular plate . Evident in table 5 that from tube 1 to tube 6 with cross sectional area increasing the fluids velocity decreases. While divergence is the opposite of convergence. and below this streamline all the flow goes under the plate. Consider the steady. thus considering the directionless nature of turbulent flow in the presence of vortices and eddies it cannot assure the consistency of density at different points in the flow system. it is implied that in theory the velocity of the fluid will increase while the pressure of the fluid and cross section flow area will decrease. then the pressures over the inlet and outlet areas are constant. The stagnation point in this experiment is at point 7 presenting the probe manometer level.

what are the reasons? The computed heads agree with the total head probe in the laminar flow evident in Table 6. However. FINDINGS. Thus. Using a higher flow rate. Similar with the convergent flow. Thus.X. CONCLUSION AND RECOMMENDATION The Bernoulli Equation is governed by the assumptions that the two points under observation lie on a streamline. The result of the experiment confirms this because the velocity is highest at the point where the cross sectional area of the converging duct is lowest. (b) For a divergent flow. higher velocity that caused cross-currents and eddies in the flow system affects fluid properties which resulted to a decreased validity of the Bernoulli equation. a higher deviation from the theoretical velocity was observed. Error may also be caused by the difficulty of reading the manometer levels. XI. the density along the streamline would not be constant. Thus. Comment on the validity of the Bernoulli Equation for the system tested for (a) convergent flow (b) divergent flow. the fluid has constant density. Results show that there is a significant percentage error for turbulent flow because under this condition. . fluid flow is steady and is frictionless. (a) For a fluid under convergent flow. This may be caused by the formation of eddies in this type of flow. it somehow violates the assumption that the fluid must be of constant density. Deviations may also be caused by instrumental error. as leaks can be observed. ANSWERS TO QUESTIONS 1. there were some deviations from the theoretical head in the turbulent flow. 2. Do the computed heads agree with the total head probe? If they differ. Bernoulli’s equation suggests that the velocity increases as the area is decreased. Bernoulli’s equation suggests that the velocity decreases as the area is increased. We therefore conclude the Bernoulli equation is more applicable for laminar flow. eddies cause the fluid to move rapidly in the system. the experiment confirms this because the velocity is lowest at the point where the cross sectional area is highest.