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# Automatic Control Systems

Lecture-4
Standard Test Signals-
Time Domain Analysis of 1st Order Systems

Emam Fathy
Department of Electrical and Control Engineering
email: emfmz@yahoo.com

1
Introduction
• It is possible to compute the time response of a
system if the nature of input and the mathematical
model of the system are known.

## • Usually, the input signals to control systems are not

known fully ahead of time.

## • For example, in a radar tracking system, the position

and the speed of the target to be tracked may vary in
a random fashion.

## • It is therefore difficult to express the actual input

signals mathematically by simple equations.
Standard Test Signals
• The characteristics of actual input signals are a
sudden shock, a sudden change, a constant
velocity, and constant acceleration.

## • The dynamic behavior of a system is therefore

judged and compared under application of
standard test signals – an impulse, a step, a
constant velocity, and constant acceleration.

## • Another standard signal of great importance is a

sinusoidal signal.
Standard Test Signals
• Impulse signal
– The impulse signal imitate the
sudden shock characteristic of
actual input signal. δ(t)

A t0
 (t )   A
0 t0

L{ (t )}   ( s )  A 0 t

## – If A=1, the impulse signal is

called unit impulse signal.
Standard Test Signals
• Impulse signal
Standard Test Signals
• Step signal
– The step signal imitate
the sudden change u(t)

characteristic of actual
A
input signal.
A t0
u( t )  
0 t0 0 t

A
L{u(t )}  U ( s ) 
S
– If A=1, the step signal is
called unit step signal
Standard Test Signals
• Ramp signal r(t)

## – The ramp signal imitate the

constant velocity
characteristic of actual input
signal.
0 t
 At t0
r (t )  
0 t0 r(t)

A ramp signal
L{ r(t )}  R( s )  with slope A
s2
r(t)
– If A=1, the ramp signal is
called unit ramp signal unit ramp signal
Standard Test Signals
p(t)
• Parabolic signal
– The parabolic signal imitate the
constant acceleration
characteristic of actual input 0 t
signal. p(t)

 At 2
 t 0
p( t )   2 parabolic signal
0 t 0 with slope A

2A
L{ p( t )}  P( s )  3
p(t)
S

## – If A=1, the parabolic signal is Unit parabolic

signal
called unit parabolic signal.
Time Response of Control Systems
• Time response of a dynamic system response to an input
expressed as a function of time.

System

## • The time response of any system has two components

• Transient response
• Steady-state response.
Time Response of Control Systems
• When the response of the system is changed form rest or
equilibrium it takes some time to settle down.

## • Transient response is the response of a system from rest or

equilibrium to steady state.
-3
x 10 Step Response
6

Step Input
5
• The response of the

## Steady State Response

system after the transient 4
Response
Amplitude

## state response. 2 Transient Response

1

0
0 2 4 6 8 10 12 14 16 18 20
Time (sec)
Time Response of Control Systems
• Transient response depend upon the system poles only and not
on the type of input.

step input.

input quantity.

## • It is then examined using different test signals by final value

theorem.
Examples of First Order Systems
• Electrical System

Eo ( s ) 1

Ei ( s ) RCs  1
Examples of First Order Systems
• Mechanical System

X o (s) 1

X i (s) b
s 1
k
First Order Systems
• The first order system has the standard form.

𝐶(𝑠) 𝑘
=
𝑅(𝑠) 𝜏𝑠 + 1

the system.

## • Time constant is a measure of how quickly a 1st order

system responds to a unit step input.

## • D.C Gain of the system is ratio between the input

signal and the steady state value of output.
First Order Systems
• The first order system given below.
10
G( s ) 
3s  1
• D.C gain is 10 and time constant is 3 seconds.

3 3/ 5
G( s )  
s  5 1 / 5s  1

## • D.C Gain of the system is 3/5 and time constant is 1/5

seconds.
Impulse Response of 1st Order System
• Consider the following 1st order system
δ(t)

𝑘
R(s ) C(s )
1

𝜏𝑠 + 1
t
0

R( s )   ( s )  1

𝑘
𝐶(𝑠) =
𝜏𝑠 + 1
Impulse Response of 1st Order System
𝑘
𝐶(𝑠) =
𝜏𝑠 + 1
• Re-arrange following equation as

𝑘/𝜏
𝐶(𝑠) =
𝑠 + 1/𝜏

## • In order represent the response of the system in time domain

we need to compute inverse Laplace transform of the above
equation.
1 
C  𝑘 −𝑡/𝜏
L    Ce  at 𝑐 𝑡 = 𝑒
sa 𝜏
Impulse Response of 1st Order System
𝑘 −𝑡/𝜏
• If K=3 and 𝜏 =2 sec then 𝑐 𝑡 = 𝑒
𝜏
K/T*exp(-t/T)
1.5

1
c(t)

0.5

0
0 2 4 6 8 10
Time
Step Response of 1st Order System
• Consider the following 1st order system

𝑘
R(s ) C(s )
𝜏𝑠 + 1

1
R( s )  U ( s ) 
s
𝑘
𝐶 𝑠 =
𝑠(𝜏𝑠 + 1)
• In order to find out the inverse Laplace of the above equation, we
need to break it into partial fraction expansion
Forced Response 𝑘 𝑘𝜏 Natural Response
𝐶 𝑠 = −
𝑠 𝜏𝑠 + 1
Step Response of 1st Order System
1 𝜏
𝐶 𝑠 = 𝑘( − )
𝑠 𝜏𝑠+1
• Taking Inverse Laplace of above equation

−𝑡/𝜏
𝑐(𝑡) = 𝑘(𝑢(𝑡) − 𝑒 )
• Where u(t)=1
𝑐(𝑡) = 𝑘(1 − 𝑒 −𝑡/𝜏 )
• When t=𝜏

−1
𝑐(𝑡) = 𝑘(1 − 𝑒 ) = 0.632𝑘
Step Response of 1st Order System
If K=10 and 𝜏=1.5 s then 𝑐(𝑡) = 𝑘(1 − 𝑒
−𝑡/𝜏
• )
K*(1-exp(-t/T))
11

10

9 Step Response

8
steady state output 10
7 D.C Gain  K  
63% Input 1
6
c(t)

2
Unit Step Input
1

0
0 1 2 3 4 5 6 7 8 9 10
Time
Step Response of 1st order System
• System takes five time constants to reach its
final value.
Step Response of 1st Order System
−𝑡/𝜏
• If K=10 and 𝜏 =1, 3, 5, 7 𝑐(𝑡) = 𝑘(1 − 𝑒 )
K*(1-exp(-t/T))
11
10
T=1s
9

8 T=3s
7
T=5s
6
c(t)

5 T=7s

4
3
2
1
0
0 5 10 15
Time
PZ-map and Step Response

𝜏 = 0.33𝑠
𝜏 = 0.5𝑠
C( s )

𝜏 = 1𝑠
10

R( s ) s  1
δ
C (s) 10 5
  -3 -2 -1

R ( s ) s  2 0 .5 s  1
C( s ) 10 3 .3
 
R( s ) s  3 0.33s  1
Step Response of 1st Order System
• If K=1, 3, 5, 10 and 𝜏 =1 𝑐(𝑡) = 𝑘(1 − 𝑒 −𝑡/𝜏 )

K*(1-exp(-t/T))
11
10
K=10
9

8
7
6
K=5
c(t)

5
4
K=3
3
2
K=1
1
0
0 5 10 15
Time
Ramp Response of 1st Order System
• Consider the following 1st order system

𝑘
R(s ) C(s )
𝜏𝑠 + 1

1
R( s ) 
s2
𝑘
𝐶 𝑠 = 2
𝑠 (𝜏𝑠 + 1)
• The ramp response is given as

−𝑡/𝜏
𝑐(𝑡) = 𝑘(𝑡 − 𝜏 + 𝜏𝑒 )
Ramp Response of 1st Order System
−𝑡/𝜏
• If K=1 and 𝜏 =1 𝑐(𝑡) = 𝑘(𝑡 − 𝜏 + 𝜏𝑒 )

## Unit Ramp Response

10
Unit Ramp
Ramp Response
8

6
c(t)

4
error

0
0 5 10 15
Time
Ramp Response of 1st Order System
• If K=1 and 𝜏 =3 𝑐(𝑡) = 𝑘(𝑡 − 𝜏 + 𝜏𝑒 −𝑡/𝜏 )
Unit Ramp Response

10 Unit Ramp
Ramp Response
8

6
c(t)

2 error

0
0 5 10 15
Time
Parabolic Response of 1st Order System
• Consider the following 1st order system

𝑘
R(s ) C(s )
𝜏𝑠 + 1

1 𝑘
R( s )  Therefore, 𝐶 𝑠 = 3
s3 𝑠 (𝜏𝑠 + 1)
• Do it yourself
End of Lec.