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Lecture-4

Standard Test Signals-

Time Domain Analysis of 1st Order Systems

Emam Fathy

Department of Electrical and Control Engineering

email: emfmz@yahoo.com

1

Introduction

• It is possible to compute the time response of a

system if the nature of input and the mathematical

model of the system are known.

known fully ahead of time.

and the speed of the target to be tracked may vary in

a random fashion.

signals mathematically by simple equations.

Standard Test Signals

• The characteristics of actual input signals are a

sudden shock, a sudden change, a constant

velocity, and constant acceleration.

judged and compared under application of

standard test signals – an impulse, a step, a

constant velocity, and constant acceleration.

sinusoidal signal.

Standard Test Signals

• Impulse signal

– The impulse signal imitate the

sudden shock characteristic of

actual input signal. δ(t)

A t0

(t ) A

0 t0

L{ (t )} ( s ) A 0 t

called unit impulse signal.

Standard Test Signals

• Impulse signal

Standard Test Signals

• Step signal

– The step signal imitate

the sudden change u(t)

characteristic of actual

A

input signal.

A t0

u( t )

0 t0 0 t

A

L{u(t )} U ( s )

S

– If A=1, the step signal is

called unit step signal

Standard Test Signals

• Ramp signal r(t)

constant velocity

characteristic of actual input

signal.

0 t

At t0

r (t )

0 t0 r(t)

A ramp signal

L{ r(t )} R( s ) with slope A

s2

r(t)

– If A=1, the ramp signal is

called unit ramp signal unit ramp signal

Standard Test Signals

p(t)

• Parabolic signal

– The parabolic signal imitate the

constant acceleration

characteristic of actual input 0 t

signal. p(t)

At 2

t 0

p( t ) 2 parabolic signal

0 t 0 with slope A

2A

L{ p( t )} P( s ) 3

p(t)

S

signal

called unit parabolic signal.

Time Response of Control Systems

• Time response of a dynamic system response to an input

expressed as a function of time.

System

• Transient response

• Steady-state response.

Time Response of Control Systems

• When the response of the system is changed form rest or

equilibrium it takes some time to settle down.

equilibrium to steady state.

-3

x 10 Step Response

6

Step Input

5

• The response of the

system after the transient 4

Response

Amplitude

1

0

0 2 4 6 8 10 12 14 16 18 20

Time (sec)

Time Response of Control Systems

• Transient response depend upon the system poles only and not

on the type of input.

step input.

input quantity.

theorem.

Examples of First Order Systems

• Electrical System

Eo ( s ) 1

Ei ( s ) RCs 1

Examples of First Order Systems

• Mechanical System

X o (s) 1

X i (s) b

s 1

k

First Order Systems

• The first order system has the standard form.

𝐶(𝑠) 𝑘

=

𝑅(𝑠) 𝜏𝑠 + 1

the system.

system responds to a unit step input.

signal and the steady state value of output.

First Order Systems

• The first order system given below.

10

G( s )

3s 1

• D.C gain is 10 and time constant is 3 seconds.

3 3/ 5

G( s )

s 5 1 / 5s 1

seconds.

Impulse Response of 1st Order System

• Consider the following 1st order system

δ(t)

𝑘

R(s ) C(s )

1

𝜏𝑠 + 1

t

0

R( s ) ( s ) 1

𝑘

𝐶(𝑠) =

𝜏𝑠 + 1

Impulse Response of 1st Order System

𝑘

𝐶(𝑠) =

𝜏𝑠 + 1

• Re-arrange following equation as

𝑘/𝜏

𝐶(𝑠) =

𝑠 + 1/𝜏

we need to compute inverse Laplace transform of the above

equation.

1

C 𝑘 −𝑡/𝜏

L Ce at 𝑐 𝑡 = 𝑒

sa 𝜏

Impulse Response of 1st Order System

𝑘 −𝑡/𝜏

• If K=3 and 𝜏 =2 sec then 𝑐 𝑡 = 𝑒

𝜏

K/T*exp(-t/T)

1.5

1

c(t)

0.5

0

0 2 4 6 8 10

Time

Step Response of 1st Order System

• Consider the following 1st order system

𝑘

R(s ) C(s )

𝜏𝑠 + 1

1

R( s ) U ( s )

s

𝑘

𝐶 𝑠 =

𝑠(𝜏𝑠 + 1)

• In order to find out the inverse Laplace of the above equation, we

need to break it into partial fraction expansion

Forced Response 𝑘 𝑘𝜏 Natural Response

𝐶 𝑠 = −

𝑠 𝜏𝑠 + 1

Step Response of 1st Order System

1 𝜏

𝐶 𝑠 = 𝑘( − )

𝑠 𝜏𝑠+1

• Taking Inverse Laplace of above equation

−𝑡/𝜏

𝑐(𝑡) = 𝑘(𝑢(𝑡) − 𝑒 )

• Where u(t)=1

𝑐(𝑡) = 𝑘(1 − 𝑒 −𝑡/𝜏 )

• When t=𝜏

−1

𝑐(𝑡) = 𝑘(1 − 𝑒 ) = 0.632𝑘

Step Response of 1st Order System

If K=10 and 𝜏=1.5 s then 𝑐(𝑡) = 𝑘(1 − 𝑒

−𝑡/𝜏

• )

K*(1-exp(-t/T))

11

10

9 Step Response

8

steady state output 10

7 D.C Gain K

63% Input 1

6

c(t)

2

Unit Step Input

1

0

0 1 2 3 4 5 6 7 8 9 10

Time

Step Response of 1st order System

• System takes five time constants to reach its

final value.

Step Response of 1st Order System

−𝑡/𝜏

• If K=10 and 𝜏 =1, 3, 5, 7 𝑐(𝑡) = 𝑘(1 − 𝑒 )

K*(1-exp(-t/T))

11

10

T=1s

9

8 T=3s

7

T=5s

6

c(t)

5 T=7s

4

3

2

1

0

0 5 10 15

Time

PZ-map and Step Response

jω

𝜏 = 0.33𝑠

𝜏 = 0.5𝑠

C( s )

𝜏 = 1𝑠

10

R( s ) s 1

δ

C (s) 10 5

-3 -2 -1

R ( s ) s 2 0 .5 s 1

C( s ) 10 3 .3

R( s ) s 3 0.33s 1

Step Response of 1st Order System

• If K=1, 3, 5, 10 and 𝜏 =1 𝑐(𝑡) = 𝑘(1 − 𝑒 −𝑡/𝜏 )

K*(1-exp(-t/T))

11

10

K=10

9

8

7

6

K=5

c(t)

5

4

K=3

3

2

K=1

1

0

0 5 10 15

Time

Ramp Response of 1st Order System

• Consider the following 1st order system

𝑘

R(s ) C(s )

𝜏𝑠 + 1

1

R( s )

s2

𝑘

𝐶 𝑠 = 2

𝑠 (𝜏𝑠 + 1)

• The ramp response is given as

−𝑡/𝜏

𝑐(𝑡) = 𝑘(𝑡 − 𝜏 + 𝜏𝑒 )

Ramp Response of 1st Order System

−𝑡/𝜏

• If K=1 and 𝜏 =1 𝑐(𝑡) = 𝑘(𝑡 − 𝜏 + 𝜏𝑒 )

10

Unit Ramp

Ramp Response

8

6

c(t)

4

error

0

0 5 10 15

Time

Ramp Response of 1st Order System

• If K=1 and 𝜏 =3 𝑐(𝑡) = 𝑘(𝑡 − 𝜏 + 𝜏𝑒 −𝑡/𝜏 )

Unit Ramp Response

10 Unit Ramp

Ramp Response

8

6

c(t)

2 error

0

0 5 10 15

Time

Parabolic Response of 1st Order System

• Consider the following 1st order system

𝑘

R(s ) C(s )

𝜏𝑠 + 1

1 𝑘

R( s ) Therefore, 𝐶 𝑠 = 3

s3 𝑠 (𝜏𝑠 + 1)

• Do it yourself

End of Lec.

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