Honorable Chief Engineer (Thermal) Genco

, Faisalabad


M.Zeeshan Arshad Salah-Ud-Din Tayyab Saeed

(BEE-FA06-077) (BEE-FA06-002) (2008-EP(H)-08)

like Crude oil. like ship propulsion. After it passes through the turbine. this is known as a Rankine cycle.Steam Power Station Ste Powe St t on of Nort ern Power Generat on Company Limite he in Faisalabad is of 2×66 MW and their working based on crude oil and whole system installed by collaboration of the american which is the part of ame rican aid in 1967. Water is heated. ¥¦ ¥ ¤ ¢ £ £  ¡  Typical diagram of a thermal power station .natural gas and nuclear. The greatest variation in the design of thermal power stations is due to the different fuel sources. coal . the steam is condensed in a condenser and recycled to where it was heated. A steam power station is a power plant in which the prime mover is steam driven. turns into steam and spins a steam turbine which either drives an electrical generator or does some other work.

1. Cooling water pump § § § 3. Cooling tower 2. Combustion air intake § . Deaerator 13. Steam Control valve 11. Coal pulverizer 17. Forced draught (draft fan 21. Low pressure steam turbine 7. High pressure steam turbine 12. Intermediate pressure steam turbine 10. Crude oil 15. Surface condenser 9. Reheater 22. Coal hopper 16. Feedwater heater 14.Main parts of the steam power station. Electrical generator (3-phase 6. Condensate pump 8. Ash hopper 19. Step-up transformer (3-phase 5. Transmission line (3-phase 4. Boiler steam drum 18. Superheater 20.

has 2 poles. To minimize the frictional resistance to the rotation. speed is 3000 revolution per minute. The steam turbine-driven generators have auxiliary systems enabling them to work satisfactorily and safely.e. Barring gear Barring gear (or "turning gear") is the mechanism provided to rotate the turbine generator shaft at a very low speed after unit stoppages. Induced draught (draft fan 27. at Hydrogen pressure (Psig) of 0. When it stops completely.3 phase. Air preheater 25. the shaft has a number of bearings.. large diameter shaft. are lined with a low friction material like Babbitt metal. Flue gas stack ¨ Steam Power Electric generator The Capacity of Generator in SPS Faisal abad is 85 MVA. The bearing shells.11000 volts. at Hydrogen pressure (Psig) of 30 amperes are 4462 and 85000 KVA. Oil lubrication is provided to further reduce the friction between shaft and bearing surface and to limit the heat generated. frequency 50 cycles per second. Economizer 24. there is a tendency for the turbine shaft to . these ratings are at . Once the unit is "tripped" (i.85 power factor. in which the shaft rotates. Precipitator 26. The steam turbine generator being rotating equipment generally has a heavy. The shaft therefore requires not only supports but also has to be kept in position wh ile running. at Hydrogen pressure (Psig) of 15 amperes are 4105 and 78200 KVA.5 amperes are 3569 and 68000 KVA. the steam inlet valve is closed).23. the turbine coasts down towards standstill.

making the top half portion of the shaft hotter than the bottom half. This is because the heat inside the turbine casing tends to concentrate in the top half of the casing. Since the condenser temperature can almost always be kept significantly below 1000C where the vapor pressure of water is much less than atmospheric pressure. Such condensers use steam ejectors or rotary motor-driven exhausters for continuous removal of air and gases from the steam side to maintain vacuum. This small shaft deflection. Plants operating in hot climates may have to reduce output if their source of . Condenser The surface condenser is a shell and tube heat exchanger in which cooling water is circulated through the tubes. only detectable by eccentricity meters. the condenser generally works under vacuum. The shaft therefore could warp or bend by millionths of inches. the temperature in the condenser must be kept as low as practical in order to achieve the lowest possible pressure in the condensing steam. The shaft is therefore automatically turned at low speed (about one percent rated speed) by the barring gear until it has cooled sufficiently to permit a complete stop. For best efficiency.deflect or bend if allowed to remain in one position too long. would be enough to cause damaging vibrations to the entire steam turbine generator unit when it is restarted. Thus leaks of non-condensable air into the closed loop must be prevented. The exhaust steam from the low pressure turbine enters the shell where it is cooled and converted to condensate (water) by flowing over the tubes as shown in the adjacent diagram.

The condensate pump then pumps the condensate water through a feed water heater. it is piped from the upper drum area into an elaborate set up of tubing in different areas of the boiler. lake or ocean. The areas known as super heater and re heater. The heat content (BTU) in the steam is referred to as Enthalpy. The steam vapor picks up energy and its temperature is now superheated above the saturation temperature. Feedwater heater In the case of a conventional steam-electric power plant utilizing a drum boiler. Preheating the feed water reduces the irreversibilities involved in steam generation and therefore improves the thermodynamic efficiency of the system. The feed water heating equipment then raises the temperature of the water by utilizing extraction steam from various stages of the turbine.[9] This reduces plant operating costs and also helps to avoid thermal shock to the boiler metal when the feed water is introduced back into the steam cycle. Superheater As the steam is conditioned by the drying equipment inside the drum. . the surface condenser removes the latent heat of vaporization from the steam as it changes states from vapour to liquid. The condenser generally uses either circulating cooling water from a cooling tower to reject waste heat to the atmosphere.condenser cooling water becomes warmer. unfortunately this usually coincides with periods of high electrical demand for air conditioning. or once-through water from a river. The superheated steam is then piped through the main steam lines to the valves of the high pressure turbine.

The adjacent diagram depicts a typical conventional trayed deaerator. Auxiliary systems Oil system An auxiliary oil system pump is used to supply oil at the start -up of the steam turbine generator. the relevant hydraulic relays and other mechanisms. the governing control valves.Deaerator A steam generating boiler requires that the boiler feed water should be devoid of air and other dissolved gases. in an oil-sealed casing. in order to avoid corrosion of the metal. There are many different designs for a deaerator and the designs will vary from one manufacturer to another. with air in the . It supplies the hydraulic oil system required for steam turbine's main inlet steam stop valve. Hydrogen gas cooling. larger units generally require special cooling arrangements. particularly corrosive ones. This system requires special handling during start-up. the bearing and seal oil systems. power stations use a deaerator to provide for the removal of air and other dissolved gases from the boiler feed water. Generator heat dissipation The electricity generator requires cooling to dissipate the heat that it generates. At a preset speed of the turbine during start-ups. While small units may be cooled by air draw n through filters at the inlet. A deaerator typically includes a vertical. domed deaeration section mounted on top of a horizontal cylindrical vessel which serves as the deaerated boiler feed water storage tank. a pump driven by the turbine main shaft takes over the functions of the auxiliar y system. is used because it has the highest known heat transfer coefficient of any gas and for its low viscosity which reduces windage losses. Generally.

Generator high voltage system The generator voltage ranges from 11 kV in smaller units to 22 kV in larger units. The generator high voltage leads are normally larg e aluminum channels because of their high current as compared to the cables used in smaller machines. The generator also uses water cooling. steam generator refers to a furnace that burns the fossil fuel to boil water to generate steam. In the nuclear plant field. Thus. In a nuclear reactor called a boiling water reactor (BWR). which of course is used to generate steam. an insulating barrier such as Teflon is used to interconnect the water line and the generator high voltage windings. water is boiled to generate steam directly in the reactor itself and there are no . Since the generator coils are at a potential of about 22 kV and water is conductive. The generator high voltage channels are connected to step-up transformers for connecting to a high voltage electrical substation (of the order of 115 kV to 132 kV) for further transmission by the local power grid. This ensures that the highly flammable hydrogen does not mix with oxygen in the air. Demineralized water of low conductivity is used. They are enclosed in well-grounded aluminum bus ducts and are supported on suitable insulators. In smaller units. The hydrogen pressure inside the casing is maintained slightly higher than atmospheric pressure to avoid outside air ingress. Mechanical seals around the shaft are installed with a very small annular gap to avoid rubbing between the shaft and the seals. Seal oil is used to prevent the hydrogen gas leakage to atmosphere. a breaker is provided to connect it to a common 11 kV bus system.chamber first displaced by carbon dioxide before filling with hydrogen. The necessary protection and metering devices are included for the high voltage leads. the steam turbine generator and the transformer form one unit. The hydrogen must be sealed against outward leakage where the shaft emerges from the casing. generating at 11 k V. steam generator refers to a specific type of large heat exchanger used in a pressurized water reactor (PWR) to thermally connect the primary (reactor plant) and secondary (steam plant) systems. Steam generator In fossil-fueled power plants.

. This process is known as natural circulation. As the water is turned into steam/vapor in the water walls. The boiler transfers energy to the water by the chemical reaction of burning some type of fuel. From the economizer it passes to the steam drum. the process of adding the latent heat of vaporization or enthalpy is underway. The steam/vapor is passed through a series of steam and water separators and then dryers inside the steam drum. Once the water enters the steam drum it goes down the down comers to the lower inlet water wall headers. The steam generating boiler has to produce steam at the high purity. there can also be steam-producing heat exchangers called heat recovery steam generators (HRSG) which utilize heat from some industrial process. pressure and temperature required for the steam turbine that drives the electrical generator. In some industrial settings. The steam separators and dryers remove water droplets from the steam and the cycle through the water walls is repeated. the steam/vapor once again enters the steam drum. Once water inside the boiler or steam generator. Boiler has temperature range of 950+ 100F. Boiler furnace and steam drum Boiler of Steam power station Faisalabad has 6 lack pounds of steam per hour.units called steam generators. The water enters the boiler through a section in the convection pa ss called the economizer. From the inlet headers the water rises through the water walls and is eventually turned into steam due to the heat being generated by the burners located on the front and rear water walls (typically).

Furnace explosions due to any accumulation of combustible gases after a trip -out are avoided by flushing out such gases from the combustion zone before igniting the coal. The steam drum has internal devices that removes moisture from the wet steam entering the drum from the steam generating tubes. separate gas burners are provided on the boiler furnaces. Impurities in the raw water input to the plant generally consist of calcium and magnesium salts which impart hardness to the water. Fuel preparation system Some power stations burn coal rather than oil. losses due to blow down and leakages have to be made up to maintain a desired water level in the boiler ste am drum. Exhaust steam from the high pressure turbine is rerouted to go inside the re-heater tubes to pickup more energy to go drive intermediate or lower pressure turbines.The boiler furnace auxiliary equipment includes coal feed nozzles and igniter guns. This is what is called as thermal power. the salts have to be removed from . In such cases. Boilers in some power stations use processed natural gas as their main fuel. The oil must kept warm (above its pour point) in the fuel oil storage tanks to prevent the oil from congealing and becoming unpumpable. Other power stations may use processed natural gas as auxiliary fuel in the event that their main fuel supply (coal or oil) is interrupted. Thus. The steam drum (as well as the super heater coils and headers) have air vents and drains needed for initial startup. water lancing and observation ports (in the furnace walls) for observation of the furnace interior. Hardness in the make-up water to the boiler will form deposits on the tube water surfaces which will lead to overheating and failure of the tubes. For this. Re-Heater Power plant furnaces may have a re-heater section containing tubes heated by hot flue gases outside the tubes. continuous make-up water is added to the boiler water system. The oil is usually heated to about 100°C before being pumped through the furnace fuel oil spray nozzles. Boiler make-up water treatment plant and storage Since there is continuous withdrawal of steam and continuous return of condensate to the boiler. The dry steam then flows into the super -heater coils. soot blowers.

manual intervention may be required. some storage is essential as the DM plant may be down for maintenance. the vacuum side). Other systems Monitoring and alarm system Most of the power plant operational controls are automatic. to essential items such as the power plant's control systems. such as PVC. anion. damage -free shutdown of the units in an emergency situation. This arrangement not only sprays the water but also DM water gets de -aerated. when needed. Sometimes. with the dissolved gases being removed by an air ejector attached to the condenser. This is essential for a safe. However. turbine lube oil pumps.the water. . However. Thus.. and emergency lighting. The storage tank for DM water is made from materials not affected by corrosive water. the plant is pr ovided with monitors and alarm systems that alert the plant operators when certain operating parameters are seriously deviating from their normal range. which recombine to form pure water. Any ions in the final water from this process consist essentially of hydrogen ions and hydroxide ions. a steam blanketing arrangement or stainless steel doughnut float is provided on top of the water in the tank to avoid contact with air. A DM plant generally consists of caution. For this purpose. Very pure DM water becomes highly corrosive once it absorbs oxygen from the atmosphere because of its very high affinity for o xygen. and mixed bed exchangers. DM water make -up is generally added at the steam space of the surface condenser (i. and that is done by water demineralising treatment plant (DM). communication systems.e. a storage tank is installed from which DM water is continuously withdrawn for boiler make-up. The capacity of the DM plant is dictated by the type and quantity of salts in the raw water input. at times. Battery supplied emergency lighting and communication A central battery system consisting of lead acid cell units is provided to supply emergency electric power. The piping and valves are gen erally of stainless steel.

above sea level and is located at latitude 31026´. Nishatabad Railway station is 4 Km in the West and Rakh Branch canal flow close to the power station in the east. longitude 760 86´.Gas turbine power station The gas turbine power station of Faisalabad Pakistan is approximately 660´. The complex is located at 10 Km from Faisalabad city on Faisalabad -Sheikhupura road. .The equipment of gas turbine power station is designed to operate at temperature rating between 50 0 C in summer and 00C in winter.

) Energy is added to the gas stream in the combustor. (Gas turbine may also refer to just the turbine element. Combustion increases the temperature. It has an upstream compressor coupled to a downstream turbine.Gas turbine A gas turbine. where air is mixed with fuel and ignited. compressed air and thrust. is a rotary engine that extracts energy from a flow of combustion gas. in any combination. This is directed through a nozzle over the turbine's blades. also called a combustion turbine. spinning the turbine and powering the compressor. Energy is extracted in the form of shaft power. and used to power generators. and a combustion chamber in-between. . velocity and volume of the gas flow.

typically rated in the hundreds of mega-watts. while combined cycle plants can exceed 60% efficiency. Depending on the power requirements at the time. Single Shaft Combined Cycle Plant . Large fired turbines are in the low 30% eff. These plants are very large. range. the combined cycle plant may operate only the fired turbine and divert the exhaust. this is a substantial loss of efficiency. However.Combined Cycle Power Plant (CCP) Applications Large scale power production Overview The Combined Cycle power plant is a combination of a fuel-fired turbine with a Heat Recovery Steam Generator (HRSG) and a steam powered turbine.

or combined cycle gas turbine (CCGT) plant. High temperatures require expensive alloys made from nickel or cobalt. Design Principle: Working principle of a combined cycle power plant In a thermal power station water is the working medium. steam turbine and generator are on the left side of the diagram. a gas turbine generator generates electricity and the waste heat is used to make steam to generate additional electricity via a steam turbine. this last step enhances the efficiency of electricity generation. bulky components. In a combined cycle power plant (CCPP). rather than inexpensive steel. High pressure steam requires strong.Multi-Shaft Combined Cycle Plant. These alloys limit practical steam temperatures to 655 °C while the lower .

and lower quantities of expensive materials can be used. This temperature can be as low as 15 °C In an automotive powerplant. The actual efficiency. the heat of the gas turbine's exhaust is used to generate steam by passing it through a heat recovery steam generator (HRSG) with a live steamtemperature between 420 and 580 °C. This is therefore high enough to provide heat for a second cycle which uses steam as the working fluid.400 °C). So. actual selling price) since this can be affected by a variety of factors such as subsidies on some energy and sources and taxes on others:   Capital costs (including waste disposal and decommissioning costs for nuclear energy) Operating and maintenance costs . In a combined cycle power plant. a combustor and a turbine. Diesel. Note we are not here talking about price (i. The output temperature of the flue gas is also high (450 to 650 °C). Relative cost of electricity by generation source: When looking at the costs of electric power. The condenser of the Rankine cycle is usually cooled by water from a lake. When comparing costs several internal cost factors have to be considered. river. A typical power station might comprise of between 2 and 6 such sets. The actual efficiency achievable is a complex area. is still higher than that of either plant on its own.temperature of a steam plant is fixed by the boiling point of water. For gas turbines the amount of metal that must withstand the high temperatures and pressures is small. In this type of cycle. Typical size of CCGT plants For large scale power generation a typical set would be a 400 MW gas turbine coupled to a 200 MW steam turbine giving 600 MW. (a Rankine cycle). Efficiency of CCGT plants By combining both gas and steam cycles. This large range means that the Carnot efficiency of the cycle is high. Atkinson or similar engine would provide one part of the cycle and the waste heat would power a Rankine cycle steam or Stirling engine. the input temperature to the turbine (the firing temperature)..e. competing sources need to be compared on a similar basis of calculation. high input temperatures and low output temperatures can be achieved. a steam plant has a fixed upper efficiency of 35 to 42%. is relatively high (900 to 1. With these limits. because they are powered by the same fuel source. The efficiency of the cycles add. while lower than this. a combined cycle plant has a thermodynamic cycle that operates between the gas-turbine's high firing temperature and the waste heat temperature from the condensers of the steam cycle. which could either power ancillaries (such as the alternator) or be connected to the crankshaft by a turbo compounding system. An open circuit gas turbine cycle has a compressor. an Otto. sea or cooling towers. to have any validity and usefulness.

fuel oil. but supplementary firing lets the plant respond to fluctuations of electrical load. The supplementary fuel may be natural gas. Integrated solar combined cycle power stations are currently under construction at Hassi R'mel. the streams of costs are converted to a net present value using the time value of money. Supplementary firing and blade cooling The HRSG can be designed with supplementary firing of fuel after the gas turbine in order to increase the quantity or temperature of the steam generated. There are additional costs for renewables in terms of increased grid interconnection to allow for diversity of weather and load.  Fuel costs (for fossil fuel and biomass sources. Without supplementary firing. It producessteam that can be used in a process or used to drive a steam turbine. Often in gas turbine designs part of the compressed air flow bypasses the burner and is used to cool the turbine blades. Inherently renewables are on a decreasing cost curve. More fuel is sometimes added to the turbine's exhaust. but these have been shown in the pan-European case to be quite low. Supplementary burners are also called duct burners. The HRSG is also an important component in cogeneration plants. while non-renewables are on an increasing cost curve. This is possible because the turbine exhaust gas (flue gas) still contains someoxygen. although fuel oil. Algeria and Ain Beni Mathar. Cogeneration plants typically have a higher overall efficiency in comparison to a combined cycle plant. where hot exhaust from a diesel engine is fed to an HRSG to generate steam which in turn drives a steam turbine. the efficiency of the combined cycle power plant is higher. synthesis gas or other fuels can be used. showing that overall wind energy costs about the same as present day power. where hot exhaust from a gas turbine is fed to an HRSG to generate steam which in turn drives a steam turbine. Temperature limits at the gas turbine inlet force the turbine to use excess air. Biofuels can also be used. Fuel for combined cycle power plants Combined cycle plants are usually powered by natural gas. [5] Heat recovery steam generator HRSG: A heat recovery steam generator or HRSG is an energy recovery heat exchanger that recovers heat from a hot gas stream. above the optimal stoichiometric ratio to burn the fuel. This combination produces electricity more efficiently than either the gas turbine or steam turbine alone. This is due to the loss of energy associated with the steam turbine . Another application for an HRSG is in diesel engine combined cycle power plants. Next generation nuclear power plants are also on the drawing board which will take advantage of the higher temperature range made available by the Brayton top cycle. and which may be negative for wastes) Expected annual hours run To evaluate the cost of production of electricity. Morocco . or coal. as well as the increase in thermal efficiency offered by a Rankine bottoming cycle. A common application for an HRSG is in a combined-cycle power station.

A separately fired superheater. The different components are put together to meet the operating requirements of the unit. and were widely adopted.HRSGs consist of three major components. They are the Evaporator. non-superheated steam is called saturated steam or wet steam. chemicals. The goal of evaporation is to vaporize most of the water from a solution containing a desired product. when considering locomotives. Superheater. that heats the steam generated by the boiler again. This equipment is still an integral part of power generating stations throughout the world. andEconomizer. Steam which has been superheated is logically known as superheated steam. Superheaters were applied to steam locomotives in quantity from the early 20th century. Superheater superheater is a device used to convert saturated steam or wet steam intodry steam used for power generation or processes. and separately fired. such as the need for larger equipment. There are three types of superheaters namely: radiant. and salvage solvents. A superheater can vary in size from a few tens of feet to several hundred feet (a few meters or some hundred meters). convection. solid-liquid separation. several stages are used to further isolate and purify the desired product. concentration. After initial pre-treatment and separation. Evaporator: Within a downstream processing system. . Superheaters increase the efficiency of the steam engine. a solution often contains over 85% water. and to stationary steam engines. is totally separated from the boiler. A superheater is a device in a steam engine. as its name implies. A convection superheater is located in the path of the hot gases. to most steam vehicles. and purification and formulation. This is not suitable for industry usage because of the cost associated with processing such a large quantity of solution. A radiant superheater is placed directly in the combustion chamber. The overall structure of the process includes pre-treatment. Evaporation falls into the concentration stage of downstream processing and is widely used to concentrate foods. increasing its thermal energy and decreasing the likelihood that it will condense inside the engine [1] [2] .

powerplant. an economizer is a heat exchanger. friction and turbulence cause: 1. Economizer: Economizers. In practice. In simple terms. are mechanical devices intended to reduce energy consumption. in which air is compressed isentropically. In the energy-rich Persian Gulf region. and air-conditioning (HVAC) uses are discussed in this article. Boiler. They can use a gas turbine to produce high reliability electricity for campus use. ventilating. Universities are ideal candidates for HRSG applications. and heating. Applications    Heat recovery can be used extensively in energy projects.General arrangement of a superheater installation in a steam locomotive. the steam from the HRSG is used for desalinationplants. or to perform another useful function like preheating a fluid. combustion occurs at constant pressure. Gas turbine operation Gas turbines are described thermodynamically by the Brayton cycle. The term economizer is used for other purposes as well. Non-isentropic compression: for a given . and expansion over the turbine occurs isentropically back to the starting pressure. The HRSG can recover the heat from the gas turbine to produce steam/hot water for district heating or cooling. or in British English economisers.

higher combustion temperature means greater efficiency. Combined cycle designs pass waste heat to steam turbine systems. Turbine blade top speed determines the maximum pressure that can be gained. the required precision manufact uring for components and temperature resistant alloys necessary for high efficiency often make the construction of a simple turbine more complicated than piston engines. which otherwise is wasted energy. More sophisticated turbines (such as those found in modern jet engines) may have multiple shafts (spools). hundreds of turbine blades. the compressor delivery temperature is higher than ideal. combustor and exhaust: reduces the expansion available to provide useful work. combustors and heat exchangers. As with all cyclic heat engines. Considerable engineering goes into keeping the turbine parts cool. movable stator blades. nickel. Simple turbines might have one moving part: the shaft/compressor/turbine/alternative-rotor assembly (see image above). gas turbines can be considerably less complex than internal combustion piston engines. However. Pressure losses in the air intake. prior to combustion. not counting the fuel system. And combined heat and power (co-generation) uses waste heat for hot water production. Mechanically. Most turbines also try to recover exhaust heat. The limiting factor is the ability of th e steel. 2. As a general rule. and a vast system of complex piping.overall pressure ratio. the smaller the engine the hig her the rotation rate of the shaft(s) needs to be to maintain top speed. ceramic. the associated pressure ratio is greater. or other materials that make up the engine to withstand heat and pressure. Their are eight gas turbine in Faisalabad power plant and normal turbine speed is 51000rpm. this produces the maximum power possible independent of the size of the engine. Non-isentropic expansion: although the turbine temperature drop necessary to drive the compressor is unaffected. Recuperators are heat exchangers that pass exhaust heat to the compressed air. which decreases the expansion available to provide useful work. Turbine . 3.

Normal turbine speed is 51000 RPM.A turbine is a rotary engine that extracts energy from a fluid or air flow and converts it into useful work. Operation of turbine A working fluid contains potential energy (pressure head) and kinetic energy (velocity head). or the blades react to the flow. Gas. and water turbines usually have a casing around the blades that contains and controls the working fluid. for invention of the impulse turbine. Credit for invention of the steam turbine is given both to the British Engineer Sir Charles Parsons (1854-1931). The fluid may be compressible or incompressible. typically varying the degree of reaction and impulse from the blade root to its periphery. Several physical principles are employed by turbines to collect this energy: Impulse turbines These turbines change the direction of flow of a high velocity fluid or gas jet. for invention of the reaction turbine and to Swedish Engineer Gustav de Laval (1845-1913). Early turbine examples are windmills and water wheels. so that they move and impart rotational energy to the rotor. with blades attached. Moving fluid acts on the blades. M odern steam turbines frequently employ both reaction and impulse in the same unit. a rotor assembly. The simplest turbines have one moving part. The resulting impulse spins the turbine and leaves the fluid flow with diminished kinetic energy. steam. . The Exhaust temperature of turbine in gas turbine power station (1 -8) has 4830C . which is a shaft or drum.It has 2 stages.

which creates a flow of water but does not create the water inside. For compressible working fluids. motors and generators have many similarities. Francis turbines and most steam turbines use this concept. Newton's third law describes the transfer of energy for reaction turbines. for water turbines. The source of mechanical energy . Pelton wheels and de Laval turbines use this process exclusively. which is already present in the wire of its windings. The casing contains and directs the working fluid and. all the pressure drop takes place in the stationary blades (the nozzles). an electrical generator is a device that converts mechanical energy to electrical energy. A pressure casement is needed to contain the working fluid as it acts on the turbine stage(s) or the turbine must be fully imme rsed in the fluid flow (such as with wind turbines). A generator forces electric charges to move through an external electrical circuit. multiple turbine stages are usually used to harness the expanding gas efficiently. as in the case of a steam or gas turbine. Electrical generator In electricity generation. The pressure of the gas or fluid changes as it passes through the turbine rotor blades. It is somewhat analogous to a water pump. maintains the suction imparted by the draft tube.There is no pressure change of the fluid or gas in the turbine rotor blades (the moving blades). but it does not create electricity or charge. Before reaching the turbine. Newton's second law describes the transfer of energy for impulse turbines. Impulse turbines do not require a pressure casement around the rotor since the fluid jet is created by the nozzle prior to reaching the blading on the rotor. Reaction turbines These turbines develop torque by reacting to the gas or fluid's pressure or mass. The reverse conversion of electrical energy into mechanical energy is done by a motor. the fluid's pressure head is changed to velocity head by accelerating the fluid with a nozzle.

Calcula e he genera or s AC in ernal resis ance RGAC from he following formula © ©  ©  © © © © © © © © © © ©© © © E uivalen circui of genera or and load. © © © © © © © © © © © © © © © © © © © © © Eq i  © l © © i © © i © © © © ©  © © © © The e uivalen circui of a genera or and load is shown in he diagram o he righ . To de ermine he genera or s VG and RG parame ers. Before connec ing he load RL. a hand crank. measure he resis ance across i s erminals using an ohmme er.5 KV. a wind urbine. measure he vol age across he genera or s erminals. Exci ing Vol age are 140V.may be a reciproca ing or urbine s eam engine. Measure he load resis ance RL. Genera ors of gas urbines (1-8) are air cooled capaci y of 32000 KVA. follow his procedure Before s ar ing he genera or. This is he open-circui vol age VG. and measure he vol age across i wi h he genera or running. G = genera or © ©  © © . This is i s DC in ernal resis ance RGDC. if you don already know i . S ar he genera or. exci a ion curren is 540 Amps and speed is 3000 RPM. compressed air or any o her source of mechanical energy. © © © © © © © © © © © © © © © ©  © © © © © © © © ©© ©  Connec he load as shown in he diagram. wa er falling hrough a urbine or wa erwheel. This is he on-load vol age VL. Vol age are 10. an in ernal combus ion engine.

The magnetic field of the dynamo or alternator can be provided by either electromagnets or permanent magnets mounted on either the rotor or the stator. For rough calculations. In a generator. so the efficiency is greater. . The maximum power theorem states that the maximum power can be obtained from the generator by mak ing the resistance of the load equal to that of the generator. The armature can be on either the rotor or the stator.VG=generator open-circuit voltage RG=generator internal resistance VL=generator on-load voltage RL=load resistance Note 1: The AC internal resistance of the generator when running is generally slightly higher than its DC resistance when idle. The above procedure allows you to measure both values. use an AC voltmeter for the voltage measurements. or dynamo the armature windings generate the electrical current. Field: The magnetic field component of an electrical machine. Generator terminology The two main parts of a generator or motor can be described in either mechanical or electrical terms Mechanical: Rotor: The rotating part of an electrical machine Stator: The stationary part of an electrical machine Electrical: Armature: The power-producing component of an electrical machine. alternator. practical electric power generators operate with load resistance much higher than internal resistance. you can omit the measurement of RGAC and assume that RGAC and RGDC are equal. Note 2: If the generator is an AC type. This is inefficient since half the power is wasted in the generator's internal resistance.

If a load is connected to the secondary. If the field coils are not powered. This varying magnetic field induces a varying electromotive force (EMF) or "voltage" in the secondary winding. and thus a varying magnetic field through the secondary winding. Direct current machines necessarily have the commutator on the rotating shaft. the rotor in a generator can spin without producing any usable electrical energy. This effect is called mutual induction. Transformer A transformer is a device that transfers electrical energy from one circuit to another through inductively coupled conductors the transformer's coils.Because power transferred into the field circuit is much less than in the armature circuit. an electric current will flow in the secondary winding and electrical energy will be transferred from the primary circuit through the transformer to the load. Excitation An electric generator or electric motor that uses field coils rather than permanent magnets will require a current flow to be present in the field coils for the device to be able to work. using slip rings. AC generators nearly always have the field winding on the rotor and the stator as the armature winding. Very large power station generators often utilize a separate smaller generator to excite the field coils of the larger. the induced voltage in the secondary winding (VS) is in proportion to the primary . so the armature winding is on the rotor of the machine. In an ideal transformer. Only a small amount of field current must be transferred to the moving rotor. A varying current in the first or primary winding creates a varying magnetic flux in the transformer's core. while the rotor of a motor may not spin at all.

All operate with the same basic principles. Transformers are essential for high voltage power transmission. and a steam turbine/generator. Combined cycle is more efficient than conventional power generating systems because it re -uses waste heat to produce more electricity. Combined cycle operation This design consists of a combustion turbine/generator. although the range of designs is wide. a heat recovery steam generator. The exhaust heat from the combustion turbine is recovered in the heat recovery steam generator to produce steam. Transformers come in a range of sizes from a thumbnail-sized coupling transformer hidden inside a stage microphone to huge units weighing hundreds of tons used to interconnect portions of national power grids.voltage (VP). air-core transformers being a notable exception. The integration of the se technologies provides the high efficiency of the combined -cycle design with the low cost of coal for fuel. In the vast majority of transformers. While new technologies have eliminated the need for transformers in some electronic circuits. the coils are wound around a ferromagnetic core. transformers are still found in nearly all electronic devices designed for household ("mains") voltage. or "stepped down" by making NS less than NP. This steam then passes through a steam turbine to power another generator. which produces more electricity. which makes long distance transmission economically practical. and is given by the ratio of the number of turns in the secondary (NS) to the number of turns in the primary (NP) as f ollows: By appropriate selection of the ratio of turns. a transformer thus allows an alternating current (AC) voltage to be "stepped up" by making NS greater than NP. .


The normal temperature of this is . second stage etc) different types of bearings. blasters etc During my internship period in thermal work shop a generator rotor of gas turbine power station also repaired so its report also included in this. In this tryo chloro ethylene is used. Cleaning shop: There are different processes to clean the heavy jobs (parts of the machine).Central thermal workshop In central thermal workshop there are many processes that have been done on the heavy parts of gas turbines or steam power stations like rotors. The whole process is divided into different steps     Chemical cleaning Cleaning shop Non destructive test shop Cutting. Welding & grinding Chemical cleaning: Those parts that have high scaling can dip in the chemical for the cleaning proposes. diaframes (first stage.      Decreasing plant Vacuum blast junior Vapors blasting Steam jet cleaner Sand blasting Decreasing plant: This is just like a big container or tub which is use to dip the parts that we need to clean.

at this temperature the steam is produce and it will remove the oil and grease from the small point and curves in the job. Vacuum blast junior: This is a small machine used for cleaning purposes of small parts. .87 c. water. any cleaning liquid. Sand blasting: This process is used for cleaning propose. These are included:      visual inspection penitent method magnetic practical inspection ultrasonic method x ray radio graphy Visual inspection: In visual inspection the job can be inspected simply without any other machine. Vapors blasting: Is also used for cleaning propose Zyte 35% +air +water65% Steam jet cleaner: It is Portable machine in which we use different materials is used according to our requirements like Chemical. Basically sand is used in this process the sand is throwing with a high speed on the job to clean Non destructive test shop The five major test perform that can be performed in non destructive test shop means these test perform on the jobs without any damage.

y Process time 20-30 min Process time 20-30 min Magnetic practical inspection: In this process the material must be ferrous base Max 4000amp Day light y Ferro flux y Job base must be White min 5 amp current when magnetize. dark light flu flux check through ultraviolet light crack lines grenish . Fluorescent powder is used as developer and check through ultraviolet light.Penitent method: In penitent method there are two processes Day light y Spot checking y Red penitent + Cleaner + Developer dark light self emulsifying oil use as penitent it penetrate on a small cracks and water wash able.

Some other heavy machines also there  cnc machine .Cutting & Welding: The damaged parts of the job are removed by cutting and then after this the cut portion is filled by welding of the same material of the job. 5 types of welding are used to done this process      Arc welding Gas welding Tig welding Mig welding Spot welding Arc welding: Electricity is used in this process Gas welding: Oxygen + astalene gas is used Tig welding: Tungsten inert gas welding (helium + organ gas is used) also known as organ welding Mig welding: Metal inert gas welding Spot welding: Spot welding is just like between two points such as cars body.

 Horizon al La h machine     Ver ical la h machine Drilling machine Balancing machine Types of ro ors .

REPAIR REPORT Cleaning of Rotor Shaft Bore of 25 MW Generator Rotor GTPS Faisalabad REPAIR OF 25 MW GENERATOR ROTOR GTPS FAISALABAD .


178. Alloy analyzer.CENTRAL GAS TURBINE MAINTENANCE WORKSHOP WAPDA FAISALABAD Central Gas Turbine Maintenance Workshop at Faisalabad was established in 1983 to cater for the repair needs of all types of Gas Turbine parts. Transition Pieces. Radial Arm Drill machine. Plasma Spray Coating System. especially Hot Gas Path Components of the whole WAPDA Power Generation System. By repairing turbine parts of Wapda formations within country. In short now this Workshop is capable to provide repair facilities to all Thermal Power Stations. Turbine Casings. This workshop has proved it importance in the Wapda by putting best efforts to bring damaged power turbines back in operation within minimum possible time and cutting down their outage time and make them available for production of extra electric power for the country. Heavy Duty CNC Horizontal and Vertical Lathe machines. For this purpose in 1995 new machines and T&P were imported from abroad and now this Workshop can handle all turbines parts of Thermal Power Stations of Wapda. This became possible only due to additional un-tired efforts of Engineers. Keeping in view the rising importance of this Workshop Authority decided to upgrade it. this Workshop has also earned hard cash amounting to Rs. NDT equipments and many other T&P is available to carry out satisfactory repair of sophisticated turbines parts including Turbine Rotors. Combustor Liners. Shroud Blocks etc.254 Millions from Private Industry since it s commissioning. Heavy Duty Motors. Diaphragms. Vacuum Annealing Furnace. Heavy Duty Dynamical Balancing and Moment Weighing Balancing machines. Workers and Management of this Workshop. Milling machines Overhead cranes. Generator Rotors. . Initially this Workshop was established to provide repair facilities only to Gas Turbine power station Faisalabad but later on repair facilities were extended to other power stations. In addition to precious foreign exchange saving for Wapda. this Workshop has saved precious foreign exchange of billions of rupees.

8 3000 RPM 10. Class-F .SPECIFICATIONS OF 25 MW GENERATOR ROTOR GTPS FAISALABAD 1 2 3 4 5 6 7 8 9 10 11 Make Capacity Power Factor Speed Voltage Current Type of Cooling Grounding Frequency No.5 KV 1682 A Cir-Cooled Resistance Grounding 50 Hz 02 Nos. of Poles Insulation M/S AEG-KANIS Germany 32 MVA 0.

At 200 MW GTPS Faisalabad total eight units of 25 MW capacity each are operating since 1973.e.7) operating at 200 MW Gas Turbine Power Plant Faisalabad was received in Workshop for inspection and repair purposes on 05-08-2009. From these excitation copper strips current is supplied to both coils of the rotor. Generator Rotor of 25 MW Gas Turbine Power Plant (Unit No. FAULT DIAGNOSIS. . So next step was to disconnect the connecting leads from both coils and removal of the both leads alongwith its fiber glass fitting from the bore. During preliminary inspection the rotor body was found dead short with the body. After necessary cleaning of the windings improvement in winding resistance was not noted.CASE STUDY HISTORY AND SCOPE. The capacity of each generator is 32 MVA.e. To supply excitation current to both coils a bore of 80 mm dia. First of all after the removal of both axial fans both end rings were also removed from rotor windings. Turbines have been supplied by M/S G. & 2000 mm in length has been drilled in the rotor body. Fiber glass rod keeping in view the maintenance of rotor has bee n designed in two pieces. In this bore glass fibre rod which accommodates two copper main lead (25x2000 mm) has been fitted. 50 c/s has been designed as two pole generator. ROTA DUCT. The rotor has been provided with latest excitation system i. The Rotor of the generator keeping in view the speed of turbine and operating frequency in our country i. The length of each half is approximately one meter.E USA whereas generators have been provided by M/S AEG KANIS.

A 3. 4. Following were the extent of damages noted: 1. When the main leads was pulled out from the bore only half portion with its fiber glass & fitting came out where as the 2nd half remained in the body which indicated occurrence of major damage to the supply leads inside the Rotor bore. The bore of the rotor body which had damaged due to short circuiting needed through cleaning/polishing. Main copper strips which are two meter long had broken into two pieces due to short circuiting. 3. Fibre glass rod in which the copper strips are adjusted had burnt due to flash of short circuit. REPAIR STEPS. 2. So it was concluded that the fault was with the main exciting current supply leads. . Rotor was fitted on the lathe machine and with the help of the above mentioned tool the fiber rod was machined from 80 to 70 mm dia. 6. Molten copper in the form of spatters and pieces had stuck with the rotor body inside the bore. For the removal of the 2nd half of fibre rod fitting left inside the bore and cleaning/polishing of the bore following steps were carried out:1.5 meter long cutting tool was fabricated to reduce the diameter of the fibre rod from 80 mm to 70 mm dia & also to remove stickings of fibre rod with rotor body. 3. Borescopic inspection of the available bore was carried out to check the exact position inside the bore. Both bolts joining the coils with main copper strips had also given way at their joining points with the strips 5.After disconnecting the leads from both ends again insulation of both coils was noted which was found as infinity. 2nd half of the fiber glass rod with damaged strips has stuck inside the rotor body and was very difficult to remove. 2.

8.4. After machining another fixture was designed/fabricated to pull out the machine fibre rod from the body. After detail market survey material was purchased/tested as per our requirement & then new fittings were fabricated. 6. Insulation strength of the winding was checked and fo und satisfactory. Due to wrong machining/fitting carbon made a path between the bars & rotor body. FINAL CONCLUSIONS. Finally rotor was dynamically balanced and sent to the Power Station for fitting in the machine. 12. At this point slowly short circuiting took place and ultimately the fibre burnt away. 5. 10. . During fabrication numerous difficulties were faced which were solved one by one. To clean the rotor bore honing tool was designed with which the bore was thoroughly cleaned and polished. Complete new fitting was adjusted in side the rotor bore and connecting rods were screwed and same were brazed with the field windings of the rotor. Both End Rings and Cooling Fans were fitted back on the rotor body with the help of special fixtures. 7. 11. This activity was carried in parallel to cut down the down time of the repair time. 9. copper strips melted and broke into two pieces which stopped the flow of field curr ent to both coils and caused tripped of Power Plant. After removal of the whole fibre glass fitting boroscopic inspection of the bore was carried out in which lot of copper spatter and pieces was found stuck with the rotor body. As far as the fault finding is concerned it is crystal clear that the fault has occurred as a result of short circuiting between the excitation bars & rotor body due to face to face of the two fibre rods which accommodates both the exciting bars by the original manufact urer.

This developer sucks out the penetrant from the cracks by anti capillary action and makes it visible. In this method of inspection after proper cleaning of the job dye penetrant is applied to the job and at least half an hour is given to this dye penetrant for penetration. NON DESTRUCTIVE TESTING REPORT OF 25 MW GENERATOR ROTOR RETAINING RINGS INSPECTION TECHNIQUE. DYNAMIC BALANCING REPORT OF 25 MW GENERATOR ROTOR GTPS FAISALABAD . Finally the Developer is applied on the surface of the job.This was a original manufacturing fault (straight joint) which has been modified by providing overlap joint. This will not allow the carbon to make a short circuit path between the strips & rotor body for longer time. Then the job surface is cleaned very carefully and job is dried up. It is suggested that in order to avoid the repetition of such fault on other units same modification may please be got done at the time of replacement/removal of end rings of the rotor.

Turbine Nozzle Support Rings Turbine Nozzle. Light / Heavy Motors. Vane Segments. 12756 2993 2352 2515 1915 1606 1513 1645 1191 1072 918 907 682 517 664 370 339 325 . Transition Pieces. Bull Horns. Bearing Pads. Cross Fire Tubes.SUM UP OF COMPONENTS REPAIRED FROM SINCE COMMISSIONING FROM 1982 TO 2009 S/N DESCRIPTION QTY. Swirl Tips. Compressor Blades. 1 2 3 4 5 6 7 8 9 10 11 12 13 14 15 16 17 18 Turbine Moving Buckets. Combustion Liners. Floating Seals. Retainer Plates. Scrapper Chain Links. End Seals. Shrouds Blocks. Bearings.

Track Block. Heavy Duty Shafts. Heavy Motor Rotors. Steam Turbine Diaphragm Support Ring. Hydrogen Seals.19 20 21 22 23 24 25 26 27 28 29 30 31 32 33 34 35 36 37 38 39 40 Pressure Gauges. 300 257 203 181 134 138 112 83 64 75 63 62 55 49 44 60 34 28 21 21 19 18 . Stuffing Box Seals. Pressure Switches Gears. Turbine Diaphragms. Generator Rotors. Contactors. Labyrinth Seals. Impellers. Control Valves. Slip Rings. Pumps. Diffusers. Bushes. Solenoid Valves. Electronic Cards. Turbine Rotors.

Combustor Wrapper. Shaft Sleeves. Shaft Sleeves Wiper Seal Casings 15 28 13 14 13 14 2 4 . Turbine Nozzle Discs.41 42 43 44 45 46 47 48 Multiple Disc Jaw Clutches. Spring Seals.

each stage carriers different number of blade & size. these were threaded in 18 Nos. Said Rotor is in operation at Thermal Power Station Guddu. locked. This job was done first time in our country. stud bolts. Physical inspection revealed that all the blades need replacement with new one.SOME SPECIAL MAJOR JOBS REPAIRED IN CENTRAL MAINTENANCE WORKSHOP RE-BLADING OF 100 MW GAS TURBINE AXIAL AIR COMPRESSOR TPS GUDDU Re-blading of 100 Mw Axial Air Compressor Ge Frame-9 TPS Guddu was carried out in this Workshop. After fixing new blades in each disc. . These stud bolts were tightened to 12000 Psi. One blade of 2nd stage had broken due to F. These stud bolts were made of special material were opened & tightened with special type of Bolt Tensioning Machine which stretch the stud bolts upto 12000 Psi to opened re-tight the nuts.D which ultimately bended. Axial compress rotor of GE Frame-9 machines was of very complex nature. It consisted of 17 stages. Hubs of each disc are fitted in next disc with negligible clearance.O. Finally rotor was dynamically balanced and sent back to Guddu Thermal Power Station. broken and cracked almost all the blades of the compressor. All the 17 discs were assembled with 18 stud bolts.

NDT was carried out. Repair work of Axial Compressor was completed in 30 days after balancing Rotor was sent back to Kotri Power Station on 26-03-2007. The rehabilitation work of Axial Compressor was started on 27-02-2007 and within 30 days job was completed and sent back to Kotri Power Station on 27-03-2007 for refitting back in the housings. Necessary balancing weights were added. In total 972 blades are removed.REPAIR OF AXIAL AIR COMPRESSOR OF 15 MW GAS TURBINE TPS KOTRI. Each blade is a parted from the next one with the help of a wedge so all the wedges were also checked. Damaged were replaced with new ones. Numbers of blades in each stage vary from 56 to 60. Blades in each stage are locked with special type of lock. wedges. So to remove blades first of all the 17 locks were detached. Labyrinth Seals were also replaced with new ones. All the blades were also replaced with new one. It is 17 stages compressor. Later on by hammering and sliding all the blades were removed from compressor body. journal were polis hed. . blades. locks wire were refitted and finally locks were adjusted. Rotor was shifted on balancing machine. Rotor was mechanically cleaned. grinded and pulled out with a specially locally fabricated puller.

So to remove blades all the locks were grinded and pulled out with a special type of locally fabricated puller. repair work on some of the blades was carried out were as the damaged blades were replaced with healthy ones. blades.P Turbine Rotor of TPS Guddu was carried out in this Workshop.REPAIR OF TURBINE ROTOR OF 15 MW GAS TURBINE TPS KOTRI It is seven stages Rotor.P TURBINE ROTOR OF TPS GUDDU. RE-BLADING OF 210 MW L.10 Billions (approximately) . locking wire Rotor was sent out side for mechanical cleaning. After removing wedge. NDT of blades was also carried out. NDT of Rotor was carried out. After fixing locking wire. Rotor was despatched back to Kotri Power Station on 23-04-2007. Total numbers of blades installed in seven stages are 609. Said Rotor is in operation at Thermal Power Station Guddu. After chemical and mechanical cleaning. By repairing this Workshop was able to save 8. Re-blading of 210 MW L. wedges & blades seals were rectified. Healthy blades were retained. This job was done first time in our country. Each stage is provided with special type of lock. Rotor was shifted on balancing machine where after successful balancing Turbine Rotor was competed in 25 days.

Moreover. If this Rotor had to sent out of country for re-blading then at least 30 months period was required for tendering. insurance. Staff & Engineers worked day & night and completed the re-blading work in shortest possible time of 12 days. Re-blading of 65 MW Steam Turbine Rotor. completing documents sending Rotor abroad to either country for repair work actual repair time and then bring the same back to TPS commissioning the Plant 435 days earlier in terms of cost of power generation and 20 Millions in respect if said Rotor has been sent abroad for repair. RE-BLADING OF 320 MW STEAM TURBINE ROTOR OF TPS MUZAFFARGARH. approximately 995 Millions were saved in terms of cost of power generation by doing the repair work in this Workshop and bringing back the Power Unit on bar 240 days earlier. repair of HP Casing and other miscellaneous works of SPS Faisalabad were carried out from 16-02-2007 to 19-03-2007 which helped to boost up the output of machine. L. RE-BLADING OF 65 MW STEAM TURBINE ROTOR & REPAIR OF HP CASING OF SPS FAISALABAD.P Rotor of 320 MW Steam Turbine was received in Workshop on 15-02-2008 and was despatched back to TPS Muzaffargarh on 2902-2008. Now this plant generates 6240000 .

Thus Billions of rupees have been saved in respect of time saving/extra power generation and repair cost if same Rotor was sent abroad for repair. .KWH per day.

GOOD FEATURES The staffs of all departments are highly professional. I have learned a lot. .CONCLUSION During my internship training at northern power Generation Company limited Faisalabad. It was a good experience for me. All the members of this departments are highly educated and trained they work in a proper way and follow all the ruled and regulations.

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