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What is a Temperature Sensor?

A simple temperature sensor is a device, to measure the temperature through an

electrical signal it requires a thermocouple or RTD (Resistance Temperature Detectors).
The thermocouple is prepared by two dissimilar metals which generate the electrical
voltage indirectly proportional to change the temperature. The RTD is a variable
resistor, it will change the electrical resistance indirectly proportional to changes in the
temperature in a precise, and nearly linear manner.

The temperature sensor uses the converter to convert the temperature value to an
electrical value. To read the temperature correctly & control the temperature in the
industrial applications the temperature sensor is used more widely. In between the
different types of sensors, we can make large peculiarities and the sensors will have the
different properties like temperature range, contact-way, sensing element, and calibrating
methods. By using the conduction circuit the sensors will reflect the charge of
environmental temperature.

Figure 1Temperature sensor

Temperature Sensor Working

The measurement of the temperature sensor is about the hotness or coolness of an

object. The working base of the sensors is the voltage that read across the diode. If the
voltage increases, then the temperature rises and there is a voltage drop between the
transistor terminals of base & emitter, they are recorded by the sensors. If the difference
in voltage is amplified, the analogue signal is generated by the device and it is directly
proportional to the temperature.
Different Types of Sensors
The different types of sensors include the following

Thermocouple Sensor

The thermocouple sensor measures the popular thermals, which are composed of the
two different metal alloy wires. By combining the two different metals will generates the
strong voltage which is the same capacity as a temperature. In general, the thermocouple
gives the vast measurement ranges and they are worked by using the Seebeck effect.

Figure 2 Thermocouple Sensor

The sensor reads the temperature by taking the measurement of voltage output. The
performance of the thermocouple is good because it is up to 2,7500C. This sensor can
also used for the short period of temperature up to 30000C and as low as –250°C. The
benefits of these sensors, are they can measure the temperature by their own, near the
junctions the thermocouples can’t measure the temperature, when it is compared with the
resistance thermometer the thermocouple sensor reacts rapidly, and the thermocouple
are the electrical conductors, hence they cannot contact another source of electricity.

Resistance Temperature Detector

These are the temperature sensors with a resistor that changes the resistive value
simultaneously with temperature changes. The RTDs are used in a wide temperature
range from -500C to 5000C for thin film and for the wire wound variety the range is from
the +2000C to 8500C. The thin layer of platinum on a substrate is present on the thin film
RTD element. A new pattern is created which provide the electrical circuit and it is trimmed
to give a specific resistance.
Figure 3Resistance temperature detector

Lead wires are attached and to protect the film & connections the assembly is coated. In
comparison, wire-wound elements are either coils of wire packaged in a ceramic or glass
tube, or they can be wound around a glass or ceramic material. RTDs, which have higher
accuracy and repeatability, are slowly replacing thermocouples in industrial applications
below 600 °C.

Infrared Sensors

These sensors are used to measure the surface temperature and its range is from -70 to
10000C. They convert thermal energy sent from an object in a wavelength range of 0.7
to 20 um into an electrical signal that converts the signal for display in units of temperature
after compensating for any ambient temperature.

Figure 4 Infrared Sensors

Temperature Sensor IC

There are different types of temperature sensor ICs, which are available to simplify the
broadest possible range of temperature monitoring challenges. There are two operations
in the temperature range, the first operation is the temperature sensor can operate in
normal condition with an IC temperature range of -550C to +1500VC. The second major
difference is functionality.

Generally, the digital output sensors contain a temperature sensor, analogue to digital
converter, two wired digital interfaces and registers for controlling the operations of
integrated circuits. The temperature sensors are measured continuously and they can
read at any time.

If preferred the host processor, it can instruct the sensor to monitor the temperature and
produce the output pin high or low, if the temperature exceeds to program limits. Lower
threshold temperature can also be programmed and the host can be notified when the
temperature has dropped below this threshold. Hence, the digital output sensor can be
used for reliable temperature monitoring in microprocessor-based systems.

A simple example of the temperature sensor is an LM35, it is a precision integrated circuit

temperature sensor. The output voltage is linearly proportional to the Celsius temperature
and the range of this sensor is -550C to +1200C.

Features of LM35 Temperature Sensor

Figure 5 Temperature sensor IC

 Calibrated directly in ˚ Celsius (Centigrade)

 Rated for full l −55˚ to +150˚C range
 Suitable for remote applications
 Low cost due to wafer-level trimming
 Operates from 4 to 30 volts
 Low self-heating,
 ±1/4˚C of typical nonlinearity
Pin Configuration
Pin Number Pin Name Description

1 Vcc Input voltage is +5V for typical applications

There will be the increase in 10mV for raise of every

2 Analog Out
1°C. Can range from -1V(-55°C) to 6V(150°C)

3 Ground Connected to ground terminal of the circuit

Temperature sensor circuit has terminals such as two inputs like non-inverting (+) and
inverting (-) and only one output pin. Operational amplifier IC741 is used as a non-
inverting amplifier. The variation between the I/p terminals amplifies the circuit.

LM35 Circuit Diagram

The amount produced by IC2 amplifies in an amount to the temperature by 10 mV per

degree. This unstable voltage is supply to a comparator IC 741. OP Amplifier is the most
generally used electronic devices today. The IC 741 op-amp is one sort of differential
amplifier. We have used IC741 as a non-inverting amplifier which means pin-3 is the input
and the output is not inverted. This LM35 temperature sensor circuit amplifies the
difference between its input terminals. The advantages of temperature sensor include It
has no effect on the medium, more accurate, It has an easily conditioned output and It
responds instantly.

LM35 Temperature Sensor Applications:

 Measuring temperature of a particular environment

 Providing thermal shut down for a circuit/component
 Monitoring Battery Temperature
 Measuring Temperatures for HVAC applications.

Circuit diagram

Construction & Working

First stage of this circuit is Rectifier and Regulator unit, high voltage AC (110 – 220V)
supply is reduced to 9V AC with the help of step down transformer and then rectified into
DC through bridge rectifier, C1 reacts as filter to eliminate AC ripples then linear regulator
IC 7805 regulates DC voltage and gives constant 5V DC supply.

Temperature sensor LM35 gives output voltage linearly proportional to the centigrade
temperature and LM358 operational amplifier help us to choose the temperature level
through VR1 variable resistor, output of this operational amplifier is drives the Q1
transistor. Relay coil is connected between +5V and Q1 transistor collector terminal, when
the output is higher than 2.5V from operational amplifier Q1 transistor turns ON and
connect the relay coil to Ground supply hence the coil gets energized and makes the
N/O (normally open) contact to closed one. By the way we can control electrical load or
appliances automatically depends on temperature.