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3G mobile with SOM

Abstract :

The 3G cellular net work improved in last years. The improvement produces a
huge data input as the out put. The need to organize, analysis, visualizes the output
become major interest.
In this paper the author introduced one of the neural network algorithm (Self
Organize Map) to analysis these data especially in Fault Detection and
Diagnosis in 3G Cellular Systems.


The third generation 3G of wireless system, give the user high ability to access
the multimedia information service, providing the needs of the higher data rate
by the means of using new radio access technology , such as UMTS, WCDMA
and CDMA2000[1].
This improvement led to new challenges in operation, requirement, and analysis
the data. The needs to model the performance of this generation became great
interest, ones of hot topics in the performance is the fault detection and diagnosis,
not any solution is the one that can express what the 3G face .
The competitive neural network [2] as the name implies try to give best solution of
the problem in competitive way between the neurons, the winner neuron is the one
of better techniques.
The competitive neural network chosen in this paper is the Self Organizing Map
A self organizing map(SOM) or self organizing feature map(SOFM) is a type
of artificial neural network that is trained using unsupervised learning to produce a
low-dimensional (typically two-dimensional).
The use of this tool involve from the similarly between the infrastructure of the
cellular system (as the cell shape, cluster of cells) and the SOM operation (as
clustering tool, visualizations).

For the simulation result that will be produced in this paper by mat lab software
which introduce tool box for SOM.

This paper is organized as follow

Related works:

Many paper exits in this field and discus the use of neural networks algorithm with
the wireless, one book that discus a signal processing with the respect of neural
network is "Handbook of Neural Network Single processing" by Yu Hen Hu
and Jenq-Neng Hwang [3], one research report that generated by Helsinki
University of Technology titled by "Advanced Mobile Network
Monitoring And Automated Optimization Methods"[4],
another research is "Fault Management in Mobile
Telecommunication Networks" introduced by Teemu Ekola[5].This
paper takes SOM as tool for Fault detection and diagnosis.
Section 1: Fault detection and diagnosis in 3G

This section describes the general Fault detection and diagnosis

that can happen to the wireless net work. The anomalous
observation in two sorts of errors (false negative and false
positive)is not included in this paper.
The fault included the ones that concern the radio access technology,
such as UMTS, WCDMA and CDMA2000 [1].Errors may influence directly in
quality-of-service in terms of blocking, dropping, bit error ratio, packet delay;
changing in the system load and inter-cell interference.

When cell facing problem it effect directly as accepted on the service provided by
that cell. A well known performance indicator the dropped call rate (DCR) is a
indicator about the quality of the cell. A DCR between 1 and 2% is common for
well performing cells. The cells with problems are isolated.
A cause or fault is the defective behavior of some logical or physical component in
the cell that generates problems, e.g. interference, hardware fault, etc.
First step in the detection in current cellular network is the alarm control .that is
easily achieved by the semi-intelligent and alarm messages when errors occur. In
despite that alarms do not provide enough information to identify the cause of
problems, especially if the possible causes are not only faults in pieces of

Figure 1:

Troubleshooting is a general term describes the three phases of specific problem

.In this case the wireless as figure 1 implies the three phases is:
1. Fault detection: malfunctioning cells should be identified based on the values
of KPIs and alarms [5]
2. Diagnosis: the cause of the problems (e.g. interference) should be identified
based on KPIs, alarms and configuration data. [5]
3. Fault recovery: some actions should be carried out in order to solve the
problems (e.g. improving the frequency plan).[5]
The main tasks of BS include radio signal receiving and transmitting over the
Uu interface (air interface), signal filtering and amplifying,
aspects as well as channel coding and functionalities for soft handover. The
includes transceiver/receiver equipment to establish radio connections
UEs and the network.
In UMTS, the available frequency band is divided between the users on the
basis of
Wideband Code Division Multiple Access (WCDMA) technique. In (W)CDMA,
the data for each user is transmitted in the whole frequency band, and no
in frequencies nor time is present. Instead, the user data is multiplied by a
code sequence unique for each user (code chip-rate is higher than the bit-
rate of
the data). After multiplying the user data with the corresponding codes, a
spread spectrum signal is obtained and transmitted through the air interface.
the receiver, the spread spectrum signal is multiplied by the same, user
codes which decodes the original data for each user.
The use of (W)CDMA technique causes the capacity of the UMTS network to
a more difficult issue to handle, and no clear separation between network
and coverage can be made. Also, the UMTS radio network becomes
limited rather than frequency limited as is the case with GSM networks.
Examples of basic methods for finding anomalies or outliers in data of low
dimensionality include
histograms, scatter plots and basic statistical tests (see for example Milton and
Arnold, 1990).
Panossian and Ewing (1997) applied basic one-dimensional statistical testing
separately on 24
variables, with a deviation of three variables indicating a failure. The method
was applied to real-time failure detection for the main engine of a space shuttle.
The results obtained by Panossian and Ewing 12 (1997) indicated that the
method produced low amounts of false positives and was able to detect 99.9%
of the faults in the selected application area. The disadvantage with basic one-
dimensional tests is that only one-dimensional anomalies are detected and not
abnormal variable combinations. A somewhat more advanced statistical method
that has been used for novelty detection is the Mahalanobis method (Worden,
Manson and Fieller, 2000). Worden, Manson and Fieller (2000) used the method
in the area of damage detection in engineering applications. The Mahalanobis
method is a traditional multivariate statistical method that takes the covariance
of the variables to be tested into account. The method is unable to handle multi-
clustered distributions and other than linear dependencies between
variables,however. In the application area of Worden, Manson and Fieller (2000)
the method worked satisfactory,
but for multi-modal they recommend other methods such as kernel
density estimation.
This chapter further presents particular WCDMA radio access
optimization areas namely admission control optimization, pilot
power optimization, handover control optimization and other
miscellaneous WCDMA optimization in addition to validation and
possible optimization system architecture solutions

Many authors have studied admission control previously. Dimitriou,

Tafazolli and Sfikas (2000) introduced specific requirements for
the admission control. For instance, the admission control is
required to maintain quality-of-service in terms of blocking,
dropping, bit error ratio, and packet delay; to adapt to changes in
the system load and inter-cell interference; and to reconfigure for
new services.
Moreover, the admission control should be simple in design and
provide minimum processing time. Viterbi and Viterbi (1993)
evaluated the theoretical uplink capacity for an interference level
that is 10 dB higher than the noise floor. Kim and Chang (2000)
suggested that safety margins are necessary when target
interference or power levels are defined for the admission control.
Moreover, the study suggested that the handover control needs
targets different from those used in the admission control of new
calls. Also Hou and Fang (2001) suggested guard channels to be
used in admission control done during handovers.

2. Diagnosis in cellular networks

A problem is defined as a situation in a cell which has a degrading
impact on the service offered by that cell. Every operator uses a
different method to identify the problematic
Cells, which can be based on different performance indicators,
e.g. dropped calls, access failures, congestion, etc. The most
severe problem for mobile network operators are cells
experiencing a high number of dropped calls, because a dropped
call has a very negative impact on the service offered to the end
user. In that sense, the dropped
call rate (DCR) is a good indicator about the quality of the cell. A
DCR between 1 and 2% is common for well performing cells. Once
the cells with problems are isolated
(e.g. DCR _ 2%), a diagnosis of the cause of the problems should
be done separately for each problematic cell. A cause or fault is
the defective behaviour of some logical or physical component in
the cell that generates problems, e.g. interference, hardware
fault, etc. A symptom is a KPI or an alarm whose value can be a
manifestation of a fault, e.g. the number of handovers due to
interference. On the one hand, KPIs are collected daily by the
network management system (NMS) with the help of counters
situated at different points of the network. On the other hand, the
NMS provides thousands of alarms from network elements,
which may help to identify the cause of the problem. When one of
the faults is causing problems in a cell, the values of some KPIs
change from their nominal values and some alarms may also be
triggered. The aim of the automatic diagnosis system is to
identify the cause of a
problem based on the values of some symptoms. Details
about the main causes and symptoms in the RAN of cellular
networks can be found in (Barco, Wille, & Dı´ez, 2005) for
GSM/GPRS networks and in (Khanafer, Moltsen, Dubreil, Altman, &
Barco, 2006) for UMTS networks. Research studies in automation
of diagnosis in the RAN of cellular networks have been focused on
alarm correlation
(Frohlich, Nejdl, Jobmann, & Wietgrefe, 1997; Wietgrefe,
2002; Wietgrefe et al., 1997). In current cellular networks,
most systems are semi-intelligent and generate alarm
messages when errors occur. The abstraction level of
these alarm messages is normally very low, leading to a
high number of alarms for any single cause. Alarm correlation
consists in the conceptual interpretation of multiple
alarms, so that new meanings are assigned to the original
alarms. Although alarm correlation can be considered a
first step in the diagnosis of faults, alarms do not provide
enough information to identify the cause of problems,
especially if the possible causes are not only faults in pieces
of equipment.

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Systems - Universal Personal Communications. Artech House
Publishers (2000)

2. Principe, J.C., Euliano, N.R., Lefebvre, W.C.: Neural and

Adaptive Systems:
Fundamentals through Simulations. John Wiley & Sons (2000)

5. Bayesian modeling of fault diagnosis in mobile communication

Networks: Raquel Barco Moreno