Title: Cadmium Wastewater: Industry Involved& Effects Introduction Cadmium is a naturally occurring minor element, one of the metallic

components which present everywhere in our environment. Industrial applications for cadmium were developed in the late 19th and early 20th Century. According to Effluent Discharge Standards, maximum permissible limit for Cadmium is 0.01mg/l for Second & Third Schedule. Example of Industry Involved Among the industry that produces Cadmium as wastewater are in electroplating and galvanizing manufacture, paint industries, textile industries, cadmium-nickel batteries production, mining industries, pigments and alloy industries. INDUSTRIAL ACTIVITY Textile manufacturing PARAMETERS Colour, Temperature, pH, COD, BOD5, Reactive Phosphorus, Free Chlorine, TSS, Chloride, Sulphate, Sulphide, Ammoniacal Nitrogen, Nitrate as N, Detergents, Cadmium, Total Chromium, Cobalt, Copper, Molybdenum, Sodium, Zinc, Oil & Grease, Total Pesticides, Total Organic Halides. Temperature, pH, COD, Free Chlorine, TSS, Chloride, Sulphate, Sulphide, Nitrate as N, Cyanide, Cadmium, Total Chromium, Cobalt, Copper, Iron, Lead, Nickel, Zinc, Oil & Grease, Total Organic Halides. Colour, Temperature, pH, COD, BOD5, TSS, Chloride, Sulphate, Sulphide, Aluminium, Cadmium, Total Chromium, Cobalt, Copper, Lead, Mercury, Molybdenum, Zinc, Oil & Grease, Total Organic Halides.

Metal Plating & Galvanising

Paint Manufacturing

Table 1.1: List of parameters for some of the industry which involved Cadmium Health Effects of Cadmium The primary route of exposure in industrial settings is inhalation. Inhalation of cadmiumcontaining fumes can result initially in metal fume fever but may progress to chemical pneumonitis, pulmonary edema, and death. Besides that, long-term exposure can also cause adverse health effects on the lungs and kidneys. Other than that, Cadmium may damage cells by its activity in the plasmalemma where it reacts with phosphate groups of the lipid bilayer to alter permeability. In human body, Cadmium can easily cause chronic poisoning as it has a

Environmental Effects of Cadmium Cadmium waste streams from the industries mainly end up in soils. When cadmium concentrations in soils are high they can influence soil processes of microrganisms and threat the whole soil ecosystem.lot of heavy metal toxicity. When cadmium is present in soils it can be extremely dangerous. Cadmium contaminated mine wastewater and river water could enter the body through the food chain and slowly accumulate in the kidneys and bones. bone softening. The susceptibility to cadmium can vary greatly between aquatic organisms. Conclusion Cadmium is a compound which could affect human health and harm the environment. Cadmium strongly adsorbs to organic matter in soils. It could replace calcium in bone and causes serious softening of bones. This is a potential danger to the animals that are dependent upon the plants for survival. authorities from Department of Environment should conduct spot check regularly so that all industrial plant obeys the Environmental Quality Act. Cadmium and several cadmium-containing compounds are known carcinogens and can induce many types of cancer. In addition. especially when they eat multiple plants. Part of the cadmium ends up in the soil after the fertilizer is applied on farmland and the rest of the cadmium ends up in surface waters when waste from fertilizer productions is dumped by production companies. which could cause diseases such as emphysema. Cadmium emission to environment occur in the production of artificial phosphate fertilizers. all the industries involved should make sure that the wastewater does not emitted to drain. Besides that. Cadmium can accumulate in their bodies. Therefore. . as the uptake through food will increase. river or the environment to safeguard living creatures and the environment.In aquatic ecosystems cadmium can bio accumulate in sea creature.

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