You are on page 1of 75

Market study of alloy steel with special reference to RMG Alloy Steel Ltd

“ RMG Alloy Steel Ltd”

A Project Report on
Market study of alloy steel with special reference to RMG Alloy Steel Ltd.
“ RMG Alloy Steel Ltd”


I, hereby declare that the report entitled “Market study of is based on my

learning alloy steel with reference to RMG Alloy Steel Ltd.
I further declare that this project report is submitted as per the requirement of
PGDM curriculum, is my original work and based on the findings during the
I further declare that the personal data and information received from any
respondent during survey has not been shared with any one and is used for
academic purpose only
This project report would not be submitted in any other institute for any award
of any other degree, diploma, fellowship or other similar title or prices.
This project report would not be submitted in any other degree in future and no
other person will be allowed to copy from this project in any other form.
If I am found to be guilty of not fulfilling the above promises, my submission
can be declared invalid and college has the right to reject this report.


A successful project can never be prepared by the single effort or the person to
whom project is assigned, but it also demands the help and guardianship of
some conversant person who helps in the undersigned actively or passively in
the completion of successful project.
I acknowledge my deep sense of gratitude to MR. ………. for providing me
their valuable guidance and constant co-operation at every step of the project.
This project was indeed the outcome of his clear vision and helpful attitude.
Without their support and encouragement, the successful completion of this
project would not have been possible.
I would like to express my special regards and thank wholeheartedly to Mr.
…….. , Mr. …….. & Mr. ………for their support throughout the tenure of our
I convey my gratitude to all the staff of “RMG Alloy Steel Ltd” for their kind
co-operation throughout my project.
I would also like to acknowledge my sincere gratitude to our Prof. Col. A.
Balasubramanian, and Dr. Suresh Chandra Padhi Director BIIB, for giving
me an opportunity to work on a project, which has proven to be a valuable
learning experience and also a memorable one
Finally, to all those people who helped me for filling the questionnaires, my
family members for their support and patient & my friends who provided
academic opinions and all those people whom I met during my internship and
helped me to accomplish my project in the most efficient and effective manner..

Smaller sector of steel industry showing the most demand growth.

Alloy steel production may account for only around 9 percent (on a finished
product basis) of total global steel production; however, in terms of value, that
production accounts for around 20 percent of the total market. If alloy steel
know the factors affecting their client behaviour, and the relationships between
these factors and the type of clients, then they can further develop their
marketing strategies to convert potential customers into active ones, while
retaining existing customers.
Steel an important part of the economy of any nation. With the production of
different categories of steel with various options available to the customer, the
money acts as the driver for growth of the country.
This project is a part of study, and focuses on factors which steel manufacturer
keep in mind while purchasing for different raw materials or products. This
research found that convenience, pricing, stock, delivery and approvals are the
five dominant factors which influence consumer perceptions for steel
purchasing. The cost of living is simply what it cost to buy the goods and
services you need.



Company Overview

Competitors Overview

Objective of Study

Literature Review

Benefits of the Study

Research Methodology







Production of steel Hindustan and Bokaro Foreign players began
started in India Steel Ltd were setup in entering the Indian steel
(TISCO was setup in 1954 and 1964, market
1907) respectively No license requirement for
capacity creation
IISC was set up In early 1990s, the
in 1918 to public sector Imposition of export duty
compete with dominated steel on iron ore, to focus more
TISCO production on catering growing
domestic demand
Private players were in Decontrol of domestic steel
downstream production prices
mainly producing finished
steel using crude steel Launch of Scheme for promotion of
products Research and Development in Iron
and Steel sector

1907-18 1923-48 1954-64 1973-92 1993-14 2015-17

 Mysore iron and SAIL was created in  In 2017, India

1973 as a holding
steel company was company to oversee ranked as the 2nd
setup in 1923 most of India's iron and largest crude steel
 According to new steel production producer in the
In 1989, SAIL acquired
industrial policy Vivesvata Iron and Steel world, leaving
statement(1948), Ltd behind United
new ventures were In 1993, the
government set States
only undertaken by plans in motion to  During FY17,
central government partially privatise 8.24 MT of steel
was exported
from India




 Liquid Steel  Alloy  Sturctural Steel

 Crude steel o Stainless  Construction
o Ignots o Silicon Steel
o Semis o High Speed  Rail Steel
 Finished  Non alloy
o Flat o Low carbon
o Non-flat o Medium
o High carbon

Source: Report on Indian steel industry by Competition Commission of India, Aranca


Alloy Steel
 Steel is a metal alloy consisting mostly of iron, in addition to small
amounts of carbon, depending on the grade and quality of the steel.
 Alloy steel is any type of steel to which one or more elements besides
carbon have been intentionally added, to produce a desired physical
property or characteristic.
 Common elements that are added to make alloy steel are molybdenum,
manganese, nickel, silicon, boron, chromium, and vanadium.
 If the carbon level in a low alloy steel is in the medium to high range, it
can be difficult to weld.
 If the carbon content is lowered to a range of 0.1% to 0.3%, and some of
the alloying elements are reduced to form low alloy steel.
 Alloy steel is the steel that is alloyed with the variety of elements in total
amounts between 1.0% and 50% by weight to modify or improve its
mechanical strength.
 The term alloy steel is the Standard term referring to steels with other
alloying elements in addition to carbon.
 Common alloyants includes Mn, Ni, Cr, Mo, V, Si and B.
 Less common alloyants includes Al, Co, Cu, Ti, W,Sn, Zn, Pb and Zr.

 Low alloy steel have greater weldability and formability,such metals are
classified as high strength, low alloy steel.
 the most well-known alloy steel is stainless steel with a minimum of 10%
chromium content.
 Stainless steel is more resistant to stains, corrosion, and rust than
ordinary steel.
 Stainless steel was discovered in 1913 by Harry Brearley of Sheffield,
 Technically, every steel is an alloy, but not all of them have the “alloy
steel” designation
 To be called alloy steel, other elements must be intentionally added to the
iron and carbon composition.

Classification of Alloy steel

 Low alloy steels- Increase Strength and hardenability

Low-alloy steels are generally considered to comprise plain carbon steels
and steels with a total alloying content of up to 12%. As such, they are
much cheaper than more highly alloyed materials and are often used in
large quantities in heavy engineering industries. Although these materials
are not generally selected for resistance to high temperature corrosion
(the material choice is largely dictated by cost, ease of fabrication, and
mechanical properties), they are often required to operate in high
temperature aggressive environments. For instance, the power generation,
refuse incineration, and chemical process industries use many miles of
low-alloy steel heat exchanger tubes. Hence, the high temperature
oxidation properties of low-alloy steels are often important in
determining component life.

Low alloy steels are usually used in power plants when temperatures are
lower than approximately 580 °C. However, when the temperatures are
higher than 580 °C, low alloy steelsare no longer appropriate as their low
creep resistance means that the walls will have to be much thicker, which
results in greatly increased costs, and they do not have sufficient
oxidation resistance to cope with high temperatures. Since the 1950s,
austenitic stainless steels have been used to make the components that are
exposed to temperatures exceeding 580 °C. However, despite the benefits
of austenitic stainless steels over low alloy steels at high temperatures,
there are problems with steam oxidation and high temperature corrosion
when they are used in boilers that are fuelled by oil. They are also
expensive and susceptible to SCC and weld problems. Ferritic steels
overcome several of these problems, have high thermal conductivity,
offer a lower coefficient of thermal expansion and are easier to work

10 | P a g e
 High alloy steels – Improves corrosion resistance and stability at
high or low temperatures

HSLA steels were originally developed in the 1960s for large-diameter oil and
gas pipelines. The line pipe used in these projects required higher strength and
toughness than mild carbon steel, and good weldability provided by a low
carbon equivalent.
The oil & gas sector is still market where the most important applications for
HSLA steels are found, but the automotive and the offshore & onshore
structural engineering sectors now consume significant quantities of these
HSLA steels are available today with traditional ferritic-pearlitic, bainitic,
martensitic and multiphase microstructures, each available in hot- or cold-rolled
steels. The yield strength of contemporary HSLA steels ranges from 260 MPa to
over 1000 MPa.
Typically, Mo is used in HSLA steel when the yield strength must be above 550
MPa, or a particular microstructure is demanded. Mo is particularly beneficial
for producing bainite (and more specifically for its acicular ferrite variant) and
the multiphase microstructures that appear in dual phase, complex phase or
TRIP steels.
 Based on composition classification of alloy steel
o Simple alloy steel – Containing one alloying element, for example-
Simple nickel steel
o Quaternery alloy steel – Containing two alloying elements, for
example- Chromium vanadium steel
o Complex steel – Containing more than two alloying elements, for
example- high speed tool steel

11 | P a g e
Properties of alloy steel

Alloy steel is a steel which has had small amounts of one or more elements
(other than carbon) such as such as manganese, silicon, nickel, titanium,
copper, chromium and aluminium in addition. This creates an alloy which
has specific properties that are not found in carbon steel. Alloy steels are
workhorses of many industries because of their low cost, extensive
availability, ease of processing, and mechanical properties.

12 | P a g e
Each different alloying element has its own effect on the properties of
steel. Some of the properties that can be improved by alloying include:

 Stabilizing austenite: Elements like nickel, manganese, cobalt, and

copper increases the temperatures between which austenite exists
 Stabilizing ferrite: Molybdenum, vanadium, aluminium, and silicon
may have the effect of lowering carbon's solubility
 Carbide forming: Minor metals, including chromium, tungsten,
titanium, niobium, tantalum and zirconium, form carbides that - in
steel - increase hardness and strength. Such alloy steels are used to
make high-speed steel or hot work tool steel.
 Graphitizing: Silicon, nickel, and cobalt can decrease the stability of
carbides in the steel, promoting breakdown and the formation of free
 Decrease of eutectoid concentration: Molybdenum, tungsten, silicon,
chromium, and nickel all can help to lower the eutectoid concentration
of carbon.
 Increase corrosion resistance: Aluminium, silicon and chromium form
protective oxide layers on the surface, thereby protecting the metal
from further deterioration in harsh environments.

13 | P a g e
Major Steel Alloying Agents:

Following is a list of commonly used alloying elements and their effect on

steel (standard content in brackets):
 Aluminium (0.95-1.30%): A deoxidizer. Can limit the growth of
austenite grains.
 Boron (0.001-0.003%): A hardening agent that improves deformability
and machinability. It is added to fully killed steel and only needs to be
added in small quantities to have a hardening affect.
 Chromium (0.5-18%): A key component in stainless steels. At over
12% content, iy significantly improves corrosion resistance. It also
improves hardenability, strength, response to heat treatment and wear
and tear resistance.
 Copper (0.1-0.4%): Often found as a residual agent in
steels, copper can also be added to produce hardening
properties and increase corrosion resistance.
 Lead: Although virtually insoluble in liquid or solid steel, lead is added
to carbon steels via mechanical dispersion during pouring, to improve
 Manganese (0.25-13%): Manganese increases strength at high
temperatures by eliminating the formation of iron sulfides. It also
improves hardenability, ductility and wear resistance.
 Nickel (2-20%): Another element critical to stainless steels, nickel is
added at over 8 percent content to high chromium stainless steel. It
increases strength, impact strength and toughness, while also
improving resistance to oxidization and corrosion.

14 | P a g e

Pipes made of alloy steel have exceptional performance properties. They are
generally developed for energy-related applications involving oil and gas
drilling and are subjected to stresses in machine parts.

The common material used to produce the load carrying components in
precision ball bearings, roller bearings, and tapered roller bearings is chrome
steel. These components are the bearings inner and outer rings, balls. Using
controlled processing and heat-treating methods the finished bearing
components have high strength to resist cracking and a hard surface to resist
subsurface rolling contact fatigue.
With the proper combinations, the following are some other things that could be
manufactured are:
 Coins, medals, electrical hardware, tools, heavy gears
 U.S. coins
 Boats, aircraft, railroad cars and machinery
 Corrosion-resistant containers
 Heating elements in toasters, electric heaters, etc.
 Electrical springs, boat propellers
 Jewellery and Art Objects
 Type for printing
 Silverware, pots and pans
Alloy Steel hence forms a major a chunk of the materials used in manufacturing
industries all around the globe in multiple sectors

15 | P a g e
Alloy Steel Business


Flat products Long Products

(HR Plates & coils, CR sheets & coils)

Mild steel, high carbon steel, construction Stainless & Alloy Steel
(Wire rods, Bars & Rounds, Bright
(Wire rods, Bars & Rounds, Angles & Bars , Wires)
Channels, Rails, Beams)

Constitutes around 8% of Indian Steel Demand

16 | P a g e
Alloy Steel - Product Profile

More than 400 varieties

Wire rods
Bright bars

Wide range
varying from
3 mm to 250

Squares, Flats,
Rectangles and

17 | P a g e
Company Overview
RMG Alloy Steel Ltd (formerly known as Remi Metals Gujarat Ltd.) is an ISO
9001:2008 & TS: 16949 accredited company with more than two decades of
reputation as a trusted partner to all major OEMs across the globe catering to their
various requirements.

We are an Alloy & Special steel plant with 150,000 MT annual production
capacities in Bharuch, Gujarat producing various grades of Carbon, Alloy and
Special steels. Steel is produced through the Electric Arc Furnace (EAF) and
Ladle Refining Furnace (LRF) route with a heat size of 35 tons. Vacuum
degassing (VD/VOD) is done for all our heats and the product is cast through two
routes: continuous cast and ingot route.
Equipped with a high precision rolling mill downstream with a capacity of
125,000 MT annually. RMG can cater to a wide size range of 28 mm to 200 mm
dia & 45 to 340 mm RCS/Square. RMG offers bars in Hot Rolled & /Heat
Treated/ Peeled & Ground conditions for all critical applications. Our products
are offered in AS CAST (CC/INGOT) condition as well.

18 | P a g e
It is one of the very few steel plants in India to be housing an NABL accredited
testing facility and is equipped to meet the most stringent testing requirements &
deliver our products.

In our philosophy, Quality is embedded into the product right at the start and is
strengthened throughout the value chain. Our emphasis is on engineering the best
quality of Alloy/Special Steel which are benchmarked globally. The Steel we
produce here finds its way into high quality conscious global markets for
applications like Oil & Gas, Energy, Auto, Engineering, Defense and Railways
etc. because of the consistency in the quality of our product.

19 | P a g e

Welspun group has a strategic investment in RMG Alloy Steel Ltd. US$ 3
billion Welspun Group, is an amalgamation of expertise, resources,
opportunities and engineering excellence. With global leadership position in
Line Pipe and Home Textiles, its marquee client list includes most of the
Fortune 100 Companies operating in Oil & Gas and retail sector like Chevron,
Exxon Mobil, Wal-Mart, Target amongst others. Supported by some of the
largest Financial Institutions / Banks (Temasek - Govt. of Singapore, HSBC,
Standard Chartered Bank, Goldman Sachs, ICICI venture, State Bank of India)
and strong foothold in over 50 Countries, with over 24,000 employees &
100,000+ shareholders, Welspun is one of India's fastest growing

20 | P a g e
Welspun believes in its crucial role of a responsible corporate citizen and
sincerely practice empowerment of the underprivileged and sustenance of the
environment. Guided by the three 'E's - Education, Environment and
Empowerment & Health, each and every Welspunite contributes towards the
betterment of the community at large.

21 | P a g e
Plant Facilities
 Steel Melting Shop:
o 35 Mt Electric, Furnace
o Ladle Refining Furnace
o Vacuum Degasser / Vacuum Oxygen Decarburization
o Continuous Casting (with AMLC and EMS)
o Ingot Casting
 Rolling mill
o Blooming mill
o Bar mill

 Heat Treatment Shop

o 35MT Gas Fired Bogie Hearth Furnace
o 2 x 15 MT Electrical Furnaces
o 2 TPH Gas/Electric continuous furnace
o 4 TPH Gas/Electric continuous furnace

 Bright Bar
o Peeling, Center less Grinding
o Cold drawing
o Pilgering Machines

 Non Destructive Techniques

o Magnetic Particle Inspection
o Eddy Current Testing
o Ultra Sonic Testing
o PMI Machine (XRF Analyser)

22 | P a g e
Product Profile

 Bearing Steel
o SAE 52100, SKF Gr3, 100Cr6, 100CrMnSi64, 100CrMn6,
100CrMo7, Gr 24, Gr 24K, Gr7OK, 33I0

 Chrome - Moly Steel

o 4135, 4140, 4145, 42CrMo

 Case Carburizing Steel

o 20MnCr5, 8620, 8619, 8622, 8625, 8627, 8822etc

 Micro Alloyed Steel

o 38MnSiVS6, C70S6 etc

 Creep Resistant Steel

o F11, F22, F12, F5, F9, F91, FI, H, F92

 Valve Steel
o En52, 21-4N

 Boron Steel
o 15B22, 15B41 , 43B17, 94B17H, 20MnCr5(B)

 High Nickel Steel

o En36C/19NiCrMo4, 18X2H4BA, 20X2H4A, 5HS64, SAE9310

 Stainless Steel
o SS-410, SS-420, L80 13Cr, 9Cr, 416, 440C, 304L, 316L

 Tool & Die Steel

o H11, H13, Din 1.2714, AISI 01, S7

23 | P a g e
 Cast Bloom
o Square – 150 x 150 mm
o Rectangle – 280 x 350 mm
o Octagon – 198, 232, 262, 308 mm (Crest to Crest)

 Cast Ingot
o Square – 2Mts, 3Mts
o Rectangle – 6Mt, 10Mts, 16Mts, 17Mts, 30Mts
o Round – 600mm, 700 mm

 Round (mm dia)
o 20, 22, 25, 28, 30, 32, 34, 36, 38, 40, 42, 45, 48, 50, 55, 56, 58, 60, 63, 65, 68,
70, 75, 80, 85, 90, 95, 100, 105, 110, 115, 120, 125, 130, 135, 140, 145, 150,
160, 170, 180, 200

 RCS (mm side)

o 55, 63, 65, 70, 75, 80, 85, 90, 95, 100, 105, 110, 120, 125, 130,
140, 150, 155, 180, 200, 220, 250, 300, 340

 Flats
o Width: 20 – 100mm
o Thickness: 5 - 34mm

 Square (mm sq)

o 14, 16, 18, 20, 21, 22, 24, 25, 27, 30, 34, 38, 40, 42, 47, 53

 Hexagon (mm)
o 16, 18, 20, 22, 23, 25, 27, 28, 30, 32, 34, 38, 39, 40, 43, 44, 48, 53,
50 across flat

 Wire Rod (mm dia) - (Outsourced)

o 4.5, 5.5, 6, 6.7, 7, 8, 8.2, 8.5, 9, 10, 10.5, 11, 11.4, 12, 12.4, 12.5,
12.8, 13.1, 13.3, 14, 15, 16, 17, 17.3, 18, 18.3, 19, 20, 21, 22, 23.2,
24, 25, 26
Dimensional Tolerances are as per IS : 3739 - 1987

24 | P a g e
 Annealed
o Hardened (Quench) & Tempered

 Spheroidised Annealed
o Solution Annealed

 Normalized
o Normalized & Tempered

 Soft Annealed (Stress Relieved)

 Turned Bars
o 100 - 200 mm dia

 Peeled & Ground Bars

o 30 - 140 mm dia Peeled Bar; 30 - 80 mm dia Peeled & Ground

 Cold Drawn Bars

o 15 - 80 mm dia
o Thickness : 5 - 34 mm

 Square (mm sq)

o 14, 16, 18, 20, 21, 22, 24, 25, 27, 30, 34, 38, 40, 42, 47, 53

25 | P a g e
 Drilled Bars ID
o 15 – 65 mm and OD up to 160mm; length up to 700mm

 Extra Long Bars

o Length up 10 – 17 mtr in annealed and quench & tempered

 Precision Rolled Black Bars (PRBB)

o 30 – 65 dia Bar with tolerance upto 100 microns
o Thickness : 5 - 34 mm

 Precision Seamless Tubes/ Pipes : OD:

o 25 – 168 mm Cold Drawn, Shaped Tubes, Pilgered Tubes
o Thickness : 5 - 34 mm

26 | P a g e

O Steering Worm, RA Shaft, Steering Shaft, Camshaft,
Bevel Gear, RAS Gear, Steering Nut, Transmission
Gear, Crown Wheel, FA Beam, Stub Axle,
Crankshaft, Connecting Rod, Engine Valve &
Stabilizer Bar.
O Transmission Gears & Shafts, Engine Gears, Clutch
Components, Differential & Axle Gears, Synchro
Hubs & Gears. Crown Gear, Worm Gear, Spur Gear,
Helical Gear, Bevel, Rack & Pinion, Ring Gears etc.
O Inner Ring, Outer Ring, Balls, Rollers for Various
Bearings like Ball Bearing, Roller Bearing & Thrust
Ball Bearing etc.
O Various Parts for Battle Tank, Bomb Shell, Gun
Barrel, Small Arms Barrels, Cartridge cases &
Armored Vehicle Component
O Shafts, Casing, Open Forge, Valve Bodies,
Interconnecting Blocks & Drill Shanks.
O Drive Shafts, Rotor Shaft, Rotor Disc, Rings, Flanges
& Turbine Blade.
O Various Component in Sugar, Textile, Cement,
Mining, Construction & Marine.
O Under Carriage Parts - Linkage Pin, Track Shoe,
Track Roller, Idler Shaft, Various Nitride &
Carburized parts.
O Axle Shaft, Cam Shaft & Helical Spring.

27 | P a g e

"We would Continuously reinforce our position through our customer centric
approach. Shall exceed our
customer expectations both in domestic & export market in quality, delivery
through continuous improvement
& customer interaction."

“RMG Alloy Steel Ltd. would like to be a world class Quality Manufacturer of
high end
Alloy Steel products including Seamless Pipes and Tubes for special

28 | P a g e

a. Mukund Steels is a highly acclaimed manufacturer of Pipe & Pipe
Fittings. Supplier Of all ferrous and non-ferrous metal products like
stainless steel pipes, stainless steel tubes, steel flanges, etc. The
company has carved an unparalleled position in the industry by
making relentless efforts to cater to the clients with premium quality
pipes, tubes and fitting components.
b. Some of our widely accepted products include stainless steel pipes
and tubes, butt and fittings, forged fittings, flanges, fasteners, plates
and sheets, round bars and many more. We design and fabricate
these products on the basis of special industrial requirements of our
c. We are committed to elevate the standards of our products and
services to offer customer satisfaction through excellence in quality.
Every employee is dedicated toward this aim and every measure and
care is taken to ensure production of superior products, quality
packaging, timely delivery, competent prices and excellent after
sales service.

29 | P a g e
Product Range:
 Pipes & tubes
 Sheets & Plates
 Angle & Channel
 Rod, Bar & Wire
 Buttweld Fittings
 Forged Fittings
 Flanges
 Other Products

30 | P a g e
a. Vardhman has evolved through history, from a small beginning to a
modern industrial major, under the dynamic leadership of its
Chairman & Managing Director, Mr. S.P. Oswal. His vision and
insight have given Vardhman an enviable position in the Indian
industry. Under his able leadership, Vardhman is innovating,
diversifying, integrating and building its various operations into a
dynamic enterprise of today.
b. The Vardhman Group, driven by faith in the economy development
of the country, specifically in core industrial sector, ventured into
the steel industry back in the year 1973. Since then, the company has
exponentially expanded its operations on all fronts, attaining a
capacity of 150,000 metric tonnes per annum producing high-grade
hot rolled bars for varied applications..
c. Placed among the leading producers of Special and Alloy Steels,
Vardhman Special Steels Limited caters to diverse requirements of
hot rolled bars for Engineering, Automotive, Tractor, Bearing and
Allied Industries. The company, for more than 40 years, has
emphasized on total customer focus in all operational areas,
monitoring and nurturing relationships with all clients and business
d. Vardhman Special Steels Limited incorporates some of the most
advanced manufacturing facilities with equally reliable support
facilities. The plant has well-conceived layout plan with modern
material handling facilities-all designed for economic processing of
materials and human skills. Vardhman's ability to adopt changes in
technology is evident in its extensive use of automation and
contemporary concepts.
e. Leveraging state-of-the-art manufacturing facilities and vast
experience in the domain, the company has an extensive list of
clientele, including various globally renowned corporations, such as
Toyota, Hero Moto Corp, Caterpillar, Hino Motors, Bosch are some
of the prominent names from the list.
f. Committed to delivering unmatched quality, Vardhman Special
Steels Limited is an ISO 14001:2004; OHSAS 18001:2007; ISO
9001:2008; ISO/TS 16949:2009 certified organization.

31 | P a g e
Product Range
16, 18, 19, 20, 21, 22, 23, 24, 25, 26, 28, 30, 32, 34, 36,
Round Bar Diameter 38, 40, 42, 44, 45, 46.5, 48, 50, 52, 54, 56, 58, 60, 63,
(mm): 65, 66, 67, 68, 70, 72, 75, 80, 85, 90, 95, 100, 105, 110,
Round Corner Square
45, 50, 51.5, 55, 63, 70, 75, 80, 90, 95, 100, 110, 125
Peeled/Peeled &
14 mm to 78mm Dia
Centerless Ground bar:
Drawn/Drawn &
21.35mm to 50mm Dia
Centerless Ground bar:
Hexagonal Sizes (across 19.5, 20.5, 22.5, 23.5, 25, 25.5, 26.5, 28.5, 30.5, 32.5,
flats): 33.5, 34, 34.5, 38, 38.5, 40.5
*Diameters 95, 100, 105, 110, 120mm & RCS - 110, 125mm can be rolled
depending upon reduction ration requirement.

Steel Categories

Carbon Steel
15C8, 35C8, 45C8, 55C8, C30, C35, C38, C40, C45CR, C48, C50,
C55, C65, CK35, CK45, En2a, En3, En32B, En42, En43,
En43AM, En5, En8, En8DCR, En9, JDMA1045, S20C, S25C,
S35C, S38C, S40C, S43C, S45C, S48C, S50C, S53C, S58C,
SAE1006, SAE1008, SAE1010, SAE1015, SAE1016, SAE1018,
SAE1019, SAE1020, SAE1025, SAE1030, SAE1035, SAE1037,
SAE1038, SAE1040, SAE1041, SAE1045, SAE1047, SAE1050,
SAE1052, SAE1055, VS13111, 1E1771, 1E0065, 080A47.
Carbon 20Mn2, 27C15, 27Mn2, 37C15, 37Mn2, En15, En15A, En15B ,
Manganese JDMA1041F, SAE1524, SAE1541, 45M5, S355J2+N, St52-3,
Steel : 150M36R,1E0170
Case Hardening Steel
15Cr3, 17Cr3, SCr415H, SCr420H
Manganese 16MnCr5, 16MnCrS5, 20MnCr5
SCM415H, SCM418H, SCM420H, XSCM318H, SCM822H,
20MoCr4E, 16CD4, 20CD4
Moly Steel:

32 | P a g e
Chrome / SAE8620H, SAE8622, SAE8625, SAE8822, En351,En352,
Nickel En353, En354, En355, 15CrNi6, 16CrNi4,17CrNiMo6, 19CrNi5,
Chrome 20NiCr6, 20NiCrMoS6-4, SAE3420, 815M17, 20CrNi4, 18NCD6
Moly Steel:
15CrNi6, 16CrNi4,17CrNiMo6, 19CrNi5, 20NiCr6, 20NiCrMo
S6-4, SAE4320, 815M17, 20CrNi4, 18NCD6
Moly Steel:
Through Hardening Steel
34Cr4, 37Cr4, 40Cr4, 40Cr4B, 40Cr4C, 41Cr4,41Cr4,
45XGOST, En18, En18C, En18D, SAE5115, E5120, SAE5132,
SAE5135, SAE5145H, SAE5150, SAE5160
25CrMo4, 40CrMo2, 40MoCr4, 42Cr4Mo2, 42Cr4Mo4,
Chrome 42CrMo2, 42CrMo4, AISI4142H, AISI4150, En19, En91C,
Moly Steel: SAE4130, SAE4135, SAE4137, SAR4140, SAE4142, SAE4147,
708M42, ETN22, V2250-97, 42CD4, 25MoCr4
Category SCM435, SCM435H
- Moly SAE8640, 40NiCrMO4, SAE4340, En24
Moly Steel: 35Mn6Mo3, En16, En16C, En17, SAE4027
Other Categories
SAE41B30, SAE1036B, SAE15B35H, SAE10B25H, 38B3,
Boron SAE15B41H, 58CRMNB4, SAE40B37, 30MnB4, SCrB435H,
Steel: TIE2135, TIE2169, 20MnB5, 20MnCrB5, TIE0312,TIE0166,
SAE1137V, 38MnSiVS5, C70S6, 38MnVS6, SBMA740,
Vanadium 20MnV6, 31CrV3, SMnV440- Annealed- Peeled and Ground-
Steel: Cold Drawn
Bearing En31, SAE52100, DIN100Cr6
Free/ Semi
Free En15AM, En18DM, En1A, En8DM, En8M, SAE1117, SAE1118,
Cutting SAE1137, SAE1140, SAE1141, SAE1144, SA1145S, SAE1215

33 | P a g e
En45, En45A, 55SI7, 60SI7, 37MnSI5, SUP11A, SUP9G,
50CrV4, En47, 38XC, 52Cr4Mo2V, 59CrV4,
SAE4161H, SUP12,51CrV4
Titanium SA836, H-MN TI

34 | P a g e
a. Industries Limited, as it stands today, started in 1976 as a small scale
Iron Foundry unit at Nagpur. Today Jayaswal Neco Industries
Limited (Foundry Division) has grown to be India’s largest producer
of Iron & Steel castings with an installed capacity of 140,000
MTPA. Its foundries are located across the states of Maharashtra &
b. In 1996, JNIL established a 1 Million MTPA Steel plant at Siltara
Growth Centre (Raipur). The Steel Plant Division produces Iron &
Steel products catering to the need of Automotives, Engineering,
Power, Railways, Bearings, Structural and Fasteners Industries in
India. JNIL-Steel Plant Division has an installed production capacity
of 700,000 MTPA through the Blast furnace route and another
300,000 MTPA through the Direct Reduced Iron (DRI) route. Its
products include speciality Steels: Hot Rolled Bars in Rounds &
Squares, Wire rods in coils and high strength Leaf springs in Flats.
The plant also boasts of 5 captive power plants based on waste heat
recovery which produces about 60 MW/day. The Steel plant is under
expansion that will see its capacity to be enhanced to about 2 Million
MTPA by 2015.
c. The Neco Group has also been granted Coal and Iron Ore mines in
the State of Chhattisgarh and Jharkhand and has undertaken setting
up of Thermal Power Stations of 3240 MW in the State of
Chhattisgarh and 500 MW in Jharkhand in the next few years. The
company will soon start operating its coking coal mines in Jharkhand
to feed its existing coke ovens at the Siltara, Raipur plant.
d. NSSL Limited, a group company produces ferrous & non-ferrous
Industrial valves from 0.5” to 80”. The different types of valves
manufactured include Gate, Globe, Check, Ball and Plug valves.
These are used for different applications in the Petroleum E&P,
Refineries, Power Plants, Steel plants, Chemical plants & pipelines
in various other industries. It is one of the leading industrial valve
units in India. It has recently set up another plant at Nagpur with an
investment of Rs. 150 Crores, which will be arguably the largest
single location unit to produce valves in the country. Apart from
manufacturing, NSSL Limited also provides extensive support for
maintenance and repair of valves in service. We can proudly say that
NSSL was the first reputed valve manufacturer in India to provide
the “Servicing & Repairs to Valves”. This company was granted the
prestigious ISO 14001:2004 & OHSAS 18001:2007 by Det Norske
Veritas for maintaining the highest standard of Health & Safety
NSSL Limited has subsidiaries in Chennai (Econo Valves), Doha-

35 | P a g e
Qatar (NSSL-Middle East) and Milan-Italy (NSSL-Italia SRL).
The Italian subsidiary, NSSL Italia Srl has recently acquired two
Italian valve manufacturing companies. NSSL Limited also has an
Automotive Machining Division which is the largest Non-OEM unit
specializing in production of Cylinder Heads in Iron as well as
e. Neco Heavy Engineering & Castings Limited (NHECL), a group
company at Nagpur produces castings catering to the needs of Heavy
Engineering Sector including Integrated Steel Plants, Mini Steel
Plants, other Heavy Engineering Industries, Material handling
equipment manufacturers, Crane manufacturers, Sugar crushing
mills etc.
Neco Ceramics, one of the NECO Group companies, produces
Refractory items for steel and cement plants.
f. Neco Defence Systems Limited (NDSL) is one of the leading
providers of defence and security related products to Government
bodies and authorized private organizations for providing security to
people and assets.
g. Group company Jayaswal Neco Urja Limited (JNUL) is setting up
a 2X300 MW Power project at Village Hamirpur & Jobra ( Tehsil
Tamnar, Raigarh Dist., C.G) at a project cost of ₹ 3310.80 Crores.
h. Deify Infrastructures Limited (DIL) is a dedicated EPC
(Engineering, Procurement & Construction) arm executing new
projects from grounds up as well as expansion projects and de-
bottlenecking projects for the various divisions of JNIL.
i. Neco group has also entered into the arena of Infrastructure
constructing highways through its infrastructure arm Terra Infra
Development Limited (TIDL). It has already developed several
projects (eg. Pondicherry Tindivanam Tollway, Hyderabad
expressway, Hyderabad Outer ring road (ORR) project etc.) across
the country as consortium partners.

36 | P a g e
Product Range
 Automotive Componenets
 Construction Components
 Engineering Components
 Fabrication Components
 Refractory Products
 Defence Products

37 | P a g e
a. Usha Martin is one of the largest manufacturers of wire ropes in
the world and leading specialty steel manufacturer in India. With a
history of more than 50 years, the company has a global base of
wire rope manufacturing with facilities located in India, UK,
Dubai, and Bangkok. For specific products, Usha Martin has
collaborated with globally reputed companies like Gustav Wolf of
Germany, Joh Pengg of Austria and TESAC wire rope of Japan.
b. With a philosophy that quality ropes are made from quality steel,
the company set up specialty steel plant in 1974. The plant uses
high quality iron ore and coal from captive mines enabling it to
achieve high consistency in raw material quality and hence a
consistent quality of steel products. Today, with one million tonne
capacity, it is the largest specialty steel plant in India in long
product segment.
c. The specialty steel division, established in 1971, today operates
one of the largest specialty steel plant in India in long product
segment near Jamshedpur. The plant has an illustrious history of
collaboration with well known companies like Ovako Steel (now
SKF Steel) of Finland, Nikko Industries of Japan, Hamburger
Stahlwerke GmbH of Germany, Daido Steel of Japan and recently
Aichi Steel Corporation (a Toyota Group Company) of Japan. The
captive iron ore and coal mines provide a high order of consistency
in raw material quality, resulting in consistent quality of steel
products manufactured . The company manufactures special steel
bars and wire rods that find application in various sectors including
automobiles, railways, tractors and off highway vehicles,
machinery, consumer goods and general engineering. All its
manufacturing facilities are ISO 9000 certified and the steel plant
was India’s first to receive the TPM Excellence Award from JIPM,
Japan. The steel plant has iron ore beneficiation facility, Sinter
Plant, Coke oven and Blast furnace to produce Hot Metal. The
micro fines of iron ore are used to make pellets in pellet plant,
which are converted into Sponge Iron in DRI kilns. A mix of Hot
Metal and DRI is fed to Electric Arc Furnace for making steel
which is refined in Ladle Furnace (LF) and Vacuum Degassing
(VD) units before casting in Continuous Casting Machines (CCM).
The billets from CCM are rolled into bars or wire rods in Blooming
Mill/Bar Mill and Wire rod mill respectively. The rolled products
are thoroughly checked to ensure that every product dispatched

38 | P a g e
from the plant is of high quality to meet stringent requirement of
customers. The company produces bright bars near Chennai and
Ranchi of different sizes and shapes such as Round(6-/80mm),
Hexagonal(8-31.65 mm) and Profile(as per customers
requirement). The bright bars are produced using spring steel,
carbon steel, free cutting/leaded steel, alloy steel, ball bearing steel
and other grades as per customer requirement under cold drawn,
ground and peeled conditions. The Chennai unit is strategically
located in the Automobile hub of India and car makers like Nissan,
Hyundai, Toyota Motors, Ford India are located nearby.
Steel Grades
 Crank shaft (40Cr4C, 42CrMo4, 38MnSiVS5, 39Cr5, SAE1541B, 55C8,
SMn443H, etc)
– Connecting Rod (C70S6, S48C etc.)
– Front Axle beam (40Cr4, 41Cr4, SAE 4135, S58C etc.)
– Stub Axle/steering knuckle(SAE1541, 40Cr4, SAE4135 etc.)
– Rear Axle shafts (EN15A, SAE1541, SAE15B41H, SAE1547RH,
40Cr4B/C etc.)
– Crown wheel / Pinion(SAE 8822, SAE815M17, 20MnCr5, 94B17,
SAE4317HM2 etc.) and
– Transmission gears (20MnCr5, SAE8620, 815M17 etc)
– Coil Springs/Leaf Springs/Stabilizer bars (SUP7N, SUP9, SUP9A,
SUP11A, SUP12V, SAE9254D, 52Cr4Mo2V etc.)
– Steel for Hydraulic Cylinder Piston Rod (45C8 etc.)

39 | P a g e
Research Problem

To find out why RMG Alloy Steel is not the market leader and what are the
expectations of the customers from the company and it’s products, to know the
problem faced by the customers in the current market

40 | P a g e
Scope of the Study

This research study covers only the RMG Alloy Steel Clients in Mumbai, Pune
& Aurangabad Region

The factors that affect Purchasing behaviour of client in one city can be
completely different than the factors that affect the same in another city.

This basically happens because of the different preferences of the Customers

living in different cities and states and also it may differ from one Company to
another due to various factors like customer service , product availability , Plant
location , store size etc.

Hence, it should be noted that this project covers only RMG Alloy Steel Ltd
Clients in Mumbai, Pune Aurangabad region and the results so obtained cannot
be generalized for clients elsewhere.

41 | P a g e
Reseach Methodology
This chapter will present detailed idea about the research. This includes the
purpose , research approach , research strategy , sample selection methods, data
collection methods and data analysis methods.

The main aim of this survey is to know customer expectations and Preference
While purchasing the raw materials or finished Products and to find the factors
which affect the customer decision for choosing the same. Therefore, this
research is descriptive, which draws a picture of the topic and describes
characteristics of a phenomenon or situation in its current state.

There are three ways a researcher can go about doing descriptive research and
they are:

•Observational, characterized as a technique for survey and recording the


•Case study, characterized in depth study on individual or group of individuals .

•Survey, characterized as a brief meeting or discourse with a person around a

particular subject

42 | P a g e

A survey comes in various flavors, be it talking with individuals eye to eye or

taking care of out survey to round out. The primary distinction amongst
reviews and perceptions is that in an overview, you don't watch individuals;
you get some information about themselves.

Sampling Design:-

Inspecting is a key part of the business research process. Inspecting is the

procedure of selecting a delegate part of a populace with the end goal of
deciding the attributes of the entire populace. Amid the exploration,
Convenience Sampling is utilized to gather information from the customers.

Data collection:-

Primary Data:- It is unique, issue or venture particular and gathered for

filling a specific need. Its credibility or significance is sensibly high. To gather
the essential information the most ideal route is to associate with individuals
specifically or it can be through direct meetings and polls. Both these techniques
have utilized for gathering of essential information.

43 | P a g e
Secondary Data: - It is not topical or research particular. It can be

monetarily and immediately gathered by the chief in a limited capacity to focus

time. It has been gathered and arranged by some other specialist or investigative
body. Auxiliary information is gathered from organization sites and different
Literature audits. So I profited a great deal from articles on net.

Sampling Plan

44 | P a g e
Convenience sampling was chosen for my research. ‘Convenience sampling’ is
used to obtain information quickly and inexpensively. The only criterion for
selecting sampling units in this scheme is the convenience of the researcher or
the investigator. All the convenience samples are Customers of RMG Alloy Steel
Ltd. So, the customers who are existing customers are interviewed and
questionnaire was given to them to respond which I felt convenient to approach.

Sampling area: Customers Plants in Mumbai, Pune, Aurangabad was my

survey area. Survey was conducted in the month of MAY- JUNE 2018.

Sample size: A sample size of 16 respondents was chosen because of time

constraint. Though small in numbers, the sample consists of varied type of
respondents so as to overcome any error at the time of generalization of result.

Contact Method: Questionnaire method was used to establish direct

contact with respondents.

Tools Used for Analysis

45 | P a g e
The software used for the analysis is IBM SPSS Version 18 and MS Excel. SPSS
is capable of handling large amounts of data and can perform all of the analysis
covered in the text and do much more. SPSS is commonly used in the social
sciences and in the business world, so using this program should serve the
research project well in various analyses.

46 | P a g e

The study consisted of only 10 Respondents due to the time constraint.

If the respondents believe that anonymity is not ensured, they may be

reluctant to express certain feelings.

The total number of existing customers in the given area were 20 only.

Also since it was B2B survey so getting to meet the desired person was
the biggest challenge due to unavailability of time with the clients

47 | P a g e
Literature Review
A study by A. Parasuraman, Leonard L. Berry and Valarie A. Zeithaml which
was posted by the MIT Sloan Review, found these key insights when they were
researching customer expectations across 16 focus group participants:

 Customers expect service basis – there is a perceived expectation that

every customer has when going into a business relationship. For
example, a hotel customer thinks that when they pay more they expect

 The service process is the key to exceeding expectations – companies are
supposed to be accurate and dependable and provide the service they
promised. It’s unlikely for a hotel to exceed customer expectations if they
only just have the customers room ready. The opportunity lies in the ability
to surprise the customer with an uncommon swiftness, face, courtesy,
competence, commitment, or understanding.

 Customer expectations are duel-levelled – The study found that

customers’ expectations had two levels: desired and sufficient. The
desired level is the service the customer hopes to obtain while the
sufficient level is the service which the customer finds acceptable. 

 Customers want relationships – relationships are important to customers.
Many of the customers interviewed want to be ‘relationship customers’,
they want ongoing, personalized relationship with the same representative
from the company. They want a company representative to contact them,
rather than always having to initiate contact themselves.

Manage promises – to manage expectations, companies can first start

managing their promises. The study found that some observers
recommended deliberately under-promising the service to increase the

48 | P a g e
likelihood of exceeding customer expectations. This is something I
regularly recommend to our customers all the time.There’s nothing
worse than over-promising and under-delivering! Keep in mind that
there are some risks with under promising as it can reduce your
competitive appeal, so make sure you are aware of your competitive

A lot can go wrong during your business relationship with customers; it’s
necessary to make sure you are always thinking about setting expectations,
meeting expectations or resetting expectations

It is worth noting that consumer buying behaviour is studied as a part of the

marketing and its main objective it to learn the way how the individuals, groups
or organizations choose, buy use and dispose the goods and the factors such as
their previous experience, taste, price and branding on which the consumers
base their purchasing decisions (Kotler and Keller, 2012).
One of such studies of consumer buying behaviour has been conducted by
Acebron et al (2000). The aim of the study was to analyze the impact of
previous experience on buying behaviour of fresh foods, particularly mussels. In
their studies the authors used structural equation model in order to identify the
relationship between the habits and previous experience on the consumer
buying decision. Their findings show that personal habits and previous
experience on of the consumers have a direct impact on the consumers’
purchase decision in the example of purchasing fresh mussels. They also found
that the image of the product has a crucial impact on the purchasing decision of
the consumer and further recommended that the product image should
continuously be improved in order to encourage the consumers towards
Another study conducted by Variawa (2010) analyzed the influence of
packaging on consumer decision making process for Fast Moving Consumer
Goods. The aim of the research was to analyze the impact of packaging for
decision making processes of low-income consumers in retail shopping. A
survey method has been used in order to reach the research objectives. In a
survey conducted in Star Hyper in the town of Canterville 250 respondents
participated. The findings of the research indicate that low-income consumers

49 | P a g e
have more preferences towards premium packaging as this can also be re-used
after the product has been consumed. Although the findings indicate that there
is a weak relationship between the product packaging and brand experience.
However, it has been proven by the findings of the research that low-income
consumers have greater brand experience from the purchase of ‘premium’
products when compared to their experience from purchasing ‘cheap’ brand
Lee (2005) carried out study to learn the five stages of consumer decision
making process in the example of China. The researcher focuses on the facts
that affect the consumer decision making process on purchasing imported health
food products, in particular demographic effects such as gender, education,
income and marital status. The author employed questionnaire method in order
to reach the objectives of the research. Analysis of five stages of consumer
decision making process indicate that impact of family members on the
consumer decision making process of purchasing imported health food products
was significant.
The author further explains this by the fact Chinese tradition of taking care of
young and old family members have long been developed and marriage is
considered to be extremely important in Chinese tradition. This reflects in the
findings of the study that the purchase of imported health food products made
by a person for the people outside the family is declined significantly by both
male and female Chinese after they get married.
Five Stages Model of consumer decision making process has also been studied
by a number of other researchers. Although different researchers offer various
tendencies towards the definitions of five stages, all of them have common
views as they describe the stages in similar ways. One of the common models of
consumer decision making process has been offered by Blackwell et al (2006).
According to him, the five stages of consumer decision making process are
followings: problem/need recognition, information search, evaluation of
alternatives, purchase decision made and post-purchase evaluation.
Each stage is then defined by a number of researchers varying slightly but
leading to a common view about what each stage involves. For example,
according to Bruner (1993) first stage, need recognition occurs when an
individual recognizes the difference between what they have and what they
want/need to have. This view is also supported by Neal and Questel (2006)
stating that need recognition occurs due to several factors and circumstances
such as personal, professional and lifestyle which in turn lead to formation of
idea of purchasing.
In the next stage, consumer searches information related to desired product or
service (Schiffman and Kanuk, 2007). Information search process can be
internal and external. While internal search refers to the process where

50 | P a g e
consumers rely on their personal experiences and believes, external search
involves wide search of information which includes addressing the media and
advertising or feedbacks from other people (Rose and Samouel, 2009).
Once the relevant information about the product or service is obtained the next
stage involves analyzing the alternatives. Kotler and Keller (2005) consider this
stage as one of the important stages as the consumer considers all the types and
alternatives taking into account the factors such as size, quality and also price.
Backhaus et al (2007) suggested that purchase decision is one of the important
stages as this stage refers to occurrence of transaction. In other words, once the
consumer recognized the need, searched for relevant information and
considered the alternatives he/she makes decision whether or not to make the
decision. Purchasing decision can further be divided into planned purchase,
partially purchase or impulse purchase as stated by Kacen (2002) .
Finally, post-purchase decision involves experience of the consumer about their
purchase. Although the importance of this stage is not highlighted by many
authors Neal et al (2004) argues that this is perhaps one of the most important
stages in the consumer decision making process as it directly affects the
consumers’ purchases of the same product or service from the same supplier in
the future.
The most noteworthy writers that serve as academic advocates of The Five
Stage Model of consumer decision making include Tyagi (2004), Kahle and
Close (2006) Blackwell et al. (2006), and others.
It is important to note that The Five Stage Model is not the only model related
to consumer decision-making, and there are also a range of competing models
that include Stimulus-Organism-Response Model of Decision Making
developed by Hebb in 1950’s, Prescriptive Cognitive Models, The Theory of
Trying (Bagozzi and Warsaw, 1990), Model of Goal Directed Behaviour
(Perugini and Bagozzi, 2001) and others.

Variables for the study:

· Staff Service
· Product Quality
· Billing
· Pricing
· Range and variety
· Competitors

51 | P a g e
Secondary data was collected for last two months (May-June) of the
feedback report.
An analysis of secondary data was done where STAFF SERVICE, BILLING
were the main concerns.

Have subdivided those factors and made questionnaire according to it:

Product knowledge
Delivery clarity
Clear communication
Product design
Product classiness i.e. Size
As Compared to quality, competitors, discounts given.

52 | P a g e
Data Analysis & Interpretation

 Type of steel used






Alloy steel Special steel Stainless steel Profiles Others

Interpretation: Out of the 16 Respondents, the overall use of steel

type mostly used is alloy steel followed by Special and Stainless steel.

53 | P a g e
 Source of Purchasing steel

Interpretation: As we can see here there is no specific source the client use to
purchase as they prefer to purchase from various source in order to get their job
done in given time. As here only 4 clients out of 16 prefer that they purchase
mostly from RMG Alloy Steel and the mostly i.e. 6 clients prefer to buy from
all sources as per convenience.

54 | P a g e
 Products used from steel






Bar Wire rod Hexagon Flats Profiles Pipes Others


Interpretation: As it can be concluded from the above line chart

that the mostly use product of steel is in the from of bar followed by

55 | P a g e
 Source of Knowledge about the company


Frequency Percent Valid Percent Percent

Valid Word of mouth 7 43.8 43.8 43.8

website 1 6.3 6.3 50.0

Flyer 1 6.3 6.3 56.3

Other 7 43.8 43.8 100.0

Total 16 100.0 100.0

Interpretation: From the above data analysed it can be concluded that

the clients came to know about the company through word of mouth or
through other source media mostly. None of the Client are getting any
information through advertisement or social media.

56 | P a g e
 Number of suppliers for purchasing Materials


Frequency Percent Valid Percent Percent

Valid one supplier 2 12.5 12.5 12.5

two supplier 6 37.5 37.5 50.0

three-five supplier 3 18.8 18.8 68.8

more than 5 supplier 5 31.3 31.3 100.0

Total 16 100.0 100.0

Interpretation: As the above chart is showing most of the clients

prefer to buy from more than one supplier as in case of any issue in the
transition the other can reach them and the job can be completed.

57 | P a g e
 Factors considered to select a steel

Factors Considered While Purchasing




11 11

Factors Considered While Purchasing

Interpretation: Here from the above chart it can be concluded that

no any single factor is considered only but all the factors are considered out
of which most preferred factors of all are Price/Cost (13 out of 16) for the
purchase of steel followed by approvals (11 out of 16) and then

58 | P a g e
 Factors for building good brand image

Brand image

Frequency Percent Valid Percent Percent

Valid Quality 8 50.0 50.0 50.0

Communication/Comitment 2 12.5 12.5 62.5

Competitive pricing 6 37.5 37.5 100.0

Total 16 100.0 100.0

Interpretation: As concluded from the above chart most of the

customers consider quality (8 out of 16) as the major factor in building the
brand image followed by the competitive pricing (6 out of 16).

59 | P a g e
 Comparison with the competitor for
various factors

Chart Title

9 9
7 7
5 55 5
4 4 4 4 4 4
33 3 3 3 3
22 2 2 2 2 2 2 2
1 1 1 1 1 1 1 1

Ordering & Packaging Price Delivery Promotion Product Product Sales Team Satisfaction
Tracking Service Range Quality Support

Highly Dissatisfied Dissatisfied Neutral Satisfied Highly Satisfied

Interpretation: As from the above chart we can conclude the most of

the customers (9 out of 16) are overall satisfied with the RMG Alloy Steel
services over the competitors.

60 | P a g e
 Overall rating of the Company

2 2

Very Poor Poor Fair Good Very Good


Interpretation: As it can be concluded from the above chart that the

customers rating is average for the company.

61 | P a g e
 Satisfaction level over competitor

comaprison with competitor for

N Valid 16

Missing 0
Mean 3.8125
Std. Deviation .98107

comaprison with competitor for satisfaction

Frequency Percent Valid Percent Percent

Valid very dissatisfied 1 6.3 6.3 6.3

neutral 3 18.8 18.8 25.0

satisfied 9 56.3 56.3 81.3

very satisfied 3 18.8 18.8 100.0

Total 16 100.0 100.0

2.Customers are satisfied with RMG Alloy Steel over competitor brand
Null Hypothesis
Customers are not satisfied with RMG Alloy Steel compared to its Competitor

62 | P a g e
It can be seen here that the acceptance level is less than 0.5 so null hypothesis

63 | P a g e
 Customer preference source for Purchase

1.Customer prefer RMG Alloy Steel over it’s Competitors
Null Hypothesis
Customer do not prefer Rmg over it’s competitors

64 | P a g e
 Important Factors for Brand Image

Quality and pricing plays an important role in building brand image

Null Hypothesis
Quality and pricing does not plays an important role in building brand image

65 | P a g e
Chapter IV

 Customers prefer to buy the quality products so as to get the job done
perfectly without error
 Customers rely mostly on more than one supplier so as to get the products
on time in case other failed to do so.
 Customers many time looses their order due to undelivery of the products
on time.
 Customers have to face problems with the stocking issue if the stock
reaches them beyond time limit.
 Customer many time have heavy losses in case correctly specified
products does not been provided.
 There is a series of channels to cross in terms of placing order.
 Some times even after proper verification customer does not get desired
 Customers only prefer to buy from the approved distributors only.
 As if the distributor is not approved by the end customer then the final
product may gets rejected due to various factors.
 When asked about the product design most of the customers felt
that product Quality of RMG Alloy Steel is very good.
 Most of the customers feels like the pricing of products is higher as
compared to that of other Competitors.

66 | P a g e
 A proper online tracking system should be introduced so as the customers
can get to know about their product order exactly.
 Company must also look to use the social media platform for the
advertisments for its products as customers are highly unaware about any
social media platform for this company.
 Company should look to enhance its delivery system so as to make the
end customer happy and satisfied as in case of late delivery the end
customer have to bear some times heavy looses also.
 Company also need to improve its sales team support for the customer as
customer had to face many difficulties in case of not having proper sales
team support.
 Many customers faces the issue of high pricing of products as compared
to competitor’s pricing so company also needs to look into it.
 Inside the plant a proper communication channel need to be implemented
in between workers and staffs so as the job runs smoothly.
 As more the brand image of the company more customers will come to
the company so company also needs to work on that and improve that.
 Company needs to improve its return policy also as in some cases the
customers had to face many issues due to that.
 Company also needs to have existing stock for the existing customers so
as to deliver them whenever required.

67 | P a g e


68 | P a g e
1. Company Name:

2. Location:

3. Name:

4. Designation:

5. Production capacity per year:

6. Which type of steel you use most

Alloy steel
Stainless steel
Special steel

7. What are the products you use and grades

Wire Rod

69 | P a g e
8. Which steel source you prefer and why
RMG Alloy Steel Limited
Usha Martin

9. How do you came to know about our company

Social Media
Word of Mouth

10. What are the Product categories in steel you use most

11. Do you buy any of the above categories from us

70 | P a g e
Yes No

12. For the above if No please specify the reason

13. You prefer to purchase from

One Supplier

Two Supplier

Three- Five Supplier

More Than Five Supplier

14. Which factors You consider to select the steel source



Availability/Stock level



15. Which of the following according to you help in building good brand image


Communication & commitment

71 | P a g e
Competitive pricing

Value added Service

After sales service


72 | P a g e
16. Please rate us on the following with respect to our competitor
1 = very dissatisfied 2 = dissatisfied 3 = neutral 4 = satisfied 5 = very
1 2 3 4
Order and Tracking
Delivery service
Product Range

Product Quality

Sales Team Support


17. What are the end products you manufacture

18. On the scale of 1 to 5 how would you rate us (1- Very poor, 2- Poor, 3- Fair,
4-Good, 5-V.Good)
1 2 3 4 5
19.On the scale of 1 to 5 how likely are you to recommend our company's
products to others(1- Very poor, 2- Poor, 3- Fair, 4-Good, 5-V.Good)
1 2 3 4 5

20. Do you have any comments to improve our products

73 | P a g e
21. Is there any suggestions would you like to give?

74 | P a g e
75 | P a g e