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1 1

1.1 FUNCTION NOTATIONS


Notes:
(i) A function is usually represented using letters in its lower case : f , g , h …..
(ii) Given the function f : x o 2 x  1 , we usually write it in the form f(x) = 2x + 1 before answering
any question.

1.2 FINDING THE VALUE OF FUNCTIONS [Mastery Exercise]


f (a) represent (a) the value of f(x) when x = a .
(b) the image of f when the object is a

EXAMPLE QUESTION
1. Given the function f : x o 2 x 1 , 1. Given the function f : x o 2 x  3 ,
find (i) f (3) (ii) f (-4) find (i) f (2) (ii) f (-1)
Answer : f(x) = 2 x + 1 Answer : f(x) = 2 x + 3
(i) f ( 3 ) = 2 (3 ) + 1 (i) f(3) = 2( ) + 3
= 6+1 =
= 7 =
(ii) f (-2 ) = 2 (-2) + 1 (ii) f(-1)
i) f(-1)) = 2 ( ) + 3
(-1
= -4+1 =
= -3 =
2. Given the function g : x o x 2  3 , find 2. Gi
Given the function g : x o x 2  5 , find
G ven tth
(i) g(0) (ii) g(4) ( g(0)
(i) (ii) g(2)

Answer : g (x) = x2 - 3 Answer :


A g (x) = x2 - 5
(i) g ( 0 ) = 02 - 3 (i) g ( 0 ) =
= 0 - 3 =
= -3 =

(ii) g (4) = 42 - 3 (ii) g (2) =


= 16 – 3 =
= 113 =
6 4 9 3
3. Given
en tthe nctio h : x o
he functi
fu
function
ncti , xz , 3. Given the function h : x o , xz ,
3x  4 3 2x  3 2
find
ind h (2).
(2)) find h(3).
6
Jawa
wapa
pan :
Jawapan h ( x) Jawapan: h ( x)
3x  4
6 h(3) =
h(2) =
3(2)  4
6
=
2
= 3

Functions 2

1.2 FINDING THE VALUE OF FUNCTIONS [Reinforcement Exercises] 1.3 PROBLEM OF FUNCTIONS INVOLVING SIMPLE EQUATIONS. [1]
QUESTION ANSWER Note : Questions on functions usually involve solving linear / quadratic equations.
1. Given the function f : x o 3 x  1 , find
1. f ( x ) = 3x + 1 EXAMPLE QUESTION
1. Given that f : x o 2 x 1 , find the value of x 1. Given that f : x o 4 x  3 , find the value of x if
(a) f (0) (a) f ( 0 ) = 3 ( 0 ) + 1
= if f(x) = 5. f(x) = 17.
(b) f (3) Answer : f (x) = 2 x – 1 Answer : f (x) = 4 x – 3
2x–1 = 5 4 x – 3 = 17
(c) f(-2)
2x = 6 4x =
(d) f(4)
? x = 3 ? x =
(e) f(-3) 2. Given that f : x o 5 x  3 , find the value of x 2. Given that f : x o 3 x  7 , find
d the value
valu of x if
if f(x) = -7. f(x) = 4.
2 . Given the function g : x o x 2  3x , find Answer : f (x) = 5 x + 3 Answer :
2. g(x) = x2 - 3x
5 x + 3 = -7

(a) g (0) (a) g (0) = 5x = - 10


? x = -2
(b) g (2)

(c) g (4) 3. Given that g : x o x  2 , find the value of y 3.. Given


Gi
G ven t g : x o 3 x  2 , find the value of y if
n that
th

(d) g (-3) if g(y) = 2y - 3 g


g(y) = 2y + 4.
Answer : g(x) = x + 2 Answer :
(e) g (-1)
g(y) = y + 2
y+2 = 2y–3
6 3+2 = 2y-y
3. Given the function h : x o , fi
find
3 4x y = 5

4. Given that f : x o 7 x  3 , g : x o 4 x  15 , 4. Given that f : x o 2 x 10 , g : x o 4 x  2 ,


(a) h (0) value
alu off p if
al
find the value if f(p)
f = g(p). find the value of x if f(x) = g(x).

(b)) h (1)
1) nsw
werr :
Answer ff(x
( = 7x – 3, g(x) = 4x + 15
(x
f(x)
f(p) = 7p – 3, g(p) = 4p + 15
c) h ( 1 )
(c) f(p) = g(p)
2
7p – 3 = 4p + 15
(d) h(-3) 3p = 18
p = 6
(e) h ( 1 )
4

Functions 3 1 Functions 4
2 2
PROBLEMS OF FUNCTIONS INVOLVING SIMPLE EQUATIONS. [2]
PROBLEM OF FUNCTIONS INVOLVING SIMPLE EQUATIONS [Reinforcement Exercises]
EXAMPLE QUESTION
5. Given that f : x o 2 x 10 , g : x o x  7 , 5. Given f : x o 3 x  9 , g : x o x  7 , find the QUESTION ANSWER
find the value of x if f(x) =  2 g(x) value of x if f(x) =  3 g(x). 1. Given the functions f : x o 2 x  5 and 1. f(x) = 2x – 5 , g(x) = x + 2
g : x o x  2 , find (a) f(x) = 7
A: f(x) = 2x - 10 , g(x) = x – 7
(a) the value of x if f(x) = 7 2x – 5 = 7
2x – 10 = - 2 (x – 7) 2x =
2x - 10 = - 2x + 14 (b) the value of y if g(y) = 2y - 3 x =
4x = 24 (c) the value of p if f(p) = g(p)

x = 6 (d) the value of x if f(x) = – g(x)

6. Given that f : x o 3 x  4 , find the values 6. Given that f : x o 2 x  8 , fin


find
nd the
th values
vaalu of x if
valu
of x if f (x) = x2. f (x) = x2.
2. Given the functions f : x o 3 x  4 and 2. f (x) = , g(x)
x) =
A: f(x) = 3x + 4
2
g : x o 2 x , find (a) f (p) = -5
x = 3x + 4
(a) the value of p if f(p) = -5 3p + 4 = -5
x2 - 3x – 4 = 0
(b) the value of k if g(k) = 3k - 4
(x + 1) (x – 4) = 0
(c) the value of x if 2 f(x) = g(x)
x = -1 or x = 4
(d) the values of y jika f(y) = y2

7. Given that g : x o 3 x 2  6 , find the values of 7. Given


Gi ven that g : x o 2 x 2  5 , find the values of y if
G ven
y if g (y) = 6 . g (y) = 45 .
A: g(x) = 3x2 – 6
g(y) = 3y2 - 6 3. Given the function f : x o 3 x 2  12
2, 3. f (x) =
(a) f 2(-2) = f f(-2) f(-2) = 3(-2)2 – 12
3y2 - 6 = 6 (a) evaluate f 2 (-2). =
2 (b) solve the equationn f(x)
(x) = 0.
0. = f( )
3y – 12 = 0
=
(÷3) : y2 – 4 = 0 (c) find the valuess off p if
if f(p) = 3p + 6.
(y + 2) (y
y – 2) = 0
y = -2
- oor y = 2

8. Given
ven that g : x o 3 x 2  6 , find the values of 8. Given that g : x o 2 x 2  3 , find the values of p if
en that
en
4. Given
Giive
ven tthe
he fu
ffunctions
n f : x o x 2 and 4. f (x) = , g(x) =
g(p) = - 5p .
p if g (p)) = 7p.
2
g : x o 12  4 x , find
A: g(x) = 3x – 6
(a) the image of 3 that is mapped by f .
g(p) = 3p2 - 6
2 (b) the values of x if f(x) = x,
3p - 6 = 7p
(c) the values of y if f(y) = g(y).
3p2 – 7p - 6 = 0
(3p+2) (p – 3) = 0
2
p=  atau p=3 .
3

Functions 5 Functions 6

1.4 FINDING THE VALUE OF COMPOSITE FUNCTIONS [Mastery Exercises] FINDING THE VALUE OF COMPOSITE FUNCTIONS [Reinforcement Exercises]
Notes : To find the value of fg(a) given the functions f and g, we can first find fg(x) and then 1. Given that f : x o 2 x  3 and g : x o 4 x , 2. Given that f : x o 2 x  5 and g : x o 5 x , find
substitute x = a.
We can also follow the EXAMPLES below. find fg(2) . gf(7) .

EXAMPLE 1 : EXAMPLE 2 :
Given that f : x o 3 x  4 and g : x o 2 x , Given that f : x o 3  2 x and g : x o x 2 , find
find fg(3). gf(4).
3. Given that f : x o x  4 and g : x o 2 x  1 , 4. Given that f : x o 3 x  4 and g : x o 5  2 x ,
Answer : f(x) = 3x - 4 , g(x) = 2x
2 find find
g(3) = 2(3) Answer : f(x) = 3 – 2x , g(x) = x .
(a) fg(1) (b) gf(1) (a) fg(0) (b) gf(0)
(0)
0)
= 6 f(4) = 3 – 2(4)
fg(3) = f [ g(3) ] = 3–8
= f ( 6) = -5
= 3 (6) - 4 (-5)
gf(4) = g (-5)
= 14 5)2
= (-5
(-5)
= 225

EXERCISES 5 Given the functions f : x o 3 x 2 1 and 6 Given


iv at f : x o 3 x and g : x o 2  x 2 , find
that
veen th
1. Given that f : x o 2 x  1 and g : x o 3 x , 2.. Given
Given
en that
t f : x o 2 x  9 and g : x o 1  3 x , g : x o 2  x , find ( ffg(-2)
(a) g(- )
g(-2 (b) gf(-2)
find f g(1) . fin gf(3).
find (a) fg(-1) (b) gf(-1)

ns f : x o x  3 and
3. Given the functions
nctionns 4. Given the functions f : x o 3 x  7 and nss f : x o x  2 and
7. Given the functions
n ons
nc
nction 8. Given the functions f : x o 2  x and
g : x o 4 x  1 , fin
find
fi
f d g : x o 4  2 x , find
g : x o 2  3 x  x 2 , find g : x o 1  4 x  3x 2 , find
(a) f g(1)
g(1 (b) gf(1) (a) f g(0) (b) gf(0)
(a)) ffg(1)
g(1)
1) (b) gf(1) (a) fg(-1) (b) gf(-1)

Functions 7 2 Functions 8
3 3
1.5 FINDING THE VALUE OF COMPOSITE FUNCTIONS f 2 , g 2
1.6 BASIC EXERCISES BEFORE FINDING THE COMPOSITE FUNCTIONS [ 1 ]
Notes : f 2(a) = ff (a) = f [ f (a) ]
EXAMPLE 1 : EXAMPLE 2 :
EXAMPLE 1 : EXAMPLE 2 :
Given f : x o 3x  1 , Given g : x o 5  4x , .
Given that f : x o 3 x  2 , find f 2(2). Given that g : x o 3  4 x , evaluate gg(1).
f(x) = 3x + 1 g(x) = 5 – 4x
Answer : f(x) = 3x - 2 Answer : g(x) = 3 – 4x
thus (a) f(2) = 3(2) + 1 thus (a) g(2) = 5 – 4(2) = 5 – 8 = -3
f(2) = 3(2) – 2 = 4 g(1) = 3 – 4(1) = -1
2 = 7 (b) g(a) = 5 – 4a
f (2) = f [ f(2) ] gg(1) = g [g(1)]
(b) f(a) = 3a+1 (c) g(p) = 5 – 4p
= f ( 4) = g ( -1)
(c) f(p) = 3 p + 1 (d) g(3k) = 5 – 4(3k) = 5 – 12
12 k
= 3 (4) – 2 = 3 – 4 (-1)
(d) f(2k) = 3 (2k) + 1 = 6k + 1 (e) g(x2) = 5 – 4x2
= 10 = 3+4
(e) f(2x) = 3 (2x) + 1 = 6x + 1 (f) g (3+2x) = 5 – 4 (3+2x)
2x)
= 7
(f) f(x2) = 3 x2 + 1 12 – 8x
= 5 – 12 8
= - 7 – 88x
EXERCISES

1. Given that f : x o 2 x  3 , find f 2(2) . 2. Given hat g : x o x  5 , evaluate gg(3) .


en that
tha EXERCISES
1. Given f : x o 2x  3 , 2 Given
iv
ven
e g : x o 2  4x .
f(x) = 2x + 3 g(x) =

thus
hus (a) g (2) =
3. Given that g : x o 2 x  1 , evaluate g 2(3).
(3).
(3) 4. Given that f : x o 3 x  4 , find ff(0) .
4. thus (a) f(2) = 2(2) + 3 =

(b) f(a) = (b) g(a) =

(c) f(p) = (c) g(s) =


5. Given that g : x o 2  5 x , find g 2(1). 6. Given that f : x o 3 x 2  1 , find ff(1) .

f(2k)
(2k
2kk) =
(d) f(2k) (d) g(3x) =

(x2)
ff(x
(e) f( = (e) g(x2) =

7. Giv
Gi ven that g : x o 4 x , evaluate gg(-2).
Given 8. Diberi f : x o 2 x 2  4 x  3 . Nilaikan f 2(0) .
(f) f(-x2 ) = (f) g (3+2x) =

(g) f( - 3x) = (g) g(2 – 4x) =

Functions 9 Functions 10

BASIC EXERCISES BEFORE FINDING THE COMPOSITE FUNCTIONS [ 2 ] 1.7 FINDING COMPOSITE FUNCTIONS

EXAMPLE 1 : EXAMPLE 2 :
1. Given f : x o 4  2x , 2 Given g : x o  2x  1 .
Given that f : x o 3 x  4 and g : x o 2 x , Given that f : x o 3  2 x and g : x o x 2 , find the
f(x) = 4 – 2x g(x) =
find fg(x). composite function gf.
Answer : f(x) = 3x - 4 , g(x) = 2x
thus (a) f(3) = 4 – 2 (3) = thus (a) g(-1) =
fg(x) = f [ g(x) ] Answer: f(x) = 3 – 2x , g(x) = x2.
(b) f(-x) = (b) g(2x) = = f ( 2x) gf(x) = g[f(x)]
= 3 (2x) - 4 = g (3 – 2x)
(c) f(2+x) = (c) g(x-2) = = 6x – 4 = (3- 2x)2
OR OR
(d) f(3 -x) = (d) g(-3x) = fg(x) = f [ g(x) ] gf(x) = g[f(x)]
f(x)]]
= 3 [g(x)] - 4 = [f( x)]2
[[f(x)]
(x)]
2 2
(e) f(x ) = (e) g(x ) = = 3 (2x) – 4 3- 2x)2
= (3
(3-
= 6x-4 thus gf : x o ((3
3  2 x) 2
(f) f(-x2 +2) = (f)) (1-2x)
1-2xx) =
g (1-2

EXERCISES
1. Given that f : x o 2 x  3 and g : x o 4 x , ive that f : x o 2 x  5 and g : x o 5 x , find
2.. Gi
Given
Give
3. Given f : x o 1 x , 4 Given
G
Giv g : x o 2( x  2) , .
find fg(x) . the composite function gf .
f(x) = g(x) =

thus (a) f(10) = thus (a) g(-1) =

(b) f(3x) = (b) g(2x) =

(c) f(2
(22 - x)
x) = (c) g(x-1) =
3. Given the
he fu
h ons f : x o x  4 and
functions
unc
ncti
ction
ct 4. Given that f : x o 3 x  4 and g : x o 5  2 x ,
g : x o 2 x  1 , find find
(d) f(4+x)
f(4+ =
f(4+ (d) g(-x) =
(a) ffg(x)
g(x) (b) gf(x) (b) f g (b) gf

2
(e) f(2x- 3) = (e) g(x ) =

(f) f(x2) = (f) g (1+2x) =

Functions 11 3 Functions 12
4 4

REINFORCEMENT EXERCISES FOR FINDING COMPOSITE FUNCTIONS REINFORCEMENT EXERCISES FOR FINDING COMPOSITE FUNCTIONS [ f2 and g2 ]

1. Given that f : x o 3x  2 , find f 2(x). 2. Given that f : x o 3 x , find the function f 2.


1. Given the functions f : x o 3 x  2 and 2. Given that f : x o 3 x and g : x o 2  x , find2

g : x o 2  2 x , find the composite functions f(x) = 3x + 2

(a) fg (b) gf f2(x) = f [f(x)]


(a) fg(x) (b) gf(x)
= f (3x + 2) or 3f(x) + 2
= 3(3x+2) + 2
=

3. Given that g : x o 1  3 x , find gg(x) 4. Given that g : x o  4 x  3 , fin


findd the
the function
fu
g 2.

3. Given the functions f : x o x  4 and 4. Given that f : x o 3  x an


and g : x o  4 x  3 ,
g : x o 1  3 x , find find the composite
ompo te functions
omposite
mposite
ite fun
(a) fg(x) (b) gf(x) (a) f g (b) gf

5. Given that f : x o x  2 , find ff(x) . 6.. Given


Given that
Gi t f : x o 2  5 x , find the function f 2.

7. Given that f : x o 3  4 x , find f 2((x).


find 8. Given that f : x o 5 x , find the function f 2.

ns f : x o x  2 and
5. Given the functions
nctions
ons 6. Given that f : x o 2  5 x and g : x o 1  x 2 ,
g : x o 5  2 x , fi
find find the composite function gubahan
(a) ffg(x)
g(x) (b) gf(x) (a) fg (b) gf

1 2
9. Gi
9 Given
G ve tth g : x o
ven that x , find g 2(x). 10. Given that h : x o , find the function f 2.
2 x2

Functions 13 Functions 14

1.8 INVERSE FUNCTIONS DRILLING PRACTICES ON CHANGING SUBJECT OF A FORMULA [ 2 ]

Notes : 1. Students must be skillful in changing the subject of a formula ! 2x  5 3x  2


1. If y = , then x = 2. If y = , then x =
4 5
2. If f (x) = y, then x = f –1(y) OR if f –1(x) = y, then x = f(y)
2x  5
= y
4
EXAMPLE 1. Given that f(x) = 2x – 3 , find f –1(x).
2x – 5 = 4y
METHOD 1 METHOD 2
2x =
Given f(x) = 2x – 3 , Given f(x) = 2x – 3
–1 x =
then f ( 2x – 3 ) = x. then f(y) = 2y – 3
3. If y = 5 + 6x , then x = 1
f –1 ( y ) = x when y = 2x – 3 f –1 ( 2y – 3 ) = y 4. If y = 4 – x , then x =
2
y + 3 = 2x f –1 ( x ) = y whenn x = 22y
y–3
y3 x + 3 = 2y
x =
2 x3
y =
y3 2
f –1(y) =
2 x3 6. If y = 6xx – 9 , then
th x =
? f –1 (x)
x) = 5. If y = 6 +
3
x , then x =
x3 2
? f –1(x) = 2
2

Students are advised to master only one of the


thee met
me
methods
tho !

DRILLING PRACTICES ON CHANGING


GING
NG
GSSUBJE
SUBJECT
UBJE
UB
BJE OF A FORMULA [ 1 ]

1. If y = 3x – 2 , then x = 2. If y = 4x – 2 , then x =
1 2
7. If y = , then x = 8. If y = , then x =
3x – 2 = y 4x – 2 = y 3x  2 4 x
3x = y+2 4x =
y2 x =
x =
3

3. If y = 3 – 6x , tthen
hen x =
he 4. If y = 4 – 5x , then x =

x 1 2x
9.. If y = , then x = 10. If y = , then x =
4x  2 3 x

5. If y = 3 + 5x , then x =
5. 6. If y = 10x – 4 , then x =

Functions 15 4 Functions 16
5 5
MASTERY EXERCISES ON FINDING THE INVERSE OF A FUNCTION
DETERMINING THE INVERSE FUNCTION FROM A FUNCTION OF THE TYPE
ONE-TO-ONE CORRESPONDENCE 1. Given that f : x o 10 – 8x , find f –1 . 1
2. Given that g : x o 3 – x , find g–1 .
EXAMPLE 1 : 2x  1 2
EXAMPLE 2 : Given that f : x o , x z 2,
Given that f(x) = 4x – 6 , find f –1(x). 2 x
find f –1(x).
Answer : 2x  1
Given f(x) =
Given f(x) = 4x – 6 2 x
so f (y) = 4y – 6 2y 1 3. Given that f : x o 5 + 2x , find f –1 . 4. Given that g : x o 3 – x , find g–11 .
so f(y) =
2 y
then f –1( 4y – 6 ) = y.
2y 1
f –1( x ) = y when x = 4y – 6 then f –1( ) = y
2 y
x + 6 = 4y
2y 1
x6 f –1( x ) = y when x =
y= 2 y
4
x(2
x(
(2 - y) = 2y + 1
(2 2x  5 3x  2
x6 5. Given that f(x) = , find f –1 (x). 6. Given that g(x)
g(x) = , find g–1 (x).
? f –1(x) = 4 6
4 2x – xy = 2y + 1
2x – 1 = 2y + xy
2x – 1 = y(2 + x)
2x  1
y =
2 x
2x 1
? f –1( x ) = , x z -2. 7. Given that f : x o 6x - 15 , find f –1 . 3
x2 88. Given that g : x o 3 – x , find g –1 .
4

EXERCISES
1. Given that f : x o 4 + 8x , find
find f –11. 2. Given that g : x o 10 – 2x , find g–1.

x2 2x
9. Given thatt f(x)
f(x) = , find f –1(x). 10. Given that g(x) = , find g–1 (x).
4x  2 4 x

3. Given
Gi
G ve th f : x o 4 – 3x , find f –1.
ven that 4. Given that g : x o 15 + 6x , find g –1 .

Functions 17 Functions 18

FINDING THE VALUE OF f–1 (a) WHEN GIVEN f(x)


Finding the Other Related Component Function when given a Composite Function
Example : Given that f : x o 2x + 1, find the value of f –1(7). and One of its Component Function
METHOD 1 METHOD 2 TYPE 1 ( Easier Type ) TYPE 2 ( More Challenging Type )
[ Finding f –1 first ] [ Without finding f –1(x) ] Given the functions f and fg, find the function g. Given the functions f and gf , find the function g .
OR OR
f(x) = 2x + 1 f(x) = 2x + 1
Given the functions g and gf, find the function f. Given the functions g and fg , find the function f .
f(y) = 2y + 1 Let f –1(7) = k
f –1(2y + 1) = y EXAMPLE :
f(k) = 7
f –1(x) = y when x = 2y + 1 1. Given the functions f : x o 2 x  3 and 2. Given the functions f : x o 2 x  5 and
x – 1 = 2y 2k + 1 = 7
fg : x o 6 x  1 , find the function g . g f : x o 10 x  25 , find the function
ion
ng.
x 1 2k = 6
y = Answer : f(x) = 2x + 3 Answer : f(x) = 2x – 5
2 k = 3
x 1 fg(x) = 6x – 1 gf(x) = 10xx – 255
f –1(x) = ? –1
f (7) = 3
2
Find g(x) from fg(x) = 6x – 1 Find g(x) from gf(x) = 10
0x – 225
10x
7 1
f –1(7) = f [g(x)] = 6x – 1 x) ] = 10x
g [ f(x) x – 25
2
2
= 3 2 g(x) + 3 = 6x – 1 g ( 2x
x – 5)) = 10
10x – 25
( If you are not asked to find f –1( x ) but only want to have the alue of f –1( a ), then use Method 2 )
hee vvalue 2 g(x) = 6x – 4 g ( 2y – 5)
5 = 10y – 25

EXERCISES ? g(x) = 3x - 2 g = 10y – 25


g(
g(x
g(x) when x = 2y – 5
x + 5 = 2y
1. Given that f : x o x + 2, find the value of 2.. Gi ha g : x o 7 – x , find the value of
ven tthat
Given
f –1(3). x5
g––11(2
(2). y=
2
x5
So : g(x) = 10 ( ) – 25
2
3. Given that f : x o 7 – 3x , find thee valu
vvaluee oof
val 4. Given that g : x o 5 + 2x , find the value of
= 5x + 25 – 25
f –1(-5). g–1 (5).
? g(x) = 5x

EXERCISES
nss f : x o 2 x  2 and
n
1. Given the functions 2. Given the functions f : x o 2 x  2 and
5. Given that f : x o 3x -2
-2,, ffin
fi
find the value of 6. Given that g : x o 7 – x , find the value of
f –1 (10). fg : x o 4  6 x , fin
find
fi nd the
t function g . g f : x o  5  6 x , find the function g .
g–1(2).
Answer : Answer :

7. Given that f : x o 4 + 6x , find the value of


Given that
Gi 1
8. Given that g : x o – x , find the value of
f ––11(-2)
(-2). 2
–1
g (4).

4 3
9. Given that f : x o , find the value of 10. Diberi g : x o , cari nilai g-1(-1).
x 3 2 x
f –1 ( -1 ).

Functions 19 5 Functions 20
6 6
REINFORCEMENT EXERCISES on finding Component Function from Composite Function
REINFORCEMENT EXERCISES on finding Component Function from Composite Function ( TYPE 2 )
( TYPE 1 )
1. Given the functions f : x o 2x - 3 and 2. Given the functions g: x o x + 3 and
1. Given the functions f : x o 2x – 3 and 2. Given the functions g: x o x + 3 and
gf: xo 2x , find the function g,. fg : x o 2x + 3 , find the function f.
fg : xo 2x + 3, find the function g . gf : x o 2x , find the function f .
Answer : Answer :
Answer : Answer :

3. Given the functions f : x o 3x + 4 and 4. Given the functions g : x o 2xx - 1 and


fg : xo 6x + 1, find the function g . onn f .
gf : xo 6x + 7 , find the function 3. Given the functions f : x o 3x + 4 and 4. Given the functions g : x o 2xx - 1 and
an
Answer : Answer : gf : x o 6x + 7, find the function g,. fg : x o 6x + 1 , find
nd the
he function
f tio f.
fun
func
Answer : Answer :

5. Given the functions f : x o 2 – x and 6. Given


Give
ven tthe
he fu
fun
functions
un p : x o 2x and
fg : xo 2 – 2x , find the function g,. xo 4 – 2x , find the function q.
pq : xo
Answer : An
Ans
Answer :
5. Given the functions f : x o 2 – x and 6. Given
G the functions g : x o 2x and
gf : xo 4 – 2x , find the function g,.. fg : xo 2 – 2x , find the function f.
Answer : Answer :

7. Given the functions g : x o 2 + 4x and 8. Given the functions f : x o 2x + 7 and


gf : x o 6 + 4x2, find
fi d the
fin t function
fun f. fg : x o 7 – 4x , find the function g .
Answer : Answer :

7. Given
n tthe
he func on f : x o 3x and
he functi
functions
ncti 8. Given the functions f : x o 2 + 4x and
gff : x o 1 - 3x
3 , find the function g,. gf : xo 5 + 16x + 16x2, find the function g,.
Answer
Answ
nswer
nswer : Answer :

G v the functions h : x o 1 – x and


9. Give
Gi
Given 10. Given the functions h : x o 3x + 1 and
hg : x o 1 – 3x2, find the function g. hf : xo 7 – 9x2 , find the function f .
Answer : Answer :

Functions 21 Functions 22

1 3 8. Given that f : x o 2 x  1 , g : x o 4 x and


7. Given that f : x o 4 x  m and f : x o nx  ,
4 fg : x o ax  b , find the values of a and b .
find the values of m and n.

1 [ a = 8 ; b = –1 ]
[ m = –3 ; n = 4
]
9. Given that f : x o x  3 , g : x o a  bx 2 and 10. Given that g : x o m  3 x and g 1 : x o 2kx 
4
,
gf : x o 6 x 2  36 x  56 , find the values of a and b . 3
value
aluess of m and
find the values a k.

[a=2;b=6] [ k = 16 ; m = 4 ]
11. Given that g(x)) = mx and g2 (x) = 16x – 25 ,
mx + n an 1 2x  3
find the values
uees of m and
and n.
n 12. Given the inverse function f ( x) , find
2
(a) the value of f(4),
–1
(b) the value of k if f (2k) = –k – 3 .

25
[ m = 4 , n = –5 ; m = –4 , n = 3
] [ (a) 11
; (b) k =  1
]
2 2

6 Functions 24
7 7

2.2 The ROOTs of a quadratic Equation (Q.E.)


Note : “ROOT” refers to a specific value which satisfies the Q.E.

Example : Given Q.E. x2 + 2x – 3 = 0

By substitution, it is found that :


x = 1 , 12 + 2(1) – 3 = 0
Hence 1 is a root of the quadratic equation x2 + 2x – 3 = 0.
But if x = 2, 22 + 2(2) – 3 
We say that 2 is NOT a root of the given quadratic Equation.

EXAMPLE EXER
E C
EXERCISE
C1. Determine if -2 is a root of the equation rmi
mine
mi
L1. Determinene if 3 is a root of the equation
2 2
3x + 2x -7 = 0. 2x – x – 15
15 = 0.

x = -2, 3(-2)2 + 2(-2) – 7 = 12 – 4 – 7



Hence - 2 is NOT a root of the given equation.
n..

io
on
L2. L1. Determine if 3 is a root of the equation L3 Determine if ½ is a root of the
L3.
x2 – 2x + 3 = 0. equation 4x2 + 2x – 2 = 0.

hee quad
C2. If -2 is a root of the adrati
ad ratic equation
rati
quadratic L4. If 3 is a root of the equation
x2– kx – 10 = 00,, fin
fi
findd k. x2– 2kx + 12 = 0 , find k.

x = -2, (-2)2 k(-2)


)2 – k ( – 10
(-2)
(-2 1 =0
-4 + 2k2k – 10 = 0
2k
2 = 14
k = 7

5.. If -2 an
L5. and
n p are roots of the quadratic equation L6. If -1 are roots of the quadratic
2xx2 + 3x + k = 0, find the value of k and p. equation px2 – 4x + 3p – 8 = 0, find p.

2 Quadratic Equations 2 7
8 8
2
2.3.2 To Solve Quadratic Equations : ax + bx + c = 0
2.3.1 To Solve Quadratic Equations : ax2 + bx + c = 0 II. By ‘Completing the Square’
I. By Factorisation - To express ax2 + bx + c in the form a(x + p)2 + q
- This method can only be used if the quadratic expression can be factorised completely.
Simple Case : When a = 1
EXAMPLE EXERCISE
C1. Solve the quadratic equation x2 + 5x + 6 = 0. L1. Solve x2 – 4x – 5 = 0. EXAMPLE EXERCISE
Answer: x2 + 5x + 6 = 0 Jawapan: C1. Solve x2 + 4x – 5 = 0 by method of L1. Solve x2 + 4x + 3 = 0 by method
hod
od ooff
(x + 2) (x + 3) = 0 ‘completing the square’. ‘completing the square’.
x + 2 = 0 or x + 3 = 0
x = -2 or x = -3 x2 + 4x – 5 = 0
Ans : – 1 , 5 2 2
§4· §4·
C2. Solve the quadratic equation 2x (x – 1) = 6. L2. Solve x ( 1 + x) = 6.
6. x2  4 x  ¨ ¸  ¨ ¸  5 = 0
Ans: 2x (x – 1) = 6 ©2¹ ©2¹
2
2x2 – x – 6 = 0 (x + 2) - 4 – 5 = 0
(2x + 3) (x – 2) = 0 ( x + 2 )2 – 9 = 0
2x + 3 = 0 or x – 2 = 0 ( x + 2)2 = 9
3 x+2 = r 3
x=  or x= 2 x = -2 r 3
2 x = -5 or x = 1
Anss : – 3 , 2
(Ans
nss : – 1 , – 3 )
L3. Solve (x – 3)2 = 1. Solv 1 + 2x2 = 5x + 4.
L4. Solve
L4. C2. Solve x2 – 6x + 3 = 0 by method of L2. Solve x2 - 8x + 5 = 0 , give your
2. Solve
‘completing the square’. Give your answer ers correct to 4 significant figures.
answers
correct to 3 decimal places.

x2 – 6x + 3 = 0
2 2
Ans : 2, 4 Ans : 1, 3/2 §6· §6·
2 2 x2  6 x  ¨ ¸ ¨ ¸ 3 = 0
L3. Solve (2x – 1) = 2x – 1 . L4. Solve 5x – 45 = 0. © 2 ¹ © 2 ¹
(x – 3 )2 - 9 + 3 = 0
( x - 2 )2 – 6 = 0
2
( x + 2) = 6
x+2 = r 6
x -2 r
= -2 6
Ans : ½ , 1 Ans : – 3 , 3 x = - oorr x =
an
n (x
L5. Selesaikan ( – 3)(x
3)( + 3) = 16. L6. Selesaikan 3 + x – 4x2 = 0. Ans : 7.317, 0.6834

L3. Solvee x2 – 2x – 9 = 0 by completing the L4. Solve x2 + 10x + 5 = 0 , give your


square,
quaare, give
quare, ve your
give
iv y answers correct to 4 answers correct to 4 significant figures.
significant
sign
ignific
ignific
ign ant figures.
ificant
fican f

Ans : – 5 , 5
A
An Ans : – ¾ , 1
7. Solve x( x + 2) = 24.
L7. L8. Solve 2(x2 – 9) = 5x.

Ans : – 2.212 , 4.162 Ans : – 0.5279, – 9.472


Ans : – 6 , 4 Ans : – 2 , 9/2

2 Quadratic Equations 4 2 Quadratic Equations 5

2.3.3 To Solve Quadratic Equations : ax2 + bx + c = 0 2.3.4 To Solve Quadratic Equations : ax2 + bx + c = 0
II. Method of completing the square II. Method of completing the square
- by expressing ax2 + bx + c in the form a(x + p)2 + q - To express ax2 + bx + c in the form a(x + p)2 + q
[a = 1, but involving fractions when completing the square] If a Divide both sides by a first before you proceed with the process of
‘completing the square’.
EXAMPLE EXERCISE
C3. Solve x2 – 3x – 2 = 0 by method of L5. Solve x2 + 5x – 4 = 0. Give your ur EXAMPLE EXERCISE
‘completing the square’. Give your answer answer correct to 4 significant figures.
ress.
s.
C4. Solve 2x2 – 8x + 7 = 0 by completing the L10. Solve 2x2 - 12x + 5 = 0 correct
orrect
orrect to
correct to 4 significant figures.
square. two decimal places.
x2 – 3x – 3 = 0
2 2
2x2 – 8x + 7 = 0
§  3· §  3· 7
x2  3 x  ¨ ¸ ¨ ¸ 2 = 0 x2 – 4x + = 0 [ y 2 first ]
© 2 ¹ © 2 ¹ 2
2
§ 3·
2 2
9 §4· §4· 7
¨x  ¸   2= 0 x2  4 x  ¨ ¸ ¨ ¸  0
© 2¹ 4 © 2 ¹ © 2 ¹ 2
2
§ 3· 17 7
¨x  ¸ = ( x - 2 )2 – 4 + = 0
© 2¹ 4 2
( x – 2 )2 = ½
3 17
x r 1
2 4 x–2 = r
2
3 17
x = r 1
2 2 x = 2 r
x = - 0.5616 atau x = 3.562 (Ans : 0.7016, -5.702)
(A
(An 2
2
L6. Solve x + x – 8 = 0. Give your answer
swer
wer
we
wer L7. Solve x2 + 7x + 1 = 0 , Give your = 2.707 atau 1.293
(Ans : 5.55 , 0.45 )
correct to 4 significant figures. answer correct to 4 significant figures.
C5. Solve - x2 – 4x + 1 = 0 by completing
omplet
p in
pleting tthe
h
he L11. Solve -2x2 + 10x + 9 = 0 correct to
square. two decimal places.
- x2 – 4x + 1 = 0 [divide
[divi
divide
divi de by (-1)]
(
x2 + 4x – 1 = 0

(Ans : 2.372, -3.372)


3.372) (Ans : -0.1459, -6.8541)
L8. Solve x(( x + 5)
5 = 5.5 Give your answer L9. Solve x(2 + x) = 10 Give your answer
ect
ct tto
correct o 4 sign
ssi g
significant figures. correct to 4 significant figures.

(Ans
Ans
ns : 0.2361,
0.2361
.2361,
2361, -4.236 )
(Ans : -0.78 , 5.78 )
Solvee - x2 – 7x + 3 = 0 by completing the
L12. Solv L13. Solve x(3 – 2x) = -6 correct to two
square.
squ decimal places.

(Ans : 0.8541, -5.854) (Ans : 2.317 , -4.317 )


(Ans : -7.405, 0.4051)
(Ans : -1.14 , 2.64)

2 Quadratic Equations 6 8 2 Quadratic Equations 7


9 9

2.3.5 To Solve Quadratic Equations : ax2 + bx + c = 0


III. Using Formula b r b 2  4 ac
x
2a
EXAMPLE EXERCISE
C1. Solve 2x2 – 8x + 7 = 0 by using formul. Give L1. By using formula, solve 2x2 - 12x2x +
your answer correct to 4 significant figures. 5 = 0. Give your answer correct too 4
a = 2, b = -8 , c = 7 significant figures.
 (8) r (8) 2  4(2)(7)
x
2(2)
8 r 8
4

= 2.707 atau 1.293


(Ans : 5.550, 0.4505)
0.4505)
.4505

C2. Solve 2x(2 – 3x) = -5 by using formula, qive L2. By using


using
ng formula,
for solve
your answer correct to two decimal places. 3 – x2 = - 33(
3(4x
4x – 3) correct to two decimal
plac
lac
a es.
places.
2x(2 – 3x) = -5
4x – 6x2 = -5
6x2 – 4x – 5 = 0
a= ,b= , c=

x =

(Ans: 0.52 , 11.48 )


(Ans : 1.31 , -0.64)
L3. Solve x(2x –1) = 2 by y us
using
sing formula,
form
formu
o give L4. Solve the quadratic equation
your answer correct too two decimal
im places.
two decim
de 2x(x – 4) = (1-x) (x+2). Give your answer
correct to 4 significant figures.
(SPM 2003)

(Ans
Ans : 1.28,
1.28
.2
2 -0.78) (Ans : 2.591 , - 0.2573 )
L5.
L5.
L5 L6. Solve the quadratic equation
Solv x2 – 4x = 2 by using formula. Give
Solve
Solv
x(x – 4) = (3 – x )(x + 3). Give your
yo answer correct to 4 significant figures.
your
answer correct to two decimal places.

(Ans : 4.449 , -0.4495)


(Ans : 3.35 , -1.35 )

2 Quadratic Equations 8

2.5.2 Aplication (Relationship between “b2 – 4ac” and the type of roots)
EXAMPLE EXERCISE
C1 (SPM 2000) L1. The roots of the quadratic equation
The roots of the quadratic equation 2x2 + px + q = 0 are 2 and -3.
2x2 + px + q = 0 are - 6 and 3. Find
Find (a) p and q,
(a) p and q, (b) the range of values of k such that
(b) range of values of k such that 2x2 + px + 2x2 + px + q = k does not have real ro
roots.
oots.
ot
ots
q = k does not have real roots.
Answer :
(a) x = -6 , x = 3
(x + 6) (x – 3) = 0
x2 + 3x - 18 = 0
2x2 + 6x – 36 = 0
Comparing : p = 6 , q = - 36.

(b) 2x2 + 6x – 36 = k
2x2 + 6x – 36 – k = 0
a = 2, b = 6, c = -36 - k
b2 – 4ac < 0
62 – 4(2)(-36 – k) < 0
324 + 8 k < 0
k < – 40.5
L2 Find the range of k if the quadratic equation
ation
at
tion L3. The quadratic equation 9 + 4x2 = px has
L3.
2x2 – x = k has real and distinct roots.
ts.
ss.. equal
eq roots. Find the possible values of p.

( Ans : k > - 1/8 )


( Ans : p = -12 atau 12)
L4 Find the range of p if tthe
hee quadratic
quad
quad L5. Find the range of p if the quadratic
equation 2x2 + 4x
x + 5 + p = 0 has real roots. equation x2 + px = 2p does not have real roots.

(Ans : p ” - 3 )
( Ans : -8 < p < 0 )

L6 The
Th roots of the quadratic equation
T L7. Find the range of values of k if the
22x2 + 8 = (k – 3)x are real and different. quadratic equation x2 + 2kx + k + 6 = 0 has
Determine the range of values of k. equal roots.

( Ans : k < -5 , k > 11 )


( Ans : k -2 , 3 )

9 2 Quadratic Equations 11
10 10
Reinforcement Exercises (SPM Format Questions) EXERCISE EXERCISE
L6 p q L7. (SPM 2001) Given 2 and m are roots of
(SPM 2002) Given and are roots of the the equation (2x – 1)(x + 3) = k (x – 1), with
EXERCISE EXERCISE 2 2
L1 (a) The equation x2 – 6x + 7 = h(2x – 3) has L2. One of the roots of the equation equation kx(x – 1) = m – 4x. If p + q = 4 and k as a constant, find k and m.
2 [4]
roots which are equal. Find the values of h. 2x + 6x = 2k – 1 is twice the other. Find pq = - 5, find the values of k and m [5]
[4] the value of k and the roots of the equation.
(b) Given that Į and ȕ are roots of the equation [1999]
2
x – 2x + k = 0 , while 2Į and 2ȕ are the roots of
the equation x2 + mx + 9 = 0. Determine the
possible values of k and m. [SPM 1999]
[6]

( k = -4 , m = -5 ) P.S. quite challenging! ( k = 15 , m = 3 )


L8. (SPM 2000) Find the range of x if the straight L9. (SPM 2000) The quadratic
quaadrat
d i equation
dr
line y = 2x + k does not intersect the curve 2x2 + px + q = 0 hhas
ass ro
roots
o --22 and 3. Find the
x2 + y2 – 6 = 0. [5] value of p anf
nf q so thtthat
att
2x2 + px + q = k has
has real roots.

( x = -1 , x = -2 ; k =  3 )
( h = -1 , -2 ; k = 9 2
4
L2. (SPM 2003 , P1, S3). Solve the quadraticatic
i
ic L3. (SPM 2003, P1, S4) The quadratic
equation 2x(x – 4) = (1 – x)(x + 2).. G ivee yyour
Give ou
our equation x (x+1) = px – 4 has two distinct
gur
ures.
ur es.
answer correct to 4 significant sigures. [3] roots.. Find the range of values of p. [3]

(k < -5.477 atau k > 5.477) ( p = -2 , q = -12 ; k t - 12.5 )


L10. (SPM 1995)
(c) Given ½ and d -5
5 are roots
are roo
roots of a quadratic (c) Prove that the roots of the equation
Wr te do
Wri
Equation.Write own tthe quadratic
down (1 – p)x2 + x + p = 0 are real and negative IF
equation tthe form ax2 + bx + c = 0.
onn in the 0 < p < 1. [5]
[2]
(b) Findd the
the range
raang
nge of
of values of x for which the
onn x2 + kx + 2k – 3 = 0 has no real roots.
equation
[3]
( x = 2.591,
2.59
591,
91,
1 - 0.2
00.2573)
0. 2 ( p , -3 , p > 5)
L4 (SPM 2002)
200 ) Find the range of k if the Q.E.
2002 L5. (§ SPM 2001) Show that the straight line
x2 + 3 = k (x – 1), k constant, has two distinct y = 2 – x does not meet the curve
roots.
root
oots.
oot s.
s. [3] 2x2 – y2 + k = 0 if k > 8. [3]

( 2x2 + 9x – 5 = 0 ; 2 < k < 6 )


( k < -2 , k > 6) Untuk renungan : Gred MT anda adalah berkadar songsang dengan latihan yang anda buat !

2 Quadratic Equations 12 2 Quadratic Equations 13

10
11 11

11
12 12

12
13 13
2
3.3.1 To express Quadratic Functions f(x) = ax + bx + c in the form
a(x+ p)2 + q : Method of COMPLETING THE SQUARE
SIMPLE TYPE (a = 1)
EXAMPLE EXERCISE
1. f(x) = x2 + 4x + 5 f(x) = x2 + 4x + 3
2 2
§4· §4·
= x2  4 x  ¨ ¸  ¨ ¸  5
©2¹ ©2¹
= (x + 2)2 - 4 + 5
= ( x + 2 )2 + 1
(x + 2)2 - 1
2. g(x) = x2 - 6x + 8 g(x) = x2 - 6x - 7

§6· §6·
2 2

= x2  6 x  ¨ ¸ ¨ ¸ 8
© 2 ¹ © 2 ¹
= (x - 3)2 - 9 + 8
= ( x - 3 )2 - 1
((x – 3)2 - 16
3. h(x) = x2 - 4x h(x) =
h(x x2 + 2x

§ 4· § 4·
2 2

= x2  4 x  ¨ ¸ ¨ ¸
© 2 ¹ © 2 ¹
= (x - 2)2 - 4
= ( x - 2 )2 - 4
(x + 1) - 1
4. y = x2 - 4x + 5 y = x2 + x - 6
2 2
§4· §4·
= x2  4 x  ¨ ¸  ¨ ¸  5
©2¹ ©2¹
= (x - 2)2
(x - 4 + 5
= ( x - 2 )2 + 1
(x + ½ )2 - 25/4
5.. f(x)
f(x) = x2 + 5x + 6 f(x) = x2 + 3x + 2
2 2
§5· §5·
= x2  5 x  ¨ ¸  ¨ ¸  6
©2¹ ©2¹
2
§ 5 · 25
= ¨x  ¸   6
© 2 ¹ 4
2
§ 5 · 1
= ¨x  ¸ 
© 2 ¹ 4 (x + 3/2)2 - ¼

3 Quadratic Functions 12

2
3.3.2 To express Q.F. f(x) = ax + bx + c in the form
a(x+ p)2 + q : Method of COMPLETING THE SQUARE
When a > 0 , a .
EXAMPLE EXERCISE
1. f(x) = 2x2 + 4x + 6 f(x) = 2x2 + 8x + 4

= >
2 x2  2x  3 @ = >
2 x2 @
ª §2·
2
§2· º 2

= 2 « x 2  2 x  ¨ ¸  ¨ ¸  3»
«¬ ©2¹ ©2¹ »¼

>
= 2 ( x  1) 2 1  3 @
>
= 2 ( x  1)  2
2
@
= 2 (x+1)2 + 4
+2))2 - 4
2 (x+2)
(x+2
+2
2. g(x) = 2x2 + 6x - 5 2 2 - 6x + 3
g(x) = 2x

ª 5º
=
2« x 2  3x  »
¬ 2¼
ª §3·
2
§3·
2

= 2« x 2  3x  ¨ ¸  ¨ ¸  »
¬ ©2¹ ©2¹ 2¼

ª 3 9 5º
= 2 « ( x  )2  
¬ 2 4 2 »¼

ª 3 19 º
= 2 « (x  ) 
2

¬ 2 4 »¼
2(x – 3/2)2 - 3/2
=
3. h(x) = 33x
x 2
+ 6x
6 - 12 g(x) = 3x2 - 12x + 10

= >
3 x2  @
=
=
=

3(x + 1)2 – 15 3(x – 2)2 - 2

3 Quadratic Functions 13 13
14 14

3.4 Quadratic Inequalities


(Students must be able to solve simple linear inequlities first) 3.4.2 To Solve linear inequlities which involve two variables
3.4.1 To Solve Simple Linear Inequalities (Back to Basic) No EXAMPLE EXERCISE 1 EXERCISE 2
1. Given 2x + 3y = 10. (a) Given 2x - 3y = 12. Find (b) Given 4x - 3y = 15.
No. EXAMPLE EXERCISE 1 EXERCISE 2 EXERCISE 3
Find the range of x if y > 4. the range of x if y > 2. Find the range of x if y < -3.
1. 2x – 3 > 5 (a) 3x – 2 > 10 (b) 3 + 4x < 21 (c) 10 + 3x < 1
2x + 3y = 10
2x > 8 3y = 10 - 2x
x > 4 10  2 x
y =
3
10  2 x
> 4
2. - 2x > 6 (a) -3x > 6 (b) - 4x < - 20 1 3
(c)
c)) - x > 2
6 2 10 - 2x > 12
x < - 2x > 2
2
x < -1 x > 9 x < 3/2
/2
x < -3
2. 3 y 5 y 10  3 y
Given x = . (a) Given x = . (b) Given
Given x = .
3 3 2
3. 3 – 4x > 9 (a) 3x – 2 > 10 (b) 3 + 44x
x < 221 (c) 10 + 3x < 1
Find the range of x if y > 6. Find the range of x if y > 14.
14.
4. t range of x if y ” -2.
Find the
Fin
- 4x > 6
6 3 y
x <  x =
4 3
3x = 3 - y
3 y = 3 - 3x
x < 
2 ? 3 – 3x > 6
- 3x > 3
x < -1 x < -3 x • 8
4. 1  2x 2x 3  4x 2  5x
 1 (a) ! 2 (b)  3  4
3 4 5 3 3. (a) Find the range of x if ((b)) Find
(b Fin
nd the range of x if (c) Find the range of x if
1 - 2x < 3 2+ x
2y – 1 = 3x and 4y > 12 6yy – 1 = 3x and 3y > 2 + x. 2 – 3y = 4x and y ” 4.
- 2x < 2
2
x >
2
x > -1

5. x 3 x 5x  3 x x > 2 x > 3 x • - 5/2


(a)
(a  > 1 (b)  < 4 (c)  2 (d)  1 ! 2x
4 2 4 3 4 (a)
a) Fin
Fi the range of x if
in
Find (b) Find the range of x if (c) Find the range of x if
3 + 2x > 5 and 7 – 2x > 1 5 + 2x > 3 and 9 – 2x > 1 4 – 3x < 7 and -2x + 10 > 0.

1 <x < 3 -1 < x < 4 -1 < x < 5

3 Quadratic Functions 17 14 3 Quadratic Functions 18


15 15

15
16 16
3.4.6 : Aplication (Relationship between “b2 – 4ac” position of graph y = f(x)
EXAMPLE EXERCISE
C1 (SPM 2000) L1. Show that the function 4x – 2x2 – 5 is
Show that the function 2x – 3 – x2 is always always negative for all values of x.
negative for all values of x.

Ans : Let f(x) = 2x – 3 – x2


= - x2 + 2x - 3
a = -1, b = 2, c = -3
b – 4ac = 22 – 4(-1)(-3)
2

= 4 - 12
< 0
Since a < 0 dan b2 – 4ac < 0,
the graph y = f(x) always lies above
the x-axis
? f(x) is always negative bagi semua x.

Note: The method of completing the squareshall be


done later.

L2 Show that the function 2x2 – 3x + 2 x2 is L3. Show


ow
w that
that tthe
he curve
always positive for all values of x. y = 9 + 4xx2 – 12x touches the x-axis.

C2 Find the range of p if thee gr


graph
raph of
of th
the L4. Find the range of p if the graph of
x) = 2x2 + x + 5 + p cuts
quadratic function f(x) quarritic function f(x) = x2 + px – 2p cuts the
d fferrent po
di
the x-axis at TWO different p o
points. x-axis at TWO different points.

x) = 2x2 + 6
(x)
Jawapan : f(x) 6x + 5 + p
a = 2,
2 b = 1, c = 5 - p
b2 – 4ac > 0
62 – 4(2)(5 + p) > 0
36 – 40 – 8p > 0
– 8p > 4
p < -½
p < -8 , p > 0
L5 The
The graph of the function
T L6. Find the values of k if the grapf of the
f( = 2x2 + (3 – k)x + 8 does not touch the x-
f(x) quadratic function y = x2 + 2kx + k + 6 touches
axis. Determine the range of k. the x-axis.

-5 < k < 11 k = -3 , k = 2

3 Quadratic Functions 23

16
17 17
4. SIMULTANEOUS EQUATIONS Back to BASIC

IMPORTANT NOTES:
(III) To express y in terms of x
(c)

*** Usually asked in PAPER 2, Question 1. Test yourself:


Eg.. 2x + y = 4 1. 3x + y = 6 2. x+y= 3
(i) Characteristics of simultaneous equations:
(a) Involves TWO variables, usually in x and y. y = 4 – 2x y= y=
(b) Involves TWO equations : one linear and the other non- linear.
(ii) “ Solving simultaneous equations” means finding the values of x and corresponding y which satisfy BOTH the equations.
(iii) Methods of solving :: Eg.. 3x – y = 6 3. 2x – y = 3 4. x–y=6
(a) Starting from the LINEAR equation, express y in terms of x (or x in terms of y). 3x = 6+y
3x – 6 = y
(b) Substitute y (or x) into the second equation (which is non-linear) to obtain a quadratic equation in the form ax2 + bxx + c = 0.
0
y= 3x - 6
 b r b 2  4ac
(c) Solve the quadratic equation by factorisation or by using the FORMULA . Eg.. x + 2y = 2 5. x + 3y = 9 6. 3x + 4y = 6
2a
2y = 2 – x
(iv) If the quadratic equation CANNOT be factorised, candidates will be asked to “give your answer correctt to significant
o 4 signi ficant figures”
significan
fican
fica
y= 2x
or “give your answer correct to three decima lplaces”. 2

Back to BASIC Eg.. 3x – 2y = 4 7. 2x – 3y = 2 8. x – 4y = 1


2 3x = 4 + 2y
(I) Expansion of (ax+b) 3x – 4 = 2y
Test yourself : y = 3x  4
0. (x + a)2 = x2 + 2 ax + a2 1. (x + 3)2 = 2..
2 (x 4)2 =
x+4 2

3. (x + 1)2 = 4. (x – 3 )2 = 5..
5 (x – 2)2 = 9. 3y – x = 5 10. x – 2y = 5 11.
1 1. 4x + 3y = 6

6. (2x + 1)2 = 7. (x + 5)2 = 8. (3x + 2)2 =

9. (4x - 5)2 = 10. (x – 6)2 = 11. (2x – 3)2 =


2 2
12. (2 + x) = 13. (3 – 2x) = 14. (1 – 3x)2 =

15. § x  2·
2
16. §4  x·
2
17. § 5  3x ·
2 (III) (b) Express x in terms of y
¨ ¸ ¨ ¸ ¨ ¸ Eg.. x + 3y = 2 1. 2y + x = 5 2. x+y = 1
© 2 ¹ © 2 ¹ © 3 ¹
x = 2 – 3y x= x =
18. § 3  2x ·
2
19.
9. § 1  2x ·
2
20. § 3x  4 ·
2

¨ ¸ ¨ ¸ ¨ ¸ Eg.. 4y – x = 3 3
3. y–x = 3 4. x–y=4
© 2 ¹ © 3 ¹ © 2 ¹
4y = 3+x
4y – 3 = x
x = 4y - 3
(II) Expansion of (ax + b)(cx
(ccx + d)
Eg.. 3x + 2y = 4 5. 4x + 3y = 2 6. 2x + 4y = 3
Test yourself:
3x y
= 4 – 2y
0. (x + 2)(x – 3) = x2 – 3x + 2
2xx–6 1. (x + 4)(x – 1) = 2. (x + 3)(x + 5) =
x = 4  2y
2y
= x2 – x – 6
3
3. (x + 1)(2x
2x
x – 33)) = 4. (x – 3 )(2x + 1) = 5. (3x – 2)(x + 3) = Eg.. 3y – 2xx = 1 7. 2x – 3y = 2 8. 3x – 4y = 6
3y = 1 + 2x
3yy – 1 = 22x
6. 2x
x + 1)(x
(2x 1)(x – 2)
2) = 7. (2x + 5)(x – 2) = 8. (x + 2)(5x – 3) =
x = 3y  1
2
99.. (2x
2x – 3 )(2x + 3) = 10. (3x – 2)2 = 11. (2x – 3)(2 – x) =
9
9. 3y
3y – 6x = 2 10. ½x–y= 2 11. – 2x + y = 4
122.
12. (x - 3 )(x + 3) = 13. (2x – 1)(x + 2) = 14. (2x + 3)(2 + x) =

15. (2x – 3 )(2x + 4) = 16. (3x – 2)(x – 5) = 17. (x – 3)(2 – 3x) =

12. 5x + 2y – 3 = 0 , y = ? 13. 3y – 2x – 6 = 0 , x = ? 14. – 3x – 4 y = 2 , y = ??


18. (x – 4 )(2x) = 19. 2(3x + 2)(x – 1) = 20. 3x(– 3 – 2x)) =

4 Simultaneous Equations 1 4 Simultaneous Equations 2

Back to BASIC Back to BASIC

(IV) To express in the form of a general Quadratic Equation : ax2+bx + c = 0 (V) Solving Quadratic Equations ax2+bx + c = 0 by factorisation
EXAMPLE EXERCISE
EXAMPLE EXERCISE
C1. x (3 – x) = – 10 L1. x (5 – x ) = 4
C1. x (3 – x) = – 18 L1. x (5 – 2x ) = 2
3x – x2 = – 18 3x – x2 = – 10
0 = x2 – 3x – 18 0 = x2 – 3x – 10
x2 – 3x – 18 = 0 x2 – 3x – 10 = 0
(x + 2)(x – 5) = 0
x = -2, x = 5
L2. (x+2) (x – 2) = 21 L3. (x – 1)2 = 9 Ans: x = 1, 4
L2. x (8 – 2x) = – 10 L3. x + (x – 1)2 = 3

L4. (3x+2) (3x – 2) = 32 L5. (x – 2)x + (x – 2)2 = 3

Ans: x = -1, 5 Ans: x = -1, 2


L4. y(2y+1) + y = 4 L5. (4 – y)2 + y2 – (4 – y)y
y = 31
2 2
L6. (x – 2) - (x – 2) = 6 L7. x(x
x – 1) + (x
x – 1) = 5

L8. x(2x+1) + x - 4 = 0 L9.


L9 ( – y)2 – 2y2 = 2y (4 – y)
(4
Ans: y = -2, 1 Ans y = -1, 5
Ans:
L6. 2x2 + (2 – x)2 = 8 L7.
L7 x2 - 2(8 – x) + (8 – x)2 = 24

L10. 2x(3 – x) + (3 – x)2 = 1 L11. x2 – 2(3 – x) – (3 – x)2 + 2 = 0

L12. 2 2 1
§ 1  3x · § 1  3x ·  2
¸  4x ¨ ¸x
Ans: x = - 2/3 , 2 Ans: x = 3, 4
3¨ 2
6 L13.
3x 3  3x L8. (3 – x)2 + x2 = 29
2
© 2 ¹ © 2 ¹ L9. x 
5 x §5 x·
2x ¨ ¸
2 © 2 ¹

L14.
L14
4 2
x §5 x· §5 x·
 ( 2 x  1) 3 L15. 3x  ¨ ¸ x ¨ ¸
2x 1 © 2 ¹ © 2 ¹

Ans: x = - 2 , 5 Ans: x = -½ , 5

4 Simultaneous Equations 3 17 4 Simultaneous Equations 4


18 18
To solve Quadratic Equations ax2 + bx + c = 0 To Solve Quadratic Equations ax2 + bx + c = 0
I. By factorisation
- Can only be used for quadratic expression which can be facrorised. III. By using formula b r b 2  4 ac
x
EXAMPLE EXERCISE 2a
C1. Solve the quadratic equation x2 + 5x + 6 = 0. L1. Solve x2 – 4x – 5 = 0.
Ans: : x2 + 5x + 6 = 0 EXAMPLE EXERCISE
(x + 2) (x + 3) = 0 C1. Solve 2x2 – 8x + 7 = 0 using formula, give tour L1. By using the formula, solve 2x2 - 12x
2xx
x + 2 = 0 or x + 3 = 0 answer correct to 4 significant figures. + 5 = 0 correct to 4 s.f.
x = -2 or x = -3
Ans : – 1 , 5 a = 2, b = -8 , c = 7
C2. Solve the quadratic equation 2x (x – 1) = 6. L2. Solve x ( 1 + x) = 6.  (8) r (8) 2  4(2)(7)
x
Ans : 2x (x – 1) = 6 2(2)
2x2 – x – 6 = 0
8 r 8
(2x + 3) (x – 2) = 0
2x + 3 = 0 atau x – 2 = 0 4
3
x=  atau x = 2 = 2.707 or 1.293 (Ans : 5.550, 0.4505))
2
Ans : – 3 , 2
2 2 C2. Solve 2x(2 – 3x) = -5 using the formula, give L2. By uusing
sing the formula,
for solve
L3. Solve (x – 3) = 1. L4. Solve
olve
ve 1 + 2x = 5x + 4.
your answer correct to 2 decimal places 3 – x2 = - 3(4x
3(4x – 3) correct to 2
2x(2 – 3x) = -5 ciimalp
place
laces
decimalplaces
4x – 6x2 = -5
6x2 – 4x – 5 = 0
a= ,b= , c=

Ans : 2, 4 Ans : 1, 3/2 x =


L3. Solve (2x – 1)2 = 2x – 1 . L4. Solve 5x2 – 45 = 0.

(Ans : 1.31 , -0.64)


(Ans: 0.52 , 11.48 )
L3. Solve x(2x –1) = 2 by using ing formula
fo
formu
ormu
orm
rmumula give
g your L4. Solve the quadratic equation 2x(x – 4)
mal places.
answer correct to 2 decimal place
aces.
acess.. = (1-x) (x+2). Write your answer correct to
four significany figures.
(SPM 2003)
Ans : ½ , 1 Ans : – 3 , 3
L5. Solve (x – 3)(x + 3) = 16. L6. Solve 3 + x – 4x2 = 0.

(Ans
Ans
ns : 11.28,
.28,
8, -0
-0.78)
.78)
(Ans : 2.591 , - 0.2573 )
So e x2 – 4x = 2 using formula, give your
Solv
L5. Solve L6. Solve the quadratic equation
Ans
ns : – 5 , 5 Ans : – ¾ , 1 answer
ans
answ e correct to 4 s.f.
nswer
nswer x(x – 4) = (3 – x )(x + 3). Write your
L7
L7. So
Solv
Solve x( x + 2) = 24. L8. Solve 2(x2 – 9) = 5x. answer correst to two decimal places.

Ans : – 6 , 4 Ans : – 2 , 9/2 (Ans : 4.449 , -0.4495) (Ans : 3.35 , -1.35 )

4 Simultaneous Equations 5 4 Simultaneous Equations 6

Solving Simultaneous Equations (SPM FORMAT QUESTIONS)


6. Solve the simultaneous equations : (SPM 2003) 7. Solve the simultaneous equations p – m = 2 and
C1. Solve x + y = 3, xy = – 10 . 1. Solve x + y = 5, xy = 4 . p2 + 2m = 8. Give your answers correct to three
4x + y = – 8
2
x +x–y = 2 decimal places . (SPM 2004)
x+y = 3 ........ (1)
xy = – 10 ........ (2)

Fromi (1), y = 3 – x ......... (3)


Substitute (3) into (2),
x (3 – x) = – 10
3x – x2 = – 10
x2 – 3x – 10 = 0
(x + 2) (x – 5) = 0
x = – 2 atau x = 5
From (3), when x = – 2 , y = 3 – (-2) = 5
x = 5, y = – 2

Answers: x = – 2, y = 5 ; x = 5 , y = – 2 .

(Ans : x = 1, y = 4 ; x = 4,, y = 1)
L2. Solve x + y = – 2 , xy = – 8 . L3. Solve 2x + y = 6
6, xy = – 20 .

n : m = 0.606,
(Ans
(An 606 p = 2.606 ; m = – 6.606 , p = – 4.606 )
0.606
.606
.6
(Ans : x = – 2 , y = 0 ; x = – 3 , y = 4 )
8. Solve the simultaneous equations (SPM 2005)
5) 9. Solve
Sol
Solvve the simultaneous equations 2x + y = 1 and
1 2 2 + y2 + xy = 5. Give your answers correct to three
2x
x y 1 and y2 – 10 = 2x decimal places . (SPM 2006)
2

(Ans : x = – 4 , y = 2 ; x = 2, y = – 4 ) (Ans : x = – 2 , y = 10 ; x = 5, y = – 4 )
L4. Solve the simultaneous
eous
ous
us eeq
equations
uationss (SPM 2000) L5. Solve the simultaneous equations : (SPM 2002)

3x – 5 = 22yy x+y–3 = 0
y(x
(x + yy)) = xx(x + y) – 5 x2 + y2 – xy = 21

(Ans : x = – 4 , y = 3 ; x = – ½ , y = 3 ) (Ans : x = 1.618, y = – 2.236 , x = 0.618, y = – 0.236)

(Ans : x = 3 , y = 2 ) (Ans : x = – 1, y = 4 ; x = 4, y = – 1 )
4 Simultaneous Equations 7 18 4 Simultaneous Equations 8