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Sevilleno, Andrei B.

6,1 Hist17 MW (6:00-7:30) GR444 2/11/2019

The Challenges and Responses of the Nineteenth Century

I. Summary
The article “The Challenges and Responses of the Nineteenth Century” talks about what life
was like back in the 19th century and what was Philippines like during Rizal’s time. It also talks about
nationalism and what has happened that urged people to start a revolution to gain freedom from their
II. Highlights
Growing Confidence on Progress Inspires Optimism
“Speaking of this ferment on individualism, Rizal glowingly wrote on the significance of
individual enlightenment for the progress of the Philippines:
Despite all that system, organized, perfected, and followed with tenacity by those who
wish to keep the islands in holy ignorance; there are Filipino writers, free thinkers,
historiographers, chemists, physicians, artists, etc. Enlightenment is spreading and its
persecution encourages it. No; the divine flame of thought is inextinguishable among the
Filipino people, and in some way or another it has to shine and make it known. It is not
possible to brutalize the inhabitants of the Philippines.”
III. Reaction
Isaac Newton’s 1st law of motion suggests: “an object at rest will stay at rest and an object in
motion will stay in motion unless an external force acted upon it.” For us Filipinos, Rizal started the
motion of revolution which led to many events that made Philippines’ independence a reality. For
more than 300 years that the Philippines was under the influence of Spain, many events had
happened that sparked the idea of nationalism. People would not remain stupid forever. There would
be a time that the people would realize what was really happening to their society and Rizal
recognized that. I admire Rizal not only because he is a genius, but also because he was the only
person brave enough to start the revolution against the Spaniards’ colonization.
In the nineteenth century, many people revolted against their colonizers. People wanted to be
free from colonization. Philippines was no exception. Many people fought to get their independence
from the Spaniards from Rizal’s Noli mi Tangere and El Filibusterismo to Bonifacio’s KKK. Each of
them had their own methods of gaining independence but there’s one common thing about the
methods that they’re doing: it was that these methods were the contributing factors that led to
Philippines’ Independence.

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