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FOLK HEALING: THE SEARCH FOR THE CURE OF PASMA

_________________________________

A Research Presented to the Faculty of the

Integrated Basic Education Department – Senior High School

Notre Dame of Kidapawan College

__________________________________

In Partial Fulfilment of the Requirements of the Course Research 1

(Qualitative Research)

BRYLLE T. BATOMALAQUE

JANNAH JEN A. TEVES

NOEMIE P. MARCON

___________________________________

March 2019
JMJ Ch
Notre Dame of Kidapawan College
Senior High School Department
Datu Ingkal St., Kidapawan City

January 22, 2019

CHRISTOPHER JAMES D. FERRER, MA


NDKC IBEd – Principal

Dear Sir Ferrer:

Praise be Jesus and Mary!

We are conducting a research entitled: Folk Healing: The Search for the
Cure of Pasma. This study aims to know the perceptions of the participants
towards pasma and to gather different methods of reliving this illness.

Anent to this, we would like to ask your permission to allow us to conduct


our research among our informants whom we have chosen based on the criteria
which we have set. Their responses will be the source of the data needed in the
development of our study.

We assure that they will be treated with respect and shall be kept
anonymous in order to adhere with the moral and ethical principles and
considerations of qualitative research.

May your approval display your sheer support to us students. Thank you
very much.

Respectfully yours,

Noemie P. Marcon
Lead Researcher

Noted by:

NYL JOHN L. DANO


Research Teacher

Approved by:

CHRISTOPHER JAMES D. FERRER, MA


NDKC IBEd – Principal
ACKNOWLEDGEMENT

The road to achievement within this research is paved with the assistance

and efforts of many who worked diligently to assist us as we stumbled and

caught footing during process. Without these individuals who comprised our

research, this would have never been possible.

We would like to thank Nyl John L. Dano, LPT, our research adviser. His

guidance and feedbacks were valuable in accomplishing this research. The time

he dedicated to check our research paper will never be forgotten. His

encouragements led us to heights we thought we could never attain, and for that

we are forever grateful.

We would also like to extend our sincere gratitude to Dr. Stella C. Flores,

Dr. Jerson S. Catoto, and Mr. Christoper James D. Ferrer. These three great

persons who were members of our panel and their knowledge of research taught

us incredible amounts.

Lastly, we would like to extend our deepest thanks to our subjects. Their

time and efforts are very much appreciated. The information they have imparted

to us contributed tremendously to the success of this research.


TABLE OF CONTENTS

PAGE

TITLE PAGE …………………………………………………………..i

APPROVAL SHEET …………………………………………………………..ii

ACKNOWLEDGEMENT ………………………………………………………….iii

TABLE OF CONTENTS ………………………………………………………….iv

TABLE OF CONTENTS ………………………………………………………….v

LIST OF APPENDICES ………………………………………………………….vi

ABSTRACT …………………………………………………………vii

CHAPTER

1. INTRODUCTION …………………………………………………………1

1.1 Research Problem…………………………………………………… 2

2. METHODOLOGY …………………………………………………………3

2.1 Design ………………………………………………………….…… 3

2.2 Participant ……………………………………………………………. 3

2.3 Instrument …………………………………………………………….3

2.4 Procedure ……………………………………………………………..4

3. RESULTS …………………………………………………………………7

4. DISCUSSION …………………………………………………………….15
IMPLICATION FOR PRACTICE ……………………………………………………19

REFERENCES ……………………………………………………21

APPENDICES ……………………………………………………24

CURRICULUM VITAE ……………………………………………………40


LIST OF APPENDICES

Appendices

A. Guide Questions

B. Transcription and Translation

C. Letter for Permission

D. Consent to Participate Form


ABSTRACT

The Philippine archipelago is located near the equator, where the weather

conditions are bipolar. This situation of the Philippines led to a mysterious folk

illness called pasma. This illness is not recognized as a medical condition in

other countries. The purpose of this research is to clarify if the illness really exist,

and if so, to find out the methods in providing relief to its effect. In order to gather

enough information about this illness, the researchers followed the correct

procedure and interviewed the right persons who possessed the exact

knowledge about the illness. To extract the right information, interview guide

questions were employed. The researchers also maximize the use of technology

such as the voice recorder. After gathering informations, the research was

analyzed using thematic analysis. The thematic analysis determined various

Alternative methods such as taking herbal medicines, steaming, and massage

can be an effective cure for pasma. The result for the causes of pasma has been

classified as an exposure to cold after a heavy activity. Moreover, skipping meals

is one of the stimuli that trigger the effect of pasma. In addition, preventive

measures should be employed. Based on the informants’ responses, pasma can

be lethal if not prevented.

Keywords: Folk Illness, Pasma, Thematic Analysis, Traditional Healers


1. INTRODUCTION

During the Spanish occupation in the Philippines, a mysterious disease

has stricken fear to its locals. Many Filipinos call the disease as “Pasma” where a

person could get ill or die after taking a cold bath after a very exhausting work

(De Leon, 2005). It is more of a folk illness, a specific illness to particular cultures

but are not discussed in medical textbooks nor in medical schools (Tan, 2007).

The belief about the interaction between hot and cold was represented in

the theory of humoral pathology. The concept of humoral pathology was brought

by Arabs to Spain from where it was brought to the Philippines (Hart, 1969). The

basis for the concept of “pasma” or “pasmo” was formed from hot/cold syndrome

which defines that it is an exposure illness (Frake, 1961) and this illness is

believed to be caused by an attack of cold on someone who is too hot, or vice

versa (Adams and Rubel, 1967). If someone becomes so hot from a very

exhausting physical activity they are not advised to bathe in cold water or else

they will be affected by Pasma. Spasm is an involuntary control of cold in the

body because the body did not relax the muscles due to heavy works;

unexplained musculoskeletal pain is carelessly attributed to spasm (Ingraham,

2016).

This illness is not highly recognized by mainstream medicine but the

ailment are very real as far as people are concerned, causing suffering and even

death (Tan et al, 2007). Because of its unpopular reputation, no accredited

medical protocols are applied in curing the disease. Everyone can be prone to

pasma without any warnings. A masseur would always remind their costumers
not to take a bathe after the massage in order for them not to experience pasma

(Espino, 1997).

The researchers aim to provide new horizons of knowledge from the topic.

If our research will become successful, it will contribute the cure and prevention

to pasma. In the same way that we deconstruct traditional medicine, we want to

challenge existing concepts around resistance and vulnerability, susceptibility,

and immunity.

1.1 RESEARCH QUESTIONS

This research aimed to answer the problem and the mystery behind the

hot/cold syndrome called pasma syndrome. Hence, the researcher will sought to

answer the following questions:

1. What is the perception of the participant towards Pasma

syndrome?

2. How does the participant provide relief to those suffering from

pasma syndrome?

2. METHODOLOGY

This chapter highlights the methods and ways to achieve the goal of the

research. The methodology presents the research design, procedures,

participants, and instruments.


2.1 Design

We used a qualitative research, a form of systematic empirical inquiry into

meaning (Shank, 2002). We utilized the use of case study research design where

the researchers will explore a program, an event, an activity, a process, or one or

more individuals. The researchers collected detailed information using a variety

of data collection procedures over a sustained period of time from cases

bounded by time and activity (Stake, 1995).

2.2 Participants

The participants of this study were selected through the use of criterion-

based sampling which involves the identification of a particular criterion of

importance articulation, and systematic review of the study of cases that meet

the criterion (Cohen & Crabtree, 2014). There were 5 participants and each had

the right for anonymity and confidentiality where their identities are respectfully

concealed (Halai, 2016). The participant is either a traditional healer or a quack

doctor that owns the knowledge for the cure of pasma, the participant should be

an experienced healer of pasma.

2.3 Instrument

A semi–structured interview was applied where interviews are non –

standardized and are frequently used in qualitative research (David and Sutton,

2004). In the interview guide, the researchers applied guide questions (Corbetta,
2003) and probing questions to explore new paths which are not usually

considered (Gray, 2004). We also employed the use of audio recorder to

document the interview that will give the researchers the opportunity to probe.

(Bucher, Fritz and Quarantelli, 1956).

2.4 Procedure

We seek permission from the principal to allow us to conduct our

interview outside the school. It is to ensure the credibility of our research to be

done outside the campus. It made us credible to begin the study and access the

information needed (Mander, 1992).

The researchers wrote a consent – to – participate for the participants in

order for them to be fully informed about the procedure. This procedure is very

significant in ethical codes of research (Berg, 2001). After the approval of the

participant they will brief the participant about the interview and the roles that

they will take in the research (Benerjee & Rudnicky, 2004). Proper schedule for

the availability of the participant is also significant.

Before proceeding to the process, the researchers briefed the participant

about the questions if it is valid or invalid for them. We also briefed them on what

is going to happen, what they will do, and why should they do it in order to satisfy

the ethical consideration of research (Macfarian, 2014).

After the briefing the interview took place. The participants were

comfortable with the place of interview where disturbance is highly discouraged.

We also used nd adequate recording procedures for the documentation of the


research. We also designed interview guides and protocols that will help us run

the interview smoothly (Kvale & Brinkman, 2009). We accepted the answers of

our participants in our research questions where we determined the challenges

of a person suffering a pasma syndrome. There will be no risk and discomforts

since the interview was done in a secluded place and in your most convenient

time.

We gave the informant a token of gratitude and appreciation for their

participation and giving us their time in conducting this research (Given, 2008:

Budiu, 2014).

After gathering the data, continued to the transcription and the translation

process of the data where we interpret the answer of our informant which

became our basis and evidences of our study (Mondada, 2007: Davidson, 2009).

In order for the readers of the publication to understand our finding, we translated

it to English (Van Nes, Abma, Jonsson, Deeg, 2010).

All information collected were treated in strictest confidence and neither the

school for individual learners will be identifiable in any reports that are written.

(Munhall, 1988; Orb, 2001; Halai, 2006).The method of thematic analysis was

employed in order to analyze, identify, and report pattern or themes within the

data (Braun & Clark, 2006).

After the thematic analysis, the research paper undergone a plagiarism checker.

The plagiarism checker checked the verisimilitude and credibility of the research
paper, hence, the percentage of plagiarized articles, phrases, and sentences will

not exceed from 40% (Kang, Han & Gelbukh, 2006).

Afterwards, the research paper undergone the peer debriefer. The peer debriefer

manually checked the research paper one by one to check its credibility (Spall,

1998).

Since our research utilized the case study method, we used the thick

description as a way of achieving a type of external validity (Lincoln & Guba,

1985). Thick description refers to a context filled with detailed account and

experiences in which the researches will gather the patterns of cultural and social

relationships (Holloway, 1997).

Lastly, we are going to present the findings and evidences of the step from

the start until the presentation of data a qualitative study typically involves a large

volume of researchers gathered data. We will discuss the information that

contribute to credible issues (Rodgress & Cowles, 1993).


3. RESULTS

The results of the extraction of themes using thematic analysis are


presented in this chapter. Together with the themes are the thick descriptions.
Furthermore, the life stories of the subjects are located in this chapter.

CASE 1

Inday was born on October 21, 1976 in Antique, Western Visasyas but

due to poverty in their province, she transferred to the Municipality of Matalam

where she is now situated as a folk healer. She has been a folk healer for 20

years. She only accepts any amount of donations as an exchange for her service

to keep her life rolling. She’s been using herbal medicines and natural methods

in curing illnesses. Many individuals are consulting her when experiencing

uneasiness or illness in their body. So far, they are relieved by her methods.

Sometimes she is giving a home service when summoned by a customer.

Case 2

Jose was the oldest amongst his four siblings. His father was known as

the folk healer in their barangay and his mother was a laundrywoman. He was

the only successor of his father. When his second sibling finished his studies, he

was taught by his father to make ointments out of herbs and later he became a

folk healer.He didn’t finish college due to financial problem. In orer to help his

family, he attended different kinds of job to survive. Healing people using herbal

medicines became a source of income that fuels his life. He only collects any

kinds of donation and he does not set an exact price for his service.
Case 3

Maria was raised in Davao and is a former student at University of

Mindanao. She did not finish her study due to early marriage. After a year of

being married, they decided to move in Kidapawan City in hope for a better life

where she and her husband work as farmers until she gave birth to 6 children.

She became a catechist in cathedral church and later became a massage

therapist, she attended seminars in CBHP like a barangay worker which they

were train to massage and taught how to mixed herbal plants to make a syrup or

ointment. After learning different methods of healing, she made it as a sorce of

income to feed her family.

A. Perception of the participants towards of pasma

Exposure illness

Involuntary muscle movement and immobilization after exposing

the body to cold after undertaking a heavy activity is one the effect of pasma

as stated by a subject:

“The cause of pasma is


that if you are from a
basketball game; Of
course you already have a
pasma, and then if you
drink cold water, the
pasma will be triggered”
( KII1)
Moreover, another participant also testified the truthfulness of the

emergent theme as stated:

“Example of that are


basketball players, the
main reason of that is the
sweat after the game …
after the game you want to
wash your hands because
you thought that the
sweats were totally gone
because you already wipe
it after the wash, but you
did not know that the water
that you used during the
wash went inside your
body that is why on the
next day you will feel
weak; and the effect of
pasma like hand
tremors…if you had a
basketball game and you
haphazardly wet your body
without taking a rest; that
is one of the cause of
death because the veins
will tremble and veins are
the pathways of blood then
the heart will pump faster
and then you will suddenly
drown in your own blood
(Cardiac Arrest).” (KII2)

Due to the exposure of the tired area of the body - to cold - after

heavy activities, the participant could develop a musculoskeletal spasm

according to the participants. Symptoms such as hand tremors and

weakness of the body is visible after catching the stimuli of pasma.

Hungriness
The body need food to produce energy and keep the homeostasis of

the body; skipping meals and not eating at the right time may lead to other

diseases such as pasma and ulcer as stated by a subject:

“…after skipping a meal,


there will be an
involuntary movements in
your hands, and next it
will attack the brain…not
eating is one of the
reason of headache, and
then stroke, and tremors”
(KII2)

In addition, another participant also testified the truthfulness of the

emergent theme as stated by the subjects:

“Pasma is caused by
eating out of time, like 1
or 2 p.m. The effects are
stomach ache because of
an empty stomach and
head ache …” (KII3)

In fact, another participant also testified the truthfulness of the

emergent theme as stated:

“…when a person is lack


of food intake, tired and
weak; you can easily spot
the presence of pasma…
Hungriness; it will really
attack the brain first.
When you are hungry, the
stomach will signal the
brain and it will react
which is now the tremors,
headaches, and it will go
throughout the body”
(KII1)
When a person skipped meals, it will affect their stomach and the

stomch will send signals to the brain to provide action. Frequent skipping of

meals would sometimes lead to ulcer but the symptoms of pasma will also be

identified, such as hand tremors, head ache, and stomach ache.

Developed Dementia

Dementia is a mental illness that causes someone to be unable to

think clearly or to understand what is real and what is not real. When a person

frequently skipped meals, the homeostatsis would be disturbed and will signal

the brain to act, frequent act of skipping meals would affect the brain and

most dramatically would lead to dementia as stated by a subject:

“…the air will go in your


head and that is
pasmo…” (KII2)

In addition, another participant also testified the truthfulness of the

emergent theme as stated:

“If not prevented, pasma


will lead to mental
illness such as
dementia because the
air from your body will
go to your head and the
vision will get blurry…”
(KII1)

Moreover, another participant also testified the truthfulness of the

emergent theme as stated:


“… After the trembling
of hands, the source of
life (air) will go up in
your head” (KII2)

Additionally, another participant also testified the truthfulness of

the emergent theme as stated:

“…that person will suffer


dementia…” (KII3)

When the body cannot prevent the effect of pasma, the result

would be lethal; it would probably lead to dementia. When skipping meals

the reflux inside the stomach will go to the head and would dramatically lead

to dementia.

B. Various methods of curing pasma

By Means of Herbal Steaming/ Fumigation

Steaming is a process of getting the nutrients from the herbal plant

through evaporation and steam emission. It will help the body precipitate the

bad chemicals and leave the good nutrients from the plants as stated by the

subjects:

“For example, we burn


the leaves of
mangosteen in order to
produce steam. The
steam will help the
person to precipitate the
sweat in order for the
pasma to be normal.
There are different
herbal such as pasay,
alibhon, lemon grass,
ginger, and even
lagundi for cough. We
mixed different herbals
and all of its nutrients
will be enhanced by the
steam, it is a package
deal cure.” (KII1)

In addition, another participant also testified the truthfulness of the

emergent theme as stated:

“…you should steam to


sweat, you can use
lemon grass and
ginger.” (KII2)

What’s more, another participant also testified the truthfulness of

the emergent theme as stated:

“…Boil a water with a


softdrink (Coke), add
salt and raw rice. After
the boiling, put the
boiler and the product
under the bed while you
are lying above it with a
covered blanket for 10
to 15 minutes. After that
you will sweat and the
illness will be gone…”
(KII3)

Burning the leaves of plant would release the nutrients that will

provide relief to the effect of pasma when the person is sweating due to the

heat of the steam, the pores would eventually open and the nutrients from the
steam will enter the pores. The participants witnessed the healing effect in

curing pasma.

Through intake of herbal medicine

Herbal medicines are commonly used in far places with no enough

access to Medical healthcare – as an alternative cure – to some common

illnesses. Herbal medicines are efficient to use because of its natural healing

effects to the body as stated by the subjects:

“…there are various


herbals like ginger, you
should drink before
starting the steaming…”
(KII1)

Moreover, another participant also testified the truthfulness of the

emergent theme as stated:

“…that herbal that they


called elephant plant,
you should boil it … and
add ginger, and then
you drink it.” (KII2)

Alternative herbal medicine are famous for its natural healing

properties.dringking the extraction of these herbal medicine would cure the

victim of pasma from within. Dingking the right herbal would allow the

individual to be cured from pasma.

Through Massage
Massaging specific parts of the body will help in the regeneration of

dismantled veins and muscles. It is a common method in urban areas. It is

perceived as a safe therapeutic modality without any significant risk or side

effects. It is effective in relaxing the affected muscles cause by pasma as

stated by the subject:

“…I can see that he is


catching his breath. I
told him to sit and I
massaged him. After the
massage, he was
relieved. I pulled and
massaged each of his
fingers in order to
provide relief.” (KII1)

A massage is widely used method in relieving stress and pain

in the body. Giving someone a massage will relax and relieve the

muscle. Massaging a sufferer of pasma will allow his veins to circulate

the blood orderly and will allow the individual to feel relief.

4. DISCUSSION

A. Perception of the participants towards pasma

Exposure illness. The sudden exposures to cold after a heavy activity

will imbalance the homeostasis of the body that would probably lead to

pasma. The respond of the brain will be involuntary musculoskeletal

movements, or immobilization as verbalized by the subjects. The


homeostasis is the consistency of the internal environment that ensures

the stability of organism balance processes, also related to the relative

stability of cells and organisms in the chemical and physical

environment (Banfalvi, 2013). Illnesses may have a number of adverse

effects, including increased body temperatures, dehydration, and

malnutrition, which all represent homeostatic imbalance (Watson,

Fawcett, & J.N. Fawcett, 2003). Theory of Humoural Pathology states

that Filipinos widely use the hot and cold concept to explain certain

illnesses, which the illness is caused by four imbalance humours:

Plegm, blood, black bile, and yellow bile (Abril, 1977). When exposed to

hot or cold for too long, the blood thickens causing illnesses such as

high blood pressure and heart illness, the viscosity in circulation as well

as sticking to the walls of the veins (Jocano, 1973).

Hungriness. The body needs glucose for energy. If a person skips

meals, there will be a nutritional deficiency that will affect the normal

function of the body. Most of the participants verbalized that skipping

meals would affect the brain and the body function such as hand

tremors. Delayed meals nd skipped meals result in low – blood sugar

and increased physiological stress. The frequency of seizure increase

due to the stress of low blood pressure (Adams, 1993). The concept of

“Pasma sa Kaon” attributes illness to prolonged hunger (Hart)


Developed Dementia. One of a severe effects of pasma is dementia if

this symptom are not prevented in an early stage. Two participants

evidently mentioned this theme and they also cited people

(Anonymous) they knew who developed dementia due to pasma. The

observation from the patience is that they are experiencing exaggerated

form of motor disturbance in dementia, And the musculoskeletal

electromyographic features of stiff – man syndrome is present

(Newsholme, 2010).

B. Various methods of curing pasma

Application of Steaming/ Fumigation. The result from boiling water

with herbal medicines will create a natural product of steam that will

make the body precipitate the bad ailments through sweating and

inserting the properties of the herbals through the pores. Applying

this method in curing pasma is very effective. The one suffering

from pasma may apply steaming by putting the boiled product

under the lower area, and cover the body with a blanket to conceal

the steam. There is an emerging evidence, even small, that

supports the effectiveness of massage therapy in relieving body

pains. The preservation of endocrine homeostatsis can be

stabilized by steam bathing (Pleshakov, 2011). Involvement of hot

steam baths with herbs and incense, which has a significant

symbolic qualities of purification but also the restoration that


alleviates pain (Hart, 1965). It defines stress as an exposure to hot

and cold.

Through Intake of Herbal Medicines. Nature has been an

alternative pharmacy for people in rural areas who cannot afford

expensive medicines. The healing properties of herbal medicines

generate a new façade for curing many illnesses. Finding the right

herbal medicine and extracting its healing properties may

immediately provide relief to the effect of pasma. The medicinal

herbs are composed of natural substances which has the ability to

cure a corresponding illness of a person together with a ritual or

procedures which are involved in the preparation on the use of

medicinal herbs that will assure the intended therapeutic effect

(Ramirez, 2017). The use of herbal plant has become an effective

medicine to cure a certain diseases (Muaña, 2014). The herbal

plants offers a standard treatment and well-indulged remedy for a

chronic illnesses (Chevalier, 2016). Herbal medicine bring out the

good and beneficial therapeutic effects in relieving the mental and

physical pains of a person (Ebadi, 2010). Herbal plants are usually

use in other countries to cure severe diseases (Lall, 2017).

Through Massage. When someone is experiencing many benefits

in the body; evidence related to the use of massage can improve

the pulmonary function (Huth, 2008). Numerous studies provided


good evidence for massage therapy in managing anxiety, stress,

and promoting relaxation which was trailed in intensive care

patients and adults (Best, 2008). The use of massage has been

recognized in providing various ways for the solution of different

pathological situation (Montraville & Green, 1951). It will provide

detoxification, tonifying and the prevention of the recurring stress or

injury (Sinclair, 2007). Massage is a non-invasive and effective

treatment method for reducing a repetitive pain (Ysmael, 2012).

Implications for Practice

As we conducted this study, we found out the different Causes and

relievers of pasma. Multitudes of people can benefit from the new set of

information gathered using this research. Many individuals are vulnerable to the

effects of pasma as they do usual activities that triggers the illness. The

information from this study may provide tremendous help to the Folk Healers,

Medical Sciences, Doctors, Sufferer of pasma ,and students.

Folk healers may apply methods cited in this study in order for them to

provide relief to their patients. Moreover, the informations in this study can add

new techniques and herbs to their methods of healing such as

steaming/fumigating and many uses of herbal medicines. Furthermore, results of

this study can be a big help to other folk healers in treating patients using

traditional medicines and methods.


The result of this study can provide new set of knowledge to medical

science. Pasma is not highly recognized by mainstream medicine in other

countries but this study may provide evidence that will disprove their claims.

Doctors who are experiencing difficulties in treating pasma patients with

allergy to drugs can apply the result of this study. Methods used by the folk

healers are far different and safer to use in allergic people because most of the

ingredients and methods are natural. Many information in this study contains

different methods and herb supported by medical science and can be used by

doctors especially if this is more effective than the common method.

A sufferer of pasma can benefit from this study. It may help them relieve

the effects of pasma. This study provides information about various methods of

curing pasma that could help the sufferer recover from the illness. This study

may provide traditional and natural methods that has no side effects to cure

pasma that will help the sufferer of pasma.

Students may be influenced by the result of this study; many students are

not bringing lunchbox or not taking lunch during lunch time causing them to be

very vulnerable to pasma. This study will inform them the possible outcome of

skipping meals.
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Marist Brothers
NOTRE DAME OF KIDAPAWAN COLLEGE
Kidapawan City

INTERVIEW GUIDE

Research Title: “FOLK HEALING: THE SEARCH FOR THE CURE OF


PASMA”

Researchers: Batomalaque, Brylle T., Marcon, Noemi P., Teves,


Jannah Jen A.

Department: Senior High School

Research Questions Guide Questions Probing Questions

1. What is the 1.1. How do you perceive 1.2. How can you
perception of the pasma? diagnose pasma in a
participants towards person?
pasma syndrome?

2. How do the 2.1. What are the means 2.2. What are the means
participant provide to be relieved from in relieving pasma?
relief to those pasma?
suffering from
pasma?
APPENDICES

AUDIT TRAIL

SUBJECT 1
Verbatim Response English Translation
1. What is your own perception for
pasma?

Ang panan aw pud na nga sakit ka tao I can perceive that illness when the
kanang makita ko siya nga amo na kay skin color of the person turns yellow.
And when a person is lacking food
na yellowish ang kuan, iyang lawas kay
intake, tired and weak; you can easily
kana, Oo kana ang kuan haw sa aton, spot that pasma is present. And also
ang yellowish na kel no? Oo, yellowish when a person has no appetite when
tapos yellowish ang panit kay ug kuan, eating because everything seems
kulang sa kaon kag dayun sa kakapoy tasteless.
bitaw ng hina siya dayun ka pud ang
kuan dayun kanang makita mo na na
siya dayun kay kung kuan; hinay siya
magkaon, tapos ng sa aton ng las – ay,
Las –ay. Ang Oo.

2. How serious is this illness?

Hindi, hindi na siya makapatay; ng


No, It is not deadly. When you feel the
kung magkuan ka lang mag kung symptoms you can drink herbal such
magkuan ka lang sina kung mag inom as alibhon. Then, when you have
ka sang kanang ano ng pangalan sana symptoms like hand tremors, you
ng imnon nila sana ah? Ng mga herbal. should inhibit yourself from drinking
Herbal: ng medyo kung alibhon, cold water because it is highly
prohibited.
alibhon kay pasmo, alibhon; pwede ka
magkuan ng alibhon, mag inom ka ng
alibhon st… Oo, Alibhon! Tapos,
kaning mga kuan pud sakit nimo nga di
nimo ma kuan, kanang sa mga
nagakudog imong lawas. Kana, kana
bawalan mo gid na sa pasma, kanang
pasma pud, bawalan pud nimo ng
lamig nga tubig kung mag inom ka kay
bawal gid na siya. Oo, Pasmo!

3. Is pasma has a superstitious


intervention or it is a common
illness?
Those persons that feel tremors, Of
Kanang tao nga makuan sana kana ng course I will apply cure because if the
magkudog? Kanang naga kuan, core of the body is not normal, I can
syempre applyan na sila sang kuan, see it because I will test their pulse. If
they were touched by supernatural
kanang mga tao nga magkadto dre nga
beings like “Tao sa Talon”, Of course I
lain ang ilang pang ginhawa, kanang will cure it using “tayhop”. “Tayhop” is
kuan ti makita mo na na siya kay imo my specialty and I can use it as a cure
man e tan-awon iyang pulso na. Oo. for supernatural intervention. After
Kay ah , amo ni, na kuanan, na giving a “Tayhop”, you should give a
kuannan sang iban nga tao nga hindi massage and after that, he will feel the
pareha naton; kanang mga tao gud sa relief because of “tayhop” and “luy – a”.
talon, na syempre imo na siyang
bulongon, Hmmm. Dili naman na siguro
ng ibutang naton na kel nga na pay
tayhop kay pwede ng pag tayhop, pag
tayhopan mo na siya. Kay tana akon
tayhop gid tana kay bulongan mo gid
tana pay ti pagkakuan sato hiloton, ti
syempre pagkakuan sato daw
maumpawan nato siya gawa kay
natayhopan na, kay naluy-ahan,hmmm,
naluy-ahan.

4. What is your basis to say that the


illness is pasma?
For people? They are lack of food
Sa tao? Kulang na sa kaon, kulang sa intake, lack of sleep or unable to sleep,
tulog then dili siya makatulog, tapos and then stress.
(cough), kanang na stress, Oo.

5. What are the reasons why do you


keep reminding your costumers not
to take a bathe after the massage?

Kay kana kay bag- o ko lang siya That is because I just massaged him
and he is not allowed to take a bathe
gihilot, mga bale duha ka adlaw dapat
for two days. He is not allowed to take
siya nga dili siya maligo, sa ikatatlo nga a bathe because their muscles and
adlaw pwede na siya maligo. Kay veins has been dismantled during the
bawal maligo, syempre nabungkag dun massage and if they take a bathe,
ang iyang mga ugat ng nga iyang everything will be back to its normal
places before I took the massage; he
katawhan kay gihilot amo ng bawal siya
will return to his tired body.
maligo. Oo magkuan man siya, hindi
mag kanang iyang, akon tong pag
paghilot magbalik sa iyong
kaugalingong lawas, na daw kapoy,
Oo.

6. What is your first encounter of


pasma? Yes of course, one example is *****. He
went here at 4:00 a.m. because I can
Oo may ara eh, ah, halimbawa si *****, see that he is catching his breath. I told
***** nga *****, Oo nagkadto na siya him to sit and I massaged him. After
dire alas kwatro sang aga kay nakuan the massage, he was relieved. I pulled
man nakon nga naga (Hingal), naga and massaged each of his fingers in
order to provide relief.
hingal, siya, Oo naga hapo na. ti
pungko, ginhilot ko to siya. Oo,
muingon ko, te kuon ko, gihilot ko to
siya, te pagkatapos nakon hilot na kuan
dun, kanang, Oo naumpawan. Ahmm.
Ng sa mga kamot gina amo na. ganyan
gina pang butong, gina pang massage
aron lang maumpawan siya.

7. What are the causes of pasma?


The cause of pasma is that if you are
Ang kana, kanang kuan ng pag pasma from a basketball game, Of course you
sina kanang naay gikan ka sa kuan, already have pasma, and then if you
drink cold water; the pasma will be
panglitan gikan ka sa basketball, te
triggered. One more example is from a
syempre may pasma kana daan, may carpenter, they are exposed to the sun
pasma kana daan tapos mag –inom ka and when they take a break; and drink
bugnaw nga tubig amo ng pagbalik cold water, the outcome would really
sang imong pasma. Di ka mag – inom be pasma.
sang tubig nga lamig. Oo, Oo, Oo
pasmo, pasmo! Nakuan na to pasmo.
Oo amo na na Hmmm. Amo na na sila
da kay kanang mga panday kung pasar
sa kaon kay ara sila sa initan then
magbaba, mag – inom sa tubig, amo
na na siya da, pasmo gid ang gwa niya
da.

8. What part of the body is prone to


pasma? If you are weak, your core will be easily
affected by pasma and other diseases.
Kung kuan ka hiyang ka, ang Imong
All originated from the head until it
ginhawaan, nga na dali ka matakdan reaches the body, the hands, and the
sang pasmo, dali matakdan pud sang heart.
sakit. Tanan gikan sa ulo gid hantod
dire sa lawas nimo na mga kamot nimo
og mga dughan nimo.

9. What are the various faces of


pasma?
Pasma is only one based on my
Daw nabal-an nakon isa lang man ning knowledge. It is only in your body after
pasma king, Oo, sa lawas mo lang gid taking heavy workload. Hungriness; it
na oy, gikan ka sa kakapoy. Sa gutom, will really attack the brain first. When
you are hungry, the stomach will first
then sa gutom gid; ang ulo gid na kuan
signal the brain and the brain will react
unahon. Ulo nimo kay naga kudog man and that is now the tremors, headaches
dire sa tiyan nimo nga ah nagutom ko and it will go throughout the body.
te unahon gid ang ulo sa pag kuan na
nga sakit ang ulo nimo na , Oo,
magkalat sa lawas nimo, Oo.

10. What are the effects of pasma in


the body? If not prevented, that is the time that
you will have mental problems like
Te amo na na kung dili ka matambalan, dementia. You will have dementia
magkuan ka; magbuang ka. Oo, Oo because the air from your body will go
(laughs) mabuang jud ka kay pasmo to your brain. Then after that the eyes
will be blurred. Luckily some just turned
mo! Kay ang hangin sa imong lawas crazy.
masaka naman sa utok nimo, te
syempre pag kuan sato lain naman,
blurred naman panan –aw to. Nabulag.
May nalang ng iban kay nabuang te
pag buang mo sina.

11. What is the history of your


knowledge about pasma? You can see it in the face of the person
if what is the result, if what is the illness
Te sa imo na sa itsura na sa tao, in his body. I just knew it, I can easily
matan- aw mo, kung ano ang iyang detect the illness by just looking at it.
resulta, kung ano ang sakit sa iyang
lawas. Saakun lang, mabal – an ko na
sa tan –aw ko lang daan ma bal – an
ko na nga amo na iyang sakit.

I hereby certify that the transcription has been done in a manner which ensures
transparency and the thought of the responses were preserved in the translation.

Subject 1

SUBJECT 2
Verbatim Response English Translation

1.1 What is your own perception for


pasma?

Ah kuan kanang malipasan ka ug gutom, When you skipped meals, that's the time
tapos kanang ah... kanang magkurog kurog that your hand will involuntarily shake and
imong kamot unya, musaka ang kabuhi sa the reflux inside the stomach will go in the
imong ulo head.

1.2 How serious is this disease?

Isa naa jud na siya, isa na jud na siya Some of the effects of pasma are fever,
maglagnat, magsuka, mao na magtuob nausea, and that is when you do
naka, una una, magtugnaw na, steaming, at first, you feel cold, and
magkalibanga ka, dili lang ang kalibanga na indigestion. Indigestion is not always
cause by dirt, it is cause by pasma,
ingon lang sa hugaw, gikan na sa pasmo,
because our stomach keeps on trembling,
kay ang atung intestine, sige manag bag it if you do not eat, it will soften. And will
kung wala kay ginakaon mahilis to siya... cause ulcer.
mao na ang magcause ug ulcer, ang
hinungdan ana pasmo.

1.3 Is pasma has a superstitious


intervention or it is a common illness?
The cause of bughat is also pasma,
Ang cause pud sa bughat kay pasmo, kay because usually, it is not work that
kasagaran dili makabughat ang trabaho, causes bughat, but the habit of skipping
ang makabughat kanang wala kay kaon meals that will cause headache, unable to
move your body, hairfalls, and shaking.
mao nang magsakit imong ulo, dili naka
There are a lot of remedies for bughat.
makalihok, tapos mag epek na siya
Usually, the common cure is herbal,
maglagas ang imong buhok, magkurog ka, sometimes, the elepante, it is what they
daghan man ug kuan ang bughat, usually called elepante plant, boil the roots then
ang herbal ang tambal ana, usahay kanang drink the water of it, and take a warm
elepante, kanang elepante kanang bath with gabon and massage the body.
ginatawag nila na elepante na tanom, ang
gamut lagaon tapos ang tubig ipainom,
tapos iligo kanang warm na tubig, tapos
naa siyay gabon tapos hiloton ang lawas.

1.4 How can you say that a person is


suffering pasma?
The skipping of meals, your acid reflux
Kanang, malipasan na ka ug gutom ana, can get into the head that is the reason
imong kabuhi musaka sa imung ulo, mao you will get mad. You will easily notice a
nang mabuang ka, mao na Makita na person has encounter pasma, Usually;
person who uses drugs and never eats.
napasmohan jud ning tawhana ni… Usually
The air can get to your head and will
kanang maliso-a… kanang gamit ug ano
result to pasmo and there are many
tapos wala gaakaaon. Magsaka ang causes of pasma.
hangin sa ulo, pasmo na siya, and daghan
man ang cause sa pasmo.
1.5 What are the reasons why is it
probihited not to take a shower after
doing a hasstle activity under a hot
weather? Example, a sweaty basketball player,
Example jud ana mga basketball; pawis jud after the game they are use to sit down?
na siya pawis, pagkahuman magdula ug Your sweat are still appearing then you
wanted to wash, because you though it’s
basketball maglingkod ka dba? Gagawas
all gone because you wipe it off. After
paman imong pawis ana niya gusto naka
manghimasa, abi nimo wala nay, wala nay, taking a bath, you observe that your
kay pawis ana, kay natrapuhan na nimo, sweats are still coming out. Therefore, the
pagligo nimo ana pag observe nimo, waterdrops went inside your body, your
makaligo ka ana, paghuman nimo ug ligo body will feel weary. And on the next day
ana, maggawas gihapon ang pawis ana, sa you’ll feel ill and the effect is the hand
atua pa ang tubig na giligo nimo nakasulod tremor.
nato didto, imong lawas ato didto luya na
kay pagkaugma ana mabati na nimo, unsay
epek ana magkurogkurog na ang mga
kamot.

1.6 What is your first encounter of


pasma?
The person who lose conciousness, then
Katung tao na nalipong, tapos akong I assisted the person with a blow because
gitabangan…gitayhupan…kay hangin na the hangin is within your stomach then it
ang sulod sa imong tiyan tapos mao na siya is what they called heartburn. There are
ang ginatawag na kabuhi. Oh kanang two types, hangin in the head and in your
hangin ba kay duha man gud sa ulo ug sa stomach.
imong kanang sa tiyan.
1.7 What are the causes of pasma? The skipping of meals, then the shaking
of the hands, then the kabuhi will go up
Ah kuan kanang malipasan ka ug gutom,
into your head then the first thing you do
tapos kanang ah... kanang magkurog kurog
is to boil a water, put a ginger into it then
imong kamot unya, musaka ang kabuhi sa drink after that do a steaming until you
imong ulo, tapos, ah ang una kuan ana perspire. Lemongrass is totally
himuon nimo pabukal ka ug tubig butangan acceptable.
nimo ug luy-a tapos inumon nimo,
magkurog kurog imong kamot, sakit imong
ulo,… ah mao na to magpabukal naka tubig
unya butangan nimo ug luy-a mao na..
Inomon nimo... tapos Tuob ka. Oo
singhot…murag isteam ba isteam ana...
Kanang mga tanglad ana pwede mana.
1.8 What part of the body is prone to
pasma?
Then the cause of death are the factor of
Tapos katung maka cause ug katung playing basketball then taking a bath
makapatay kanang gikan magbasketball, immediately without taking a rest and it is
tapos basa dayon, wala siyay pahulay, mao the leading cause of death because your
na siya ang cause na mapatay ka kay blood vessels are shaking and in the
ngano hago, imong mga ugat, gakurog blood vessel is where your blood can flow
mana tapos imong mga ugat syempre the your heart will pump blood too fast,
galatay dara imong dugo tapos hago si diba and your heart will get drowned and die
unya, imong heart magpump mana ug immediately.
kusog, mao na murag malumos imong
heart , kanang naderetsohan
1.9 What are the various faces of
pasma? Pasmo sa kusog, pasmo sa gutom.
Pasmo sa kusog is the result of Bone-
Pasmo sa kusog… pasmo sa gutom, weary where you came from a hot then
pasmo sa kusog kanang naghago ka, gikan taking a bath, getting wet with a water
ka sa init tapos nagligo ka, nagbasa ka ug and will cause the shaking of the blood
tubig mao nang magkurog imong ugat, ang vessel. Some are having difficulty in
uban usually maglisod naa ug clamp mag closing and opening of the palm. It is
clamp imong mga kamot, Dili na siya ma... pasma.
Pasmo na siya, pasmo…
1.10 What are the effects of pasma in the
body? The effects are hairfalls, shaking of the
body, there are many type of bughat and
Mag epek na siya maglagas ang imong usually the treatment is herbal.
buhok, magkurog ka, daghan man ug kuan
ang bughat, usually ang herbal ang tambal
ana.
11.1 How to decrease the effect of
pasma?
Boil a water with a lemongrass…for me
Bukal ka ug tanglad ana... Basta akoa nga lemongrass is an effective herbal plant,
cure jud na siya tanglad, mga luy-a ana o, just like ginger then never skip meal the
reason you will caught by pasma is
unya di ka magpalipas gutom mao na
because of not eating in time *laugh* and
pasmo jud ka ana magpalipas ka ug gutom will result to bughat. Pasmo came from
*laugh* mao na to bughat...Dili ay ang playing a basketball then getting wet.
pasmo gikan ka sa … nagdula ka ug
basketball tapos magbasa ka dayon pasmo
jud ka ana.

I hereby certify that the transcription has been done in a manner which ensures
transparency and the thought of the responses were preserved in the translation.

SUBJECT 2
Verbatim Response English Translation

1.1 What is your own perception for


pasma?

Ang pasmo gikan na sa kuan kanang


The pasma came from starvation. If
nalipasan ug gutom kung magkaon ka
you eat at 12 pm, 11am or 12pm you
ug kuan alas dose, alas onse o alas will not get pasmo but if you eat at
dose dili ka ana mapasmo pero mga 1pm or 2pm you will get caught by
ala una mga alas dos dyan na pasmo. You will feel stomachache
mapasmo na, magsakit na imong tiyan then the air will get to your stomach
ana---gutom o… tapos mabutangan ug then no appetite to eat, then you will
hangin ang tiyan o ug dili na dayun start to feel headaches and that is
pasma.
ganahan magkaon, maglabad naa
imong ulo, o mao na mao na pasmo
nana siya..

1.2 How serious is this disease?

Basta dili tung dugay na nga pasmo If a person is not experiencing the
kadyot lang ngay kuan mo kay pasma too long it is not that severe.
nalipasan mo ug gutom inyong tyan But if you do a habit of skipping a
sigeg ka guok ana... bsan gutom mo meal it will lead to another disease
like ulcer because your stomach
pasmo. *grrrgrrr* ana mana… ulcer na
keeps on growling and might
ang tawag sa sobra na pasmo...
damage your intestine then you will
Paingon sa ulcer... Ang tinai nimo puke a bitter taste liquid because the
nagsamad na tapos magsuka na pait, pasmo is very severe already and
pait ang suka... o kay grabe naman might lead to ulcer. When you always
kaayo na pasmo... Basta madugay ang drink the water of coconut without a
pasmo mahimo na to siyag ulcer. food intake is also a deadly one. You
Makapatay gihapon nang labi nag will feel headache that last long if you
butong imong ginakaon niyog… do not do steaming.
makapatay gihapon na kay grabe
kaayo ug pasmo ana labad kaayo ang
ulo... Dugay kaayo mawala... Basta dili
ka maggamit atung tuob dili na
maawala ba... Labad kaayo na imong
ulo murag kuan ba…..
1.3 Is pasma a superstition or it is a
common illness?
Ang init sa tao blanse ug ang bugnaw
balance sa sulod sa lawas. Unya kung The hot and cold should be balance
sobra ang bugnaw naa na kay gibati inside of the body of a person. Then
ana--- sa-sakit ang tiyan ana. Unya if the coldness is too high means you
daghan na ug bugnaw ubuhon ka sip will felt stomach-ache, then you will
unon... diba labi na karo bugnaw inig catch cold. Now in the night we feel
gabei magbukot ka ug habol... ug much cold, we should use blanket.
sobra kasa init kalintura ang labas And if toomuch hot, and always skip
nimo, katung napasmo ka kalinturahon a meal the result is fever and always
gyud ka ana… kanang nalipasan ka ug laying in bed.
gutom kalinturahon gyud ka ana tapos
magsige lang ka ug higda dili naka
ganahan magkaon.

1.4 How can you say that a person is


suffering pasma?

Kanang mabuang na hmmhmm...


Dapat likayan jud nang pasmo
mageskwela mo magbalon jud mo
magkaon jud mo eksakto mao nang
mga buang diha dagandagan pasmo
na siya *laugh* na sobrahan sa gutom
ohh... Nagligo
nagligo...Pasmooo...mao pud na sa
mga bukog

1.5 What is the reason why is it


probihited not to take a shower
after doing a hassle activity
under a hot weather?

Mao na ang ingon nila na pasmo sa It is what they said pasmo sa kusog
kusog o mga bukog ang kay gikan or pasmo sa bukog because it is
naghago ang ilaang lawas tapos cause by having a tired body then
manghimasa ang uban dili na kalakaw taking a bath. Some people are
tungod na sa pasmo gihapon unable to walk because of pasma.

1.6 What is your first encounter in


Pasma?

Kay basta mga kasagaran mga


estudyante ang apektadokay akong Because usually, students are the
anak napasmo kay dili magbalon affected ones. My child also
lage... Kung amua mga binisaya lang encounters pasma because of not
gyud amua mga herbal. bringing food in school. Commonly,
we use traditional healing like
herbals.
1.7 What are the cures for pasma?

Kanaa pud tuob…kanang mag kuan...


Ug mapasmo ka sa mga softdrink mga
coke... magpabukal ka ug tubig If you catch pasma by drinking
butangan ug coke, ug asin tapos softdrink like coca-cola. Boil a water
add coca-cola and salt then add a
butangan ug dukot kanga dukot sa burnt rice. Boil them together then
kan-on oo...ipabukal to tanan tapos I after it boil, lay your face down then
ano na ipa ano pagka kuan bukal, put the pot in the lower area of the
tapos magkulob ka unya ibutang didto bed then wrap your body with a thick
sa kanang gihigdaan ninyo ibutang ang blanket in 15 minutes or 10 minutes
kolon unya abrihan tapos magbukot ug after that slowly open the enclosed
porch, you should close your eyes so
baga na habol mga 15 minutes 10 o 10
that the heat coming from the pot can
pwede 10 kuan man siya inig abri nimo not get into your eyes. Slowly open
hinay-hinayon lang nimo..Magpiyong the pots then eat the inside of it after
dapat ka kay aron aron di maabot ang you wrap yourself with a blanket,
init-lisgaw oh.. Hinay-hinayon nimo na your sweat will come out then your
siya ug abri tapos iekuan na siya sa illness will disappear because you
pusod na... Unya human maagbukot already perspire, the pasma went
with your sweat. And never get
mo ug habol tapos magsinghot naka
ventilated.
ana... Tapos mawala naa imong sakit...
Kay na ano naman sa singhot.
Naggawas na sa singhot uban sa
pasma... tapos dili mo magpahangin...

1.8 What part of the body is prone to


pasma?

Sakit sa tiyan, labad sa ulo, o mag


ulcer ka ug perminti naka mapasmo
ulceron naka magsamad na imong Stomach-ache, headache or will
tinae o ana o, ulcer naman tapos result to ulcer if always skipping a
dugay na maayo. O mamatay na ang meal, because your intestine will get
uban kay magsuka naman na siya. damage and if having a long time
ulcer might result to death, some
people may vomit.
1.9 What are the effects of pasma in
the body?

Sakit sa tiyan, labad sa ulo, o mag


ulcer ka ug perminti naka pasar ug
kaon, kay ulceron naka magsamad na
imong tinae o ana o, ulcer naman
tapos dugay na maayo. O mamatay na
ang uban kay magsuka

1.10 How to decrease the effect of


pasma?

Dapat likayan jud nang pasmo


mageskwela mo magbalon jud mo ug
magkaon jud mo eksakto mao nang Pasma should be avoided. If you go
mga buang diha dagandagan pasmo to school, make sure to bring food
na siya *laugh* na sobrahan sa gutom and eat well. That is why those
ohh... Nagligo people running around with mental
nagligo...Pasmooo...mao pud na sa illness *laugh* has an excessive
mga bukog hunger, taking a cold bath and that is
what with pasmo sa bukog.

I hereby certify that the transcription has been done in a manner which ensures
transparency and the thought of the responses were preserved in the translation.

SUBJECT 3
JMJ CH
NOTRE DAME OF KIDAPAWAN COLLEGE
INTEGRATED BASIC EDUCATION DEPARTMENT – SENIOR HIGH SCHOOL
DATU INGKAL ST., KIDAPAWAN CITY

Researchers: Marcon, Noemie P. (R1) Date: 3/ 1/ 19


Batomalaque, Brylle T. (R2) Section: St.Jerome
Teves, Jannah Jen A. (R3)

Title: FOLK HEALING :THE SEARCH FOR THE CURE OF PASMA

Senior High School Oral Evaluation Form

Criteria Percentage Score

(R1) (R2) (R3) (R4)


A. Research Paper
1. Originality of the topic/extent of 10%
contribution to the community
25%
2. Critical discussion of the research
3. Consistency/correctness of the 15%
contents

B. Presentation
20%
1. Mastery of the topic/subject
2. Quality of presentation 10%
3. Ability to answer questions
20%

TOTAL 100%

Remarks

Panelist’s signature
JMJ Ch
NOTRE DAME OF KIDAPAWAN COLLEGE
Senior High School Department
Datu Ingkal St., Kidapawan City

CONSENT-TO-PARTICIPATE FORM

Research Title: Folk Healing: The Search for the Cure of Pasma

Researchers: Noemie P. Marcon


Jannah Jen A. Teves
Brylle T. Batomalaque

Dear Participant:

Greetings!

As part of our academic requirement in the Senior High School


Department of the Notre Dame of Kidapawan College, we are conducting a
research entitled: “Folk Healing: The Search for the Cure of Pasma”. This study
aims to know the perceptions of the participants towards pasma and to gather
different methods of reliving this illness. You were chosen to be one of the
informants based on the criteria set. We ask that you read this form before
agreeing to participate in this study. There will be no risks and discomforts since
the interview will be done in a secluded place and in your most convenient time.

As an informant, you have the right for voluntary participation which


enables you to withdraw from the study anytime you wish should you feel
uncomfortable. Also, your identity will be kept anonymous and the information
that you shall give to us will be kept confidential to uphold the ethical
considerations of qualitative research. We assure that your responses will only
be utilized in this research and for academic purposes.

Please affix your signature with the full knowledge of the nature and
purpose of the procedure. A copy of this consent form will be given to you for
safekeeping.

Participant’s/Informant’s Signature

Date: