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DHAMMAPADA A TRANSLATION Thanissaro Bhikkhu (Geoffrey DeGraff) PRINTED FOR FREE DISTRIBUTION DHAMMA BARRE CENTER DANA FOR PUBLICATIONS BUDDHIST STUDIES BARRE. MASSACHUSETTS .
revised. all Cover Photo© Gregory Smith. with permission. from Otherwise rightsreserved.COPYRIGHT THANISSARO © BHIKKHU 1998 Thisbookmay copied reprinted/or/ree be or distribution withoutpermission thepublisher. Libraryof Congress Cataloging-in-Publication pending. Printed in the United States of America. 2003 . Data Third edition. Used M.
CONTENTS PREFACE INTRODUCTION iii i i: PAIRS i ii: HEEDFULNESS in: THE MIND 7 10 iv: BLOSSOMS v : FOOLS 13 18 vi: THE WISE vii: ARAHANTS vni: THOUSANDS ix : EVIL x: THE ROD xi: AGING xii: SELF xin : WORLDS xiv : AWAKENED xv : HAPPY 23 27 30 34 38 42 45 48 51 56 .
xvi: DEAR ONES xvn : ANGER xvin: IMPURITIES 59 62 66 xix : THE JUDGE xx : THE PATH xxi: MISCELLANY 71 76 81 xxn: xxm: xxiv: xxv: xxvi: HELL ELEPHANTS CRAVING MONKS BRAHMANS 85 89 93 100 106 HISTORICAL END NOTES GLOSSARY NOTES 119 137 l6l l66 ABBREVIATIONS BIBLIOGRAPHY 167 .
though. Introduction aimed the is moreat the second group. my The explanatory materialis designed meetwith to the needs of two sorts of readers: those who want to read the text asa text.andthe translationitself. I owethema greatdeal Instead.to prove it'snot "just"another In that one.in the context the religious of history of Buddhism-viewed from the outside-and those whowantto read text asaguide thepersonal the to conduct of their lives. The original impulse for making translation the came frommyconviction that the text deservedto be offered freely as a gift of Dhamma.which I I hopewill standon its ownmerits. for I'll askyou to readthe Introduction and Historical Notes.to gain an ideaof what is distinctive aboutthe approach havetaken.I made own. of Many other Englishtranslations already are available-the fingers at least people of five wouldbeneeded to countthem-so I suppose a newtranslation that has to bejustified.PREFACE Another translation theDhammapada.I'd rathernot criticizethe effortsof earlier translators. I knewof no existing As translations available asgifts. Although there is no clear line dividing these groups. doingso.andthe HistoricalNotesmoreat the .
stress. Verses marked with an in the translation are discussed in the End Notes. aseffluent. Charles Hallisey. are Thanissaro Bhikkhu Metta ForestMonastery Valley Center. KarenKing. such enlightened fabrication. 92082-1409 CA December. of Also. Ruth Stiles.first. mistakes remain. Pali terms-as well as Englishterms usedin a special sense.Clark Strand. Unbinding-when appear morethan and they in oneverse. AndrewOlendzki.1997 II . myownresponsibility.andJaneYudelman offered manyhelpfulcomments improved qualthat the ity of thebookasa whole.PaulaTrahan. The End NotesandGlossary containmaterialthat should be of interest asterisk to both. owea special I debt of gratitudeto Jeanne Larsenfor her help in honing downthe language the translation. are in In addition to the previoustranslatorsand editors from whose work I have borrowed. JohnBullitt. explained theGlossary. one. Any that of course.
As an example kavya. in or belles lettres. long been has recognized oneof the as masterpieces earlyBuddhistliterature. This translation the Dhammapada an attemptto of is render verses English a way does the into in that justiceto bothof thetraditions whichthetextbelongs. The ethical teaching theDhammapadaexpressed of is in the first pair of verses: mind. throughits actions the in .Only more of recently havescholars realized it is alsooneof the that earlymasterpieces the Indian tradition of kavya. Dhammapada a of the has fairly completebody of ethical and aesthetic theory behind for the purpose kavya to instructin the it. thesame At time.INTRODUCTION The Dhammapada.theearly Buddhists adopted andadapted conventions kavya a waythat skillthe of in fully dovetailed with their viewsof how teaching and listening played rolein their pathof practice. as dealing with form(kavya) content and (Buddhism). anthology verses an of attributed to the Buddha. hope a My is that the translation presented herewill convey the same seamlessness and skill. of was highest endsof life whilesimultaneously givingdelight. to Although it is tempting viewthese to traditions distinct. ideals the of kavya aimed combining at formandcontent a seaminto less whole.
who is heedlessand seesno reason to train the mind.(kamma). fear. techniques the of poetryare usedto give"savor" (rasa) the message.anger. also not now but to furtherentrapment within the cycle. pathof the fool the leads onlyto suffering andin thefuture. IV . basictheorywasthis: Artistic composiThe tion expressed of emotion states mindcalled states or of "bhava.to showthat thereare on two majorways relating thisfact:asa wiseperson." The standard list of basic emotions included love(delight). disgust. of to who is heedful enough make necessary to to the effort train his/her own mind to be a skillful architect. the chiefarchitect oneshappiness sufis of and fering both in this life and beyond. The work as a whole elaborates on this distinction.grief. purpose The of the Dhammapadato make wisepathattractive is the to the reader so that he/she will follow it-for the dilemma posited the first pairof verses not onein theimagiby is nary world of fiction. to AncientIndianaesthetic treatises devoted great a dealof discussion to the notion of savor and how it could be conveyed. together with the rewards the of former thedangers thelatter:thepathof thewise and of person leadnot onlyto happiness can withinthe cycle of deathand rebirth. but alsoto total escape into the Deathless. beyond cycle the entirely.and asa fool. showing moredetailboththe pathof thewiseperson in and that of the fool.The first three chapters elaborate this point. To makethe wisepathattractive. energy. it is the dilemmain which the reader already is placed thefactof being by born. humor.
savor supposed domto one was to inate. repeated imperatives. Classic aesthetic theorylists the savor Dhamma. races. savor of The of energy not energy is itself. in fact to and theydo. the savor griefis not grief. Althoughaworkof art mightdepict many emotions.Thus.he/shesavored them asan aesthetic experience oneremove at from the emotion.but compassion. conquests.and astonishment.but admiration herofor ism. whichindicates that that is the basic savor of the work. usually stating in passing theirparticular that savor the highest all.The savor loveis not lovebut an experience of of sensitivity. and . the savor theemotion while of was to beenjoyed.strong to verbs. savor astonishment a sense the The of is of marvelous. frequent of the imagery and use from battles. andthus-like a goodmeal-offer manysavors the for reader/listener taste. with their exhortations action.asoneof of or the three basicvarietiesof the heroic savor(the other twodealwith generosity war):thuswewouldexpect and the majorityof the verses depictenergy. was of The Dhammapada states  explicitly that the savor of Dhammais the highestsavor. readeror listenerexposed The to thesepresentations emotiondid not participatein of them directly.Writersmade common a practice announcing of the savor theywere tryingto produce.rather. proofof the indirectness theaesthetic The of experiencewas that someof the basic emotionswere decidedly unpleasant. justice.
246-248. the to with the resultthat he/shewill reacha directexperience of thetruehappiness. asto produce so qualities the heroic of and marvelous for the reader to savor. 179-180]-totally indescribable. transcending dualities. VI . all foundat theendof thepath.Dhamma. especially the end. in fact. This savor is then what inspires reader followthe path of wisdom.in the Buddhistsense.becoming to "pathless" [92-93. This. is what happens periodically throughout Dhammapada.Thus the predominant emotions that the versesexpressin Pali-and should also express translation-are energyand in astonishment. 294-295]. and continuingwith examples goodjudgmentof shows that the Buddhistconceptof Dhammahasroom for theaesthetic meaning thetermaswell of Classictheory also holds that the heroic savor should. transcending conflicts dualities every and of sort. Examples these from lists that canbe foundin the Dhammapada include: accumulation(padoccaya) [137-140]. especially the endof a piece. impliesmorethan the "justice" Dhamma aesthetic of in theory* However. the long section the Dhammapada of devoted "The to Judge"-beginning with a definitionof a goodjudge. at shade the into marvelous. (aksarasamgbata) [97. the and at where verses the express astonishment the amazing at andparadoxical qualities a person of whohasfollowed the path of heedfulness its end.ambiguity et. al. admonitions (upadista) [47-48. Classic aesthetic theory a variety rhetorical lists of featuresthat canproduce savor.].
rhyme (including alliteration assonance). etymology (nirukta) . of are extended metaphor .et.praise [44. illustrations (udaharana) implications . the two sentences the or from oneverb." of and The figures speech simile[passim]. aL]. and and "lamps"[passim]. is This how I have rendered lamps in most of the verses. 318-319]. nations of causeand effect (hetu) [1-2].ornamentation is the most complex. 21- 22.distinctions(visesana) [19-20. the VII . aL]. et.prohibitions et.46. nameof the (The figurederives from the ideathat the two nounsradiate from the oneadjective. examples (drstanta) expla. and ornamentation (bbusana) [passim].371.)In English.143. effective to repeat lamp-word. (arthapatti) rhetorical . questions (prccha) 62. encouragement (protsahana) 43. aL]. although two cases 206]I foundit more in [174.This last figureis a peculiarity of Pali-a heavily inflected language-that allows.aL]. [35. (pratisedha) [121122. An examplefrom the translation is in verse 7Mara overcomes him as the wind. though is elided even it fromthesecond. closest have thisis paralthe we to lelism combined with ellipsis. oneverbto or functionin two separate sentences. one say. (gunakirtana) [54'56.et. 58-59. including four figures speech ten "qualities. Of these. a weak tree -where "overcomes" functions as the verb in both clauses. 92-93.benedictions (asis) .271-272. adjective modifytwo different to nouns.
of his/herwords aresweet. example.is that somequalities are seenas more suited to a particular savorthan others: strength exaltation. of the person but speaking . strength (ojas) the easiest quantify. sense.The ten "qualities"are more generalattributes of sound. andstrength. approximately tenth of the verses one containcompounds areaslongasa wholelineof verse. this is rathermild. In the Dhammapada. convey taste and for best a of the heroic and marvelous. delicacy. the person If is a true example the virtueespoused. point could generalized cover This be to many of theotherqualities well. of Even wherethey are clear. to What is important. the standards laterSanskrit By of verse. one that and verse  hasthreeof its four linesmadeup of such compounds. evenness. exaltation.Althoughthe text does not VIII . it is marked is to for by long compounded words. but whencompared verses the with in restof the Pali Canonandotherearlymasterpieces of kavya.clarity. and includingsuchattributesas charm. ancient The textsarenot especially clear on what some thesetermsmeanin practice.syntax.though. the is The text alsoexplicitly adds the theoryof characto teristics saying "sweetness" just anattribute in that is not of words. sweetness.the terms deal in aspectsof Pali/Sanskrit syntaxnot always applicable English. as Another point fromclassic aesthetic theory that may berelevant theDhammapadatheprinciple howa to is of literarywork is given unity. Of these characteristics. Dhammapadaquitestrong.
One more point is that the idealplot should conbe structed with a sub-plot whicha secondary in character gains his/hergoal.systematic progress. There must be reversals and diversions maintain to interest. the ethical lessonis one of humancooperation: people attaintheirgoals working by together.provide step-by-step a sequential portraitof the pathof wisdom. addition theaesthetic In to pleasure offeredby the sub-plot. the onehand.the "sub-plot" and depicts IX . This principle at work is in the fairlyunsystematic ordering the Dhammapada's of middle sections. the Dhammapada.Verses dealingwith the beginning stages the patharemixed of together with thosedealing with laterstages even and stages beyond completion the of thepath.a plot mustexhibit On unity by presentingconflictor dilemma.asa lyric anthology is muchmoreunified it than most Indian examples that genre. in sodoing and helps maincharacthe ter attainhisor hers. and endswith the final attainmentof total mastery. the other hand. of The classic theoryof dramatic construction be playing plot may an indirectrolehere.the plot must not On showsmooth. otherwise work the would turn into a treatise. same In the dynamic at is work. depicting a and the attainment a goalthroughovercoming conof that flict. This is precisely what unifies Dhammapada: the it begins with the dualitybetween heedless heedful and waysof living.The main"plot"is that of theperson whomasters theprinciple kamma thepoint of total release of to from kamma the roundof rebirth.
However.Those factors four:associating people integrity. return. figures and of speech-primarily connection the second in with of these factors. structure. 363]. EarlyBuddhists the traditions used of kavya-concerning savor. working together theattainment their own for of truewellbeing. and delineates those rolesin sucha way that all peoplecanchoose be to heroic.the first person In gives counsel the second to person howto pursue on his/her goal[76-77. thus enabling first personto practice the the to point of total mastery. usingappropriate attention to inquireinto the waythoseteachings applyto oneslife. part. rhetoric. this waythe Dhammapada In depicts theplayof life in awaythat offers potentially two heroic roles for the reader to choose from. Perhaps bestwayto summarize confluence the the of Buddhist kavya and traditions the Dhammapadain in is light of a teaching fromanother earlyBuddhist text. orderto make teachings in the appealing to thelistener. question savor related the of is to the otherthreefactors well. andpracticing line with the teachings a waythat in in does them justice. are with of listeningto their teachings. second The person gains his/hergoal.by in being generous respectful thefirstperson and to [106-109.The words a teaching as of mustbe spoken a person integritywhoembodies by of .on the factors needed attain to one's taste the goalof the Buddhist first of path.the Samyutta Nikaya(iv*5).the person whomasters principleof kamma the the to pointofgaining good a rebirthon thehuman heavenly or planes. 177].
brightcolored but scentless: a well-spoken word is fruitless when not carried out. This point is reflected if in apairof verses theDhammapada [51-52]: from itself Justlike a blossom. Appropriate reflection.363]*The listener must reflect on them appropriately thenput theminto practice theyare and if to have morethana passing. Justlike a blossom.their message his/her actionsif their savor to be in is sweet [158. first stepalistener the should followin carrying thewell-spoken out word. superficial taste.The first is samvcga. Buddhist The traditionrecognizes emotwo tions asplayinga role in this reflection. Thusboth the speaker listener and mustactin linewith the words of a teaching it is to bearfruit. brightcolored & full of scent: awell-spoken word is fruitful when well carried out. a strong sense dismay comes realizof that with ing the futility andmeaningless life asit is normally of XI .means contemplating one's life to see dangers following own the of the path of foolishness the need followthe path and to of wisdom.
When the path is brought fruition. of bring In preparing followingtranslation. iswhere process This the initiated by hearing reading Dhamma or the bears deepest its savor. one brings peace. Although muchof the impetus doingso for comes theemotions samvega pasada from of and sparked by the content the verses. is thehighest all It sense whichthe in meaningful verses theDhammapada peace. clarityand serenity come the that whenone recognizes teaching a that presents truth of the the dilemma existence at the same of and time pointsthe way out.it brings peace delight the to the and of Deathless [373-374]. process not stopwith these the does preliminary feelings peace serenity. motivatedboth by a firm beliefin the truth of the message the Dhammapada. of andby adesire present in acompelling that will to it way XII . listener of and The must carrythroughwith the pathof practice the verses that recommend. Onefunction theverses the Dhammapada of in is to provide sense clarity whichis whyverse this of 82 states thewise that growserene hearing Dhamma.byinspiring lisof plays the tener to rousewithin him or herselfthe energyand strengththat the path will require. However. surpassing others.together a feeling urgency tryingto find with of in a wayout of the meaningless The second cycle.on hearing.lived. havekept the I the above points in mind. heroicand marvelous of the savor theverses aroleaswell. emotion is pasada. on the and 102 states that the most worthwhile verse is the meaningful that.
as well as their literal sense.I've alsotried to convey savor. of The freedom have I used in placing words thepage allows on also many thepoetic of effects Pali syntax-especiallythe parallelism of and ellipsis the"lamps"-to shine of through. Anyone is truly bilingual who will appreciate point. the translations allows are in free verse. Althoughthe originalverses conformto metrical rules. although it maybea logical goal. there maybeatension between giving instruction (beingscrupulously accurate) giving delight (providing an enjoyable and taste themental of states thewordsdepict).suchashumor. Wordsin the originalwere this chosen for their sound and connotations.and fear.induce reader put it into practice.I haveaimedat a the of spare styleflexible enough express onlyits domito not nantemotions-energy astonishment-butalsoits and transientemotions.especially for wherethe terms have technical a meaning. operating its I'm on theclassic assumption although that. best that the translation onethat playswith that tension is without submitting totallyto onesideat theexpense theother.delight. ciallyin translating poetry. This that is the form with that the requires fewest the deviations from literal accuracy and for a terse directness conforms heroicsavor the original. Totalconsistency. I have been relatively consistent choosing in English equivalents Pali terms. of To convey savor the work. by no means rational espeis a one. the to Although trying to stayasclose possible the literalmeaning the as to of text. the same so principles-within reasonable XIII .
replacing whodoes and "he this"with "he does this"in manyof the verses defining truebrahthe manin Chapter The remaining deviations 26. Deviations from the original syntaxarerare.(As mostof the verses originally were addressed monks.The first four arefor the sake of immediacy: occasional of the American use "you"for "one". two are: making minoradjustments sentence in structure keep to a wordatthe beginning endof averse or whenthisposition seems important(e. 158. orderto allowthelight andenergy as in of theoriginal pass to through with minimal distortion. The Dhammapada for centuries used an has been as introductionto the Buddhistpoint of view.limits-have been used in the translation.andhavebeenlimited primarilyto six sorts.However. in even where has meant considerable this a expansion the of verse.) bias In verses whereI sense a particularPaliword or that phraseis meantto carry multiple meanings. occasional of imperatives this!")for optause ("Do tives ("One should do this").I havefound it impossible elimito to nate the genderbias entirely. have I explicitly given of those all meanings the English. (Manyof these verses discussed the notes. I have tried to make the translation as trans- parent possible. 384).g*. and changing the number fromsingular ("thewiseperson") plural("the to wise")whentalking aboutpersonalitytypes.) are in Otherwise.both to streamline language to lightenthegender of the and bias the originalPali. substitutingactivefor passive voice.and so apologizefor whatever remains. XIV .
that I hope whatever that delight gainfromthistransyou lation will inspireyou to put the Buddha's wordsinto practice. but to xv .the text is by no means elementary eitherin termsof content style. thatyouwill someday thesavor. others employ multiplelevels meaning wordplay of and typicalof polishedkavya. of the Deathless whichtheypoint. have For I added notes the to translation helpdrawout some theimplications to of of verses mightnot be obvious people arenew that to who to eitherof thetwotraditions the textrepresents. or Manyof theverses presuppose least at a passing knowledge Buddhist of doctrine. just so taste not of thewords. this reason.
Phenomena preceded the heart. 1-2* 'He insulted me. like a shadow that never leaves. made of the heart. the track of the ox that pullsit.i: PAIRS Phenomena preceded theheart. thensuffering follows youas the wheel of the cart. hit me. . are by ruledbythe heart. hostilityisn'tstilled. are by ruledbytheheart. made of the heart* If youspeak act or with acorrupted heart. robbed me' "for those who brood on this. If youspeak act or with acalm. brightheart. thenhappiness follows you. beat me.
unenergetic: Mara overcomes him as the wind. are 3-6 Onewhostays focused thebeautiful. those who do: theirquarrels stilled. Hostilities are stilled through non-hostility: this. on is unrestrained with the senses. a weak tree.anunending truth.'He insulted me. knowing moderation food. no in apathetic. beat me. hostility is stilled* Hostilities aren't stilled through hostility. robbed me'- for those who don't brood on this. . Unlike those who don't realize that we're on theverge here ofperishing. regardless. hit me.
well-established in theprecepts. in full of conviction energy: & Mara does not overcome him as the wind. He who. . a mountain of rock. puts on the ochrerobe. But he who is free of depravity endowed with truthfulness & self-control. get ranging about wrong in resolves. truly deserves ochre the robe. on is restrained regard thesenses. depraved. with to knowing moderation food. doesn't deserve the ochre robe.Onewhostays focused thefoul. don't to theessence. devoid of truthfulness & self-control. 9-10 Those whoregard non-essence as essence and seeessenceas non-.
In both worlds themerit-maker rejoices. .jubilant. getto theessence. In both worlds thewrong-doer grieves. He rejoices. ranging about rightresolves. in As rain seeps into an ill-thatched hut. As raindoesn't into seep a well-thatched hut. thewell-developed mind. he's seeing corruption the of his deeds. theundeveloped mind. Hegrieves. afflicted. 13-14 Here hegrieves hegrieves hereafter. and non-essenceas non-. Here he rejoices he rejoices hereafter. sopassion. sopassion doesnot. is seeing purity the of his deeds.But those who know essence as essence.
. He delights thethought. to hedelights all the more. but -heedless man- doesn't whattheysay. He'stormented thethought. to he's tormented all the more. at I've done wrong/ Having gone abaddestination. In both worlds thewrong-doer's tormented.' Havinggone agooddestination.Here he's tormented he's tormented hereafter. 15-18* If he recites many teachings. do like acowherd counting cattle the of others. at I've made merit. hehasno share the contemplative in life. Here hedelights hedelights hereaften In both worlds themerit-maker delights.
aversion.If he recites next to nothing but follows the Dhamma in line with the Dhamma. not clinging either here or hereafter: hehashisshare thecontemplative in life. abandoning passion. delusion. 19-20 . his mind well-released. alert.
this those wise in heedfulness rejoice in heedfulness. livingtheDhamma: theirglory grows. The heedless are as if already dead. mindful. acting with dueconsideration. 21-24* . in persevering. enjoying range thenoble the of ones. restrained. heedful. Those with initiative. constantly absorbed jhana. Theenlightened. Heedlessness: pathto death. firm in their effort: theytouchUnbinding. theunexcelled safety frombondage. Knowing asa truedistinction.ii: HEEDFULNESS Heedfulness:thepathto theDeathless. the The heedful do not die. clean in action.
restraint, & self-control,
the wise would make an island no flood
They'readdicted heedlessness to
-dullards, foolswhile one who is wise cherishes heedfulness
or to intimacy
with sensual delightfor a heedful person, absorbed jhana, in
attains an abundance of ease,
When the wiseperson drivesout
having climbed hightower the
of discernment, sorrow-free,
heobserves sorrowing the crowd-
astheenlightened man, having scaled
thefoolson theground below. Heedful among heedless, the wakeful among those asleep, just asa fasthorse advances, leaving weak the behind:
so the wise.
Through heedfulness, won Indra to lordship thegods. over Heedfulnesspraised, is
Themonkdelighting heedfulness, in seeing danger heedlessness, in
advanceslike a fire,
burning fetters great small. & Themonkdelighting heedfulness, in seeing danger heedlessness in -incapableof fallingbackstands on theverge right of Unbinding.
in : THE MIND
to hold in check: the mind.
Thesage makes straightit
like a fletcher,
the shaft of an arrow* Like a fish
pulledfrom its homein the water
SCthrown on land:
thismindflips& flaps about
to escape Mara'ssway.
Hard to hold down, nimble,
alighting wherever likes: it
Its taming good. is
The mind well-tamed
So hard to see,
sovery, subtle, very alighting wherever likes: it
Thewiseshould guard it.
Those who restrain it: from Mara's bonds they'llbefreed. there is no danger no fear. lying in a cave: the mind. merit wakeful. bodiless. unassaulted awareness. going alone. abandoning & evil.The mindprotected bringsease* Wandering far. not knowing Dhamma. 33-37* Foraperson unsteady of mind. 39* II . true serenity set adrift: discernment doesn't growfull 38 Foraperson unsoddened of mind.
the well-directed mind cando for you even better. bereft of consciousness. Whatever a mother. attack Mara with thespear discernment. or a foe to a foe. 41 Whatever enemy an mightdo to an enemy. 42-43* 12 . of thenguardwhat's won withoutsettling there. withoutlaying claim. like a useless scrap of wood.Knowingthis body is like a clay jar. body this will lie on theground cast off. father or other kinsman mightdo for you. 40* All toosoon. the ill-directed mind candoto you even worse. securing mind this like a fort.
44'45* Knowing body this is like foam.iv: BLOSSOMS Who will penetrate earth this & this realm of death with all its gods? Who will ferret out thewell-taught Dhamma-saying. asthe skillfulflower-arranger the flower? The learner-on-the-path will penetrate earth this & this realm of death with all its gods. astheskillfulflower-arranger the flower. realizing nature its -a miragecutting out the blossoms of Mara. The learner-on-the-path will ferret out thewell-taught Dhamma-saying. .
a village asleep. its fragrancetakes nectar flies its & away: soshould sage the gothrough village. insatiable sensual in pleasures: the End-Maker holds him 47-48* under sway. The man immersed in gathering blossoms. his heart distracted: death sweeps awayhim asagreat flood. his <-""" As abee-without harming the blossom. a 49 . its color.yougo where Kingof Death the cant see* 46 The man immersed in gathering blossoms. his heart distracted.
brightcolored & full of scent: awell-spoken word is fruitful when well carried out. but on whatyou have & haven't done yourself. not on whatthey've done or left undone. not on the rudenessesof others. 50 Justlike a blossom. 51-52 Justasfroma heap flowers of many garland strands bemade. can even so one born & mortal should do -with what's born & is mortal53* many skillfulthing.Focus. Justlike a blossom. brightcolored but scentless: awell-spoken word is fruitless when not carried out. a .
tagara. lotus. 54-56* Those consummate in virtue. tagara. Nextto nothing. dwelling in heedfulness. 57* 16 . tagarawhile the scent of the virtuous waftsto thegods. supreme. Butthescent thegood of does against wind* go the Theperson integrity of wafts a scent in every direction. jasmine. fragrance this -sandalwood. Sandalwood.& jasmine: amongthese scents. releasedthrough right knowing: Mara can't follow their tracks. the scent of virtue is unsurpassed.No flower's scent goes against windthe not sandalwood.
& there dazzles with discernment thedisciple theRightly of Self-Awakened One.As in apileof rubbish castbythesideof ahighway alotusmightgrow clean-smelling pleasing heart. people run-of-the-mill blind. the so in the midst of the rubbish-like. 58-59 .
no with 61 1 have sons. your firmly. in yourcourse. There's fellowship fools.v: FOOLS Longfor thewakeful thenight. alone. don'tmeet you yourequal. samsara is long. better. league. is Longfor theweary. to how then sons? How wealth? 62 18 . When even he himself doesn't belong himself. a For fools unaware of True Dhamma. I have wealth'the fool torments himself. your thencontinue course. 60 If.
A fool with a sense of his foolishness is-at least to that extent-wise. But a fool who thinks himself wise
really deserves becalled to
Even if for a lifetime
thefool stays thewise, with heknows nothing theDhammaof
as the ladle,
thetaste thesoup. of
Even if for a moment,
theperceptive person stays with thewise, he immediately knows Dhammathe asthetongue, thetaste the soup, of
Fools, their wisdom weak,
are their own enemies
astheygothrough life, doingevil
that bears bitter fruit.
Its not good,
thedoing thedeed of
once its done,
whose result reap you crying, yourface tears. in Its good, thedoing thedeed of
that, once its done,
youdont regret, whose result reap you gratified, happy heart, at
As longasevilhasyetto ripen, thefool mistakes for honey. it
But whenthat evil ripens,
the fool falls into
thefoolmighteat onlyatip-of-grass measure food, of
but he wouldn't one sixteenth of those who've fathomed the Dhamma,
An evil deed, when done,
doesn't-likeready milkcome right away. out
It follows the fool,
like a fire hidden in ashes. 71*
Only for hisruin
does renown come to the fool
It ravages brightfortune his & rips hishead apart.
He would want unwarranted status,
preeminence among monks, authority among monasteries, homage fromlayfamilies. 'Lethouseholdersthose & gone forth
both think that this
was done mealone. by MayI alone determine what's duty,what's a not':
the resolve of a fool
astheygrowhisdesire pride. &
not should cultivate instead. a discipleto the Awakened One. 75 seclusion 22 . another. Realizing themonk. should relishofferings. this.Thepathto material gain goes one way. thewayto Unbinding.
Stay with thissortof sage. he's not. instruct. 78 23 . Associate with the best.vi: THE WISE Regard asonewho him points out treasure. endearing. 76-77 Don't associate with bad friends. Associate with admirable friends. To thegood. of things better. deflect you away frompoormanners. he's to the bad. the wise one who seeing faults your rebukes you. Let him admonish. get not worse. Don't associate with the low. Fortheonewhostays with a sage thissort.
In the Dhamma revealed bythenoble ones. in so the wise are not moved bypraise. 80 As asingle of rock slab won'tbudge thewind. 81 Like a deep lake. the wood. the arrowshaft. & calm: so the wise become clear. byblame. 79* Irrigatorsguide Fletchers shape Carpenters shape The wise control the water. onhearing words the Dhamma. refreshed the Dhamma. clear. calm. unruffled. by onesleeps ease at with clear awareness & calm. themselves. of 82 24 . thewise person always delights.DrinkingtheDhamma.
thewise no sign give of high or low. by unrighteous means: heis righteous. good. truly. a kingdom. They. the don't chatter hopes in of favor gains. discernment. now pain. 84 . or When touched nowbypleasure. his own fulfillment.Everywhere. those integrity of stand apart. a son. rich in virtue. 83* One who wouldn'tnot for his own sake nor that of anotherhanker for wealth.
theworld.Fewarethe people who reach the Far Shore. relinquishing graspingresplendent. will cross over the realm of Death so hard to transcend. hardto enjoy. These others simply scurry along this shore. in are Unbound. their effluents ended: they. so There should he wishfor delight. He should cleanse himself-wiseof what defiles the mind. Forsaking practices. 85-89* 26 . Whosemindsarewell-developed in thefactors self-awakening. But thosewho practice Dhamma in line with the well-taught Dhamma. for who delightin non-clinging. the having gone fromhome to no-home in seclusion. dark thewiseperson should develop bright. discarding sensualityhe who hasnothing.
can't be traced. the is free from sorrow. likeswans takingoff froma lake.vii: ARAHANTS In one who hasgone full distance. having understood food. 27 . 91 Not hoarding. likethatof birdsthrough space. Theyrenounce home. 90 The mindfulkeep active. has abandoned all bonds: no fever is found. don'tdelight settling in back. every every home. their pasture-emptiness & freedom withoutsign: their trail. is fully released in all respects.
Such. of their pasture-emptiness & freedom withoutsign: their trail. Like the earth. 92-93* He whose senses are steadied like stallions well-trained thecharioteer. Such. like a lake free of mud. he doesn't reactcultured. can't be traced. by his conceit abandoned. free of effluent. Calm " his r^ i is 1 " mind. For him -Such- there's traveling no on. likethat ofbirdsthrough space. independent nutriment. pacified. like Indra's pillar.Effluents ended. 94-96* 28 . calmhis speech & his deed: onewho's released through rightknowing. Such: even devas adore him.
97* In village wilds. those frompassion free delight.The man faithless beyond / conviction ungrateful knowing Unmade / the a burglar/ whohassevered connections who's destroyed his chances / conditions whoeats vomit: / hasdisgorged expectations: the ultimate person. for they're searching not for sensual pleasures. 99 29 . plateau: thatplace delightful is where arahants dwell 98 Delightful wilds where crowds the don'tdelight. or valley.
Better than if there were thousands of meaningless is verses one meaningful verse that on hearing brings peace. And betterthanchanting hundreds of meaningless is verses one Dhamma-saying thaton hearing bringspeace. 30 .viii: THOUSANDS Better than if there were thousands of meaningless is words one meaningful word thaton hearing bringspeace.
is he who would conquer just onehimself.month month. conduct sacrifices a hundred times. self-cultivated. 103-105 You could. by at a cost of thousands.Greater in battle thanthe manwhowouldconquer a thousand-thousand men. Better conquer to yourself than others. or payasingle moment's homage to one person. livingin constant self-control. a nor nor a Mara banded with Brahmas. . neither deva gandhabba. Better thanahundred years sacrifices of wouldthatactof homage be. couldturn thattriumph back into defeat. Whenyou've trained yourself.
the fourthings increase: longlife. is oneday livedby avirtuous person absorbed jhana.beauty. a or paya single moment's homage to one person. self-cultivated. by constantly honoring worthy. Betterto payrespect to those who've gone the straightway. live in a forest tending fire. 109 Better thanahundred years lived without virtue.Youcould. in 32 . Better thanahundred years sacrifices of wouldthat actof homage be. happiness. Everything offered or sacrificed in the world for anentire byoneseeking year merit doesn't come to a fourth. 106-108* If you're respectful habit.for a hundredyears. strength. uncentered.
And betterthana hundred years livedwithoutseeing the Deathless state. & And betterthanahundred years livedwithoutseeing arising& passing away. is oneday livedby adiscerning person absorbed jhana. is oneday livedseeing the ultimate Dhamma. & is oneday livedenergetic firm. is oneday livedseeing arising& passing away.Andbetterthana hundred years livedundiscerning. 110-115 33 . uncentered. is oneday livedseeing the Deathless state. in Andbetterthanahundred years livedapathetic unenergetic. Andbetterthanahundred years livedwithoutseeing the ultimate Dhamma.
do & shouldn't develop penchant it. the 116 If aperson evil. Restrain mind your from what's evil When you're slow in making merit. Bequickin doing what's admirable. do Sc should develop penchant it. evildelights mind. . heshould it again again. a for To accumulate evil bringspain. 117-118 34 . a for To accumulate merit brings .ix : EVIL . does heshouldn't it again again. 6 ease. If aperson makes merit.
A water fills. 119-120 Don't be heedless of evil ('It won'tcometo me). But when it's matured that's whentheymeet with evil Even good the meet with bad fortune aslongastheirgood hasyetto mature. habituallythe fool fills himself full. jar even with water falling With bit in drops. 35 .Even the evil meet with good fortune aslongastheirevil hasyetto mature. if evil-even by bit. But when it's matured that's whentheymeet with goodfortune.
Poison wont penetrate where there's no wound. jar even with water falling With bit in drops. to A water fills. habituallytheenlightened fillshimself one full Like a merchant with a small but well-laden caravan -a dangerous road. that handcanhold poison. if merit-even by bit. 124 .Don't be heedless of merit (It won'tcome me'). 123 If there's no wound on the hand. one should avoid -evil deeds. likeaperson loves who life -a poison. There's no evil for those who don't do it.
norgoing acleftin the mountains into -nowhere on earth- is a spotto be found where couldstay& escape you your evil deed. to heaven. 127-128 37 .Whoever harasses an innocent man. nor in the middle of the sea. amanpure. the 125 Some are born evildoers in the human womb. in hell. those thegood on course go while those without effluent: totallyunbound* 126* Not up in the air. nor going acleftin themountains into -nowhere on earth- is a spotto be found where couldstay& not succumb you to death. withoutblemish: theevilcomes backto thefool right like fine dust thrownagainst wind. nor in the middle of the sea. Not up in the air.
he is for meets with ease after death. when himself looking ease. all hold their life dean Drawing parallel the to yourself. when himself looking ease. Whoever doesn't take a rod to harmlivingbeings desiring ease.x : THE ROD All tremble at the rod. kill to 129-130 Whoever takes a rod to harmlivingbeings desiring ease. all are fearful of death. neither norgetothers kill kill to All tremble at the rod. neither norgetothers kill. he is for meets with no ease after death. Drawing parallel the to yourself. 131-132 .
asif burned afire. by 133 If. The dullard is tormented by hisowndeeds. 135 Whendoingevildeeds. talk for yougetstruck rodsin return. you've attained Unbinding. soaging death & drive the life of livingbeings. 134 As a cowherd with a rod drives cows to the field. like a flattened metalpot youdon'tresound.Speak harshly no one. to or the words will be thrown rightbackatyou. the fool is oblivious. by 136 39 . an in youthere's found no contention. Contentious is painful.
Whoever. with a rod. reappears in hell 137-140 Neither nakedness nor matted hair nor mud nor the refusal of food norsleeping thebare on ground nordust& dirt norsquatting austerities cleanses the mortal who's gone not beyond doubt. At thebreak-up thebody of this one with no discernment. dissolved. trouble with the government.devastation. mental derangement. quicklyfallsinto anyof tenthings: harshpains. brokenbody. If. unarmed.grave a illness. though adorned. harasses an innocent man. 141-142 40 . relatives property lost. houses burned down. put all he's a contemplative a brahman a monk. & assured- having downtherodtoward beings. violentslander. tamed. lives tune one in with the chaste life -calmed.
consummate knowledge conduct. by who awakens to censure like a fine stallion to the whip? 143* Like a fine stallion struck with awhip. be ardent & chastened. Those goodpractices of control themselves. concentration. judgment. in & mindful. persistence. H5 .Who in the world is amanconstrained conscience. you'llabandon not-insignificant this pain. 144 Irrigators guide thewater. Through conviction virtue. Fletchers shape thearrowshaft. Carpenters shape thewood.
in pigeon-gray: whatdelight? 149 42 . in don'tyoulookfor alamp? 146 Lookatthebeautified image. a nestof diseases.xi: AGING Whatlaughter. This putrid conglomeration isboundto break up. shored up: ill. joy. dissolving. but theobject of many resolves. why when constantly aflame? Enveloped darkness. aheap festering of wounds. or 147 Worn out is thisbody. where there nothing is lasting sure. for life is hemmed in with death* 148 On seeing these bones discarded likegourds thefall.
of plastered with flesh blood. andsodoes body the succumb oldage. 43 . 152* Through roundof many the birthsI roamed without reward. 151 This unlistening man matures like an ox. to Butthe Dhamma thegood of doesn't succumb oldage: to thegood thecivilized let know. aging death. over & whose hidden treasures are: pride & contempt. without rest. his discernment not. His muscles develop.A citymade bones. & 150 Even royalchariots well-embellished getrun down. the Painful birth again is & again. seeking house-builder.
seen! you're Youwill not build ahouse again. in theylie around. gone the Unformed. mind to the hascome theendofcraving. misfired from the bow. sighing oldtimes. All yourrafters broken. of Neitherlivingthechaste life norgaining wealth theiryouth. theridge poledestroyed.House-builder. to 153-154* Neitherlivingthechaste life norgaining wealth theiryouth. in theywaste away oldherons like in a dried-up lake depleted fish. over 155-156 44 .
He wouldn't stain his name : he is wise* 158 If you'd moldyourself theway teach you others. of 157* First he'd settle himself in what is correct. goahead tame& for. what's to tame you hard is yourself 159 45 .xii: SELF If youholdyourself dear thenguard. well-trained. guard yourself well Thewise person wouldstayawake nursing himself in anyof thethree watches thenight. of thethree stages life.astheysay. onlythen teach others. then.
162* They're to doeasy thingsof no good & nouseto yourself* What's truly useful good & is truly harder thanhardto do. 163 46 . 160 The evil he himself has done -self-born.a precious stone. 161 Whenoverspread extreme by vicelikea saltreebyavineyoudo to yourself whatan enemy wouldwish. asa diamond.Your own self is your own mainstay for whoelse could yourmainstay be? With youyourself well-trained youobtain mainstay the hard to obtain. self-created- grinds downthedullard.
Realizing owntruewelfare.The teaching those of who live the Dhamma. No otherpurifies one. worthyones. your beintentonjust that.65* Don'tsacrifice ownwelfare your for that of another. likethefruitingof thebamboo. is Evilis leftundoneby oneself byoneself onecleansed. 164* Evilis done byoneself byoneself onedefiled. noble: whoever maligns it -a dullard inspired evilviewby bears fruit for his own destruction. no matterhowgreat. 166* 47 . is Purity& impurityareones owndoing* No onepurifies another. .
with 167 Get up!Don'tbeheedless.xiii: WORLDS Don'tassociate lowlyqualities* with Don't consort with heedlessness. Don'tliveit badly. Live the Dhamma well One who lives the Dhamma sleeps ease with in this world & the next. Live the Dhamma well. 168-169 See it as a bubble. see it asa mirage: onewhoregards worldthisway the theKingof Death doesn't see. 170* . Don'tbusyyourself theworld. One who lives the Dhamma sleeps ease with in this world & the next. Don'tassociate wrong with views.
Come. brightens world the like the moon set free from a cloud. few arethe people who make it to heaven. while those who know don'tcling. 172-173 Blinded this world- howfewhere clearly! see Justasbirdswho've escaped from a net are few. 171 Who once was heedless. 49 . His evil-done deed is replaced skillfulness: with hebrightens world the like the moon set free from a cloud. but later is not. look at this world all decked out likea royalchariot. where foolsplunge in.
Those whodon'tpraise giving are fools. in this transcending concern theworldbeyond: for there's no evil hemightnot do. the of 175 The person whotells a lie. 178* . fly those with thepower through fly space. Theenlightened express approval giving their for and so find ease in theworldbeyond. whotransgresses onething. No misers go to the world of the devas. going heaven. theenlightened fromtheworld. flee having defeated armies Mara.Swans thepathof thesun. 177 Sole dominion over the earth. to lordship allworlds: over thefruit of Stream-entry excels them.
whose conquest no one in the world can reach. delighting stilling in & renunciation. pathless: bywhatpathwill youlead astray? him 179-180 They. enlightened. 181 . self-awakened & mindful: even the devas viewthemwith envy. the intentonjhana. pasture his endless. pasture his endless. awakened. pathless: bywhatpathwill youlead astray? him In whomthere's craving no -the sticky ensnarerto lead anywhereverall. him at awakened.xiv: AWAKENED Whose conquest cant be undone.
thewinningofa human birth.
the life of mortals. the chance to hear the true Dhamma.
thearising Awakened of Ones,
The non-doing ofanyevil,
thecleansing of one's mind: own thisis theteaching
of the Awakened. Patient endurance:
theforemost austerity. Unbinding:
sosaytheAwakened. He whoinjures another is no contemplative.
He who mistreats another,
Not disparaging, injuring, not
restraint moderation in line with the Patimokkha, in food,
dwelling in seclusion, commitment to theheightened mind: thisis theteaching
of the Awakened. 183-185*
Not even it rained if goldcoins
would we have our fill
of sensual pleasures.
theygive little enjoyment'knowing thewise this, one findsno delight even heavenly in sensual pleasures. He is onewhodelights in theending craving, of adisciple theRightly of
Theygoto many refuge, a
to mountains & forests,
to park& treeshrines: people threatened danger. with That'snot thesecure refuge, not thesupreme refuge, that's therefuge, not having gone which, to yougainrelease fromallsuffering stress. & Butwhen, having gone
to the Buddha, Dhamma,
& Sangha refuge, for yousee with rightdiscernment
the four noble truths-
the cause of stress,
thetranscending stress, of & thenoble eightfold path, thewayto thestillingof stress: that's secure the refuge, that,thesupreme refuge, thatis therefuge, having gone which, to yougainrelease fromall suffering stress, &
It'shardto come by a thoroughbred aman. of It'ssimply true not that he's borneverywhere. Wherever born,anenlightened he's one, thefamilyprospers, is happy.
A blessing: thearising Awakened of Ones. A blessing: the teaching trueDhamma. of A blessing: the concord theSangha. of The austerity those concord of in is ablessing.
& grief. fearless. lamentation. unbound: there's measure reckoning no for thatyourmerit'sthismuch/ 195-196 55 . whoareunendangered.If youworship those worthyofworship. -Awakened Onesor their discipleswho've transcended complications.
197-200 . freefromhostilitywedwell How veryhappily live. free frombusyness dwell we How very happily live. freefrommisery dwell we Howveryhappily live. We will feedon rapture liketheRadiant gods. who Among busy people. who Among miserable people. we freefrombusyness among those arebusy.xv: HAPPY How veryhappily live. we wewhohave nothing. we free fromhostility among those arehostile* who Among hostile people. we freefrommisery among those aremiserable.
like nopainliketheaggregates. having set winning& losing aside. Unbinding: foremost the ease. Losing. Foroneknowing truth this asit actually is. Freedom illness: foremost from the goodfortune. no noloss anger. Contentment: the foremost wealth. Unbinding is the foremost ease. 57 . 202-204 Drinkingthenourishment. of seclusion & calm. one The calmed lie down with ease. one is freed from evil. Fabrications: foremost the pain. Hunger: foremost the illness. 2OI There's firelikepassion. liesdownin pain. Trust:theforemost kinship. devoid of distress.Winninggives birth to hostility. the flavor. no ease otherthanpeace.
livingwith afool. For.noble. intelligent. constantly onewouldbehappy.the path of the zodiac stars. Happytheircompany-always. 206-208 . aswith agathering kin. manofintegrity: a follow him -one of this sort- asthe moon. Through seeing not fools constantly. dutiful.refreshed with the nourishment of rapturein the Dhamma. of So: theenlightened mandiscerning. Happy is communion with theenlightened. aswith anenemyalways. learned. a Painful is communion with fools. 205 It'sgood see to NobleOnes. enduring. onegrieveslongtime.
It'spainful not to see what's dear or to see what's not. 209* Don'tever-regardlessbeconjoined what's with dear or undear. for it's dreadful to be far from what's dean No bonds are found for those for whom there's neither dear nor undean 2IO2II 59 . having disregarded goal the to grasp whathehelddear. took themselves to task. andnot having applied himself to what was.xvi: DEAR ONES Having applied himself to what was not his own task. Sodon'tmake anything dear. at he now envies those who keptafterthemselves.
dear from what's dear is born fear. is from what's loved is born fear. is fromdelight bornfean is Foronefreed fromdelight there's grief no -so how fear? Fromsensuality borngrief. is fromsensuality bornfean is Foronefreed fromsensuality there's grief no -so how fear? Fromcraving borngrief. For one freed from what's dear there's grief no -so how fear? Fromwhat's loved borngrief.Fromwhat's is borngrief. is fromcraving bornfean is Foronefreed fromcraving there's grief no -so I how rear? r .. For one freed from what's loved there's grief no -so how fear? Fromdelight borngrief. 212-216 - 60 .
judicious. speaking truth. 219-220 61 .hiscompanions. when you've done good & gone fromthisworld to theworldbeyond. delight hisreturn. yourgooddeeds receive youas kin. yourmindnot enmeshed in sensual passions: you're to be said in theup-flowing stream.One consummate in virtue SCvision. the doinghisowntask: the world holds him dean 217 If you've given birth to awish for what can'tbe expressed. 218* A manlongabsent comes home safe from afar. His kin. are suffused with heart. his friends. someone dear come home. in Injust thesame way.
no invade* 221 Whenanger arises. When for name & form youhave attachment no -have nothing allat no sufferings. getbeyond every fetter. stresses. whoever keeps control firm asif with a racing chariot: him I call a master charioteer.with good.xvii: ANGER Abandon anger. with truth. Anyone else. stinginess. generosity. be done with conceit. with a liar. a rein-holderthat's all 222 Conqueranger with lackof anger. 223 62 . bad.
there's grief. the of 224 Gentle sages. There's no one unfaulted in the world. constantly restrained body. whenasked. having gone. Atula.Bytellingthetruth. by keen Unbinding: on their effluents come to an end. in goto the unwavering state where. bygiving. & notjust fromtoday: theyfind faultwith one who sits silent. no 225 Those whoalways wakeful. 226 This has come down from old. theyfind faultwith one who measures his words. no matter howlittle youhave: bythese three things youenter presence devas. stay training day& by night. by not growingangry. . theyfind faultwith one whospeaksgreat a deal.
in in speech. in in body. nor at present found is anyone entirely faulted or entirelypraised. restrained. verbal liveconducting yourself well in speech. having observed him dayafterday to be blameless conduct. be Havingabandoned bodilymisconduct. endowed with discernment & virtue: likeaningotofgoldwho's fit to find fault with him? Even devas praise him.There never was. restrained. be Havingabandoned misconduct. Guard against anger erupting speech. in intelligent. liveconducting yourself well in body. Even Brahma praised. 227-228 If knowledgeable praise people him. will be. by he's 229-230 Guard against anger erupting body. 64 .
231-234* . in in mind. Those restrained body in -the enlightenedrestrained speech in mind in SC -enlightenedare the ones whose restraint is secure. Having abandoned mental misconduct. be restrained.Guardagainst anger erupting mind. liveconducting yourself well in mind.
Makean island yourself! for Workquickly! wise! Be 66 . you'llreach divinerealm the of the noble ones.xvin : IMPURITIES You are now likea yellowed lea£ Already Yama's minions stand near. You are now right attheendofyourtime. with no place restalong way. to the but have to provide yet for thejourney. Makeanisland yourself! for Workquickly! wise! Be With impurities blownaway all unblemished. You are headed to Yama's presence. You stand thedoorto departure at but have to provide yet for thejourney.
' moment to moment. blowsaway impurities the of molten silver- so the wise man. 239 Just asrust -iron's impurityeats veryiron the from which it is born. 235-238* Justasa silversmith stepby step. 240* 67 .With impurities blownaway. bit by bit. youwon'tagain undergo birth & aging. all unblemished. his own. so the deeds of onewholives slovenly lead him on to a bad destination.
corrupt. back-biting. cunning asa crow. Indolence: beauty. observant. No initiative: of a household. but for someone constantly who's scrupulous. pure in hislivelihood. is In adonor. 244-245 68 . sincere. in it's hard. forward. of a In awoman. you're impurity-free. & brash. cautious.No recitation: ruinous the impurity of chants. stinginess. of Heedlessness: guard. clean hispursuits. Havingabandoned impurity. this monks. 241-243 Life's to live easy for someone unscrupulous. Moreimpure thanthese impurities is theultimate impurity: ignorance. misconduct animpurity. Evil deeds therealimpurities are in this world & the next.
in line with conviction. in Soknow.Whoever kills. goes someone wife. digshimself up bythe root right here thisworld. Don'tletgreed unrighteousness & oppress with long-term you pain. my that bad deeds are reckless. to attains no concentration by dayor by night. Whoever flustered gets at food& drinkgiven others.rooted wiped out attains concentration by dayor by night. goodman. steals. lies. 249-250 69 . to else's & is addicted to intoxicants. 246-248 People give in line with their faith. But one in whom this is cut through up.
251 Its easy see to the errors of others. like no snare like delusion. There's trail in space. youreffluents flourish. but hard to see your own. no wavering theAwakened.There's firelikepassion. You're fromtheirending. but conceal ownyour likeacheat. If youfocus theerrors others. You winnow like chaff the errors of others. People smitten are with complications. no no seizure anger. unlucky an throw. no no outsidecontemplative. in 254-255* 70 . no no outsidecontemplative. but devoid complication of are theTathagatas. far 252-253 There's trail in space. no eternal fabrications. no riverlikecraving. on of constantly finding fault.
a Thewise considering one. linewith theDhamma. the guarded Dhamma. his is not heedless of Dhamma: he'sone who maintains the Dhamma. by intelligent: he's called judge. fear- is said to be wise. Whoever's secure- no hostility.xix : THE JUDGE To pass judgment hurriedly doesn't mean you're judge. a 256-257* Simply talkinga lot doesn't mean one is wise. in guarding Dhamma. 258-259* . Simplytalkingalot doesn't maintain the Dhamma. both therightjudgment wrong. Whoever -althoughhe's heard nextto nothingsees Dhamma through body. & judges others impartiallyunhurriedly.
in one's called an old fool But one in whom there is truth. an miserly cheat become exemplary an man. t> 262-263 72 . enlightened.A head grayhairs of doesn't mean one's an elden Advanced years. But one in whom this is cut upj through rooted wiped outL he's called 1 ' exemplary. hisimpurities disgorged. hisaversion disgorged. self-control- he'scalled an elder. 260-261 Not bysuave conversation or lotus-like coloring does envious. rectitude. gentleness. restraint. intelligent.
264-265* Begging others from doesn't mean one's a monk. no filledwith greed desire: & whatkindof contemplative's he? But whoever tunes out the dissonance of hisevilqualities -large or smallin every way bybringing to consonance: evil he'scalleda contemplative. But whoever aside puts both merit & evil and.A shaven head doesn't mean contemplative. one is no monk at all. As longasonefollows householders' ways. a The liarobserving duties. livingthechaste life. 266-267 73 . judiciously goes through world: the he'scalled a monk.
don't on account of your precepts& practices. the takingtheexcellentrejects deeds: evil heis a sage. concentration attainments. But whoever-wise. great erudition. how a Whoever weigh can both sides of the world: that's how he's called a sage. 270 Monk.Not bysilence does someone confused & unknowing turn into a sage. that's he's sage. asif holding scales. 74 . One is termed noble for being gentle to alllivingthings. secluded dwelling. 268-269* Not by harming life does one become noble.
271-272* 75 .or thethought. touch 1 the renunciate ease that run-of-the-mill people don't know': ever yourself complacent let get whentheending effluents of is still unattained.
the is Of truths. and that will be Mara's bewilderment. youput anend to suffering stress. Its for youto strive ardently. & I have taught thispath you having known-for yourknowingthe extraction of arrows. Follow it. . Tathagatas simply pointout theway. Following it. 273* Justthis is thepath -there is no other- to purifyvision.xx : THE PATH Of paths. eightfold best. Of two-footed beings.thefoursayings. Of qualities. theonewith theeyes to see. dispassion.
with This is thepath to purity. Whenyousee with discernment. but the resolves of his heart exhausted. with This is thepath to purity. 'All fabrications inconstant'are yougrowdisenchanted stress. strong. with This is thepath to purity. thelazy. lethargic. 274-276* Whenyousee with discernment. 280 77 . lethargic one loses path the to discernment. All phenomenanot-self'are yougrowdisenchanted stress. 'All fabrications stressful'are yougrowdisenchanted stress.Thosewho practice. Young. absorbed jhana: in from Mara's bonds they'llbefreed. Whenyousee with discernment. 277-279 At the time for initiative he takes no initiative.
will 282 Cut down the forest of desire. not the forest of trees. from not. monks. decline- conduct yourself sothat wisdom grow. & Having downthisforest cut & its underbrush. well-restrained in mind. . From the forest of desire come danger fear. wisdoms end. be deforested. Bringto fruition thepaththatseers proclaimed. do nothing unskillful in body. Knowing these courses two -to development. Purify these three courses of action.Guarded in speech. have 281 Fromstriving comes wisdom.
That drunk-on-his'sons'&'cattle man.Foraslongastheleast bit of underbrush of a man for women is not cleared away.' Soimagines fool. all tangled in themind: up death sweeps awayhim asagreat flood. the unaware of obstructions. for the summer & winter. 286-287 79 . Here. Crush yoursense self-allure of likeanautumn lily in the hand. a village asleep. the heart is fixated likeasuckling calf on its mother. by 283-285* 'HereI'll stayfor therains. Nurtureonlythepathto peace -Unbindingastaught theOneWellGone.
by no shelter among kin. no father. thewise man. Conscious of thiscompelling reason. no family for oneseized the Ender. restrained virtue.There are no sons to giveshelter. all to 288-289* 80 . by shouldmakethe path pure -right awaythatgoes theway Unbinding.
the enlightened man would forsake the limited ease for the sake of the abundant. 290 He wants his own ease bygiving others dis-ease. by forsaking a limited ease. insolent- effluents grow. Intertwined in the inter- action hostility. & do what shouldn't be done -heedless. 291 In those who reject whatshould. he would see an abundance of ease. 81 . of fromhostility he's not set free.xxi: MISCELLANY If.
untroubled. thekingdom its dependency& the brahman. both is constantly immersed in the Buddha. always awake: wide Gotama's disciples whose mindfulness. to mindfulness immersed thebody. Having killedmother father. in don't indulge in what shouldn't be done & persist in what should -mindful. 82 . 294-295* Theyawaken. alert292-293* effluents come to an end* Having killedmother father. untroubled. & twolearned kings. travels on. fifth. atigerthe brahman. constantly.But for those who are well-applied. day& night. travels on. & twowarriorkings. &.
Theyawaken. both is constantly immersed in theSangha. bothday& night. in harmlessness. both is constantly immersed in the Dhamma. day& night. always awake: wide Gotama's disciples whose hearts delight. the 296-301* Hard is thelifegone forth. Theyawaken. Hard is the miserable householder's life. . both is constantly immersed in thebody. in developing mind. bothday& night. always awake: wide Gotama's disciples whose hearts delight. day& night.Theyawaken. always awake: wide Gotama's disciples whose mindfulness. Theyawaken. day& night. hard to delight in. always awake: wide Gotama's disciples whose mindfulness. Theyawaken. always awake: wide Gotama's disciples whose mindfulness.
painful to travelthe road. untiring. walking alone. nor pained. he'd delight alonealone in the forest. glory. The baddon'tappear even when near. Taming himself.Its painful stay to with dissonant people. 302 So be neither traveler The man of conviction endowed with virtue. likearrows into the night. shot 304 Sittingalone. resting alone. 305 84 . wealth: & wherever goes he he is honored* 303* Thegoodshine fromafar like thesnowy Himalayas.
youshould the alms thecountry. -glowing. theworldbeyond* in 306 An ochre robe tied 'round their necks.xxii : HELL He goes hell.having done. eat of 307-308 . to the one who asserts what didn't takeplace. many with evilqualities -unrestrained. as does the one who. aflamethan that. because of their evil acts. unprincipled& unrestrained. says. in hell Better to eat an iron ball evil- rearise. didn't/ 1 Both-low-actingpeoplethere become equal: afterdeath.
third. grasped. 309-310 Justassharp-bladed grass. a lackofgoodsleep. drags downto hell you Anyslack act. or defiled observance. if wrongly held. SC kinginflictsaharsh the punishment* So no man should lie down with the wife of another. wounds veryhandthatholdsitthe thecontemplative if wrongly life. 86 . & thebriefdelight a of fearful man with a fearful woman. an evil destination. hell A wealth of demerit.Fourthings befall heedless the man who lies down with the wife of another: a wealth of demerit. censure. or fraudulent of chastity life bears great no fruit. fourth.
pass Those whomthemoment past for is grieve. you 311-314 Like a frontier fortress. is & no danger where there is. & guard yourself. to thenworkatit firmly. Don'tlet themoment by. to 315 Ashamed of what's not shameful. for a slack going-forth kicksup all themore dust. guarded inside out. . A misdeed burns afterward.If something's bedone. won'tmake burn. It's better to leave a misdeed undone. not ashamed of what is. beings adopting wrong views goto abaddestination. beings adopting wrong views goto abaddestination. consigned hell.afteryou've done it. Seeing danger where there none. you Better agooddeed done that be that.
and non-error as non-. Butknowing erroraserror. andseeing errorwhere no there is. beings adopting wrong views goto abaddestination.Imaginingerror wherethereis none. 316-319 88 . beings adopting rightviews goto agood destination.
. for themass people of have no principles. Excellent. tamed thoroughbreds. 320 The tamed is the one theytakeinto assemblies.xxin : ELEPHANTS I-like anelephant battle. great elephants.among human beings. The tamed who endures a false accusation is. The tamed is the one thekingmounts. the best. in enduring arrowshotfromabowan will endure a false accusation. But even more excellent are those self-tamed. tamed tuskers. tamed horses from Sindh. 321 Excellent are tamed mules.
it wherever it wanted. L a sleepy-head about lolling likea stouthog.fattened fodder: on a dullard enters the womb over & overagain. 324* When torpid & over-fed. he won't eat a morsel: the tusker misses theelephant wood. way Today will holdit aptlyin checkI asonewielding goad. bywhatever thatit liked. elephant rut. 325 Before. mindwentwandering this however pleased. a an in 326 90 . deep rut. Dhanapalaka. 322-323 Thetusker.Fornot bythese mounts couldyougo to the land unreached. is hardto control in Bound. well-taming. asthetamed goes one bytaming. himself.
right-living. liketheelephant theMatanga in wilds.Delightin needfulness. doingno evil. enlightenedgo alone likea kingrenouncing kingdom. Goingalone better. is There's companionship afool.atpeace. 327 If yougaina mature companionafellowtraveler. Lift yourself up fromthehard-going way like a tusker sunk in the mud. his herd. 328-330* . Watchover yourownmind. enlightenedovercoming dangers all gowith him. right-living. his like theelephant theMatanga in wilds. mindful If youdon'tgaina mature companiona fellowtraveler.gratified. no with Go alone.
to A blessing: reverence yourfatheraswell to A blessing theworld: in reverence a contemplative. 331-333 92 . A blessing oldage virtue. into is A blessing: conviction established. A blessing theworld: in reverence yourmother. A blessing: discernment attained. with there Merit at theending lifeis ablessing. to A blessing: reverence abrahman. for too. of A blessing: the abandoning allsuffering of & stress.A blessing: friends whentheneed arises* A blessing: contentment whatever is. Thenon-doing evilthings of is ablessing.
grasswild by theroot. He runs now here & now there. in theworld. If. asiflooking for fruit: amonkey theforest. 93 . Dig up craving -as whenseeking medicinal roots. hard sorrows off you. you yoursorrows growlikewild grass after rain. to escape. roll like water beads off a lotus. in 334 If thissticky. uncouth craving overcomes in theworld.youovercome thisuncouth craving. 335-336 To all of yougathered here I say: Goodfortune. lives hiscraving grows a creeping like vine.xxiv: CRAVING Whenaperson heedlessly.
thissuffering returns again & again. 339-340* 94 .a reedover & over again* 337" If its root remains undamagedstrong. Theyflowevery whichway. strong: to are the currents-resolvesbased passionon carryhim. Now. streams.of base views. even if cut.Don'tlet Maracutyoudown -as a ragingriver. 338 He whose36 streams. will growback* Sotoo if latentcraving is not rooted out. away. cutthrough root its with discernment.seeing thecreeper's that arisen. flowing whatis appealing. & a tree. the but thesprouted creeper stays in place.
by looking ease: for to birth & aging go. again again.Loosened & oiled arethejoysofa person. craving. to he Come. in So a monk should dispel should aspire for himself. right back theforest runs. to dispassion 342-343* Cleared of the underbrush but obsessedwith the forest. long. with people hop 'round& around likea rabbitcaught a snare. People. bound enticement. theperson free see set whorunsrightbackto thesame chains! old 344 95 . with people 'round& around hop likea rabbitcaught asnare. they 341* Encircled craving. in Tied with fetters & bonds theygoon to suffering. set free from the forest. & for Encircled craving.
they cut -the enlightened-go forth. abandoning sensual ease. to of youletgo of infront. freeof longing. cut theenlightened forth. -so saytheenlightenedonethat's constraining. letgoof between. ofgrass. letgoof behind.having it.That's astrong not bond -so saytheenlightenedtheonemade iron. with jewelsSC ornaments. longingfor children& wives: that's strong the bond. enthralled. set free longing. of or To be smitten. But having it. hard to untie.of wood. elastic. in But. of abandoning allsuffering stress. like a spidersnared its web. Thosesmittenwith passion fallback into a self-made stream. & 345-347* Gone thebeyond becoming. .
in focused beauty. the one who will cut Mara's bond.With ahearteverywhere let-go. 349-350* Arrived at the finish. of This physical ishislast. heap Free fromcraving. 348* For a person forced byhisthinking. ungrasping. unblemished. unfrightened. 97 . the Butonewhodelights in the stillingof thinking. on craving grows themore. free of craving. on fierce hispassion. youdon'tcome again birth to & aging. all He's the one whotightens bond. hascutaway he thearrows becoming. always mindful cultivating a focus on the foul: He's the one who will make an end.
He's called a last-body greatly discerning great man. all-knowing I. all suffering & stress. . all tastes. in theending craving. knowing combination soundsthe of which comes first & which after. 351-352 All-conquering. to unadhering* All-abandoning. fully to whomshould point asmyteacher? I 353: A gift of Dhamma conquers allgifts. adelight Dhamma. 354' Riches ruin the man weak in discernment. the taste of Dhamma. released theending craving: in of having knownon myown. but not those who seek thebeyond. of all delights. am with regard allthings.astutein expression.
Fields spoiled weeds. delusion. Fields spoiled weeds. are by people. are by people. by Sowhat's given those to free longing of bears great fruit. are by people. 355 Fields spoiled weeds. aversion. passion. by Sowhat's given those to free of aversion bears great fruit.Through craving riches for the man weak in discernment ruins as he would himself others. by Sowhat's given those to free of delusion bears great fruit. longing. Fields spoiled weeds. 356-359 99 . by Sowhat's given those to freeof passion bears great fruit. are by people.
with is good restraint is everywhere. with is good restraint thetongue. is with Restraint theheart good. 362 100 . alone: he'swhat they call 7 . supremely restraineddelighting whatis inward. in content. is with Restraint thebodyisgood. with is good restraint theear. A monkeverywhere restrained is released all suffering stress. from & 360-361* Hands restrained. a monk. is with Restraint thenose good.: xxv: MONKS Restraint theeye good. with good restraint speech. feet restrained speech restrained. centered.
don'tgocoveting those others.A monkrestrained hisspeaking. his Dhamma delight. to does fall away not from true Dhamma. calling Dhamma mind. is 363* Dhamma dwelling. Livingpurely. untiring: he's the one that the devas praise. of A monk who covets those of others attains no concentration. 364 Gains: don'ttreatyourownwith scorn. his amonkpondering Dhamma. in givingcounsel unruffled. Even hegetsnextto nothing. if he doesn't hisgains treat with scorn. 365-366 101 . declaring messagemeaning: the & sweet his speech.
370* IO2 . letgoof five. thepeaceful state: stilling'of-fabrications ease* 368* Monk. & whodoesn't grieve for what's not: he's deservedly called a monk. to 369* Cut through five. 367 Dwelling kindness.monk in a with faith in theAwakened One's teaching. wouldattainthegoodstate. Having through cut passion. bail out this boat.For whom. in name & form in every way. aversion. & develop above five all. A monkgone fiveattachments past is said to have crossed the flood. yougofromthere Unbinding. there's no sense of mine. It will takeyoulightlywhenbailed.
372 A monkwith his mind at peace. and don't be heedless. no discernment for onewith nojhana. Butonewith bothjhana & discernment: he's theverge on of Unbinding. Don't swallow-heedlessthe ball of iron aflame. monk. however it is he touches thearising'&'passing aggregates: of hegains rapture joy: & 103 . going an empty into dwelling. clearly seeing Dhamma the aright: hisdelight more is than human.Practice jhana. However it is. Don'ttakeyourmindroaming in sensual strands. Don't burn & complain: 'This is pain.' 371 There'snojhana for one with no discernment.
by skilled in his conduct. he will put an end to suffering stress. in calmed speech. 378 104 . 377 Calmed body. untiring. gaining manifold a joy. the a monk is called thoroughly calmed.that. its withered flowers. Livingpurely. restraint in line with the Patimokkha. monks- asajasmine would. the Deathless. in well-centered & calm. for those who know it. hospitable habit. the contentment. having disgorged baitsoftheworld. 373-374 Herethefirst things for a discerning monk are guarding senses. is deathless. He should associate with admirable friends. & 375-376 Shed passion & aversion.
382 105 . a fine steed. mindful. with faithin theAwakened One's teaching. wouldattainthegood state. Your own self is yourownguide. you 379 Your own self is your own mainstay.You yourself should reprove yourself. Therefore should you watch yourselfover as a trader. 380 A monkwith a manifold joy. dwellatease. 381* A young monkwhostrives in theAwakened One's teaching. should examine yourself As aself-guarded monk with guarded self. brightens world the like the moon set free from a cloud. thepeaceful state: stilling-of-fabrications ease.
Expel sensual passions. carefree: he's what I call a brahman. Knowing ending fabrications. youknowtheUnmade. cut the stream. of then all his fetters goto theirendhe who knows. unshackled. 385* 106 . 384* Onewhose beyond or riot-beyond or beyond'&'not'beyond cant be found. brahman. 383* Whenthebrahman gone has to thebeyond twothings.' " xxvi: BRAHMANS Having striven. the of brahman.
Sittingsilent, dustless, absorbed jhana, in histaskdone, effluents gone, ultimate attained: goal
he's what I call a brahman,
Bydayshines sun; the by night,themoon;
in armor, the warrior;
injhana, brahman. the Butall day& all night, every & every day night,
the Awakened One shines
He's called a brahman
for having banished evil, his
for livingin consonance, onegone forth for having forsaken
his own impurities,
One should not strike a brahman,
nor should the brahman
let loose with hisanger.
Shame on a brahman's killer. More shame on the brahman
whose angers loose, let
Nothing's betterfor thebrahman
than when the mind is held back
fromwhatis endearing not. &
However his harmful-heartedness wears away, that's how stress
simply comes rest, to
Whoever nowrong does in body,
is restrained these in three ways:
he's what I call a brahman,
Theperson fromwhom youwouldlearntheDhamma taught theRightly by
youshould honorhim with respectasa brahman, the flame for a sacrifice,
Not by matted hair, by clan, bybirth, or
is one a brahman. Whoever has truth & rectitude:
he, a brahman.
What'stheuse yourmatted of hair, youdullard? What'stheuseof yourdeerskin cloak? Thetangle's inside you.
You comb the outside, 393-394*
Wearing cast-off rags -his bodylean& linedwith veinsabsorbed jhana, in
alone in the forest: he's what I call a brahman,
I don't call one a brahman
for being bornof amother or sprung fromawomb. He's called 'bho-sayer' a if hehasanything all. at Butsomeone nothing, with whoclings no thing: to
he's what I call a brahman, 396*
having thrownoff thebar. hedoesn't ruffled. 398" He endures-unangeredinsult. Sc His army strength. unshackled: he's what I call a brahman.assault. & cord & bridle. duties observed.a last-body': he's what I call a brahman. forbearance: he's what I call a brahman. 400* no . get Beyond attachment. 399 Free fromanger. principled.Havingcutevery fetter. no overbearing with pride. trained. imprisonment. is hisstrength. awakened: he's what I call a brahman. 397 Havingcutthestrap thong.
on his own. 402* Wise. of Unshackled.Like water on a lotus leaf. profound in discernment. a mustardseed on the tip of an awl. astute asto what is the path & what's not. he doesn't adhere to sensual pleasures: he's what I call a brahman. his burden laid down: he's what I call a brahman. 403 in . his own ending stress. right for himself. hisultimate attained: goal he's what I call a brahman. 401 He discerns here.
conceit. the among those cling: who he's what I call a brahman. aversion. have fallen awaylike a mustard seed from the tip of an awl: he's what I call a brahman. 407 112 . & contempt. or he neither kills nor getsothers kill: to he's what I call a brahman. livingwith no home. 406 His passion. unbound unclinging among armed.Uncontaminated byhouseholders & houseless ones alike. 405 Unopposing among opposition. with next to no wants: he's what I call a brahman* 404 Havingput aside violence against beings fearful firm.
instructive. 408 Here in the world hetakes nothing not-given -long.He wouldsay what's non-grating. 409 His longing this for & for the next world can't be found. short. 410 113 . large. small. unshackled: he's what I call a brahman. attractive. not: he's what I call a brahman. true- abusing one: no he's what I call a brahman. freefromlonging.
His attachments. pure: & he's what I call a brahman. his homes. his totallygone: he's what I call a brahman. 413 114 . heis unperplexed. 412* Spotless. can't be found. becomings. Through knowing. -limpid & calmhisdelights. hasattained plunge the into Deathlessness: he's what I call a brahman. likethemoon pure. dustless. He hasgone beyond attachment here for both merit & evil- sorrowless.
totallygone: he's what I call a brahman. fromperplexity. absorbed jhana. totallygone: he's what I call a brahman. wouldgo forthfromhomehiscravings. becomings. 414 Whoever. in through no-clinging Unbound: he's what I call a brahman. abandoning sensual passions here. delusionhas crossed over. Whoever. wouldgoforth fromhomehissensual passions. becomings. abandoning craving here. 415-416 115 . hasgone beyond. is free from want.He hasmade waypast his thishard-going path -samsara.
from all bonds unshackled: he's what I call a brahman* 417 Having behind left delight displeasure. no acquisitionswith aherowhohasconquered all the world. and their re- arising. unattached. 419 116 .Having behind left the human bond. every world: he's what I call a brahman* 418 He knows every in way beings' passing away. & cooled. having made way his past the divine. well-gone: he's what I call a brahman. awakened.
great seerfree from want. in between- theonewith nothing whoclings no thing: to he's what I call a brahman* 421* A splendid conqueror. 420 He whohasnothing -in front. bull. gandhabbas. his mastery totallymastered: he's what I call a brahman. awakened. of is a sage whohasmastered full-knowing. behind. washed: he's what I call a brahman. He sees heavens & states of woe. 422 He knows his former lives.He whose course don'tknow they -devas. 423* 117 . hasattained theending birth. an arahant: he's what I call a brahman. hero.human & beingshis effluents ended.
the whichis knownin at leastfour recensions.E.Thereis alsoa Chinese translation the Dharmapada of madein the third centuryC.now no longerextant. are India. Partsof a Dharmapada text are included in the Mahavastu. theycontain enough discrepancieshave to fueled small a 119 . and Chinese versions of a text called Udanavarga.there areJain anthologies contain that verses clearly related some to of those foundin these Buddhist anthologies well.and a manuscript a Buddhist of Hybrid-Sanskrit Dharmapada in a library Tibet. of them containing many versesin all common with the Dhammapada/Dharmapada (Dhp) texts. Cambodia. and Thailand. as Despitethe manysimilaritiesamongthesetexts. found in calledthe PatnaDharmapada because photographs of this manuscript nowkept in Patna. two incomplete manuscripts a GandhariDharmapada of foundin centralAsia. Tibetan. Laos.similarto-but not identical with-the Pali Dhammapada. Sri Lanka. To further complicate matters.HISTORICAL NOTES: THE TEXT & THE TRANSLATION There are many versionsof the Dhammapada now extant: several recensions the PaliDhammapada of from Burma. text belongingto the a Lokottaravadin Mahasanghika schoolIn addition. from a Prakrit original. there are Sanskrit.
of or is fairly Fortunately anyone for looking theDhpfor spiritual to guidance. for though. each contains verses foundin the others. among not and the verses different in versions are that related. to Unfortunately the translator. For exam- ple. The differentrecensions the Pali of Dhp containsomanyvariantreadings thereisn't that yet-evenaftermore thana century Western of scholarshipon thetopic-a single edition covering all The them discrepancies among Pali andnon-Pali the versions are even greater. or doesit curdle? 71 Is the bond in verse 346 subtle. these questions hardlymatter. or elastic?Is the brahman verse happy. similarity the in terms imagery messagesometimes tenuous. is hepure? all practical in 393 or For purposes. the to to point where they call into question authenticity the of the Dhp as a whole. They become important whenoneis forced takesides choosonly to in ing whichversion translate. Theyarrange verses different in orders. noneof themfall outside paleof the whathaslongbeen accepted standard as earlyBuddhist doctrine as derived from the Pali discourses.the scholarly discussions havegrownaroundtheseissues that have tended blowthemall out of proportion. even to and thenthe nature of thechoice likethat of aconductor is deciding whichof themany versions a Handel of oratorio perform. differences the among various the recensionsthough many number-range importance fairly in in from minorto minorin theextreme. slack. Allowingfor a fewobviousscribal errors.doesthe milk in verse comeout.Because scholars the who have 120 .scholarly industry.
Lacking outside any landmarks against which the versions be sighted. whereasanother scholar will attribute the con- sistency latereffortsto "clean theverse. if one version contains a rendition of a verse different from all other renditions of the same verse. any.for they involveno truly objective criteria. and which versions are later and more corrupt. of by directed the discussion figuring whichversion theoldest to out is and most authentic. another. textual the This trigonometry tends relyon assumptions among to from the following three types: i) Assumptions concerning is inherently earlier what an or later formofa verse. If. two versions of a verse differ in that oneis more internally consistent theother. one scholar will seethat asa signof deviance. to up" Similarly. andlarge. the Thustheconclusions drawnby different scholarsbasedon theseassumptionstell us 121 . if reliable guidance give.devoted themselvesthis topichave to come with such up contradictory advice thepotential for translator-including the suggestion it's a waste time to translate that of some the verses all-we need sort throughthe of at to discussions see to what. a signof as theauthenticity mayhave that predated laterstandarda izationamong texts.the than consistentversion will seemmore genuineto one scholar. These assumptions the leastreliare ableof the three. can scholars attempted have to reconstruct whatmusthave been earliest the version by triangulating among textsthemselves. they Thosewhohave worked the issues on raised the by variant versions Dhp have. for instance.
Theoretically obvious the choice would be to adoptthe latterandrejectthe former.As the Buddha himselfis quotedas saying. In however. practice. issue not soclear-cut. Thereis alsothepossibility that-as the poetrywasspontaneous oral-a and fair amount of metrical license was allowed. and which onesfollowit.i. scholar of A will assumeparticular a dialect have to been original the language the text.andwill furthermake of assumptions 122 . 2) Assumptions concerning meter theverses questhe of in tion. 3) Assumptions concerning languagewhich origithe in the nalDhpwas composed. the is EarlyPalipoetry dates froma timeof great metrical experimentation.60) Knowledge metricalrules thus helpsthe of editoror translator whichreadings a verse spot of deviate from the structure of a standard meter. This means that the more"correct" formsof a verse have may been the productsof a later attemptto fit the poetry into standard molds. Oneof thegreat advances recent scholarship in Pali hasbeen rediscovery themetrical the of rulesunderlying earlyPali poetry. and sothereis always possibility a particular the that poem wascomposed an experimental in meter that never achieved widespread recognition.moreaboutthe scholars' presuppositions they do than about the texts themselves. Thus the conclusions based on the assumption standard of meters not astotallyreliable are astheymightseem. assumptions first These require an extensive knowledge MiddleIndiedialects." (S."Meter is the structural frameworkof verses.
andc.themethods triangulation of based anassumed on original language the Dhptell usmore of about indithe vidualscholar's position thantheydo abouttheposition of the text.b. aswith the first setof assumpSo. tions. where the current vari- antsof averse mightbea. for all the impressive eruditionthat this method involves. In other words.aboutthe typesof translation mistakes mighthave that beencommon whentranslating from that dialectinto the languages the texts we now have. more and thanoneversion of a particularverse. even not the mostlearned scholar offeranyproofasto what can the Dhp's originallanguage In fact.the added assumption aboutthe Dhp's originallanguage the ineptitude and of ancient translators copyists and leads the conclusion to that the verse must have been d.none of of the assumptions in tryingto sort throughthose used readings "theoriginal"Dhp have to anydefinite for led conclusions.The textual of trigonometry based these on assumptions involves often suchcomplicated methods sighting computation of and that it canproduce "original" an version the text that of is just that: veryoriginal. However. siderbelow.although scholarship the devoted the differto ent recensions the Dhp hasprovided useful of a service in unearthing manyvariant so readings thetext. Their positivesuccess beenlimited has 123 . Thus.aswewill conwas. is possible the Buddha-assuming it that that he wasthe authorof the verses-composed poetry in more thanonelanguage.coinciding with noneof the versions extant.
of which might be all essentially correct. the textscontain many If so varying reports. they succeeded in accomplishing something totally useless: wholesale a sense distrustfor the earlyBuddhisttexts.andthat was of it was composed asingle in language. predominately literate culture operates: onlyoneversion a that of verse couldhave beencomposed its originalauthor.and the of poetictextsin particular. if their translators and andtransmitters wereso incompetent. of faultytransof not mission. these assumptions totally inappropriare atefor analyzing oral culturein whichthe Buddha the taughtand in whichthe verses the Dhp werefirst of anthologized. this comes downto assuming that there onlyoneoriginalversion the text. wecanviewthe In of multiple versions thetext asasign. In termsof the Dhp. have side. of anallegiance their oralorigins. unconsciously. by andthat all otherversions mustbe latercorruptions. welook carefully the nature that If at of culture-and in particular clear at statements the from earlyBuddhisttextsconcerning events princithe and plesthat shaped thosetexts-we will seethat it is perfectly natural there that should avariety reports be of aboutthe Buddha's teachings. However. terms theDhp. assumptions the concerning authorship and authenticity within whichour modern. feeling the goes. On the negative though. cananyof how thembe trusted? This distrustcomes from accepting. but to 124 .mainlyto offeringfood for academic speculation and educated guesses.
in This puts a double imperative both the speaker on andthelistener. speaker A with something to sayhasto repeat oftento different new it audiences-who. both to appreciate immediate the impactof the wordsand to memorize themfor futureuse.Oral prose poetryareverydifferentfrom their and written counterparts. onlyoneof a constellation is it is of virtuesexpected a teacher. speaker choose The must his/herwords with an eye both to howtheywill affect audience the in the presentand to how they will be memorizedfor future reference. However. The listener must be attentive. if by are expected memorize least essential to at its parts.speaker particularly is a is prized for an ability to tailor his/her message the to moment of communication. verbal the heritage maintained is totally throughrepetitionandmemorization. anditshoped-for benefits thefuture. theyfeelinspired themessage. This factis obvious even our own in culture. in terms of the audience's background from the past.its stateof mind at present. we have to make an active effort of the imagination comprehend expectations to the placed on oral transmission between speakers listeners a and in culture where there is no written word to fall back on. Because communication face-to-face. In sucha setting. of Other expected virtues include knowledge common a of culture anabilityto and playwith that knowledge the desired for effect terms in of immediateimpactor memorability.Althoughoriginalityin teaching appreciated. Pali Dhp The (verse itselfmakes point in comparing actof 45) this the 125 .
"or. whereas a theater. to creating not something totally newout of nothing. All indications show.teaching. D.In a classroom.On theonehand. there many are reports instances of in whichhislisteners gained immediate Awakening while listening hiswords. that the Buddha asa teacher especially was sensitive both aspects to of oral communication. were answer a one to with a breadfruit. however. but to selecting amongavailable flowersto create pleasing a arrangement rightfor theoccasion. just Of course.2) satirizing teachers otherreligious the of sects their for inabilityto break away fromthe formulaic mode their of teachings give direct to a answer specific to questions ("Its asif. On theother hand. there are situations in an oral culture whereeither immediateimpact or memorabilityis emphasized the expense the other. and that he trained his listeners to besensitive bothaswell.there a delightful is section in oneof his discourses Samannaphala (the Suttanta.") a to with The Buddha.at the endof manyof his discourses. repetito the tious styleof manyof his recorded teachings seems to have beenaimed hammering at theminto the listeners memory. famous hisabilityto speak in was for directly hislisteners' to needs. emphasis in the is reversed. to And. he wouldsummarize mainpointsof the discussion the in an easy-to-memorizeverse. when asked about mango. also. at of listening impact sacrificed theneeds listening for is to of for memorization. when asked about breadfruit."one of the interlocutorscomments. 126 . answer a mango. contrast.
recyclings in and of oldfragments new in juxtapositions.A at survey his poetryreveals same of the range material: of originalworks. wouldforhe mulate entirely an originalteaching. only contemplating them. or moretraditionalteachings-sometimes lightly tailored. occasionally altered linewith the occasion. some hislisteners that of wouldattainAwakening immediately hearing words. and combine them in a newwayfor the needs hand. line with his on in perception theirshort-andlong-term of needs. A survey the Buddha's of prose discourses recorded in the PaliCanon gives ideaof howthe Buddha an met the double demands placed him asateacher. Buddha's the realization.he would take formulaicbits and pieces. on his whereas others would be ableto awaken aftertakinghis words.This sensitivity bothpresent to impact futureuse and is in linewith twowell-known Buddhist teachings: first. an acthas of that repercussions in thepresent on into the future. sometimes not-that fit in with his message. respond a particular to to situation. others. would In he simplyrepeat formulaicanswer he kept in store a that for general eitherteachings use: originalwith him. Thus. still In others. althoughthe Buddhainsistedthat all his teachings had the sametaste-that of release-he taughtdifferent variations the theme that tasteto on of differentpeople differentoccasions. some on In cases. the basic Buddhist principle causality. on in histeaching early career. both and second. puttingtheminto prolonged and practice. reciting In 127 .setpieces-originalor borrowed.
a monk as fromthe southern country Avantirecited of some his of teachings-apparently the Avanti dialect-in his in presence* Althoughscholars oftenraised have questions aboutwhichlanguage Buddhaspoke. with appreciation. mightchangeword. the factthat of to skilledtranslation requires morethansimplysubstituting equivalent words* The Mahavagga (v*i3*9) reports that the Buddha listened. he would have been fluentin at least or three the mostprevalent two of dialects. each with its own traditions of poetryandprose. fit in with their backgrounds to and individual needs* Addingto thispotential variety thefactthat for was the people northern of Indiairr histime spoke number a of different dialects.as a well-educated aristocrat of the time. The Pali Cullavagga (v*33*i) records the Buddha insisting his listeners as that memorize his teachings.for instance. might be the it moreappropriate remain to opento the possibility that he spoke-and couldcompose poetryin-several*This 128 .or expected them to make the translations themselves* it seems Still. Someof the discourses-suchas D*2i-depict the Buddhaasan articulate connoisseur poetryand of song. or an image. wecanexpect hewouldalsohave so that been sensitiveto the special problems involved the effective in translation poetry-alive. he a a line. likelythat.averse aparticular to audience. in their not lingua but own dialects* Thereis no wayof knowingwhetherhe himself multi-lingual was enough teach of his stuto all dents in their own dialects. in a standardized franca.
and explanations. quotations. could in no way preventmistakenreports based honest on misunderstandings. However. shortlybefore So. he summarizedthe basic principles of his teachings: 37Wings to Awakening the (bodbi-pakkkiya dhamma-see note to verse 301)in the general framework of the development virtue. his death. spontaneous exclamations. question answer and sessions.concentration. laypeople and doubtlessly had their ownindividual memorized stores teachings of they hadheard directly fromtheBuddha indirectly or through thereports theirfriends acquaintances. of and discernment.n. The textssuggest even that duringthe Buddha's lifetime his students made efforts to collect and memorize a standardized of histeachings body underarubricof nine categories: dialogues.23). nuns. wouldnot be allowed creep the to into accepted body of doctrine. narratives mixed of prose verse. deviating from the principles of his teachings. whileothermonks. amazing events.the same at time. however. verses.birth stories. him This.possibility makes question "the"originallanguage the of or "the" original of the Dhpsomewhat text irrelevant.To discourage fabricated reportsof his words. to Thenhe announced the 129 . leading release.he established norms so that mistaken reports.he warned that anyone who put wordsin his mouthwasslandering (A. actof collecting memorizing the and waspursuedby only a sub-group amonghis monks. of and The Buddha theforesight ensure thisless had to that standardized fund of memories be discounted not by latergenerations.
In monastery manylearned a with elders who know the tradition.. find thattheydon'tstand you with the discourses tally with the Vinaya.'" it Thus. mayconclude: you 'This is the word of the Blessed One.. nor Without approvalor scorn.Inthe presence a community of with well-known leading elders. not on the authority of the reporter or his sources. on theprinciple consistency: it fit in but of did 130 . on makingthem stand against discourses tallying themagainst the and the Vinaya. this is the Vinaya.Jn the presence a of singleelderwho knowsthe tradition haveI heard this... take careful note of his words and make themstandagainst discourses tally them the and againstthe Vinaya.. in his presence I received This is have this: the Dhamma. this monkhasmisunderstood it'-and youshould reject But if.general norms whichreports his teachings to by of were be judged* The Mahaparinibbana Suttanta (D. mayconor you clude: 'This is not the word of the Blessed One.If.a reportof the Buddha's teachings to be was judged.they it. in the have Blessed Onespresence haveI received this*.i6) quotes assaying: him "Thereis the case where monksays a this:In the Blessed One'spresence I heardthis. this monk has understood rightly. stand with the discourses and tally with the Vinaya.. this is the Teachers instruction/ His statement is neither to be approved scorned.
approved repeated often. by spoken seers by (non-Buddhist sages). but it did openthepossibility teachings linewith that in the Buddha's. 131 . simplyfound or the He it in nature. inspired byhis/her it. This attitudewascarriedoverinto the passages of the Vinayathat citefour categories Dhammastateof ments: spoken the Buddha. not overly but worried by it. long asa statement in accordance As was with the basic principles. it or it words actions. by spoken his disciples. Anyone whodeveloped pitch of mental the strengths abilities and needed Awakening for coulddiscover same the principles well ThustheDhamma as was by nomeans exclusively his.with whatwasalready knownof the doctrine? prinThis ciplewasdesigned ensure nothing oddswith to that at the original wouldbe accepted the standard into canon.In an oral culture. As theBuddha himself pointed many out times. not actually yet spoken him. question authorship not the or the of was overriding concern has since it become literateculin tures. question whofirst stated the of it did not matter.aslongasthose at teachings in accorwere dance theoriginal with principles. recent The discovery evidence a number of that of teachings associated the Buddha have with may pre-or post-datedhis time would not havefazedthe early Buddhists all.wherea saying mightbe associated a person with because authored he it. he did not design create Dhamma. spoken heavby enlybeings. mightfind by their wayin* The earlyredactors the canon of seem to have been alertto this possibility.
he went to the elder monks and. theysaidto him. canon abandoning earthe lier nine-foldclassification organizing material and the into something approaching canon havetoday. the we Thereis clear evidence some thepassagesthe that of in extant canon not dateto thefirst convocation. after exchanging pleasantries. wentto the Bamboo and he Park. "Friend Purana. not This question particuis larly relevant with regard textslike the Dhp. in On arrival.Ven. to oneside." [He replied:] "The Dhammaand Vinayahave 132 . 500 having stayed longashe likedin the Southern as Hills while the eldermonkswerestandardizing the Dhamma Vinaya. quesThe tion naturally arises to whetherthereareanyother as lateradditions soobvious. Rajagaha. whose to organizationdiffers considerably from redactionto redaction. they do as report incidents took place that afterwards.ui) recounts incident an that sheds on thisissue: light Now at that time. Switch over to their standardization.Shortly after the Buddha's passingaway.Purana wandering was on a tour of the Southern Hills with a large community of monks. the Cullavagga reports. Then. Cullavagga The (xi. leads and naturally the furtherquestion to of whether a later addition to the canon can be considered authentic. disciples to agree a (xi) his met on standardized of histeachings. the Dhamma Vinayahave and beenstandardized by the elders.the Squirrels' Sanctuary. hewas sat As sittingthere.approximately in all.
any in In event. resulting various in collections prose verse of and passages. wehave As already noted. nuns. eachindividual dialect. of As some of the early communitiesmay havemadean effort to include these "external" records in the standardized canon. alsofind verses oneredaction We in composed of linesscattered among several verses another. for instance. there was and wereprobably others him whocontinued like maintaining personal memories the Buddha's of teachings afterthelatter's even death. Ven. Parana maintained-and undoubtedly taughtto his followers-a recordof the Buddha's teachings layoutside standardized that the version. Thus.but was nevertheless authentic. This storyshows officialearlyBuddhist the attitudetowardsuchdifferingtraditions: each accepted the trustworthiness the others. range these The of collections wouldhave been determined the materialthat wasavailable or by in. could be effectivelytranslatedinto.been well-standardized the elders.the fact that a text wasa later addition to the stan- dardized canon doesnot necessarily that it wasa mean 133 . Their organization wouldhave depended the on taste and skill of the individual collectors. findverses thePaliDhpthatdonot exist we in in otherDhps. time passed.andlaypeople him like even whilethe Buddha alive. by Still I will hold simply to what I haveheardand received in the presence the Blessed of One." In other words. thereweremonks.aswellasverses the Patna Gandhari in and Dhpsthatthe Palitradition assigns theJataka Sutta to or Nipata.
advantages The ofwritten over oral transmission are obvious: the texts are saved them die before from the vagaries humanlong-term of memory do and not die out if those who have memorized teaching others memorize aswell Thedisadvanto them tages writtentransmission.to seeif the readingwasindeeda mistake.Given the ad hoc wayin which the Buddha sometimes taught. hasno wayof checking to he with the scribe. its perceived was and strangeness simplya resultof changes the spoken was in dialect of hisownlimitedknowledge imagination. led to the removing 134 .later invention. and the scattered natureof thecommunities memorized teachings.When confronted with such problems.approximately the beginning the common at of era. perhaps several generations distant. of however. but-because transmission is not face-to-face- there alsobethesuspicionscribal can of error. less are obvious but no less Not onlyisthere possibility scribal real. or and The fact that manuscripts otherversions the text of of werealsoavailable comparison suchinstances for in could have scribes homogenize texts.theybroughta great change the dynamic how to of theirtraditions were maintained. later who his the additions thecanons simply to may represent earlier traditionsthatescaped standardization relatively until late.If a reading seems strange a student. When Buddhists began committing their canons to writing. may"correct" reading he the to fit in with his ideasof what mustbe right. evenin cases wherethe reading correct. the of error.
346). days These considerationshowtheDhp mayhave of been handed downto the present-andespecially possithe bility that (i) variant recensions might all be authentic. have I checked the non-Pali texts to see which variant theysupport. together with its extensive notes(1987).unusual variants whenthe variants even themselves may have gone backto theearliest ofthetradition. and that (2) agreement among recensions the might be the resultof later homogenization-have determined the wayin whichI haveapproached translation this of thePaliDhp. Only in cases where the different Pali redactions are at variance with oneanother. Norman (1995). von Hiniiber and K.259. the RoyalThai edition of the Pali and Canon (1982). OxfordeditioneditedbyJohn Ross the Carter andMahindaPalihawadana. Where the different Pali recensions are unan- imousin their readings.am I treating Pali Dhp asa text with its ownintegritythe just as eachof the alternative traditions has its own integrity-and have tried to homogenize various not the traditions. 71. the but 135 . in cases even where reading the seems strange (e.I have stuckwith the Pali without trying to "rectify" it in light of less unusual readings givenin the othertraditions. the variants and seem equally plausible. translation is drawnfrom The here threeeditionsof the text: the Pali Text Society (PTS) edition editedby O.. PTS The editiongives mostextensive the list of variantreadings among Pali recensions. 209. Unlikesome otherrecent translators.R.g.
all the recenat of sionsagree their basicprinciples. as I mentioned the beginning this note.evenit is not complete. to anyone or text that once existed in ancient India. thefinalanalysis. 136 . are Drawing selectively various on recensionsthisway in I cannot guarantee the resulting that reading the Dhp of corresponds exactly theBuddha's to words. contains preferred 8 variant 49 and readings not given the PTS in version all Passages I have at where differed fromthePTS reading citedin theEndNotes. However. for example. the question in so is immaterial truetestof thereading-andthe resultThe ingtranslation-is if the reader engaged feels enough by the verses put their principles practice finds to into and that theydo indeed to the release the Buddha lead that taught. The RoyalThai edition. In nothing really else counts.
see S.representing suffering. aburden theoxpulling is on it. by 7-8: Focused on the foul: A meditative exercisein focusing the foul aspects the bodyso asto help on of undercut andattachment the body(see lust for M." The images these in verses carefully are chosen. manomaya made the heart. following Thus. I have rendered it here as "heart. shaping onlymental not events. Theshadow. A.However.END NOTES (Numbers toverses) refer 1-2: The factthat thewordmano paired is here with dhamma wouldseem suggest it is meant its role to that in as"intellect"the sense medium that conveys knowledge of ideas mental or objects possible (two meanings the for word dhamma). a Thai tradition.i6 gives standard a definition restraint for with the 137 .xxxv.ii9).in. alsophysibut calreality(onthispoint.145). factor of will and the intention.whileall other recenof sions the reading give manojavaimpelled theheart. representing happiness. The cart.no weight the is on bodyat all. All Pali recensions this verse of givethe reading. the illustrations in the second sentence each of verse showthat it is actually meant in its roleasthemental factorresponsible thequalityof for one's actions(as in mano-kamma). andthe weightof its wheels obliterates ox's the track.
Right resolves mental = resolves freedom sensuality. freedom for from for fromill will.)This is howa monkguards doors his sense the to faculties. The four stages (i) stream-entry. ill will. a does grasp anytheme not at or particulars which-if he wereto dwellwithout by restraintover the faculty of the eye-evil." 11-12: Wrongresolves mental = resolves sensualfor ity. on seeing formwith the eye. at and (2) atwhichpassion. andgrasping precepts practices. body& intellect.senses: "Andhow does monkguardthe doorsto his a sense faculties? There is the case where a monk. (Similarly with the ear. non-returning. well asthe total Unbinding of as to whichtheylead. or harmfulness. tongue. the ones after 21: The Deathless Unbinding = (nibbana/nirvana). and for harmlessness.nose. uncertainty. delusion further and are weakened. aversion. whichsensual (3) at passion and irritationareabandoned. are: at whichoneabandons first threemental the fetters tying one to the roundof rebirth:self-identity views. which and at 138 . once-returning. with He the of He achieves restraint with regard the facultyof the to eye. (4) arahantship. whichgives release thecycle death rebirth. from of and 22: "The range the nobleones": of the four of Any stages Awakening. unskillful qualities suchasgreed distress or mightassail him. 17-18: "Destination" in these two verses and throughout text means destination death. He practices restraint. guards faculty theeye.
loses friends.and actsin sucha way that-after deathhe/she reappears abadrebirth. also the 39: According DhpA. Sn.the final fivefettersareabandoned: passion form.sleeps badly. conceit."unsoddened to mind"means oneinto whichthe rainof passion doesn't penetrate (see 13-14)."unassaulted awareness"means a mind not assaulted anger.6o illustrates point with seven this ways that a personharms him/herselfwhenangry. aversion.2 compares bodyto acave. of 42: A. water (liquidity).iv. andignorance* otherreferences the "range the For to of noble ones. without layingclaim": twomeanings thewordanivesano. restlessness.aswell asthe four great properties-earth (solidity). fire (heat).good bad. loseshis/her reputation. mistakes profit for lossand lossfor profit. and none of the attachments that would cause his/her actions to bear kammic fruit of anysort. delusionor that would lead to evil actions.and wind (motion)-that makeup the body.vii. by "Beyond merit & evil":The arahant is beyond merit andevilin that he/she noneof the has mentaldefilements-passion. "cave" heremeans physical the heart. or 40: "Without settlingthere. bringing on results an enemy that wouldwish:He/shebecomes ugly. in 139 ."see92-93and 179-180* 37: "Lying in a cave":According to the Dhp Commentary (hereafter referredto as DhpA). for passion formless for phenomena. loseswealth.
and talents* 54-56:Tagara a shrubthat.is used aperfume. thing shouldbe donewith what's born & mortal"The first readingtakesthe phrase jatenamaccena. wealth.to fit into a particular (see spotin the arrangement. as A. the same that a in way flower-arranger chooses right flower. in powdered = form. & born mortal. Endthe maker is Mara* 53: The last line of the Pali here can be read in two ways.m.either"even manya skillful thing shouldbe so. (see 48: According DhpA.44-45* "Dhamma-saying": is a translation This for the term dhammapada. thissense. learner-on-the-path":person "The A whohasattained of the first three the four stages any of of Awakening note22). saying thosehumanandcelestial by that beings who knowof the goodcharacter a virtuousperson of will broadcast good one's name all directions. ferret out the well-taught To Dhamma-saying means select appropriate to the maxim to applyto a particular situation. in 140 . to is Accordingto anotherancientcommentary. second The takes asanalogous it to theheap flowers of explicitly mentioned. In "what'sborn & is mortal" would denoteone'sbody. as being analogous the flower-arranger to implicit in the image. the froma heap of available flowers 53).79explains howthescent the of a virtuous person against windandwaftsto the goes the devas. the End-maker death. doneby oneborn & mortal"or "even manya skillful so.
92-93:"Havingunderstood . do two of threescholarly as editions of thePatna Dhp.57'"Rightknowing": knowledge full Awakening.. 86: The syntax this verse of yieldsthe bestsense if we takeparam meaning as "across.." The former reading makes moresense." concept food andnutriment The of hererefers the mostbasicwayof understanding to the 141 . analysis of qualities." 89: Factors self-awakening for = mindfiilness. Chinese The translation Dhp supof portsthis reading. serenity. "to curdle. the of 71: "Doesn't-like readymilk-come out right away": Palirecensions thisverse the verbmucAll of give cati-"to come out" or "tobe released"-whereas DhpA agrees the Sanskrit with recensions reading verb in the as if it were mucchati/murckati. dhammapiti..refreshedby the Dhamma":two meanings the word." not as"the far and shore. in terms theimage both of of the poem-which contrastscoming with staying out hidden-andwith the plain fact that freshmilk doesn't curdleright away. . 79: "Drinking the Dhamma. concentration.. two of 83: "Standapart":reading cajanti with DhpA and many Asianeditions. persistence. rapture. of "Clear calm": meanings vipasannena. independent food of nutriment": first question theNovice's The in Questions (Khp 4) is "Whatis one?" answer: animals The "All subsiston nutriment. andequanimity..
andintellectual intention fourth" Thepresent the verses makethe point that the arahanthas so fully understood process physical mental the of and causality that he/sheis totally independent it. or contact the second. and thus will of never birth again.causal principlethat playssuch a centralrole in the Buddha's teaching. scholar suggested the One has that 142 .Thenegative on meanings are soextremely negative theywere that probably intended to shock their listeners. theright.xn. therewasan ancientcustomof to worshipping this post with flowers and offerings. Which four?Physical nutriment."Rightknowing": or of the knowledge full Awakening. of 95: Indra's pillar = a postsetup at the gate a city.64pointsout. In on eithercase. as consciousness the third. "Thereare As these nutriments theestablishing beings four for of who have takenbirth or for the support those search of in of a placeto be born. post did not react. indicating that the persons stateis indefinable not subject but to change influences anysort. negative is of The meaningsof the punsareon the left sideof the slashes. the positive meanings. 94: "Such (tadin)": adjective to describe an used one whohasattained goalof Buddhist the practice. S. take Such person a cannot comprebe hendedby any of the forms of understanding that operate within the causal realm. the 97: This verse a series puns. of According DhpA. although those whowanted showtheir disrespect to for this customwould urinateand defecate the post. gross refined.
translated as "awakens" here should be changed appam to bodheti. in that the the more sensitive is evento the idea of the whip. of for . the better-bred horse. example. not eternalstates. 143: Sometranslators proposed the verb have that apabodheti.lastword-uttamaporiso. against sense theverse of arecurrent goes the of and image the Canon. are One maybe rebornon one of the various levels of heaven or hell as the result of one's kamma the humanplane." that wouldweaken shock of but the value of the verse* 100: According DhpA. the wordsabassam to in this and the following verses means the thousands" "by ratherthan"athousand" same The principle wouldalso seem hold for satam-"by the hundreds" to ratherthan "a hundred"-in 102. in the Buddhist view of the cosmos. 108: "Doesn't come a fourth":DhpA: The merit to produced all sacrificial by offerings given theworldin in the course a yeardoesn't of equal even fourthof the one meritmade paying by homage to onewhohasgone once thestraight to Unbinding. way 121-122: wont cometo me')":The Thai edition "(It reads line asna mattam this agamissati"[Thinking]it won't amount to much " 126: Heaven and hell. "the extreme audacity. ultimateperson-should the alsobe readasa pun. to say it nothing thewhipitself See. think little of" This. how"to ever. with the negative meaning. thenleave on and that levelwhen particular that store kamma of wears out.
whichis usuallyrendered this verse "flesh. alteredto fit the meter. the in of so 144 .i." in as However. because Paliword is in the plural form. somereason.iS: in is in Those restrained conscience by are rare- those go through who life always mihdfuL Havingreached end the of suffering stress. house-builder crav= ing.15). "House" may also refer to the nine abodes of beings-the seven stationsof consciousness two and spheres Khp 4 and0. meaning "coming a rest. gothrough whatis out-of-tune in tune* 152: Muscles: This is a translation of the Pali man- sani. For they are not reportedin any of the other canonical accounts theevents of following theAwakening. to settled. situated. gaining reward") a or asthe negative gerundof nivisati. on DhpA: "House"= selfhood.The question raised this verse answered S. & theygo through whatis uneven evenly. to I53'I54: DhpA:These verses theBuddha's were first utterance after his full Awakening. (see The word anibbisam 153can be read either as the in negative gerund nibbisati of ("earning. the "muscles" seems accurate-and more more thepoint." Both readings makesense the context the verse.
165: "No one purifiesanother. then fruit and dies soon after.anddeed. where the Buddha counsels two old brahmans. 157: "Thethree watches thenight": istheliteral of this meaning theverse.m. those devoted to their own true welfare but not that of others.XLVII. without rest.IQ .see true On A. those devoted to the true welfare of others but not their own.middleage. just asa maluvacreeper ultimatelybringsabout the downfall thetreeit overspreads. and those devoted neither to their own true welfare nor that of others. begin the to practicing generosity along with restraint thought. nearing endof theirlifespan. thispoint.95listsfour typesof people descending in order: those devoted to their own true welfare as well as that of others. note42. 162: DhpA completes imageof the poemby the saying one's bringsaboutone's that vice owndownfall. old age. S. in word. of nanno annam visodhaye. DhpA shows theimage of but that of stayingup to nursesomeone the night is meantto in standfor beingwakefulandattentivethroughout the threestages life:youth. other purifies No one. of and The point here that it is never early too lateto wake is too or up andbeginnurturingthegoodqualities mind that of will leadto one's benefit.iv."Theseare the two meanings the one phrase. of See 164:A bamboo plantbears onlyonce.5i52. 166: A.word is probablyintendedto havea doublemeaning: without reward.
v. 176: This verseis also found at Iti*25. of 178:Thefruit of Stream Entryis the firstof thefour stages Awakening note22).Mogharaja.A person has of (see who 146 . as empty- always mindful to have removed view any about self This wayoneis above beyond & death. others automatically benefit. This is how one views the world so as not to be seen by Death's king."this or onething":theprinciple truthfulness.i5 reports a conversationbetween the Buddha the brahman and Mogharaja apoint simiwith lar to that of this verse: Mogharaja: How does one view the world so as not to be seen byDeaths king? The Buddha: Viewtheworld. wherethe con- text makes clearthemeaning ckam of dhammam. thesame in way that an acrobat maintaining his/herownbalance helps his/herpartner balanced well stay as 170: Sn.makes point thatif oneis truly devoted one's the to own welfare.
i8 "Dependent eye on & forms.250 to of arahants the in first yearafterhis Awakening. in connection with excessive detailandelaboration. never falling below the human state in the interim.What one one thinks about. Based what a on personcomplicates.attained Stream Entry-entry into thestream flows that inevitably to Unbinding-is destinedto attain full Awakening within at mostseven lifetimes. term is usedboth in philosophical The contexts-in connection with troubles and conflict- and in artistic contexts.welcome. to present. right effort. right 195-196: Complicationspapanca. Verse is traditionally 183 viewed expressing heart the Buddha's as the of teachings. With contact a requisite as condition. there is feeling. elaboration. What one feels. & futureforms cognizable theeye. states: M. 183-185: These verses a summary a talk called are of the Ovada Patimokkha.What oneapperceives. speech.] Now.right resolve. eye-consciousness Themeeting thethree arises. via [Similarly with the othersenses. action. 191: The noble eightfold path: right view. which the Buddha is said to havedelivered an assembly 1. apperceptions categories the & of complication assail him/herwith regard past. if or 147 . right right right livelihood. thinksabout.right mindfulness. concentration. apperceives one (labels the in mind).with regard thecause to whereby the apperceptions categories complication & of assail a person: thereis nothingthereto relish. of is contact. exaggeration. = Alternative translationsof this termwouldbe proliferation.onecomplicates.
That is the endof takingup rods& bladed weapons. to conceit.anuyunjati (keeping something. "those whokept afterthemselves. who kept after/remained "those devoted thegoal. hypocrisy. = aversion." PatnaDhp the reads atthanuyoginam. in Verbal misconduct lies. divisive tale-bearing. 235:Yama thegodof the underworld. chatter.meditation) and a related term. and their variouspermutations. arguments. boastfulness. striving. = Yamas minionsor underlings werebelieved appear a person to to just prior to themoment death. stealing.divisive = speech.remain fastened thenthatis theendof theunderlying to. disputes. tendencies passion. after taking someone task). of quarrels. harsh speech. of 236:Impurities." to 218: "The up-flowingstream": DhpA: the attainment of non-returning. to passionfor becoming. delusion. idle Mentalmisconduct = covetousness. and 148 . includingenvy.unskillful things cease withoutremainder. miserliness. application.& to ignorance. uncerto to to tainty. engaging illicit sex. irritation. accusations. third of the four stages the of Awakening note22\ (see 231-233:Bodily misconduct= killing." 209: This verse playswith the various meanings of yoga(task. wrong ill will. is where That these evil. false & speech. views. blemishes passion. place the Palireading to In of attanuyoginam.to views.
....In D.fourth Other teachings order. a compound around word dhona.. once-returner. 254-255:"No outsidecontemplative": true conNo templative. of third. of exists outside the pracof ticeof the Buddha's teachings note22). if the And monks dwellrightly..second.second. built the whichmeans clean pure.." it canalsomean but "transgressing..) On "complication.third... right heretherearecontemplatives and of the first." thus.fourth order [stream-winner.second.third.the (see Buddha quoted teaching final student: any is as his "In doctrine& discipline where nobleeightfold the path is not found.. is atidhonacarin. "transgressing against what is clean"= "slovenly" The latter readingfits betterwith the imageof rust asa deficiency theiron resulting in fromcarelessness..contemplatives the first." thenoble (On eightfold path.clothing. defined a person as whohasattained of any the four stages Awakening.. and medicine without the wisdom that comes with reflecting theirproper The Palitermhere on use.see note191.fourth are of order found. no contemplative the first. overly thus "one scrupulous in hisbehavior. Thenoble eightfold pathis foundin thisdoctrine & discipline.. areemptyof knowledgeable contemplatives. worldwill not beemptyof arathis hants.." yielding. arahant]is found.. see 149 ...But in anydoctrine& or discipline where nobleeightfold the pathis found." note195-196.The ati.240: "Onewholives slovenly": DhpA makes As clear. non- returner.i6. thisrefers onewhouses requisites food.in the compound or couldmean "overly. to the of shelter.
duty of ajudgeis to correctly The determine attba. for good.Thus in Pali. sees). Sanskrit he The recensions the PatnaDhp all supportthe reading.samana. and Discordant intervals or poorly-tuned musical instruments weremetaphors for evil. sees" "he Some scholars regard latter this reading a corruption theverse." "equal." these senses the wordbeingconnected two of by the fact that thejudgemustinterpretthe meanings of wordsused rulesandprinciples see in to howtheycorrectly apply theparticulars a case thathecanpass to of so a correctverdict. whichmeans "even. or he touches." This. harmonious intervals and well-tuned instruments. 265: This verse playswith a numberof nounsand verbs related the adjective to sama. and "he would touch.is thetheme tyingtogether verses this the in chapter. terminology music used describe the of was to the moral qualityof people acts." but all Pali recensions are unanimous in thereading. personally it a as of I find more strikingimage thecommon than expression. or also means personwho is in tune with the principlesof a 150 ." pitch. The remaining verses this chapter in giveexamples interpreting in anappropriate of attha way 259: "Sees Dhamma throughhis body":The more common expression in the Pali Canon is to touch Dhamma throughor with the body(phusati phassati.256-257* sense theverse." "in tune"Throughout "on or ancient cultures. by suggests the Pali worddhammattho that means "judge. The of confirmed DhpA. word that denotes a both "meaning" "judgand ment. contemplative.in fact. ratherthanpassati.
I've attempted givea hint of theseimplications to by associating word"contemplative" "consonance" the with 268-269: This versecontainsthe Buddhist refutation of the ideathat "those knowdon'tspeak. even muchasa fingersnap. on account x.23 Sn.i2. "Just as even a small amount of excrement is foul- smelling. the same I do not praise in way even small a amount becoming. in which na + instrumental nouns + a verb in the aoristtense gives forceof a prohibitive the ("Don't.i." of not as . sage a (muni) a person was who took a vowof silence (mona) wassupposed and to gain specialknowledgeas a result.at a from in the endof Chapterxix in the PTS edition)that reads." according DhpA. "The renunciate that runof ease of-the-millpeople don'tknow. The Buddhists adoptedthe term muni.m. who those who speak don'tknow" For anotherrefutationof the same idea. is to thestate non-returning. a fuller portrait of the ideal For Buddhist sage. third of thefour stages of the of Awakening note22). do y").I (203 theThai edition. and in Hereandin 388. A. D.Tightness truth inherent nature.In Vedic see times. redefined to showhow but it true knowledge attained howit expressed was and itself in the sage's actions.Because (see non-returners still are attached subtle to states becoming thelevel form of on of andformlessness.I2. see and 271-272: This versehas what seemsto be a rare construction. DhpA drives homethe message that evennon-returners shouldnot be complacent paraby phrasing passage A.
walking. tion of thebody's inevitable decomposition death.273: The four truths: stress." "annihilate." found I have no previous English translation renders accordingly.seeA.its cause. theextraction arrows or of On of asa metaphor the practice.alertness all the actionsof the body. ML63 M.a reading with supported by the Patna Dhp. lying down).48. distress or identification thebody.vn.its cessation. the ucchinda. literally means "crush. 275:"I have taught thispath":reading you akkhato vo maya maggo the Thai edition. to analysis thebodyinto its 32parts.annaya.andcontemplafire. with M. water. for see and 285:Although firstwordin thisverse. of awarenessthe of four postures the body (standing. 288: Ender = death. 293:Mindfulness immersed thebody= thepractice in of focusing thebodyatall times on simply a phenomeas non in andof itself. of sitting. theroleplayed self-allure leading On by in the heart to becomefixated on others. after 152 . of analysis it into its of four properties (earth.asa wayof developing meditative absorption (jhana) removing sense attraction and any of to. "Having known-for yourknowing": two ways interpreting of whatis apparentlyplayon the a Paliword. wind).105.See note191.119 the lists following practices instances mindfulness as of immersed in the body:mindfulness breathing. that it Mosttranslate as"cutout" or "uproot. over." "destroy. whichcanbe eitherbe the gerund of ajanati thedative anna. and the path to its cessation (which is identicalto the eightfold path)." it whichweakens theimage.
i.mother= craving.and uncertainty).kingdom= the twelvesense spheres (the senses sight. concentration. 295: DhpA:two learned kings= views eternalism of and annihilationism. in "tiger"is a term for a powerful eminent and man. else for of or all five hindrances (sensual desire.feelings. and ideation. Sanskritliterature.the hindrance uncertainty.. tiger = the pathwhere tiger a the goes food.restlessness anxiety. mental qualities. for 299: See note 293.e. intentness. of smell. dependency passions thesense = for spheres. to and fosterandstrengthen skillfulmental qualities). seven the factors self-awakening for 153 . According DhpA.taste.feeling. mindfulness.hearing. thetermmaystand anger. discrimination). mindful alertness body.294* This verse the onefollowing useterms and it with ambiguous meaningsto shock the listener. together with their respective objects). & However. to father= conceit. will. that is whatis meant if here. persistence. four the bases power of (concentration on desire. mental and qualities andof themselves). fivestrengths five and the and faculties (conviction. twowarriorkings= views eternalism onehasan of (that identity remaining constant throughall time) and of annihilationism one's (that consciousness is totallyannihilatedat death). fourrightexertions in the (to abandon avoid unskillful and evil.anddiscernment). based persistence. 301:"Developing mind"in terms the37Wings the of to Awakening: fourframes reference the of (ardent. to mind states. torpor & ill lethargy.
virtue. seeTheWings to Awakening (DhammaDana Publications. 1996). Insteadof expressingwish that the listeners a meetwith wealth.but no thoughtonlyof the sorrow motherfelt. A similar 154 . erudition. Although given palatial quarters with the finestfood. alone the his in elephant wood. story His parallels of theelephant that the Buddha in theParileyyaka met Forest (Mv. 303: DhpA: Wealth = both materialwealthandthe seven formsof noblewealth(ariya-dhana): conviction. he showed interest.separated from herson. 337:This verse provides Buddhist a twistto thetypical benedictions found in worksof kavya. to eatleaves others already had that had nibbled. fame. this verse describes highest the goodfortune. etc.x.4.6-7).andthenoble note eightfold (see path note191). generosity.(see 89). discernment. whichcanbe accomplished throughone's only ownskillful kamma: the uprooting craving the resulting of and stateof total freedom from the round of death and rebirth. to drink as had muddied water. status. 329-330: DhpA:The bull elephant named Matanga. conscience.-decided he wouldfind more that pleasure in livingalone.concern (for the results of evil actions). reflectingon the inconveniences living in a herd of crowded with she-elephants youngelephants-he and was pushed around hewentinto theriver. otherworldlyforms good or of fortune. For a full treatment of this topic. 324: DhpA:Dhanapalaka a noble was elephant captured for the king of Kasi.
whichteaches the that bestprotective charm to develop is skillfulkamma.were to commonly used to describe smooth bowel movements. 343: For the variousmeanings that attano-"for himself"-can "slack"-does havein this verse. According another." & here applied joys.so I have are on chosen nearsynonym does. maybeattempts "correct" make but to 155 . on past. andfuture.5. is craving. by of 339: 36 streams= three forms of desirefor eachof the internal external and sense spheres note294)-3 x 2x (see 6 = 36. not fit in this verse. craving becoming. a that The Patna Dhp renders this term as "subtle. The creeper. its whileit itselfstays rooted themind.twist on the themeof good fortune is found in the Mangala Sutta(Khp."Both alternatives sense. Sn." whereas the Tibetan commentary the Udanavarga to explains line asa the whole asmeaning "hard for the slackto untie. according to DhpA. but all the Pali 346: "Elastic": The usual translation for sithilam- recensions unanimous this reading. arecraving sento they for suality.seenote 402. in 341:This verse contains impliedsimile: terms an the "loosened oiled. According onesub-commentary. ultimatelydeveloping mind to the point whereit is the untouched thevagaries theworld.4). three to the formsof desire desires are focused the present. which sends thoughtsout to wrap around objects. for and for 340: "Every whichway":Reading sabbadbi the with Thai andBurmese editions. craving no-becoming.n.
an will thispresent bodyis his/herlast. knowing combination the of sounds-which comes first & which after": Some ara- hants.in between the of = aggregates present. of thefirst to one peoplethe Buddhamet after his Awakening an was ascetic who commented the clarity of his faculties on andasked who his teacher This verse part of was.) third sub-type the heroic-yuddha The of (warfare)-is suggested the verb"conquer. that of 348: DhpA: In front = the aggregates the past. Bothdhamma (justice) dana and (gift/generosity) are sub-typesof the heroic rasa. talent particular have This in must been ofinterest theanthologist(s) put together Dhp. 352:'Astutein expression.6.7. i. of behind= the aggregatesthe future. was the Buddha's response." by which 156 . are also endowed with four forms of acumen (patisambhida). of whichis acumen one with regard to expression (nirutti-patisambhida). of the See 350: "A focus on the foul": A meditative exercisein focusingon the foul parts of the body so asto help undercut andattachment thebodySee lust for note7-8.(Seethe or Introduction. savor. 354: This versecontainsseveralterms relatedto aes- thetics. to who the "Last-body": Because arahant not be reborn.e. alsonote385. 353:According M. addition theirabilityto overcome of their in to all defilements.26andMv.a termthat couldwell have originally meant 'elastic/' a meaning gotlostwith thepassage time.i.a totalmastery linof guistic expression..
or 370: DhpA:Cut through = thefivelowerfetters five that tie the mind to the roundof rebirth(self-identity views. waterthat needs the to be bailedout = wrongthoughts (imbued with passion. delusion. effect. highest to the expressionoftheheroic Dhamma is in theending craving. conceit. aversion. rasa of 360-361: See note 7-8." literarycontext The seems be the to properonehere. discernment). verse saying thehighest the is that forms rasa of and emotion those are related Dhamma. when are 369: DhpA:The boat= one's personhood own (attabhava. persistence. delusion). is the meaning thewordmania.occurs four timesin the Pali.uncertainty. body-mind the complex).conceit.let go of five= the fivehigher fetters (passion form. 363: "Counsel": the contextof Indian literary In theory. five = aversion. 368: "Stilling-of-fabrications thetrue ease ease": and freedom experienced all fiveaggregates stilled. restlessness. attachments passion. 381: See note 368. grasping precepts practices. concentration.Rati(delight/love) the is emotion(bhava) corresponds the sensitive In that to rasa.passion formless for for phenomena. views. at & sen- sualpassion. 157 . mindfulness. irritation).ignorance). this of whichcan alsomean "chant. & develop = five the fivefaculties (conviction.
is one of the few in Dhp where the word brahman usedin its ordinary is sense. or is hefor eternity fromdis-ease? free Please.6): Upasiva: He who has reached the end: Does he not exist. declare to me sage.and not in its specialBuddhist sense as indicating arahant. this asthisphenomenon been has knownbyyou. Whenall phenomena done are away with.addressed a member of the brahto man caste. allmeans speaking done of are away with aswelL 388: Stains= the impuritieslisted in note 236."seenote 265. passage The may also refer to the sense of total limitlessness that makes theexperience Unbinding of totallyineffable. reflected as in thefollowing conversation (Sn." either for the senses("not- beyond") their objects or ("beyond").383: This verse. The Buddha: One who has reached the end has no criterion bywhichanyone wouldsay thatit doesn't exist for him.v. .On "consonance. indicating as caste membership. an 384: DhpA: two things = tranquility meditation andinsightmeditation* 385:DhpA:This verse refers a person hasno to who senseof "I" or "mine.
389: The word "anger" hereis added from DhpA. whichinterprets "lettingloose" the actof retaliatthe as ing with anger against one's assailant. Giventhe wayin whichkavya cultivated a tastefor ambiguities multipleinterpretations." as or asan elided formof apiyehi. endearing" former "not The reading morestraightforward. giventhe reference is but to "harmful-heartedness" in the next line. as indicating castemembership. and both readings have may been intended. reading unlikely.an arahant)would not strike anyone all If a brahman at retaliates anger being with to struck.as"endearing.that is a signthat he is not a truebrahman: thus moreshame him for havingassumed statusnot on a truly his*On the topicof howto react violentattack. the latter read- ingserves tie the stanza to together. piyehi be read can straight it is. to see M. not in its special and Buddhist sense indicating arahant. 390: "What's endearing not":In thephrase & manaso piyehi.a reading supported the Chinese by translation of theDhp. " this is for a brahman(in this context. but also the first: "A brahman should/would not strikea brahman However. 159 .2i and M . Sometranslators read"brahman" the subjectnot only of the second as line. is alsoconsistent It with thefactthatDhpA takes verse bea continuathis to tion of 389. 392: "Brahmin" is used its ordinary here in sense. as an 393:"He is apureone": reading suci 50 with the Thai edition.
ignorance)* 400: "With no overbearing pride":readinganussadam theThai andBurmese with editions* "Last-body": see note 352* 402:"For himself.etc. conceit. ownending stress": on his of threedifferent ways that the oneword attano functions in this verse* 411: According to DhpA. of knowledge howbeings of passawayandarerebornin thevarious levels being. becoming. anger. bridle = latent tendencies (sensuality. knowledge theending of and of of theeffluents maintain process birth* that the of 160 .D*i). 412: See note 39* 421: See note 348* 423: The formsof mastery listedin thisverse correspondto the three knowledges that comprisedthe Buddha's Awakening:knowledge previouslives. thong= craving. were regarded visible as signs spiritual of status* 396: "Bho-sayer"-Brahmins addressed othersas "bho" a wayof indicating as their (thebrahmans') superior caste* he hasanything" "If (reading cewith the sa Burmese edition)= if he/she claimto anything lays as his/her own* 398:DhpA: strap= hatred. "attachments/homes (alayaf = cravings* "Knowing":the knowledge full of Awakening (anna). = cord 62 forms of wrong view (listed in the Brahmajala Suttanta. uncertainty. hisown. views.394' In Indiaof the Buddha's matted day hair.
levelof form. by spiritual or but attainment through following right pathof practice.andthe levelof the formlessness. the Mostof theverses in the Dhammapada thewordbrahman this special use in sense. Brahman:The Brahmans India have of longmaintained they.Buddhistsborrowedthe term "brahman" to applyto arahants showthat respect earned by to is not birth.perceptions(mental labels). race. consciousness. their birth.areworthyof thehighest that by respect. thought-fabrications. of non-sensual levels of heaven.GLOSSARY Aggregate (khandha): Any oneof the fivebases for clingingto a sense self:form (physical of phenomena."a person whose mind is free of defilement rebirth. Arahant: A "worthyone"or "pureone. 161 . Brahma:An inhabitant the highest. and thus is not destined for further A title for the Buddha and the highest of hisnoble level disciples. thoseusingthe word in its ordinary sense are indicated in the notes. caste. including the body). Becoming (bhava):States being develop of that first in the mind and allowfor birth on anyof threelevels: the levelof sensuality. feelings.
(3) doctrine. covers five." JanGonda As pointsout in his book. in (2) mentalquality. (4) Sanskrit form: Dharma.The Vision theVedic the worddhira used Vedic of Poets. is applied physical to mental It to and processes. in others. Fabrication(sankhara):Sankhara literallymeans "putting together/' and carriesconnotations jerryof rigged artificiality.a member of one of the lower deva realms. teaching.A person enlightened this sense alsobe awakened.Deva: Literally. ignorance-that"flowout" of the and mind rebirth. Effluent (asava): One of four qualities--sensuality. in may but is not necessarily so. "shining one. of together with the expertise implement to thoseprinciplesin the affairsof life and to revealthem to others. In some contexts functions thefourthof thefiveaggreit as gates-thought-fabrications." and dhira as "enlightened. nibbana. views. Dhamma: (1) Event. becoming." inhabitant the An of heavenly realms.wellasto theproducts those as of processes.a phenomenon and of itself. was in and Buddhist poetry to meana personwho has the heightened powers mental of visionneeded perceive to the "light" of the underlying principles the cosmos. 162 . it all Gandhabba: Celestial musician. and create the flood of the round of death and Enlightened (dhira): Throughout translaone this tion I have rendered buddhaas "Awakened.
Patimokkha: Basiccodeof monastic discipline. andpain. denotes it those followers of the Buddha. "wandering-on". of and death.Howeverdespite unfortunate the connotations haspickedup it 163 . Jhana:Meditative absorption. burdensomeness. Indra: King of the devasin the Heavenof the Thirty-three. (see Stress(dukkha): Alternativetranslations dukkha for includesuffering. or ordained. Sangha: On the conventional (sammati) this level. state strong A of concentration.bearing fruit in termsof states becoming birth. term denotes the communities of Buddhist monks and nuns. devoidof sensuality unskillfulthoughts. Sanskrit of and form:karma. for and for Samsara:Transmigration. Kamma: Intentionalact. the the round of death and rebirth. Mara: The personification evil.temptation. or focused a single on physical sensation mentalnotion or whichis then expanded fill the wholerange one's to of awareness. the eighthfactorin the nobleeightfold path (see note 191). composed 227 of rules monks 311 nuns. lay who haveattainedat least stream-entry note22). the ideal(ariya) on level.Heart (manas): The mind in its role as will and intention. Jhanais synonymous right concentrawith tion.
matter no how nobleor refined.but alsothe extinguishing a fire.suffering or & stress. usuit ally denotes Buddha. in some theverses theDhammapada. its basic in meaning asthe reaction strainon the bodyor mind. alsohasthe It advantage beinguniversally of recognized something as directlyexperienced all life.hasthe to advantage covering of muchthe same range the Pali as worddukkha. so gainrelease it to and fromit. Still. Tathagata: Literally. as suffering. mind canabandon pridethat the the keeps attached that suffering. ranging fromtheintense stress acute of anguish or pain to the innateburdensomeness eventhe most of subtlementalor physical fabrications.from programsin "stress-management" "stressand reduction"-theEnglish wordstress.is recognized beingnothing as morethanstress. the althoughoccasionally also it denotes of hisarahant any disciples. in those too to the so verseshave I rendered dukkha pain." who is reallygone(tatha-gata)" or "one an epithet usedin ancientIndia for a personwho has attained highest the religious goal In Buddhism.it is usually of rendered "extinguishing" as 164 . applies to physical mental It both and phenomena. whohas "one become authentic (tatha-agata).andis at the same in timea usefultool for cuttingthroughthe spiritualpride that keeps people attached especially to refinedor sophisticatedformsof suffering: onceall suffering. of of stress seems weak convey meaning. Unbinding (nibbana):Because nibbana usedto is denote only the Buddhist not goal.
when applied to the Buddhist goal. primaryconnotation nibbanaone the of is of release. and attachment to its fueL Thus. along with cooling peace.or.in goingout. 165 . studyof ancient a Indianviewsof the workings fire (see Mind Like of The FireUnbound) reveals people the Buddha's that of time felt that a fire. did not go out of existence but was simplyfreed fromits agitation. entrapment. "extinction" However. and Sanskrit form: nirvana. even worse.
ABBREVIATIONS A D Anguttara Nikaya DighaNikaya Dhp Dhammapada/Dharmapada DhpA Dhammapada Commentary Iti Itivuttaka Khp Khuddakapatha M Majjhima Nikaya Mv Mahavagga PTS PaliTextSociety S Sn Samyutta Nikaya Sutta Nipata 166 .
ed.. 2nd rev. York:OxfordUniversity New Press.K.BIBLIOGRAPHY Brough. Dhamma- pada. von Hiniiber. The Wordof theDoctrine.Margaret. O. JohnRossandMahindaPalihawadana. Norman." inJournal the Text of Pali Society. John.R.Delhi: Motilal Banarsidass. of Poets. eds. and K. Carter. "PatnaDharmapada. anded. trans. Lanka: Sri Postgraduate Institute PaliandBuddhist of Studies. 1997. Oxford: ThePaliTextSociety. trans. 1962. Warder. K. vols. Norman.. 1995. London: OxfordUniversity Press. Oxford: The PaliTextSociety. 1963. complete incomplete. and including 167 . 1989and 1990. and TheChinese Version Dharmapada. 1989:101-217. In addition to the above works. The GandhariDharmapada. trans. Part I: Text. Dhammajoti.R. 1995. i and n. A. Gonda. ed. Mouton. 1987 Cone.eds. of Kelaniya. TheVision theVedic The Hague: Jan. xm. I have also consulted manyprevious Englishtranslations renderings and of the Dhammapada. Indian Kavya Literature. BhikkhuKualaLumpur.The Dhammapada.
AnandaMaitreya. Wannapok.complete incomplete-by Sparham and and Strong*I havealsodrawn from the RoyalThai Edition of the Pali Canon.Kaviratna. Khantipalo and Susanna. I have consulted translations of the Udana- varga-again. Piyadassi. Mascaro.published Mahamakut by Rajavidalaya Bangkok. Radhakrishnan. by and In addition.Byrom. Ven.thoseby Ven. Narada. Press. Buddharakkhita.Beyer. Cleary. Vens.Ven. 1982* 168 .Ven. well as and as Thai translations Plengvithaya Wannapok.Babbitt.
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