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Metabolisme sel dan pengaruh keadaan sekitar terhadap pertumbuhan



Cell metabolism is a chemical process that involves the exchange of
substances or oraganism with its environment wherein this process allows an
organism to reciprocate with the environment, process energy, grow and
reproduce to sustain life.
The life of microorganisms is generally very dependent on environmental
factors. These environmental factors include biotic and abiotic factors. Abiotic
factors are external factors such as temperature, pH, osmose pressure, and others.
Whereas the biotic factor of the microorganism itself). Microbes respond to
environmental conditions in their activities. Different species will grow optimally
in certain conditions. In conditions of optimium, microorganisms will grow and
develop to the maximum. If there is a change in the condition of the environment,
there will be changes in the form of microbial morphology and physiology
(Efendi 2008).
Therefore this practicum is important to be carried out to find out the
optimum conditions for efficient bacterial growth if needed in scientific and
everyday interests.

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Tools andMaterials
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According to Siregar (2014), Carbohydrate metabolism occurs where all
types of carbohydrates are absorbed in the form of monosaccharides, this
absorption process occurs in the small intestine. Glucose and galactose enter the
bloodstream by active transfer, while fructose by diffusion. Experts agree that
carbohydrates can only be absorbed in the form of disaccharides. This is
evidenced by the presence of maltose, sucrose and lactose in urine when
consuming large amounts of sugar. Finally various types of carbohydrates are
converted into glucose before being included in the metabolic process.
Carbohydrate metabolic processes, namely glycolysis, oxidative decarboxylation,
krebs cycle, electron transfer, glycogenesis, glycogenolysis, and glyoneogenesis.
According to Kusmadi (2009),Protein metabolism with the word protein
comes from Greek, namely protos, meaning the first or foremost. Protein is a
natural polymer composed of various amino acids through peptide bonds. Amino
acids are connected to one another by a peptide bond. This peptide bond will be
realized if the carboxyl group of one amino acid joins an amino group from
another amino acid. In combining these amino acid molecules, one molecule of
water will be released. This can be seen in the following reaction:

Lipid metabolism is generally interpreted as the metabolism of a

compound which is not soluble in water, but soluble in organic matter. Examples
are benzene, ether, and chloroform. A lipid of a lipid composed of fatty acids and
glycerol. Various classes of lipids are linked to one another based on their basic
components, source of production, fatty acid content, and chemical properties.
Most lipids are found in combination with other simple compounds (such as wax
esters, triglycerides, sterile esters and phospholipids), combinations with
carbohydrates (glycolipids), combinations with proteins (lipoproteins) (Waluyo
The Starch Agar (SA) medium was used to grow amylolytic
microorganisms which consisted of 1% starch. Amylolytic microorganisms will
break down starch and glycogen. Starch in the SA media is broken down by
amylase which is characterized by a color change that is brown if starch
hydrolysis does not last perfectly, yellow (transparent) if it lasts perfectly and blue
if it does not break down starch (Meliawati et al. 2015).
Skim Milk Agar (SMA) media consists of sterile PCA and skim milk.
Skim milk is used as a substrate source. Skim milk is milk containing 3.7% high
protein and 0.1% fat (Nortan 1986). Skim milk contains casein as a milk protein
which will be broken down by proteolytic microorganisms into dissolved nitrogen
compounds so that the colonies are surrounded by clear areas. Shows that these
microbes have proteolytic activity (Fardiaz 1992).
According to Madigun (2000), Lugol's iodine solution is often used as an
antiseptic and disinfectant, for emergency disinfection of drinking water, and as a
reagent for tracking starch in routine laboratory and medical tests. This use is
possible because this solution is an effective source of free iodine elements, which
is easily produced from the equilibration between iodine and triodide molecules in
the solution.
Spirit Blue Agar is used with Lipase Reagents or lipid sources for
detecting, isolating, and enumerating lipolytic microorganisms. Spirit Blue Agar
is recommended for testing milk and dairy products. Casein Hydrolysate provides
amino acids, peptides, carbohydrates, vitamins, and minerals. Yeast Extract is a
source of B-complex vitamins. Spirit Blue is a dye that serves as an indicator of
lipolysis. Order is the gelifying agent. (Pelizar 1988).
TRIBUTYRIN AGAR is a medium used for the detection and
enumeration of lipolytic bacteria and moulds in foodstuffs and other materials. It
consists of a stable homogenate of nutrient agar and tributyrin (glyceryl
tributyrate) frequently used for the detection of the lipolytic activity of specific
organisms such as staphylococci, clostridia, pseudomonads and flavobacteria, and
it must be 10-25°C away from light, until the expiry date on the label or until
signs of deterioration or contamination are evident (Rahmawati 2016).
Milk contains various kinds of nutrients, high water content, neutral pH so
that it can be a very good medium for microbial growth, especially bacteria. When
contaminated, at a temperature that matches the bacteria, bacteria will grow
quickly. The types of bacteria that are often found in newly taken milk are
Micrococcus and Corynebacterium (Purwanti et al. 2016).
According to Frazier and Westhoff (1988), as for factors that influence
bacterial growth include temperature, thermal point, osmosis pressure, and
viability. Most bacteria grow optimally at optimal body temperature at human
body temperature. However, some bacteria can grow in extreme environments
that are outside the boundaries of the eukaryotic organism's defenses. Regarding
osmotic pressure, bacteria obtain all nutrients from the liquid around them.
Bacteria need water for growth. High osmotic pressure can cause water to come
out of the cell. The addition of salt in a solution which will increase osmotic
pressure can be used for food preservation.
According to Kristinah (2009), Thermal Death Point is the lowest
temperature that can kill bacteria that are in the standard medium for 10 minutes.
This provision covers the five conditions above. It should be noted that not all
individuals from a species die together at a certain temperature. Usually, one
individual is more resistant than another individual to a warming, so it is also right
if we say the death rate at a temperature (thermal death rate).
Viability test after encapsulation. The viability test was carried out
immediately after the encapsulation process was completed and after being stored
for two weeks at 5oC and 37oC. The viability of encapsulated cells was calculated
immediately after the encapsulation process using TPC at 10-4 and 10-5 dilutions.
Viability after being stored for two weeks at 5oC and 37oC was calculated using
TPC at 10-3, 10-4 and 10-5 dilutions. Colony counts were carried out after 36-48
hours of incubation period at room temperature (Djikodeputro 1995).
Observations regarding potential indices obtained data on the use of starch
agar (amylotytic) ip values unknown, as well as tributaries (lipotitic) ip values
unknown. In skim milk so that the ip value is obtained 0.3 for E. coli bacteria,
while using B. subtilis bacteria on starch so the TBUD ip value and 1,001,0,3. In
the tributirin for TBUD and the smallest IP value of 0.082, for skim milk to obtain
ip is 0.1. In A. Aureus bacteria 2.33 ip values in starch agar, in tributirin tip value
is 0.66, and the smallest is 0.36, in skim milk so the largest ip value is 1 and the
smallest is 0.3. The results of the observations obtained different values,
according to Hadhioetomo (1990), that each bacterium has a different hydrolysis
ability. The difference in ability to hydrolyze as in proteins is possible because the
production of ecsoenzymes in the form of proteases is different from the number
of bacterial colonies that grow.
E. Coli bacteria are based on observations on the refrigerator, the room
temperature grows well, 37oc grows slightly, and 55oc does not grow. Bb
bacteria. Subtilis based on observations at 37oc grew well and in the refrigerator,
room temperature, and 95oc grew little. Based on the literature, this is particularly
relevant for data on E. coli which are optimum at temperatures below 37oc.
According to Purwanti and Imron (2016), B. subtilis bacteria are mesophilic
bacteria that can live with a 20oc-40oc temperature range and are optimum at
37oc, so observations are appropriate.
The results of the observations on the influence of osmosis pressure
showed that E. coli with the addition of sucrose at 40% concentration grew well at
0.5 hours and 1.5 hours. The 4% concentration grows very well at 2 hours as well
as the concentration of 0.4%, while the B. subtilis bacteria grows at less than 40%.
According to Waluyo (2004), the effect of osmosis pressure causes bacteria to
grow well and not. Osmosis pressure is influenced by the amount of concentration
of salt and sugar solution. The concentrated salt and sugar solution causes
The results of the observations on yeast cell viability in yeast obtained
good results because the results obtained in groups 2 and 3 exceeded 50%, namely
56.25% and 80%, which means that the number of cells living exceeded the total
number of half cells. According to Fardiaz (1992), damaged cells cannot hold the
liquid coming out so that the viability is damaged, the reason group 1 results in
cell viability is only 18.37% due to many damaged cells.


Bacillus subtilis and E. Coli bacteria are bacteria that are capable of
digesting carbohydrates, lipids, and proteins by indicating the emergence /
formation of clear zones around the colonies. Bacterial activity is influenced by
environmental factors if environmental factors are met, growth will be optimum.
The optimum temperature of Bacilus subtilis bacteria is 20-40oc and e coli
bacteria grow well at optimum 37oc. Viability of yeast in bread shows the quality
of the bread. The more yeast cells die, the quality of the yeast is getting worse.
Yeast activity on bread dough will decrease every 30 minutes with rapid increase
in height. Every bacterium has a different hydrolysis ability so its potential index
is also different.

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Mikrobiologi ” PT Remaja Rosdakarya