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Theatre &_

Series Editors: Jen Harvie and Dan Rebellato

Susan Bennctt: Tbeatre &_Museums
Bill Blake: Theatre &_the Digital
Colette Conroy: Theatre &_the Body
Emma Cox: Theatre &_Migration
Jill Dolan: Theatre &_Sexuality
Helcn Freshwater: Theatre &_Audience
Jcn Harvie: Theatre &_the City
Nadine Holdsworth: Theatre &_Nation
Erin Hurlev: Theatre &_Feeling
Dominic Johnson: Theatre &_the Visual tJ¡.e&
Joe Kelleher: Theatre &_Politics
Ric Knowles: Theatre &_lnterculturalism
Caoimhe McAvinchey: Theatre &_Prison
Bruce McConachie: Theatre &_Mind
Lucy Nevitt: Theatre &_ Violence
Helen Nicholson: Theatre &_Education
Lourdes Orozco: Theatre &_Animals
Lionel Pilkington: Theatre &_Ireland
Paul Rae: Theatre &_Human Rights
Dan Rebellato: Theatre &_ Globalization
Trish Reid: Theatre &_Scotland
Nicholas Ridout: Theatre &_Ethics
Rebecca Schneider: Theatre &_History
Fintan Walsh: Theatre &_ Therapy
David Wiles: Theatre &_Time
Harvey Young: Theatre &_Race
Jim Davis: Theatre &_Entertainment
Eric Weitz: Theatre &_Laughter

Series Standing Order ISBN 978-0-230-20327-3
You can receive future titles in this series as they are published by placing
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© Emma Cox 2014

Foreword © Peter Sellars 2014
Ali rights reserved. No reproduction, copy or transmission of this
publication may be made without written permission.
No portian of this publication may be reproduced, copied or
transmitted save with written permission or in accordance with
the provisions of the Copyright, Designs and Patents Act 1988, or
under the terms of any licence permitting limited copying issued
by the Copyright LicensingAgency, Saffron House, 6-10 Kirby
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Any person who does any unauthorized act in relation to this
publication may be liable to criminal prosecution and civil claims
for damages.
The author has asserted her right to be identified as the author of
this work in accordance with the Copyright, Designs and Patents
Act 1988.
First published 2014 by \,, ,,., cilitors' preface vi
/ ,.,,·11 ord by Peter Sellars viii
Palgrave Macmillan in the UKis an imprint of Macmillan
Publishers Limited, registered in England, company number
785998, of Houndmills, Basingstoke, Hampshire RG216XS. I'•.li t i( ·sand mvthopoetics
Palgrave Macmillan in the USis a division of St Martin's Press LLC,
175 Fifth Avenue, New York,NY 10010. 1lw migrant nation 32
Palgrave Macmillan is the global academic imprint of the above 1lw migrant city 54
companies and has companies and representatives throughout
the world. 1 orH"lusion 76
Palgrave®and Macmillan®are registered trademarks in the Unite
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I 111 t her readinp 79
ISBN:978-1-137-00401-7 paperback
This book is printed on paper suitable for recycling and made« 87
from fully managed and sustained forest sources. Logging,
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the environmental regulations of the country of origin.
A catalogue record for this book is available from the British
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Printed in China.
.;l O I t.( y
/ /1,.,11 re&_ is a long series of short books which hopes to
. 1¡111111
· the-restless interdisciplinarv energy of theatre and
Each book explores connections between
n· .md sorne aspect of the wider world, asking how
!111t lu.urc might illuminate the world and how the world
illuminate the theatre. Each book is written by a
1,,,.¡ 111gtheatre scholar and represents the cutting edge of
, 11111
.il thinking in the discipline.
Wv have been mindful, however, that the philosophical
t 1H·oretical complexity of much contemporary academic
can actas a barrier to a wider readership. A key aim
1,11t lu-se books is that they should all be readable in one
he theatre is everywhere, from entertainment distric.
T to the fringes, from the rituals of government to thi
ceremony of the courtroom, from the spectacle of the spor
di t 111gby anyone with a curiosity about the subject. The
¡,, 111ksare challenging, pugnacious, visionary sometimes
above all, clear. We hope you enjoy them.
ing arena to the theatres of war. Across these many for
stretches a theatrical continuum through which cultur
[.11l larv ie and Dan Rebellato
both assert and question themselves.
Theatre has been around for thousands of years, an
the ways we study it have changed decisively. It's no longe:
enough to limit our attention to the canon of Western dra'
matic literature. Theatre has taken its place within a broa
spectrum of performance, connecting it with the wide
forces of ritual and revolt that thread through so man
spheres of human culture. In turn, this has helped malo
connections across disciplines; over the past fifty years, the
atre and performance have been deployed as key metaphor
and practices with which to rethink gender, economics
war, language, the fine arts, culture and one's sense of self.

vi vii
1orne from other countries will have no right to travel
w il 1 never be allowed to participare on an equal eco-
u liioting.
1v!'ry culture on Earth has primary and foundational
lis, lcgends, and stories which understand that in order
yourself, you have to leave your own country and
own people and go to a distant land where you will be
, li.ill1·11ged,
amazed, and transformed and where, in adver-
oll 1, you will meet your hidden heroic self and find friends
m-ver imagined you would have. It has long been under-
.•1••rnI across cultures and across civilizations that none of

one ofus are the picture in our passport. When a bor "" .11"l'who we appear to be to our immediate family and

N der guard looks at us for ten seconds or for ten min

utes, who do they see? What in the computer file that the
l1u-nds and that it is only in a far-away place that we begin to
ol1"·overother selves, other possibilities that lie within us.
< Jur new era of borders and hyper-legal immigration
consult as they pass your documents through their syste
I deportation
.1111 superstructures has criminalized one of
at a checkpoint would begin to say anything about the cour
· rnost basic human yearnings, one of the most basic ways
age, the love, the vision, the generosity, or the potential o
111which human beings complete themselves, one of the
the human being who stands in front of them?
Theater is a contribution to the necessity of deepenin "" 1stbasic ways worlds open, eyes open, and hearts open.
W1·are living in a period of shame in which human beings
those ten seconds of vision and revealing the inadequac
· referred to as "aliens" and deportations are discussed as
of the documentation. And it is about challenging the fur-
"1«movals," as íf a person is a piece of furniture or a can of
tive and presumptuous look of the culture of surveillanc
This dehumanization ofnomads, travelers, search-
with the eye-to-eye meeting of equal beings. The urgen
•Ts who are equipped with the courage and tenacity to leave
and timely imperative is to mount a direct challenge to the
,·\l'rything that is comfortable behind and to venture against
ingrained and totalizing gaze of white supremacy, which ha
,il 1 odds into the unknown looking for change and willing
determined that people who look a certain way and come
I•1 sacrifice everything for it - the dehumanization of the
from certain countries have the right to travel andan unlim-l
'"ry flower ofhumanity demeans the species, It lowers all of
ited economic horizon, while people who look another way
sights, blunts and tempers the courage of all of us, and

viii ix
lhP11lr1· S: 111ig1•111io11

shrinks our native generosity into a sad space of selfishness ,¡ 1, '"""'1 goes relentlessly forward, smashing families and
fear, and mistrust. ,,1,,1.111g and reinforcing racist stereotypes with the shrill
The ten perccnt of the world that is consuming eight .,, i r t ¡ l.111s < ,¡· self.-righteousness and law and order jargon that
percent of the world's resources cries out that we don' ,, · "' "I>.lllyperiods of repression al! over the globe.
have enough to go around, and that we have to be protecte 1¡111 .ilicns are not aliens; they are people. And in the
from the invasion of hungry foreigners. On the other hand: I"," 1" of turning people into aliens we have actually
we have every right to visit their countries whenever w 1.. ,, '""' alienated from ourselves.
please, and anything we want there is ours for the tak 111('little book you are holding treats a range of the-
ing. In the United States, it is notan accident that 241,49 " 11."1 projects that have undertaken to challenge ancl to
individuals (out of 357,422) "removed" in 2013 were fro ",¡, 1rngate immigration procedures and policies across the
Mexico, because one-third of the United States was origin "" ¡.¡ in thc last generation. Different productions in dif-
ally Mexico, and Spanish remains the majority language i 1,1' 111contexts have optcd for different strategics. Sorne
many communities ~ these are migration patterns that hav '· ,, ks speak from positions of power and privilege, while
persisted across centuries. The new criminalization treat .11111
x speak from thc perspective of those whose human
as a criminal offense each border crossing, so that pcopl ',,.Ji1s and whose humanity have been callcd into question.
who come back again and again are not recognized as fol "•111" productions compose their questions in front of well-
lowing in the footsteps of generations of ancestors, but a , 1'" uncd and influential audiences at major fcstivals; others
scasoned criminals who are now guilty of rnultiple felonies. l.111·bccn secn by determined audicnces of friends, enemies,
Special eourts have been set up in the borderlands withl .1,,I.ictivists in basements, abandoned parking lots, and in
Mexico which convict people crossing through the desert~ l 1'"JI of detention centers. This small book treats many
as criminals, each person being given a twenty-five-second 11,11\'gicsin many situations, with particular attention to
hearing and verdict. They are shippcd from their twenty- :..rt h America, Australia, and New Zealand, where pol-
five-sccond hearing directly to one to six years of incarccr- ,, " s are particularly harsh. I'm gratcful that this book exists
ation in a Ior-profit US prison and immediately deportedl 111.J
1am interested and gratified by the range of histories,
upon completion of their sentcnce. ·•1ilions, and invention surveyed in these pages.
Human beings trying to solve problems with purely neg- ( )ngoing solutions to the permanent challenge posed
ative ancl legalistic means are capable of creating unspeak- 1·1immigration and migration in thc twentv-first ccntury
ahle atrocities and miscarriages of justice. The entire grim' '1 rnand the best from ali of us. The timelcss aspccts of the
t '

procedure which creates thousands of fresh criminals every ,1ilc-rn ma have be en inflamed and made despcratc by the

tlu•1t1rt• & migr11lio11 -----------

unprecedented, sweeping, and systematized political and

economic violence of the "new world order," which has been
unmatched in any previous century. The solutions will havel
to be creative solutions. And humane solutions. Which i
why the humanities must be present and active. lt is hopefu]
and humbling to see creative people engaging the question ...
The act of making theater is the act of recognizing
affirming, extending, imagining, and re-affirming a corn-
•lwafr·e & mlgrutíon
munity or, possibly, communities. Metaphorically at first~
and then literally and tangibly, theater is the creation o
newly shared space on Earth.

l'olitics and mythopoetics

Peter Sellars is a theater, opera, and festival director anda pro-·
fessor in the Department ef World Arts and Cultures at UCLA, l1 1., 1939, the brink of the Second World War. A hot
USA. His productions include The Children of Herakles, · "11ing. In the garden of an elegant home on the island
which toured Europe and the United States, workuu; with refu- · .¡ l.isrnania, a charity performance is unfolding: thc host,
9ee and immi9rant communities, border 9uards, immi9ration ' tlliddle-aged woman , is playing the exiled Iphigcnia,
[udpes, and public <!Jficials in each location. .1.,llghter of Agamemnon and Clytcmnestra, stationed as
1''i.stess at the temple of Artemis at Tauris, where she
condcmn all strangers to death. As this Australian
l¡il1igeniastands amid crumbling (but not ancient) marble
• •-lurnns and recounts a terrible dream about the ruin ofher
.uucstra] home in Argos, an interloper in far-flung Tauris/
l.ixmania is brought to her to be sacrificed. Iphigenia does
'" >l at first recognise her brother, the shipwrecked O restes,
1•L1yedby the host's husband. In the next scene, set the
1;>lowing morning, a blind guest to the housc stumbles
11¡ionthe imitation temple and is disoriented by the echo
,,r his footsteps on marble in the Australian environment.

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