A Report on

“BASIC INSTRUMENTATION & PROCESS CONTROL” At Rihand Super Thermal Power Project (NTPC Ltd.)

Submitted by:GHANSHYAM B-Tech. IIIrd year Electronics & Instrumentation UNITED COLLEGE OF ENGINEERING & RESEARCH, (Allahabad)


NTPC was set up on 7th November 1975, the MAHARATNA power giant today generates more than one fourth of the total power in the country, Ranked 5th largest power generating utility in the world, NTPC is the second most efficient in capacity utilization among the top ten thermal generating companies according to a survey conducted by Data Monitor, United kingdom. In a short span of three decades, NTPC has earned its prime status by setting up a total generating capacity of 30,644 MW. through its 15 coal and 7 gas and 4 coal & gas based power plants spread all over the country. NTPC has also entered in hydro-electric power generation, coal mining, coal washery, renovation and modernization of old plants in India as well as abroad, power distribution and consultancy for improvement of power plants . Today, the country needs a 10 percent sustained growth in power generation to ensure the momentum for a 7% overall growth in the economy. Recognizing this, NTPC has committed itself to achieving the status of a 30,144 MW company by the year2008 and 40,000MW plus company by the year 2012 and power generating capacity addition programme of 51,000 MW (Including nuclear energy and nonconventional sources of energy) for the tenth plan.

Corporate Vision:
“A world class integrated power major, powering India’s growth, with increasing global presence”

Core Values:


B-Business Ethics C-Customer Focus O-Organizational & Professional pride M-Mutual Respect and Trust I- Innovation & Speed T-Total quality for Excellence

Whole NTPC has been divided into five regions, named as Eastern region, Southern region, Northern region, Western region, and National Capital region. The foundation stone of Rihand super thermal power project was laid down on 9 February 1982. It is one of the NTPC’s best power plants, in the northern region constructed by Northern Engineering Industries (U.K.) and Bharat Heavy Electrical Ltd (INDIA). Rihand completes the power triangle with Singrauli STPS, Vidhychal STPS. It is situated in Bijpur village and in the industrial belt of the district- Sonebhadra of Uttar Pradesh, which is situated at the border of MP&UP. This plant is situated at the south bank of Rihand Reservoir (Govind Ballabh Pant Sagar), made artificially. Its area is about 50X10 sq. Km. It is a large reservoir, having huge mass of water, from which five thermal power plants and one hydro power plant takes water for operation. The capacity of RhSTPP, I stage of 2X500 MW and II stage of the 2X500 MW plant are in operation. High Voltage Direct Current (HVDC) transmission system is the unique feature of this plant. It is used to transmit DC current from this plant to Delhi. It was made first in Asia. Rihand Nagar project is known for its implacable standard of quality & productivity, a hallmark of NTPC. Rihand has taken further strides to become a trendsetter in 3

various facets of power generation, environment management, rehabilitation and resettlement, ash utilization, safety etc. Thus, Rihand is a self-contained power station with all necessary system. NTPC Rihand is ISO 9001, ISO 9002, ISO 10000, ISO 14001 certified firm. It also meets the standard of SA 8000:2001.

· Location: Sonebhadra Bijpur village, Distt.(U.P.) · Total capacity: in 3rdstage · Present capacity: BHEL 1000MW(STAGE-3 progressing) 1000 MW (STAGE-1) by NEI 1000 MW (STAGE-2) by 2000 MW, in 2 stages each of Proposed 2 x 500 MW each


· Power Evacuation: Dadri AC line to

+/-500Kv HVDC Bipolar line to (Delhi),400kV single circuit Shaktinagar, Allahabad and

Kanpur · Beneficiary States: JammuKashmir, Chandigarh and Delhi· Major Resources: COALconsumption- 43,300MT/Day for 3000 MW (E-Grade Coal). (c) Mode of Transportation- MGR Rail Transportation System. WATER Chimney: (a) Source- Rihand Reservoir. (i) 224.5mts (Stage 1) (II) 275mts (Stage 2) · Ash disposal: dyke. Ash slurry pumped to Ash (a) Source -Amlori mines. (b) Maximum UP, Haryana, Punjab, Rajasthan, Himachal Pradesh,


· commencement of work: 09/02/1983 C&I 6 .


SINGH TRIPATHI (Officer.Engineer (C&I) Acknowlegements I. DGM (C&I) Project Guide Mr. has successfully completed a project on “ BASIC INSTRUMENTATION & PROCESS CONTROL LOOPS ” as a partial fulfillment towards completion of the Vocational Training at NTPC. GHANSHYAM a student of UNITED COLLEGE OF ENGINEERING & RESEARCH.C. K.N. Training Coordinator Charge Mr.) of NTPC.Rihand from 14 th June to 29th July 2010.C&I CERTIFICATE TO WHOMSOEVER IT MAY CONCERN This is to certify that Mr. JITEN YADAV Sr.GHANSHYAM. ALLAHABAD (UP). would like to express my sincere thanks towards the following persons on completion of my project “BASIC 8 . Vocational Trainee-2010 (C&I Dept. R.HR-EDC) Training InMr.

INSTRUMENTATION & PROCESS CONTROL LOOPS” as part of the vocational training in this company. I thank God Almighty for his blessings. First and foremost I thank my Training In-Charge Mr.-C&I DEPT. I would like to convey my gratitude towards all the members of C&I DEPT. Without his invaluable support and instructions. GHANSHYAM ELECTRONICS & INSTRUMENTATION ENGG.) on a very professional as well as loving guidance offered during the entire course of the project. 9 . based on the interim progress of the project. He also arranged the infrastructure required for learning and for the purpose of preparing and printing the report.C.JITEN YADAV (Sr. NTPC-Rihand who offered advice and resources.Engg. the project definitely would not have materialized properly. In particular I would like to mention the names of Mr.Engg. Next.) Last but not the least.) and Mr. K. He provided the learning material in a sequential and organized manner.-C&I DEPT.TRIPATHI DGM (C&I Dept.SULTAN SETH (Sr.



however. The output signals are standard signal and can then be processed by other equipment to provide indication. alarms or automatic control. There are a number of standard signals.▪ MINIMUM ENVIRONMENTAL EFFECT ▪ MAXIMAM EFFICIENCY ▪ ENERGY CONSERVATION MODULE 2 INTRODUCTION TO INSTRUMENTATION EQUIPMENTS: Instrumentation is the art of measuring the value of some plant parameter. flow. 12 . level or temperature to name a few and supplying a signal that is proportional to the measured parameter. those most common in a CANDU plant are the 4-20 mA electronic signal and the 20-100 kPa pneumatic signal. pressure.

condenser pressure. feed water pressure. Pressure is actually the measurement of force acting on area of surface. physical motion is proportional to the applied pressure within the operating range. and neutron flux.This section of the course is going to deal with the instrumentation equipment normal used to measure and provide signals. To accomplish this. lubricating oil pressure and many more. most pressure sensors translate pressure into physical motion that is in proportion to the applied pressure. The pressure of the medium acts on the inside of the tube. We will look at the measurement of five parameters: pressure. They include diaphragms. the bourdon tube then bends as indicated in the direction of the arrow. bourdon tubes and pressure capsules. flow. It includes the measurement of steam pressure.20 mA) electronic signal that represents the pressure in a process. temperature. level. control operation or a standard (4 . The outward pressure on the oval cross section forces it to become rounded. Common Pressure Detectors: Bourdon Tubes: Bourdon tubes are circular-shaped tubes with oval cross sections (refer to Figure 2). The most common pressure sensors or primary pressure elements are described below. pressure bellows. With these pressure sensors. Because of the curvature of the tube ring. 13 . PRESSURE MEASUREMENT: Pressure is probably one of the most commonly measured variables in the power plant. The object of pressure sensing is to produce a dial indication.

The bellows element can provide a long range of motion (stroke) in the direction of the arrow when input pressure is applied. The deflection that is created by pressure in the vessel would be in the direction of the arrow indicated. Diaphragms: A diaphragm is a circular-shaped convoluted membrane that is attached to the pressure fixture around the circumference (refer to Figure 4). the response time however. but can also be used for very low pressures. Bellows: Bellows type elements are constructed of tubular membranes that are convoluted around the circumference (see Figure 3). The pressure medium is on one side and the indication medium is on the other. is slower than the bellows or diaphragm. The membrane is attached at one end to the source and at the other end to an indicating device or instrument.Due to their robust construction. 14 . bourdon are often used in harsh environments and high pressures.

A differential pressure capsule is mounted inside a housing. The first is shown in figure 5. The pressure is applied to the inside of the capsule and if it is fixed only at the air inlet it can expand like a balloon. Differential Pressure Transmitters: Figure 6 illustrates a typical DP transmitter. The top end of the force bar is then connected to a 15 .pressure fluid to be applied on one side of the capsule and low-pressure fluid on the other. This arrangement is not much different from the diaphragm except that it expands both ways. However. Provision is made in the housing for high.Diaphragms provide fast acting and accurate pressure indication. Any difference in pressure will cause the capsule to deflect and create motion in the force bar. A sealing mechanism is used where the force bar penetrates the housing and also acts as the pivot point for the force bar. One end of a force bar is connected to the capsule assembly so that the motion of the capsule can be transmitted to outside the housing. the movement or stroke is not as large as the bellows Capsules: There are two different devices that are referred to as capsule.

thedifference between a high pressure input and a low pressure input) and therefore. Most pressure transmitters are built around the pressure capsule concept.20 ma signal that is proportional to the force bar movement. which via an electronic system will produce a 4 . 16 . One form of the strain gauge is a metal wire of very small diameter that is attached to the surface of a device being monitored. Strain Gauges: The strain gauge is a device that can be affixed to the surface of an object to detect the force applied to the object. They are usually capable of measuring differential pressure (that is. are usually called DP transmitters or DP cells.position detector.

in a nuclear generating station. namely the DP cell type flow detector. So by measuring the differential pressure across a restriction. in this module will look at the most common.. 17 . FLOW MEASUREMENT: There are various methods used to measure the flow rate of steam. some form of restriction is placed in the pipeline to create a pressure drop . However.For a metal. air. the pressure before the restriction is higher than after or downstream. Velocity will vary directly with the flow and as the flow increases a greater pressure differential will occur across the restriction. lubricants. Strain gauges can be bonded to the surface of a pressure capsule or to a force bar positioned by the measuring element. water. etc. Orifice Plate: The orifice plate is the most common form of restriction that is used in flow measurement. the electrical resistance will increase as the length of the metal increases or as the cross sectional diameter decreases. one can measure the rate of flow. Since flow in the pipe must pass through a reduced area. Flow Detectors: To measure the rate of flow by the differential pressure method. Such a reduction in pressure will cause an increase in the fluid velocity because the same amount of flow must take place before the restriction as after it.

However. with an orifice plate. 18 . reaching a minimum at a point called the vena contracta where the velocity of the flow is at a maximum. static pressure starts to recover as the flow slows down. static pressure increases slightly upstream of the orifice (due to back pressure effect) and then decreases sharply as the flow passes through the orifice.With an orifice plate in the pipe work. static pressure downstream is always considerably lower than the upstream pressure. Beyond this point. In addition some pressure energy is converted to sound and heat due to friction and turbulence at the orifice plate. Figure 2 shows the pressure profile of an orifice plate installation.

• Cannot be used on dirty fluids. An example use of flow nozzles are the measurement of flow in the feed and bleed lines of the PHT system.Advantages and Disadvantages of Orifice Plates: Advantages of orifice plates include: • • • • High differential pressure generated Exhaustive data available Low purchase price and installation cost Easy replacement Disadvantages include: • High permanent pressure loss implies higher pumping cost. The differential it generates is also lower than an orifice plate (but again higher than the venturi tube). The flow nozzle has a lower permanent pressure loss than an orifice plate (but higher than a venturi). Figure 7 shows a typical flow nozzle installation. slurries or wet steam as erosion will alter the differential pressure generated by the orifice plate. Flow Nozzle: A flow nozzle is also called a half venture. 19 .

a high-pressure area appears on the outer face of the elbow.Elbow Taps: Centrifugal force generated by a fluid flowing through an elbow can be used to measure fluid flow. flow rate can be measured. 20 . One use of elbow taps is the measurement of steam flow from the boilers. where the large volume of saturated steam at high pressure and temperature could cause an erosion problem for other primary devices. If a flow transmitter is used to sense this high pressure and the lower pressure at the inner face of the elbow. As fluid goes around an elbow. Another advantage is that the elbows are often already in the regular piping configuration so no additional pressure loss is introduced.

to measure flow. Annubar: An annubar is very similar to a pitot tube.Pitot Tubes: Pitot tubes also utilize the principles captured in Bernoulli. The difference is that there is more than one hole into the pressure measuring chambers. The pressure in the high-pressure chamber represents an average of the velocity across the pipe. The pressure in the high-pressure tube will be the static pressure in the system plus a pressure dependant on the force required stopping the flow. One. Most pitot tubes actually consist of two tubes. the highpressure tube is inserted in the pipe in such a way that the flowing fluid is stopped in the tube.s equation. Annubars are more accurate than pitots as they are not as position 21 . the lowpressure tube measures the static pressure in the pipe. The second.

Giving an indication of the flow rate (Q).sensitive or as sensitive to the velocity profile of the fluid. which transmits a variable 4-20 ma signal. The output of the D/P cell acts on a pressure to milliamp transducer. is actually transmitting a signal proportional to the differential pressure (ΔP). The D/P cell and transmitter are shown together as a flow transmitter (FT). This system would produce a 4-20-ma signal that is linear with the flow rate.The high and low-pressure taps of the primary device (orifice type shown) are fed by sensing lines to a differential pressure (D/P) cell. Square Root Extractor: The square root extractor is an electronic (or pneumatic) device that takes the square root of the signal from the flow transmitter and outputs a corresponding linear flow signal. 22 . We can write this as: ΔP ∝ Q2 OR Volumetric Flow Rate = Q ∝ √ Δ P A typical square root extractor installation is shown in Figure 13.

a temperature transmitter in the form of a Wheatstone bridge is generally used. Temperature Detectors: Resistance Temperature Detector (RTD): For most metals the change in electrical resistance is directly proportional to its change in temperature and is linear over a range of temperatures. 23 . Thermostats are used for direct positive control of the temperature of a system within preset limits.TEMPERATURE MEASUREMENT: Thermocouples (T/C) and resistive temperature devices (RTD) are generally connected to control logic or instrumentation for continuous monitoring of temperature. To detect the small variations of resistance of the RTD.They have positive temperature coefficient.

RTD Advantages and Disadvantages: Advantages: 24 . a problem arises when the RTD is installed some distance away from the transmitter. It can be seen that the resistance of the right leg of the Wheatstone bridge is R1 + R2 + RW2.In the case of a thermocouple. a three-wire RTD is used. w2. The connecting wires (w1. Since the connecting wires are long. the result is that the resistances of the wires cancel and therefore the effect of the connecting wires is eliminated. The variations in wire resistance would introduce an error in the transmitter. The power supply is connected to one end of the RTD and the top of the Wheatstone bridge. w3) are made the same length and therefore the same resistance. resistance of the wires changes as ambient temperature fluctuates. The resistance of the left leg of the bridge is R3 + RW3 + RTD. To eliminate this problem. Since RW1 = RW2.

which will create errors. • Within its range it is more accurate and has higher sensitivity than a thermocouple. • In general. not voltage. • Unlike thermocouples. A thermocouple is therefore said to be self-powered. is generated. • An RTD will not experience drift problems because it is not selfpowered. they are much more expensive than thermocouples. the RTD does not require special extension cable. an RTD is not capable of measuring as wide a temperature range as a thermocouple. in the order of fractions of a second. • Among the many uses in a nuclear station. measurement emf can be calculated and the relative temperature determined. gamma and neutrons) has minimal effect on RTDs since the parameter measured is resistance. Disadvantages: • Because the metal used for a RTD must be in its purest form. thus all connections must be tight and free of corrosion.Reference emf If circuit emf and reference emf are known. Circuit emf = Measurement emf . radioactive radiation (beta. Shown in Figure 3 is a completed thermocouple circuit. RTDs can be found in the reactor area temperature measurement and fuel channel coolant temperature. a voltage. Thermocouple (T/C): A thermocouple consists of two pieces of dissimilar metals with their ends joined together (by twisting. 25 . soldering or welding). When heat is applied to the junction.• The response time compared to thermocouples is very fast . • A power supply failure can cause erroneous readings • Small changes in resistance are being measured. in the range of milli-volts (mV). • In an installation where long leads are required.

Beta radiation from neutron activation). will induce a voltage in the thermocouple wires.To convert the emf generated by a thermocouple to the standard 4-20 mA signal. With this simple and rugged installation.g. • A thermocouple is capable of measuring a wider temperature range than an RTD. Since the signal from thermocouple is also a voltage. Disadvantages: • If the thermocouple is located some distance away from the measuring device. This kind of transmitter is called a temperature transmitter. • Thermocouples are not used in areas where high radiation fields are present (for example. • In general. the induced voltage will cause an error in the temperature transmitter output. Advantages and Disadvantages: Advantages: • Thermocouples are used on most transformers. Radioactive radiation (e. Figure 4 shows a simplified temperature transmitter connection. in the reactor vault). the meter directly reads the temperature rise of oil above the ambient temperature of the location. a transmitter is needed.. expensive extension grade thermocouple wires or compensating cables have to be used. • Thermocouples are slower in response than RTDs 26 . The hot junction is inside the transformer oil and the cold junction at the meter mounted on the outside. thermocouples are used exclusively around the turbine hall because of their rugged construction and low cost.

we have: P = S⋅H 27 . The pressure at the base of a vessel containing liquid is directly proportional to the height of the liquid in the vessel. however. can decrease this thermal lag. Thermal Wells: The process environment where temperature monitoring is required. As the level in the vessel rises. but also pressurized and possibly chemically corrosive or radioactive. the pressure exerted by the liquid at the base of the vessel will increase linearly. Minimizing the air space between the sensor and the well. is often not only hot. the sensors are usually mounted inside thermal wells (Figure 6). This is termed hydrostatic pressure. a power supply failure will of course cause faulty readings. The sensor is inserted into it and makes contact with the sealed end. Level Measurement: This technique obtains a level indication indirectly by monitoring the pressure exerted by the height of the liquid in the vessel.• If the control logic is remotely located and temperature transmitters (milli-volt to milli. Mathematically.amp transducers) are used. To facilitate removal of the temperature sensors (RTD and TC). for examination or replacement and to provide mechanical protection.

A change in the gas pressure will cause a change in 28 . the high-pressure side of the level transmitter will be connected to the base of the tank while the lowpressure side will be vented to atmosphere. the level transmitter acts as a simple pressure transmitter. In this manner.Where P = Pressure (Pa) S = Weight density of the liquid (N/m3) = ρg H = Height of liquid column (m) ρ = Density (kg/m3) g = acceleration due to gravity (9. Closed Tank Measurement: Should the tank be closed and a gas or vapour exists on top of the liquid. Figure 2 shows a typical open tank level measurement installation using a pressure capsule level transmitter.Plow = S⋅H The level transmitter can be calibrated to output 4 mA when the tank is at 0% level and 20 mA when the tank is at 100% level. it will be called a level transmitter. the gas pressure must be compensated for.81 m/s2) The level of liquid inside a tank can be determined from the pressure reading if the weight density of the liquid is constant. Open Tank Measurement: The simplest application is the fluid level in an open tank. When a DP transmitter is used for the purpose of measuring a level. We have: Phigh = Patm + S⋅H Plow = Patm Differential pressure ΔP = Phigh . If the tank is open to atmosphere.

Compensation can be achieved by applying the gas pressure to both the high and low-pressure sides of the level transmitter. The different arrangement of the sensing lines to the DP cell is indicated a typical closed tank application (figure 3). the pressure exerted by the gas phase may be so high that the hydrostatic pressure of the liquid column becomes insignificant. Moreover. Figure 3 shows a typical closed tank installation: We have: Phigh = Pgas + S⋅H Plow = Pgas ΔP = Phigh . When the low-pressure impulse line is connected directly to the gas phase above the liquid level.transmitter output. This cover gas pressure is thus used as a back pressure or reference pressure on the LP side of the DP cell. For example. it is called a dry leg. 29 . whereas the steam pressure is typically 5 MPa.Plow = S⋅H The effect of the gas pressure is cancelled and only the pressure due to the hydrostatic head of the liquid is sensed. the measured hydrostatic head in a CANDU boiler may be only three meters (30 kPa) or so. One can also immediately see the need for the three-valve manifold to protect the DP cell against these pressures.

RTD(Resistance Temperature Device)).Axial shift. Switches ).POSITION: (LVDT . PRESSURE: (Transmitters. Potentiometers). The various variables involve in control loops is called process variables like: LEVEL:(Transmitters.MACHINE SUPERVISION:(Vibration .TEMPERATURE: (Thermocouples .) Etc. Expantion . Switches).MODULE 3 INTRODUCTION TO PROCESS CONTROL: PROCESS CONTROL LOOP : Process is the complex set of phenomenon that relate the manufacturing process in control loop.FLOW: (Transmitters. Switches) . 30 .

The heat transport pressure is another critical parameter that must be controlled. Either condition impairs the ability of the heat transport system to cool the fuel. There must be enough water in the boilers to act as a heat sink for the reactor but there must not be water flowing out the top of the boilers towards the turbine. integral and differential and their application to some simple systems.Overview: Control of the processes in the plant is an essential part of the plant operation. (Actual definition of 31 . The level of the boiler must be kept within a certain range. In this section we will look at the very basics of control. Feedback Control This concept justifies the use of the word negative in three ways: • The negative aspect of feeding the measured signal backwards from the output to the input of the system. if it is too low the water will boil. If it is too high the system will burst. We will examine the fundamental control building blocks of proportional.

• Error signal . which will eventually. (SP) • Measurement .). 32 . Feedforward control is rarely if ever used on its own but is used in conjunction with feedback control to improve the response of control to process disturbances. • Manipulated Variable . i. (e = SP . • The control correction must be negative in that a correction rather than a compounding of error must occur. automatic control. • Open Loop . Summary • Controlled Variable . This is termed feedforward control.negative feedback control). Temperature. we must base our control on correction of the disturbances. retrospective or negative control action. cause a process error. equals the difference between the setpoint and the measurement. Feedforward Control If we wish to control our process without an error first occurring. desired process level. actual process level. output quantity of system (Level. M). • The fact that an error must occur before a correction can take place. etc. (M) • Closed Loop . manual control. means of maintaining controlled variable at the setpoint.. • Setpoint .e.

33 . we will get an offset as the result of a disturbance and invariably we wish to control to a fixed setpoint.• Feedback control is error correction following a disturbance. The reason that straight proportional control can be used here is that the controlled variable is not level but neutron flux. The manipulated variable is the water level. At a glance proportional only does not appear very attractive . Proportional plus Integral plus Derivative (P + I + D). therefore offset is not important as the level is manipulated to provide the required neutron flux. Proportional plus derivative (rate) P + D. Proportional plus reset (integral) P + I. MODULE 4 CONTROL MODES & NEGATIVE FEEDBACK CONTROL SHEMES some of the possible combinations of control modes are: Proportional only. which could cause a process error. An application of proportional only control in a CANDU system is in the liquid zone level control system. • Feedforward control is control of disturbances. It is also possible to use a combination of all three-control modes.

the best failure mode would probably be to fail open (A/C). TYPICAL NEGATIVE FEEDBACK CONTROL SCHEMES (I) Level Control In general we can divide level measurement into three types: (i) Open Tanks (ii) Closed Tanks Bubbler Systems (Open or Closed Tanks) If a differential pressure transmitter is used as a level detector. Remember control modes use of derivative action on large. slow.e. where there is often a gas phase at pressure above the liquid.). This valve action would require an increasing signal to halt a falling tank level. the low-pressure port will be taken to the top of the tank. the lowpressure port will be vented to atmosphere in an open tank application. Air to Open (A/O) valve. to replenish the tank. The same reasoning would apply to closed tank or bubbler systems. The pressure sensed at the base of the tank on a falling level will decrease.In general it can be said that the vast majority of control systems (probably greater than 90%) will incorporate proportional plus integral modes. systems. Open Tank Installation Assuming the control valve is on the inflow. The thermal interchange process is often slow and the temperature sensor is usually installed in a thermal well. In a closed tank. Frequently heat exchanger temperature controllers will incorporate three-mode control (P + I + D). the only difference being in the sensing method employed. i. The controller must be reverse acting and will usually have P + I modes.e.) Flow control systems will invariably have P + I control. that shown in Figure 18. Derivative control will generally be limited to large sluggish systems with long inherent control time delays. controller input. i. The valve must open more.. Remember the closed tank installation will have either a wet or dry leg on the low-pressure sides. (for example. Any gas pressure will then be equally sensed by the high and low sides and thus cancelled. 34 .. A good general example is the heat exchanger. requiring an increasing signal. which further slows the control signal response. The system is shown in Figure 19 If it is necessary to mount the valve in the outflow. (We usually want to control to a fixed setpoint. again a reverse acting (P + I) controller is necessary. the best failure mode for the valve would be to fail closed.

If an air to open valve is chosen then controller action should be reverse. 1. For an air to close valve the action must of course be direct. Variable Feed with Constant Bleed 2. Constant Feed with Variable Bleed 3. as an increase in flow must be countered by a decrease in valve opening. a pressure vessel. orifice plate) plus a square root extractor to provide a linear signal. The control modes will be proportional plus integral (never use derivative on a flow control loop).g. (iii)Pessure control The control of pressure in. say. For a variable bleed application the control valve will be transferred to the bleed application the control valve will be transferred to the bleed line and will need to be A/O if a direct acting controller is used. The (P + I) controller is direct acting.(ii)Flow Control A typical flow control system requires some form of restriction to provide a pressure differential proportional to flow (e. Increasing pressure will require an increasing valve signal to throttle the supply. is generally achieved in one of three ways. The general format is shown in Figure 20. Variable Feed and Bleed Consider first Variable Feed and Constant Bleed (Figure 21). The feed valve action is air to close (A/C). The controller action depends upon the choice of control valve. 35 .

On increasing pressure the direct acting controller will supply a larger signal to the feed valve (closing it) and to the bleed valve (opening it). say feed valve A/C and bleed valve A/O. which cools hot bleed with cold service water. If pressure increases we require less feed action and more bleed action and vice versa.e. When at the setpoint we require feed to equal bleed. fail open. i. For this reason the use of derivative action is fairly standard. (iv)Temperature Control The general problem with temperature control is the slowness of response.. Figure 23shows a representative heat exchanger. The valve actions must therefore be opposite. This is shown in Figure 22. The choice of control valve would probably be air to close.\ For variable feed and bleed we can use a split range control scheme (one controller driving two valves). 36 . Pressure should thus be maintained at the setpoint with proportional plus integral control. to give maximum cooling in the event of a air supply failure to the valve.

Drum level is measured by three transmitters through temperature compensated constant head unit. speed control of Boiler Feed water Pumps (BFPs) will be used. control is fairly usual. Three mode.An increase. The pressure compensated drum level signal may be selected 37 . the start up feed control valve will be used as final control element and at higher loads. At lower loads (less than 30% MCR).FEED WATER CONTROL (DRUM LEVEL CONTROL): The objective of this control system is to maintain the drum level to the normal water level of the drum at all loads.e. say. i. A reverse acting controller is required. MODULE 5 MAJOR CONTROL LOOPS: 1. smaller valve signal.. P + I + D. in bleed temperature requires a larger valve opening.

This controller output will be the desired speed signal for the individual Boiler Feed water Pump(BFP) speed control system. integral and differential action in the three element drum level controller. High load: At higher loads the start up control valve shall be closed. The temperature compensated feed water flow signal is computed by adding feed water flow at economiser inlet and super heater spray water flow. Auto/manual station is provided for auto/manual selection and operation. Auto/manual station is provided for auto/manual selection and operation. CONTROL LOGIC: 38 . Deviation if any will have a proportional and integral action in the feed water controller. Position indicator is provided for the start up feed control valve. Position indicator is provided for the motor driven BFP hydraulic coupling scoop position indication and speed indicator is provided for turbine drive BFP speed indication. The error signal will have a proportional. This controller output will be the position demand signal for the start up feed control valve. integral and differential action in the single element controller. In order to prevent sudden response due to drum swell and shrink on load change. a time lag unit shall be included in the steam flow signal. This will be added with steam flow signal which is the feed water flow demand signal (set point for feed water flow). The error signal produced between drum level measured signal and drum level set point shall have proportional. Low load: The drum level measured signal is compared with the drum level set point. This will be compared with the feed water flow in the feed water controller.by Mid Value Auto Selection (MVAS) circuit for control. The steam flow shall be measured.

39 .

hydrastep-right-1 and drum level transmitter > 250 mm PURPOSE: To prevent water carry over to superheater headers and subsequently to turbine PROTECTION DELAY: PROTECTION CHECK: (increase gradually reaches trip limit) 10 sec.DRUM LEVEL VERY HIGH: LOGIC: 2 out of 3 logic derived from hydrastep-left-1. Actual during cold start condition feed water flow slowly until level DRUM LEVEL VERY LOW: LOGIC: 2 out of 3 logic derived from hydrastep-left-2. 40 . hydrastep-right-2 and drum level transmitter < -375 mm PURPOSE: _ To prevent BCW pumps starvation To prevent waterwall tubes starvation PROTECTION DELAY: 5 sec. PROTECTION CHECK: Actual (decrease feed water flow slowly until level gradually reaches trip limit).

separation of steam and water can be impaired and allow water to carry-over with the steam.Note: In Drum Level Control • This FEED WATER CONTROL is called three element control and the cause Is: The control of make-up feed water to the boiler is a very critical aspect of boiler operation. The basic idea behind a three element controller is to modulate the feed water flow based on a comparison between the measure steam flow and feed water flow rates. then TDBFP A&B – Speed governing Reverse 41 . circulation problems can develop and lead to localized tube failures. If the level is too low. the steam flow output. and the feed water flow input. • Control element: (electrohydraulic) • Control action: 3+3 DP transmitters. If the level is too high. the drum level signal is also included in the system. A boiler will typically use one of three following feed water control schemes to maintain the specified water level. In Two Element Control: Uses two independent process variables i. In order to account for the errors resulting from the use of only the steam and feed water flow. the drum water level and the steam flow out of the boiler.e. In Single Element Control: Drum level as the single process variable. median L&R. The boiler requires that the water level in the steam drum be within a specific range to ensure proper operation. In Three element control: This control system uses three independent process variables to maintain the water level: the drum water level. • Sensing level: average select. The drum level signal will trim the output signal up or down in order to bring the drum level to correct value.

• Operating Range: -50 to 50 mmwc -375 / -175 / 125 / 250 • Operating Limits (VL/L/H/VH): • Also Affected by: circulation)\ BCW pumps start/stop (controlled BFP recirculation valves operation Furnace fuel firing disturbances Turbine Load / steam flow disturbances MDBFP – Scoop (motorised) • Controller: integral mode) PID Controller (in proportional ADDITIONAL: 42 .

e.e. This is to ensure that under any circumstance the fuel flow should be lesser than the air flow here act as compensator (lead-lag system). obtained on comparing the fuel flow demand from combustion control and air flow signal from air flow control corrected for fuel air ratio.FUEL FLOW CONTROL Fuel flow demand from combustion control and air flow signal from air flow control corrected for fuel air ratio are compared and the lower is selected for the set point of the fuel flow controller. The controller's output signal is the position demand signal for feeder speed regulating device. 43 . The set point of the fuel flow controller i. This is to ensure that under any circumstance the fuel flow should be lesser than the air flow. Bias unit is provided to modify the signal whenever required. To ensure air rich furnace at all times. An auto/manual station is provided for each feeder.2. The feeder speed/rate measured signal is hooked up to the control after a delay to suit the process lag. i. Fuel flow is measured by adding the feed signal of the feeders (or mills) in service and the heavy oil flow corrected for calorific value. (lead-lag system). a maximum deviation limit system (MDL) is used. Whenever the fuel flow is more than the air flow this will automatically reduce the fuel flow and increase air flow to a safe value and both the air flow and fuel flow control is transferred to manual. The actual fuel flow signal is compared with the developed set point signal above and any deviation will have proportional and integral action.

CONTROL LOGIC: NOTES: In fuel flow control : 44 .

• Sensing coal flow: • Control element: eddy current clutch) • Operating Range: 2x10 feed rate signals./ .The feeder rate measure signal shall be delayed by an adjustable time (0-60 secs) to suit process lag. the main purpose of which is that whenever the fuel flow then it will automatically increase the air flow to safe value while the fuel may be either automatic or manual. Here maximum deviation unit or selector is used i. (MDL)./ 375 / 389 • Control action: • Controller: mode) ADDITONAL: Reverse PID Controller (in proportional integral 45 . Fuel flow should not be allowed to on auto unless air flow control is in auto. If air flow or fuel flow are in automatic prior to the MDL action.e. average select Feeder feed rate (gravimetric – with 0 to 375 TPH • Operating Limits (VL/L/H/VH): . The gain of fuel controller shall be automatically changed according to the number of mills in service. they are to be rejected to manual by the MDL action.

Hot air damper also provides the hot air to remove the moisture from the coal so that they can easily cross the path in between mill and furnace.3. Rate of change of fuel demand signal is added to provide feed forward feature.MILL OUTLET TEMPERATURE AND AIR FLOW CONTROL : The objective of this control system is to adjust the mill air flow according to the feeder speed and to maintain the mill outlet temperature at the constant set value. is provided. In the same 46 . Mill air flow is maintained by adjusting the hot air regulating damper while the mill outlet temperature is maintained constant by adjusting the cold air regulating damper. The temperature compensated mill air flow is linearised by the square root extractor. Mill outlet temperature is measured using a thermocouple with tungsten carbide thermowell to avoid erosion. An auto/manual station with position indicator is provided. Any error between these two signals will have proportional plus integral action. An auto/manual station with position indicator. Mill outlet temperature control and mill air flow control involve two dampers called hot air damper and cold air damper. The mill outlet temperature is compared with constant set point and error will have proportional. integral and derivative action. This air flow signal is compared with variable air flow set point as a function of feeder speed.

manner cold air damper also maintain the mill temperature so that no coal burning occur in mill section. CONTROL LOGIC: NOTES: In mill air flow control and outlet temperature control : 47 .

average Mill cold air damper (pneumatic) 80 to 90 Deg C 65 / 70 / 95 / 100 • Operating Limits (VL/L/H/VH): • Also Affected by: Mill hot air damper regulation Mill hot & cold air gate operation Mill feeder coal flow regulation 48 . average select & Mill hot air damper (pneumatic) 70 to 100 TPH 50 / 70 / 110 / 125 • Operating Limits (VL/L/H/VH): • Also Affected by: Mill cold air damper regulation Mill hot & cold air gate operation Hot PA header pressure regulation • Control action: • Controller: Reverse PID controller : MILL DAMPER CONTROLS – OUTLET TEMP • Sensing temp: select • Control element: • Operating Range: 2 thermocouples (K – Type) .: MILL DAMPER CONTROLS – AIR FLOW • Sensing air flow: compensation • Control element : • Operating Range: 2 DP transmitters .

• Control action: • Controller: ADDITONAL: Direct PID controller 49 .

That is. The difference is used for taking corrective action. To have equal loading of two running PA fans. averaged and compared. One signal is selected by mid value auto selection circuit for control. the PA fans motor current is measured. out of all the feeders. Refer the 'notes' in the control scheme for the interlocks. the feeder speed which is higher than that of others is considered as set value for this control. Separate auto/manual station and position indicator are provided for each Primary Air(PA) fan regulating device.4. 50 . Primary air header pressure is measured with three transmitters. Deviation if any will have proportional and integral action. The corrective signal is used to position the PA fan regulating unit. The measured signal is compared with the selected feeder speed signal through a high signal selector to maintain the minimum header pressure.PRIMARY AIR HEADER PRESSURE CONTROL The main objective of this control is to adjust the primary air header pressure according to the feeder speed.

CONTROL LOGIC: NOTES: In primary air header pressure control : 51 .

• Sensing hot PA header pressure: median select • Control element: (thyristor & servo) • Operating Range: • Operating Limits (VL/L/H/VH): • Also Affected by: regulation operation • Control action: Reverse • Controller: 3 pressure transmitters . PA Fan-A&B Blade Pitch 775 to 825 mmwc 500 / 625 / 950 / 1000 Mill hot & cold air dampers Mill hot & cold air gates PID controller ADDITONAL: 52 .

The ID fan inlet damper positions between a maximum and a minimum position limit for optimised control action. Furnace pressure is measured by three transmitters. Excessive furnace pressure is monitored for directional block on Induced Draft(ID) and Forced Draft(FD) fans.5. Furnace pressure is compared with set point and error.FURNACE DRAFT CONTROL : The main objective of the control is to maintain the furnace pressure constant at the desired set value at all loads. To have equal loading of the ID fans each ID fan motor current (sum of channel 1 and channel 2 current) is measured averaged and compared. whose output is used to vary fan speed to bring back the inlet damper within the set limits. If ID fan position goes outside these limits. The difference is used for taking corrective action. Master Fuel Trip(MFT) feed forward feature is provided to minimize negative furnace pressure excursion. 53 . Separate auto/Manual station and position/speed indicator are provided for each ID fan regulating device(damper/VFD). an error signal goes to a controller. Fuel demand signal is added as a feed forward feature. and the position indicator for each ID fan regulating device is provided. The corrected signal is used to position the ID fan inlet damper. Separate auto/manual station. One signal is selected by mid value auto selection circuit for control. This is achieved by changing the flow of flue gas by modulating the inlet guide vane or inlet damper and varying the speed of the ID fan by variable frequency drive system. will have proportional and integral action.

CONTROL LOGIC: NOTES: In furnance draft control: 54 .

• Sensing furnace pressure: select • Control element: (motorised) at startup (thyristor) on Load 3 pressure.5 to -10 mmwc • Operating Limits (VL/L/H/VH): -175 / -100 / +75 / +150 • Also Affected by: SADC dampers regulation FD fan blades regulation Mill air dampers regulation PA fan blades regulation Fuel firing regulation Flame disturbances • Control action: • Controller: Direct PID controller ADDITONAL: 55 . transmitters . median ID Fan-A&B Inlet Guide Vanes ID Fan-A&B Variable Frequency Drives • Operating Range: .

CONTROL LOGIC: 56 . This signal is compared with the developed set point. Boiler auxiliaries interlock system Maximum Deviation Limit (MDL) etc. Necessary interlock from FSSS. Transfer switch can be selected for either average value or individual value. is added to obtain total air flow to the boiler. are provided. Separate auto/manual station and position indicator for each FD fan regulating device are provided. The corrected signal is used to position the FD fan regulating damper. The air flow demand from coordinated control and actual fuel flow whichever is high (lead lag system) is selected to ensure enriched combustion air. This position demand signal will be selected to the corresponding FD fans in service through' auto/manual station. Each flow will have temperature compensation.AIR FLOW CONTROL: The secondary air flow is measured at left and right side of the secondary air ducts to wind box by means of aerofoils. Under any circumstance the air flow should not be less than 30% MCR flow. This signal is the developed set point and the air flow signal will have proportional and integral action in the air flow controller. To have equal loading of FD fans the FD fan motors current is measured. High/low limiters are used to limit the value in case the oxygen analyser is out of service. The flow is linearised by means of square root extractors.6. This signal is compared with excess air set point and any error will have proportional and integral action to have better combustion efficiency. The total PA flow measured for each mill in service . The oxygen in the flue gas at the inlet of AH is measured as primary or redundant. The difference is used for taking corrective action.

Notes: In air flow control: 57 .

average select & compensation • Control element: • Operating Range: • Operating Limits (VL/L/H/VH): • Also Affected by: • Control action: • Controller: FD fans blade pitch (thyristor & servo) 630 to 1950 TPH 540 / 600 / 2000 / 2100 SADC dampers regulation Reverse PID Controller CONCLUSION: 58 .• Sensing (for secondary air flow): 2+2 DP transmitters.


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