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47 10 Vol.47 No.

10
2011  10 1227—1232 ACTA METALLURGICA SINICA Oct. 2011 pp.1227–1232

Fe3 C    Æ



(
   
       , 100083)




  
 Fe C
  , 
Kelvin  (SKP)
X80 3

(SVP)
   (LEIS)  
 Fe C
     3

  . ,    ( 40%,  22 ) 


,  Fe C ,  ;   , 

3

  ,   
  /
 ,  Fe C ,    3

,    ,  , .



 ! , , , 

"#$% TG174 & ' A  
(% 0412−1961(2011)10−1227−06 
INFLUENCES OF Fe3 C AND PEARLITE ON THE ELEC-
TROCHEMICAL CORROSION BEHAVIORS OF LOW
CARBON FERRITE STEEL
WANG Liwei, DU Cuiwei, LIU Zhiyong, ZENG Xiaoxiao, LI Xiaogang
Key Laboratory of Corrosion and Protection, Ministry of Education of China, Corrosion and Protection Center, University
of Science and Technology Beijing, Beijing 100083
Correspondent: LI Xiaogang, professor, Tel: (010)62333931–509, E-mail: lixiaogang99@263.net
Supported by National Natural Science Foundation of China (Nos.50971016 and 50901041) and Fun-
damental Research Funds for the Central Universities (No.FRF–TP–09–029B)
Manuscript received 2011–04–06, in revised form 2011–04–28

ABSTRACT The microstructure of X80 pipeline steel welding joint, consisted of Fe3 C and de-
generated pearlite, was simulated by carburizing treatment. The effects of Fe3 C and pearlite on the
electrochemical properties of bainitic ferrite steel and localized corrosion occurrence regularity in Ying-
tan soil simulation solution were investigated by scanning Kelvin probe (SKP), scanning vibrating
probe (SVP) and local electrochemical impedance spectroscopy (LEIS), combined with immersion
test. It is demonstrated that the corrosion potential of degenerated pearlite is lower than bainitic
ferrite, and decreases with increasing Fe3 C content. Localized corrosion occurs on the surface of the
carburized sample in Yingtan soil simulation solution. The anodic oxidation process is observed to be
initiated on the carburized degenerated pearlite, whereas the cathodic reaction involving dissolved H+
is on bainitic ferrite, and the anodic current density increases with increasing Fe3 C concentration. As
the ion contents of the soil simulation solution doubled, the anodic dissolution of degenerated pearlite
increases, and the local impedance of the electrode decreases.
KEY WORDS ferrite steel, carburizing, microstructure, local electrochemistry

)*+, +) [1−6]. ++*2+,/, [7] 0, 23*$)


-! !,  ."!/0"!)"1 ,<1-=-.23/4-.56., &5
#*$)#Æ23! "%"4$, &5%### ,<1>/0/0, %###. Kobayashi - [8] /
* $%6$$&%&& 50971016
50901041 '(&'
,0, 231"42".230<1317
$)*+'7&8%&& FRF–TP–09–029B 89 8- (HAZ) 4?-24-5-. 3@- [9] 90
%()(&' : 2011–04–06, %(,)(&' : 2011–04–28 133:4-=/023%"4$6 /6, HAZ
:;*' : -(., ), 1984 *, *( A;/6%#.2"!15-.2 ##. <0
DOI: 10.3724/SP.J.1037.2011.00198 /, [10−12] 10 X80 133:230/04
21228 7252=2Æ 47

$)68>6B70!?34761 Fe3 C. /05 J @G>8N;BX;VR; 100 μm,


7.5 mm( 1c),
896@C, Fe3 C !B7077230; SKP58 #=XYB; 58Z@/I;
40%, LEIS
78:%;8, Æ-/6A588<3=;#9DB ?A[>;
10 mV, ! 58+8N
10 Hz. SVP LEIS
C*>9 :;$. \+ S/IT]#6 ]S;B)=
−1.3 V(vs SCE) ,
Æ-/6A588<A;ED</6A5896, X*6 P6W UT I<58
, 1h .
;Æ5/6A:4=;"9!86)>>9 B Æ-/6A58!XYIMIM#S;VTUW
<EF?, G:=>410/, [13−17]. F X^_$Z[#S [21], #S6A "S; 1 T
?- [18] @1?A Kelvin @G (SKP) 0, %H
133:;B@</I"9J>A=,;B6CK
A, >0-? HAZ ,@</IHE7. Zhang !
Cheng[19] @1?AI@A./# (SVP) !/6A
/DJ5B (LEIS) 0, X70 133: HAZ 4
?.2"-2%###/DEB. CD4K/,";F
13 HAZ G$.2"C, D!/0 HAZ 230<
E"9%"4, H+133:4K23/6A;F!
/,IE.
+LG  X80 ;B<B0H7, )A;
B6 Fe3 C !>6B70, F14KÆ-/6A58
8< (SKP, SVP ! LEIS) /, Fe3 C !B7077
1 !"
230;B/6A$;78! CJ.
LM
IM1 API X80 6A " (N8"J, %)
;: C 0.036, Si 0.197, Mn 1.771, P 0.012, S 0.002,
Cr 0.223, Ni 0.278, Cu 0.220, Al 0.021, Ti 0.019, Mo
O8 DH71
0.184, V 0.001, Nb 0.110, N 0.005, Fe .
8N+E 15 mm× 15 mm×15 mm KP, F1B0
H7,LFG [20], D8NH=1,LM*, KM+1G
900 HIIO 6 h, J8NKMNLGMOIN>. F1
OJDH78NP OK, D8NLBE13> Cu &
, 1PQQD8NMK)PRLQR*, EAB;P
OB.
F17A#ÆQ (OM) ! Quanta250 ?A/
Q (SEM)  X80 H78N<#Æ23MN, 1
Micromet—Buehler Inc. Model MII #Æ?BN58
H78N?B, 58IRSJ 1a TU, ORSPQT
0.5 mm ,SVTO 1 mm 58BR, UP 980 N.
F1 M370 ?A/6AEAVH78N<Æ-
/6A?A58. 1 SVP 58H78N)IM#S*
#
1  X80 `VaYZ
Fig.1 Schematic of measured zones in cross section of car-

 WU, ?ABQ; 7 mm×5 mm(J 1b), @ burized X80 steel

GW?; 50 μm, @GI@IR; 30 μm. 1 SKP


(a) hardness along paths 1, 2 and 3
(b) scanning vibrating probe (SVP)
! LEIS 58H78N)=X*;B/6APU!) (c) scanning Kelvin probe (SKP) and local electro-
IM#S*/DJ5H"9WU, ?ABQ; 15 mm× chemical impedance spectroscopy (LEIS)

Y 1   
Table 1 Compositions of simulated Yingtan acidic soil solutions
(g/L)
Solution No. CaCl2 NaCl Na2 SO4 MgSO4 ·7H2 O KNO3 NaHCO3
1 0.0111 0.0468 0.0142 0.0197 0.0293 0.0151
2 0.0555 0.2340 0.0710 0.0985 0.1465 0.0755
10 [\\W : Fe C UZVbXYcdebWZX]^[_`
3 1229 2
U. IMSV+a#S*G N2 2 h, TS]#S* O2,
IM #*\ba#S*G=cD8 N2. IM#S1
"d]6A8Y!]R[f (/&>; 18 MΩ·cm) ^
2
2.1
!"&'()$%*+, -.
C, T?IM)MOe<.
\] ^
_ `a
J 2 ;J 1a *TUIR,?B"9. :T_
>, OQTG*f?BbZ[7, EgH7^?B2_
400 HV, *f230?Bc; 200 HV. gFH7,L
_G 1\h], H7hB; 1—2 mm, OQTG*
f, H70^8bZ[7. OQTG*f#Æ23`6
SJ 3 TU. :_, QT;2723, af C ^8KX
# 2 X80 kg
Fig.2 Micro–hardness distributions along three paths
bZ[7, BW aGf23023. J 4 `> X80 shown in Fig.1a

H78NPB4-= SEM i. :T_>, E;^


ad^bBc; 50 μm, C ^8!0 0.8%(N8"J,
ei), /023;B70 (P) cKPH70 (Fe3 C)(J
4a); Rg^;ad^, ^ C 8; 0.8%, /023;>
6B70 (DP), `0%F#, Ohnori[22] j;A6 .
"!/0 C d[akdb5">230/l=!H7
0cea=!bb3&5B70>6 (J 4b); cm^;
jad a^, ."/>6B70 (DP) !dn0230
# 3 X80  (OM)
Fig.3 Metallograph of the cross section of carburized X80
(BF) 2 , `defc; 5—7 μm(J 4c), ^ C 8O steel

# 4 X80 `
 SEM l
Fig.4 Cross–sectional SEM images of carburized X80 steel (P—pearlite, DP—degenerated pearlite, BF—bainitic
ferrite, M/A—martensite/austenite island)
(a) hypereutectoid (b) eutectoid (c) hypoeutectoid (d) low carbon ferrite
21230 7252=2Æ 47

0.8% bZe[, BW aGf^ C 8, 9e!Od G*f230-) H78N)X^Z[#S 1 ! 2 *


>Æ8230SV, bZ<=f, 230^8KXf0, SVP /D"9J. :_, )Z[#S 1 *, B70-!B
B70^8bZd6, Wgf7723023;h, f 70/230-R[/DEBm?F#Cq, H7-
23;dn0230 (BF) !68fn0 - hn0ci R[/DEB!0*f230-, *f230-R[/
2.2 SKP i j (/
(M/A), 230`defc; 5—7 μm (J 4d).

J 5 ;J 1c *m7-= SKP 58Ji. /0E


DEB3n0 0(J 6a). )Z[#S 2 *, B70-=
R[/DEBo!0B70/230-, Kk23* Fe3C
^8f+, R[/DEBbZ[7. .0, r#SR
g^ ad^ghKNPQQ, ; jiQTh4, 5 [pB" sf+I, 4-=R[/DEB"f+, B
8Oad^SV. :T_>, EgPB7023 Kelvin 70-!B70/230-R[/DEB9>0 Cq,
/Ic; −778—−489 mV, B70/ 230- Kelvin B70-20B70/230-.
/Ic; −489—−417 mV, *f23023 Kelvin J 7 ;J 1c m7-=)X^Z[#S 2 *XY
/Ic; −417—−272 mV, O*fGEgPKk Fe3C 5 d XIlMpc. :T_>, *f230-=m7q,
^8f+, Kelvin /IbZ[7, Kelvin /o"9/+ 1sÆ, QTH7-1s-, t?not
>H7^bBB5. o1uQ);B. X80 )S O2 X^_$#
SKP 58kG Kelvin /o ψ >Æp)=X*
/I Ecorr X;$)Seen [23,24]:
Wref Eref
Ecorr = ( − )+ψ (1)
F 2
q*, Wref ;A./#fgJ; F ; Faraday lJ,
Eref /2 ;A./#K/m/o, A./#;I@@G;
on, 0580njg, Wref ! Eref /2 ";lJ, EA
/#)=X*/I> Kelvin /o l..
hkJ 2 ! 5 :m, Kk"!* Fe3 C ^8f+,
/I[7, >6B70)=X (YB; 40%, OB;
22 H, ei) */I70230. G?/, [25,26]
;F, /0%ipX;/ICq, $) 2 Ki 2
KT4232"!)%ipX;j rn$%
###. hk/6Ll, )iB#S*4?%i
/IOp/0/6Ak$Cqo 3p, /I
17p##)Bf+, A;o<0n%#; /I
12p##)B[7, A;o<0nm# [13,14].
on, >6B70)=X*.dn023023r #  1
2  SVP Z
(/
6
a!.
X80
Fig.6 SVP maps of the shaded zone in Fig.1b, the sample
2.3 SVP i j immersed in solutions No.1 (a) and No.2 (b)
J 6 ;J 1b m7-=TU (Oad>6B70-

# 7   5 d pqqr


#
X80
Fig.7 Appearance of carburized X80 steel immersed in so-
5 X80  SKP Z lution No.2 for 5 d, comparded with the edge and
Fig.5 SKP map of the shaded zone in Fig.1c the center ferrite zone corroded lightly
10 [\\W : Fe C UZVbXYcdebWZX]^[_`
3 1231 2
S*mv%#:4"q; H+ rd! Fe P6 [27]
2H+ + 2e 
 H2 (2)

 Fe2+ + 2e
Fe  (3)

:4q (2) ts H+ !:4q (3)  Fe2+


)/#N#S*ak6 R[/D, )X^Z[#S 1
*>6B70!>6B70/dn0230lR[/D
EB!0*fdn0230-, gF>6B70!>6B
70/dn0230-o  Fe2+ .ts H+ 0, *
fdn0230-o  Fe2+ !ts H+ 8pr, >
6B70!>6B70/dn0230-)X^Z[
#S 1 *:4.*fdn0230-st, 3>
6B70!>6B70/dn0230m?F#Cq. 3
)X^Z[#S 2 *, >6B70-lR[/DEBE
!, >6B70/dn0230-lR[/DEB?T
d6, gF>6B70:4st#B!0>6B7
0/dn0230. H78N)X^Z[#S 2 *XY 5 d
;B6Cpc9gF, *fdn0230#B1
s, >6B70!>6B70/dn02301s
-, ;Bo oto1, Ao :;/0 Fe2+ >
#S* CO2−3 ! HCO3  Se:4
− [28]
:
# 8 X80  1
2  LEIS Z
Fig.8 LEIS maps of the shaded zone in Fig.1c, the sample
immersed in solutions No.1 (a) and No.2 (b)
Fe2+ + CO2− 
3  FeCO3 (4)
>6B70!>6B70/dn0230J5"c0
*fdn0230, *fdn0230G$-Æ.
(/
Fe 2+
+ HCO−  FeCO3 + H+
 (5)
Clover - [29] j;B70pG$.230pCd
3

2.4 LEISi j o."!B70p!230>H70ad0, B70p


LEIS@Gu58J5 Zlocal /TetqNu v$)1s-Æ/6, H70A;m#j+)B
vk :
70*230. H78N4")X^Z[#S 2
V (ω)applied
Zlocal =
i(ω)
(6) *J5"c0#S 1, )_$Z[#S*, r4K
q*, V (ω)applied ;g+Iw/I, ω ;Iw[>; i(ω) R[pB"f+ 5 sI, X80 H78N5$e
;Æp;B#S/D/DEB [. wrv- [30]  X70 )%ipBX^Z[#S
*/6A;58u]9#U, r#SpBf+
Δφ(ω) · κ I, s/DEBf!.
i(ω) = (7)
d 3 \^
q*, Δφ(ω) ;@G 2 <Æ Pt /#X;/IC, κ ; (1) X80 x ;BB0H7,LI, QT6
/#N#S/&>, d ;/#;V. >6B7023, OgPG*f, Fe3 C ^8[7, B70
J 8 ;J 1c m7TU-=)X^Z[#S 1 ! 2 ^8d6, dn0230^8bZf0, G*fw;d
* LEIS J, QTOad^SV58. :T_>, )Z[ n023023. >6B7023)=X (YB; 40%,
#S 1 *, Kk Fe3 C ^8[7, J5O 2600 Ω bZ OB; 22 H) */I70dn0230, tEK
w2G 4200 Ω(J 8a). )Z[#S 2 *, Kk Fe3 C ^ k Fe3 C ^8f+, /I[7.
8[7, J5O 200 Ω w2G 2200 Ω. .0, r (2) H7230)X^_$Z[#S* 
#S*4KR[pB"f+ 5 sI, iB[>eJ5[ , A*fdn0230pA;o<"!:4
7, D!23* Fe3 C ^8J578xo!B5. m#, >6B70!>6B70/dn0230/0A*
uA LEIS ! SVP ;u-\xgFH78N)X^  Fe3 C A;m#+) Atx230/0%###
Z[#S*WU. )X^Z[#S 1 ! 2 *, ;o<"!:4%#. #S*4R[^8 sf
21232 7252=2Æ 47

+I, >6B70p%###/DEBf!, /6A/ 2007; 49: 4568


DJ5[7, h4f!.

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