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ENT 334 COMPONENT DESIGN

MINI PROJECT

TITLE: EZ POGO STICK

PREPARED BY:
Name Matrix Number
Hafizulhad Izhar Bin Harun 171110653
Peter Lau Yueh Foung 171110724
Aizat Bin Jamil 171110638
Azrul Azmeer Bin Mohd 171110644
Table of Content
Number Content Pages

1 Introduction 3-4

2 Overview 5-6

3 Objective 7

4 Analysis of designed components (1) 8-15

5 Analysis of designed components (2) 16-20

6 Analysis of designed components (3) 21-24

7 Analysis of designed components (4) 25-34

8 Improved design products 35

9 Conclusion 36

10 Reference 37

~2~
Introduction
A pogo stick is a device for jumping off the ground in a standing position, through the aid of
a spring, or new high-performance technologies, often used as a toy, exercise equipment or extreme
sports instrument. It led to an extreme sport named extreme pogo or "Xpogo".
It consists of a pole with a handle at the top and footrests near the bottom, and a spring
located somewhere along the pole. The spring joins two sections of the pole, which extends below
the footpads.
The jumper places his feet on the footpads while balancing on the pole, then jumps up or
down with a bending action of the knees to add or subtract energy in the spring. When the spring is at
full compression or extension, the jumper is lifted by the recoil of the spring, being launched several
inches or feet into the air. This process is repeated to maintain a periodic bounce.
The pogo stick can be steered by shifting one's weight off the centerline of the spring in the
desired horizontal direction thus producing horizontal locomotion. Below are some examples of pogo
stick that available in the market.

A spring stilt utilizing compression springs on each foot was patented in 1891 by George
H. Herrington of Wichita, Kansas, "for leaping great distances and heights". This was an
antecedent of the pogo stick as well as today's spring stilts.

The modern pogo stick was invented by Max Pohlig and Ernst Gottschall, from
Germany. A German patent was registered in Hanover on March 1920 for a device they called a

~3~
"spring end hopping stilt". It is thought that the beginning two letters in these men's last names is
where the word "pogo" comes from.

The two-handle pogo stick design was patented by George B. Hansburg in 1957.
Hansburg described the origins of the Pogo name colloquially in a story of a young Burmese girl
with the aforementioned name whose father had created a crude version of the device so that the
daughter could travel to the local temple for prayers. An earlier design with a single upright
vertical handle patented in 1955 posed something of a risk to the user's chin. Later improvements
to the pogo stick have been made, including the Vurtego, Flybar, and the BowGo, which allow
operators to jump much higher than with a simple coil spring pogo stick. Back flips and other
tricks are now possible on some of these newer sticks, which has contributed to the growth of the
new sport of Extreme Pogo ("Xpogo").

~4~
Overview

In this mini project, our group choose to improve the design of the Vurtego Pogo Stick. The
Vurtego Pogo Stick is basically made up of 7 parts, which are

• the body cylinder


• the air spring
• the air piston
• the shock absorber
• the traction pegs
• the slide shaft
• the grip tip

~5~
The figure above has clearly showed the parts of the pogo stick with some description. Basically,
pogo stick is a very fun yet healthy sport equipment that suitable for kids and adults, just like
bicycle. However, this pogo stick is sold at the price of RM3800 at Lazada Malaysia, which we
think it is too expensive for a normal income family.

Therefore, our team aimed to make improvement to this pogo stick to make it more user friendly
with cheaper price so that this device can be a new sport trend and can be widely spread among
the nation. At the same time, we will assure the quality and the playing experience is maintained.

~6~
Objective
We start our project with the following objectives,

• To reduce the manufacturing price of the pogo stick


o To make the price of the pogo stick cheaper and acceptable by the public

• To reduce the shock impact to the user by the pogo stick


o To make the pogo stick more comfortable and user friendly when been ride
o To make the device suitable and safe been played by kids

• To lengthen the life span of the pogo stick


o Changed some components of the pogo stick to make it last longer and durable

~7~
Analysis of designed components
1) Cylinder body
We started the analysis with the main body, the body cylinder. Our team make some researches
on internet for the minimum weight that support the pogo stick and the result shown is around 40
lbs. or 18.14kg while the maximum weight is around 181 lbs. or 181.44kg. Based on that, we
make some justification to decide the most suitable material to make this pogo stick so that it can
withstand the weight load required.

Based on the figure 4, we have the dimension of the body cylinder as


Thickness = 0.003 m
Inner cylinder radius = 0.0366 m
Outer cylinder radius = 0.0381 m
Inside diameter = 0.0732 m
Outside Diameter = 0.0762 m
Length of cylinder = 0.9m
Cross setional area of cylinder rod
2π(R2 – r2) = 2π(0.03812 – 0.03662)(0.9)
= 0.0006336 m2

~8~
Maximum internal force strength needed based on minimum and maximum weight
σ = F/A [ 1 Pa = 1 N / m2 ≡ 1 kg / m ]
based on the average weight that need to be suport by the material base on below :-
Minimum
σ = 18.14 kg x 9.81 /(0.0006336 m2)
= 280.86 KPa
Maximum
σ = 181.44 kg x 9.81 /(0.0006336 m2)
= 2.81 MPa
From the stress calculation above we know that the strength of material need to be higher than
the value of the calculation.
Cylinder stress

hoop equation hoop equation


Minimum Maximum
𝑃𝑟 𝑃𝑟
σθ = σθ =
𝑡𝑙 𝑡𝑙

(280.86𝑥103 )(0.0366) (2.81𝑥106 )(0.0366)


= =
(0.003)(0.9) (0.003)(0.5)

= 3.81 MPa = 38.09 MPa


Min Axial load for cylinder Max Axial load for cylinder
𝑃𝑟 𝑃𝑟
σaxial = 2𝑡𝑙 σaxial = 2𝑡𝑙

(280.86𝑥103 )(0.0366) (2.81𝑥106 )(0.0366)


= =
2(0.003)(0.5) 2(0.003)(0.5)

= 2 MPa = 19.05 MPa

From the calculation, we get the minumum axial load for the cylinder body is 2Mpa while
maximum is 19.05Mpa. The data is important as it is required for the following analysis.

~9~
Analysis of designed material in market
The material that used by the Vurtego V4 Pro pogo stick is 6061 Aluminium Alloys
The yeild stress for 6061 aluminium alloy,σy= 240 MPa
Poisson's Ratio,ν = 0.33
Modulus of elasticity,E = 68.9 GPa
Minimum Maximum
𝜎 −280.86 𝐾𝑃𝑎 𝜎 −2.81 MPa
𝐸𝑙𝑜𝑛𝑔 = = = −4.08𝑥10−6 𝐸𝑙𝑜𝑛𝑔 = = = −4.08𝑥10−5
𝐸 68.9 𝐺𝑃𝑎 𝐸 68.9 𝐺𝑃𝑎
𝜖𝑙𝑎𝑡 𝜖
𝜈 = − 𝜖 𝑙𝑎𝑡 =
𝜈=− =
𝜖𝑙𝑜𝑛𝑔 𝑙𝑜𝑛𝑔

Elat = -ν ϵlong = -0.33x -4.80x10-5 = 1.35x10-5


Elat = -ν ϵlong = -0.33x−4.08𝑥10−6 = 1.35x10-6
∆𝑑 = 𝜖𝑙𝑎𝑡 𝑥 𝑑𝑜 = 1.35𝑥10−6 𝑥 0.0381 ∆𝑑 = 𝜖𝑙𝑎𝑡 𝑥 𝑑𝑜 = 1.35𝑥10−5 𝑥 0.0381
= 5.1435𝑥10−8 = 5.1435𝑥10−7
New diameter = 0.0381 + ∆𝑑 New diameter = 0.0381 + ∆𝑑
= 0.03810005144 m = 0.03810051435 𝑚

In this table we are going to test the material compression wether it can wisthand the load that we
applied on the material. We can see the increasing of diameter occur when the force applied to
the material, which mean the material undergo elongation . From the calculation, the elongation
with the respective force for the minimum is 0.03810005144 m while the maximum is
0.03810051435 m.

~ 10 ~
Calculation of high cycle fatigue strength for 6061 Aluminium Alloys
Material 6061 Aluminium Alloys
Ultimate tensile strength, Sut 290 Mpa
Endurance strength, S’e =0.5*Sut =0.5*290
=145 MPa
Fatigue Strength Coefficient, =290+0.3447 =290.3447MPa
σ’f=Sut+0.3447MPa
Fatigue Strength Exponent, b=-[log(290.3447)/(145)]/[log(2*5x108)]
b=-[log(σ’f)/(S’e)]/[log(2*Ne)] = -0.00188729
Ne=5x108
Fatigue strength, Sf =(σ’f)*(2Ne)b =(290.3447)*[2(5x108)]-0.00188729
=279.20 MPa
𝐹𝑜𝑟𝑐𝑒 𝑎𝑝𝑝𝑙𝑖𝑒𝑑 Maximum =4.43 GPa
𝑤𝑜𝑟𝑘𝑖𝑛𝑔 𝑠𝑡𝑟𝑒𝑠𝑠 = Minimum =443.28 KPa
𝐶𝑟𝑜𝑠𝑠 𝑠𝑒𝑐𝑡𝑖𝑜𝑛𝑎𝑙 𝑎𝑟𝑒𝑎

𝑦𝑖𝑒𝑙𝑑 𝑠𝑡𝑟𝑒𝑠𝑠 yield strength of 6061 aluminium = 240 MPa


𝑠𝑎𝑓𝑒𝑡𝑦 𝑓𝑎𝑐𝑡𝑜𝑟 = minimum safety factor
𝑤𝑜𝑟𝑘𝑖𝑛𝑔 𝑠𝑡𝑟𝑒𝑠𝑠
240𝑥106
= 541.42
443.28𝑥103

Maximum safety factor


240𝑥106
= 0.05418
4.43𝑥109

From the table above, the safety factor calculated in the calculation part may be differs from its
real-life counterpart. This is due to the lack of real-life product to carry out the measurement
process. Therefore, assumptions have to be made in order to estimate the dimension for the
component parts. Although we do not have the real product’s dimension, we still try to use the
dimension that is as close as possible to the real-life product’s dimension.

~ 11 ~
Analysis for the selection material
So the material that I would like to suggest to replace the material of Vurtego V4 Pro pogo stick
is 304 stainless steel.
The yeild stress for 304 stainless steel,σy= 215 MPa
Poisson's Ratio,ν = 0.29
Modulus of elasticity,E = 200 GPa
Minimum Maximum
𝜎 −280.86 𝐾𝑃𝑎 𝜎 −2.81 MPa
𝐸𝑙𝑜𝑛𝑔 = = = −1.40𝑥10−6 𝐸𝑙𝑜𝑛𝑔 = = = −1.41𝑥10−5
𝐸 200 𝐺𝑃𝑎 𝐸 200 𝐺𝑃𝑎
𝜖 𝜖
𝜈 = − 𝜖 𝑙𝑎𝑡 = 𝜈 = − 𝜖 𝑙𝑎𝑡 =
𝑙𝑜𝑛𝑔 𝑙𝑜𝑛𝑔
−6
Elat = -ν ϵlong = -0.29x−1.40𝑥10 Elat = -ν ϵlong = -0.29x -1.41x10-5
= 4.06x10-7 = 4.09x10-6
∆𝑑 = 𝜖𝑙𝑎𝑡 𝑥 𝑑𝑜 = 4.06𝑥10−7 𝑥 0.0381 ∆𝑑 = 𝜖𝑙𝑎𝑡 𝑥 𝑑𝑜 = 4.09𝑥10−6 𝑥 0.0381
= 1.54686𝑥10−8 = 1.55829𝑥10−7
New diameter = 0.0381 + ∆𝑑 New diameter = 0.0381 + ∆𝑑
= 0.03810001547 𝑚 = 0.03810015583 𝑚

In this table, we are going to test the material compression wether it can wisthand the load that
we applied on the material. We can see the increasing of diameter occur. From the calculation,
the elongation with the respective force for the minimum is 0.03810001547 m while the
maximum is 0.03810015583 m.

~ 12 ~
Calculation of high cycle fatigue strength for 304 Stainless steel
Material 304 Stainless steel
Ultimate tensile strength, Sut 568 Mpa
Endurance strength, S’e = 0.5*Sut =0.5*568
=284 MPa
Fatigue Strength Coefficient, σ’f=Sut+0.3447MPa
σ’f=Sut+0.3447MPa =568+0.3447 =568.3447MPa
Fatigue Strength Exponent, b=-[log(568.3447)/(284)]/[log(2*5x108)]
b=-[log(σ’f)/(S’e)]/[log(2*Ne)] = -0.001077704
Ne=5x108
Fatigue strength, Sf =(σ’f)*(2Ne)b Sf=(σ’f)*(2Ne)b
=(568.3447)*[2(5x108)]-0.001077704
=555.79MPa
𝐹𝑜𝑟𝑐𝑒 𝑎𝑝𝑝𝑙𝑖𝑒𝑑 Maximum =4.43 GPa
𝑤𝑜𝑟𝑘𝑖𝑛𝑔 𝑠𝑡𝑟𝑒𝑠𝑠 = Minimum =443.28 KPa
𝐶𝑟𝑜𝑠𝑠 𝑠𝑒𝑐𝑡𝑖𝑜𝑛𝑎𝑙 𝑎𝑟𝑒𝑎
𝑦𝑖𝑒𝑙𝑑 𝑠𝑡𝑟𝑒𝑠𝑠 yield strength of 304 Stainless steel = 215 MPa
𝑠𝑎𝑓𝑒𝑡𝑦 𝑓𝑎𝑐𝑡𝑜𝑟 = minimum safety factor
𝑤𝑜𝑟𝑘𝑖𝑛𝑔 𝑠𝑡𝑟𝑒𝑠𝑠
215𝑥106
= 485.02
443.28𝑥103
Maximum safety factor
215𝑥106
= 0.04853
4.43𝑥109

~ 13 ~
Cylinder Body Dimension

~ 14 ~
Price comparison in market
6061 Aluminium 304 stainless steel

Table 5
From the table above, our team make some research on the material price. The price of 6061
aluminium is more expensive compare to the 304 stainless steel .Therefore our team decided
to choose the 304 stainless steel as the material for our pogo stick cylinder body. However, it
is hard for us to get the actual dimension for the cylinder body because there were many
catalogue that need to be consider and refer. Through this, we have achive our objective to
reduce the cost of the product to make it cheaper yet still can maintain the quality of it.

~ 15 ~
Analysis of designed components
2) Spring
The second component we wish to improve from the Vurtego V4 pogo stick is the air spring.

The working principle of the air spring is the air is trapped within the rubber chamber as the
medium for compression and retraction of the pogo stick. As we know, air is compressible, so
when we exerted the force to the pogo stick, the air compressed and the pressure inside the
chamber increase. When the force is released, the air spring retracted with the elasticity of the
rubber and the air. The cycle is continued which made up the popping of the pogo stick.

However, the air spring come with few problems,


• After a long period of playing, the air spring will be hot and is not suitable to be
continued to play. The heat produces by the air spring also reduce the life span of the
rubber chamber and fasten the aging process.
• Besides that, once the rubber chamber is broken, the air spring is spoiled and required
to be replaced, yet the price for an air spring is expensive.
• Pressure lose in the air spring after some time of playing, which required user to pump
the air spring in order to play.

~ 16 ~
Therefore, our team decided to replace the air spring with normal helical spring. Let say we
design the pogo stick to be played by user weighted between 20kg to 120kg.
And we design the spring to be both ends are squared and grounded, with number of coils =8.

For calculating the minimum and maximum shear stress in the spring, we apply the formula
8𝐹𝐷
𝜏 = 𝐾𝐵
𝜋𝑑3
4𝐶 + 2
𝐾𝐵 =
4𝐶 − 3
𝐷
𝐶=
𝑑
𝐷
𝐶=
𝑑
Where we set the D to be 0.07m and d = 0.01m. We get the C as 7. (6<C<12)
4(7) + 2
𝐾𝐵 = = 1.2
4(7) − 3
Minimum Maximum
F = 20kg (196.2N =200N) 120kg = (1177.2N = 1200N)
𝜏𝑚𝑖𝑛 = 42.78𝑀𝑝𝑎 𝜏𝑚𝑎𝑥 = 256.69𝑀𝑝𝑎

Table 1, constants A and m of 𝑆𝑢𝑡 = 𝐴⁄𝑑 𝑚 for Estimating Minimum Tensile Strength of
Common Spring Wires.
Material ASTM Exponent m Diameter, A, Relative
No. mm Mpa.mm Cost of Wire
Music wire A228 0.145 0.10-6.5 2211 2.6
OQ&T wire A229 0.187 0.5-12.7 1855 1.3
Hard-drawn wire A227 0.19 0.7-12.7 1783 1.0
Chrome- A232 0.168 0.8-11.1 2005 3.1
vanadium wire
Chrome-silicon A401 0.108 1.6-9.5 1974 4.0
wire
302 Stainless A313 0.146 0.3-2.5 1867 7.6-11
wire 0.263 2.5-5 2065
0.478 5-10 2911
Phosphor-bronze B159 0 0.1-0.6 1000 8.0
wire 0.028 0.6-2 913
0.064 2-7.5 932
Regarding the diameter of my spring design is 10mm, we eliminated the under-range
diameter like chrome silicon wire, music wire and phosphor-bronze wire. The choice left to
us is oil-tempered wire, hard drawn wire, chrome-vanadium wire and 302 stainless steel wire.

~ 17 ~
Material 𝑆𝑢𝑡 = 𝐴/𝑑 𝑚 𝑆𝑠𝑦 = 0.5𝑆𝑢𝑡
OQ&T wire 1206.0Mpa 603.0Mpa
Hard-drawn wire 1151.2Mpa 575.6Mpa
Chrome-vanadium wire 1361.8Mpa 680.9Mpa
302 Stainless steel wire 968.38Mpa 484.2Mpa

All the material can withstand the maximum shear stress of the design needed. We choose
hard-drawn wire (ASTM-A227) as our material as it has cheapest relative cost of wire
compares to other materials.
Material Elastic Limit, Percent of 𝑆𝑢𝑡 Diameter d, E Gpa G Gpa
Tension Torsion mm
Hard drawn 60-75 45-55 <8 198.6 80.7
spring A227 0.8-1.6 197.7 80.0
1.61-3 197.2 79.3
>3 196.5 78.6

For the deflection of the spring with d=10mm,


8𝐹𝐷3 𝑁
𝑦=
𝑑4𝐺
Minimum Maximum
F=200N F=1200N
y=6.98mm y=47.89mm

For the spring constant, the formula needed is


𝐹 𝑑4 𝐺
𝑘= =
𝑦 8𝐷3 𝑁
Minimum Maximum
F=200N F=1200N
k=28.65N/mm k=25.06N/mm

So, in order to have the same jumping experience as the air spring, we set the spring constant
k to 25N/mm.

~ 18 ~
Drawing of the spring with analysis

~ 19 ~
Helical Spring Isometric Drawing

~ 20 ~
Analysis of designed components
3) Shock absorber
The next thing we want to improve is the shock absorber.

The main function of a shock absorber is to absorb the damp shock impulses on the user
when the spring retract or compress. We wish to design a better shock absorber to reduce the
impulse forces on the user.

Product Specification:

𝑅 = 70𝑚𝑚
𝑟 = 25.5𝑚𝑚

𝑎𝑟𝑒𝑎 = 2𝜋(𝑅 2 − 𝑟 2 )
= 2𝜋(702 − 25.52 )
= 26 701.97𝑚𝑚²

𝑓𝑜𝑟𝑐𝑒
𝑡𝑒𝑛𝑠𝑖𝑙𝑒 𝑠𝑡𝑟𝑒𝑛𝑔𝑡ℎ, 𝜎 =
𝑎𝑟𝑒𝑎
1779.92𝑁
=
26 701.97𝑚𝑚2
= 0.067𝑀𝑃𝑎

𝑠𝑝𝑒𝑐𝑖𝑚𝑒𝑛 𝑙𝑒𝑛𝑔𝑡ℎ
𝑠𝑡𝑟𝑎𝑖𝑛, 𝜀 =
𝑜𝑟𝑖𝑔𝑖𝑛𝑎𝑙 𝑙𝑒𝑛𝑔𝑡ℎ
5𝑚𝑚
=
20𝑚𝑚
= 0.25

~ 21 ~
𝜎
𝑚𝑜𝑑𝑢𝑙𝑢𝑠 𝑜𝑓 𝑒𝑙𝑎𝑠𝑡𝑖𝑐𝑖𝑡𝑦, 𝐸 =
𝜀
0.067𝑀𝑃𝑎
=
0.25
= 0.268𝑀𝑃𝑎

1
𝑚𝑜𝑑𝑢𝑙𝑢𝑠 𝑜𝑓 𝑟𝑒𝑠𝑖𝑙𝑖𝑒𝑛𝑐𝑒 = ×𝜎×𝜀
2

1
= × 0.067𝑀𝑃𝑎 × 0.268𝑀𝑃𝑎
2
= 0.009𝑀𝑃𝑎

𝑙𝑒𝑛𝑔𝑡ℎ 𝑜𝑓 𝑓𝑟𝑎𝑐𝑡𝑢𝑟𝑒 − 𝑙𝑒𝑛𝑔𝑡ℎ 𝑜𝑓 𝑜𝑟𝑖𝑔𝑖𝑛𝑎𝑙


𝑝𝑒𝑟𝑐𝑒𝑛𝑡 𝑜𝑓 𝑒𝑙𝑜𝑛𝑔𝑎𝑡𝑖𝑜𝑛 = × 100%
𝑙𝑒𝑛𝑔𝑡ℎ 𝑜𝑓 𝑜𝑟𝑖𝑔𝑖𝑛𝑎𝑙
5𝑚𝑚 − 20𝑚𝑚
= × 100%
20𝑚𝑚
= 75%

Improvement design of the part:


Based on the product justification, the calculation shows that the most suitable material for
shock absorber should have the characteristic of high tensile strength and percent of
elongation. In our product, the tensile strength is 0.067MPa and the percent of elongation is
75%. So, to achieve this, we choose 101-Sorbothane as the material for our shock absorber.
This is because the tensile strength and the percent of elongation are suits with our
justification.

Material selection:
101-Sorbothane

~ 22 ~
Analysis:

From this table of 101-Sorbothane, we choose tensile strength when the strain is at 100% and
the Young Modulus of material at 5 Hertz.

~ 23 ~
Figure: Isometric drawing of traction pegs

Figure: Isometric drawing of shock absorber

~ 24 ~
Analysis of designed components
4)Slide shaft
The last thing we want to improve from the Vurtego Pogo Stick is the slide shaft. Slide shaft
is the main part that act at as “leg” for a pogo stick. The material requirement of a slide shaft
is strict as it exerted the greatest force in a pogo stick.

Material Selection:
Aluminum Alloy 6061

Analysis:
1. Elastic Deformation

Figure Shaft rod

𝑃𝐿
𝛿=
𝐴𝐸
(1779.92𝑁)(550𝑚𝑚)
𝛿=
𝜋(12.52 𝑚𝑚)(69𝑥109 𝑃𝑎)
𝛿 = 0.29𝑥10−9 𝑚𝑚

~ 25 ~
2. Deflection

Figure Deflection

Calculating the maximum deflection of a 25mm shaft with a 400mm span when a
concentrated load of 1779.92 N is applied at the mid-point of the shaft (neglecting the
shaft weight)

Solid Shaft

𝜋𝐷2
𝐼=
64
𝜋(252 )
𝐼=
64
𝐼 = 1.92 𝑥 104 𝑚𝑚4

𝐶 = 5.27𝑥10−12 𝑁. 𝑚𝑚2
𝑃𝑙 3
𝛿𝑚𝑎𝑥 = = 𝑃𝑙 3 𝐶
48𝐸𝐼
𝛿𝑚𝑎𝑥 = (1779.92𝑁)(5503 𝑚𝑚)(5.27𝑥10−12 𝑁. 𝑚𝑚2 )
𝛿𝑚𝑎𝑥 = 1.56𝑚𝑚

3. Endurance Strength, S’e (Material)

Material = Aluminum Alloy 6061

Sut = 110 MPa

Therefore, endurance strength for Aluminum alloy are

𝑆′𝑒 = 0.5𝑆𝑢𝑡
𝑆 ′ 𝑒 = 0.5(110𝑀𝑃𝑎)
𝑆′𝑒 = 55 𝑀𝑃𝑎

~ 26 ~
4. Endurance Limit

When testing of actual parts is not practical, a set of Marin factors are used to adjust the
endurance limit

𝑆𝑒 = 𝑘𝑎 𝑘𝑏 𝑘𝑐 𝑘𝑑 𝑘𝑒 𝑘𝑓 𝑆′𝑒

Surface modification Factor, ka

𝑘𝑎 = 𝑎(𝑆𝑢𝑡 )𝑏

Table Parameter for Marin Surface Modification

𝑘𝑎 = 𝑎(𝑆𝑢𝑡 )𝑏
𝑘𝑎 = (1.58𝑀𝑃𝑎)(110𝑀𝑃𝑎)−0.085
𝑘𝑎 = 1.06

Size modification factor, kb

Larger parts have greater surface area at high stress levels

𝑑
𝑘𝑏 = (7.62)−0.107 d < 50 mm

25 −0.107
𝑘𝑏 = ( )
7.62
𝑘𝑏 = 0.88

Loading modification factor, kc

Therefore, kc =0.85

~ 27 ~
Temperature modification factor, kd

For temperature between -57°C and 204°C


kd = 1

Reliability factor, ke

ke = 1

Miscellaneous-Effects Factor, kf

kf = 1

Therefore, by using the earlier formula we will get the endurance limit

𝑆𝑒 = 𝑘𝑎 𝑘𝑏 𝑘𝑐 𝑘𝑑 𝑘𝑒 𝑘𝑓 𝑆′𝑒
𝑆𝑒 = (1.06)(0.88)(0.85)(1)(1)(1)(55)
𝑆𝑒 = 43.60 𝑀𝑃𝑎

5. Fatigue Strength, Sf

𝑆𝑓 = 𝑎𝑁 𝑏

(𝑓𝑆𝑢𝑡 )2
𝑎=
𝑆𝑒
(0.90𝑥110𝑀𝑃𝑎)2
𝑎=
43.60𝑀𝑃𝑎
𝑎 = 224.79 𝑀𝑝𝑎

Graph Fatigue strength fraction, f

1 𝑓𝑆𝑢𝑡
𝑏 = log ( )
3 𝑆𝑒
1 0.9𝑥110𝑀𝑃𝑎
𝑏 = log ( )
3 43.60𝑀𝑃𝑎
𝑏 = 0.095
~ 28 ~
To determine the fatigue strength, by taking 80000 cycle as an example

𝑆𝑓 = (224.79𝑀𝑃𝑎)(80000)0.095
𝑆𝑓 = 657.01𝑀𝑃𝑎

6. Factor of safety

𝑆𝑦
𝑛=
𝜎𝑚𝑎𝑥

32𝑀
𝜎𝑚𝑎𝑥 =
𝜋𝑑 3

𝑀 = (1779.92 𝑁)(550𝑚𝑚)
𝑁
𝑀 = 0.98𝑥106
𝑚𝑚

32(0.97𝑥106 )
𝜎𝑚𝑎𝑥 =
𝜋(25)3
𝜎𝑚𝑎𝑥 = 638.18𝑀𝑃𝑎

Yield Strength for Aluminum alloy is 95MPa

95 𝑀𝑃𝑎
𝑛=
638.18 𝑀𝑃𝑎
𝑛 = 0.15

Improvement Design for Part


In this part, we decided to change the material of the slide shaft with higher endurance strength,
fatigue strength and safety factor. To achieved our aim, to implement a strong shaft to the pogo
stick so that it will not bend or break easily. So that the pogo stick would able to withstand
weight up to 100kg, which it is suitable for an adult.
The material we choose to replace Aluminum Alloy 6061 is 301 Stainless steel which has more
ultimate strength and fatigue strength than Aluminum Alloy 6061. The calculation will prove
that change in material will improve properties of the part and also the safety factor.

~ 29 ~
Material Selection
301 Stainless Steel

Analysis

1. Endurance Strength, S’e (Material)

Material = 301 Stainless Steel

Sut = 515 MPa

Therefore, endurance strength for 301 stainless steel are

𝑆′𝑒 = 0.5𝑆𝑢𝑡
𝑆 ′ 𝑒 = 0.5(515𝑀𝑃𝑎)
𝑆′𝑒 = 257.2 𝑀𝑃𝑎

2. Endurance Limit

When testing of actual parts is not practical, a set of Marin factors are used to adjust the
endurance limit

𝑆𝑒 = 𝑘𝑎 𝑘𝑏 𝑘𝑐 𝑘𝑑 𝑘𝑒 𝑘𝑓 𝑆′𝑒

Surface modification Factor, ka

𝑘𝑎 = 𝑎(𝑆𝑢𝑡 )𝑏

~ 30 ~
𝑘𝑎 = 𝑎(𝑆𝑢𝑡 )𝑏
𝑘𝑎 = (4.51𝑀𝑃𝑎)(515𝑀𝑃𝑎)−0.265
𝑘𝑎 = 0.86

Size modification factor, kb

Larger parts have greater surface area at high stress levels

𝑑
𝑘𝑏 = (7.62)−0.107 d < 50 mm

25 −0.107
𝑘𝑏 = ( )
7.62
𝑘𝑏 = 0.88

Loading modification factor, kc

Therefore, kc = 0.85

Temperature modification factor, kd

For temperature between -57°C and 204°C


kd = 1

Reliability factor, ke

ke = 1
Miscellaneous-Effects Factor, kf

kf = 1

Therefore, by using the earlier formula we will get the endurance limit

𝑆𝑒 = 𝑘𝑎 𝑘𝑏 𝑘𝑐 𝑘𝑑 𝑘𝑒 𝑘𝑓 𝑆′𝑒
𝑆𝑒 = (0.86)(0.88)(0.85)(1)(1)(1)(257.5)
𝑆𝑒 = 165.64 𝑀𝑃𝑎

~ 31 ~
3. Fatigue Strength, Sf

𝑆𝑓 = 𝑎𝑁 𝑏

(𝑓𝑆𝑢𝑡 )2
𝑎=
𝑆𝑒
(0.89𝑥515𝑀𝑃𝑎)2
𝑎=
257.5𝑀𝑃𝑎
𝑎 = 815.86 𝑀𝑝𝑎

Graph Strength fraction, f


1 𝑓𝑆𝑢𝑡
𝑏 = log ( )
3 𝑆𝑒
1 0.89𝑥515𝑀𝑃𝑎
𝑏 = log ( )
3 257.5𝑀𝑃𝑎
𝑏 = 0.083

To determine the fatigue strength, by taking 80000 cycle as an example

𝑆𝑓 = (815.86𝑀𝑃𝑎)(80000)0.083
𝑆𝑓 = 2082.44𝑀𝑃𝑎

𝑆𝑦
𝑛=
𝜎𝑚𝑎𝑥

32𝑀
𝜎𝑚𝑎𝑥 =
𝜋𝑑 3

𝑀 = (1779.92 𝑁)(550𝑚𝑚)
𝑁
𝑀 = 0.98𝑥106
𝑚𝑚

32(0.98𝑥106 )
𝜎𝑚𝑎𝑥 =
𝜋(25)3
𝜎𝑚𝑎𝑥 = 638.18𝑀𝑃𝑎

~ 32 ~
Yield Strength for 301 Stainless Steel is 965MPa

965 𝑀𝑃𝑎
𝑛=
638.18 𝑀𝑃𝑎
𝑛 = 1.51

Therefore, we choose 301 Stainless Steel over Aluminum Alloy as our material for slide
shaft because of higher tensile strength, endurance strength, fatigue strength and factor
of safety. It as mention in the calculation above. The shaft that is made from 25mm
thick 301 stainless steel. Will the shaft bend? It’s really difficult to bend. From time to
time the pros will bend a shaft, but they also use some customizes parts and longer than
standard shafts, which weakens the design. Unless you’re a crazy manic, you probably
aren’t going to ever bend the shaft. You will possibly scratch the shaft, however. If the
shaft happens to have scratch, it can end up wearing down the bushing prematurely. If
you happen to notice a scratch on the shaft, simply sand it down with some sandpaper.

~ 33 ~
Dimension of Part

Slide Shaft

SLIDE SHAFT

Figure: Drawing view of slide shaft

~ 34 ~
Improved Design Product

~ 35 ~
Conclusion
After all the analysis and consideration, we believe we have come out a better pogo
stick design than the one in the market. Besides that, all the design objective also been
achieved by our team. We have been able to reduce the cost of the pogo stick, from RM3854
to RM1000 (estimated price) excluded profit and manufacturing cost. We believe with the
price of RM1000, pogo stick will be more acceptable by the public and it can be a new sport
trend.

Regarding the price, the riding experience of the pogo stick is maintained. We didn’t
sacrifice the quality or the riding experience to achieve the lower product price. We mostly
change the material of aluminum part in the Vertego pogo stick to stainless steel which has
better ultimate tensile strength (UTS). However, our pogo stick will be slightly heavier than
the Vurtego pogo stick as stainless steel is heavier than aluminum but the small increment of
the weight isn’t significant.

Of course, our product also believes to be more durable than the Vurtego pogo stick
as we change the air spring to helical spring which is easier to use and higher durability
compare to air spring. The same go to the shock absorber which is more durable than the
Vurtego’s.

~ 36 ~
Reference
https://www.makeitfrom.com/material-properties/ASTM-A227-Spring-Steel

http://www.matweb.com/search/datasheettext.aspx?matguid=7262f09758654ba5b9f67779db
0ef038

Aluminium = http://asm.matweb.com/search/SpecificMaterial.asp?bassnum=ma6061t6
Stainless Steel = http://asm.matweb.com/search/SpecificMaterial.asp?bassnum=mq304a
Price
Stainless steel = https://www.ubuy.com.my/en/search/?q=304+stainless+steel+pipe&page=2
Aluminium = https://www.ubuy.com.my/en/search/?ref_p=ser_tp&q=6061+aluminium+pipe
https://www.isotechinc.com/product/slide-shafts/

http://www.directindustry.com/industrial-manufacturer/slide-shaft-113762.html

https://www.sorbothane.com/Data/Sites/31/pdfs/data-sheets/101-sorbothane-material-
properties.pdf

https://www.vurtegopogo.com/

~ 37 ~