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RK 08 Mechanical engineering
ENt 334 Component Design Mini Project Report

RK 08 Mechanical engineering
ENt 334 Component Design Mini Project Report

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You are on page 1of 37

MINI PROJECT

PREPARED BY:

Name Matrix Number

Hafizulhad Izhar Bin Harun 171110653

Peter Lau Yueh Foung 171110724

Aizat Bin Jamil 171110638

Azrul Azmeer Bin Mohd 171110644

Table of Content

Number Content Pages

1 Introduction 3-4

2 Overview 5-6

3 Objective 7

9 Conclusion 36

10 Reference 37

~2~

Introduction

A pogo stick is a device for jumping off the ground in a standing position, through the aid of

a spring, or new high-performance technologies, often used as a toy, exercise equipment or extreme

sports instrument. It led to an extreme sport named extreme pogo or "Xpogo".

It consists of a pole with a handle at the top and footrests near the bottom, and a spring

located somewhere along the pole. The spring joins two sections of the pole, which extends below

the footpads.

The jumper places his feet on the footpads while balancing on the pole, then jumps up or

down with a bending action of the knees to add or subtract energy in the spring. When the spring is at

full compression or extension, the jumper is lifted by the recoil of the spring, being launched several

inches or feet into the air. This process is repeated to maintain a periodic bounce.

The pogo stick can be steered by shifting one's weight off the centerline of the spring in the

desired horizontal direction thus producing horizontal locomotion. Below are some examples of pogo

stick that available in the market.

A spring stilt utilizing compression springs on each foot was patented in 1891 by George

H. Herrington of Wichita, Kansas, "for leaping great distances and heights". This was an

antecedent of the pogo stick as well as today's spring stilts.

The modern pogo stick was invented by Max Pohlig and Ernst Gottschall, from

Germany. A German patent was registered in Hanover on March 1920 for a device they called a

~3~

"spring end hopping stilt". It is thought that the beginning two letters in these men's last names is

where the word "pogo" comes from.

The two-handle pogo stick design was patented by George B. Hansburg in 1957.

Hansburg described the origins of the Pogo name colloquially in a story of a young Burmese girl

with the aforementioned name whose father had created a crude version of the device so that the

daughter could travel to the local temple for prayers. An earlier design with a single upright

vertical handle patented in 1955 posed something of a risk to the user's chin. Later improvements

to the pogo stick have been made, including the Vurtego, Flybar, and the BowGo, which allow

operators to jump much higher than with a simple coil spring pogo stick. Back flips and other

tricks are now possible on some of these newer sticks, which has contributed to the growth of the

new sport of Extreme Pogo ("Xpogo").

~4~

Overview

In this mini project, our group choose to improve the design of the Vurtego Pogo Stick. The

Vurtego Pogo Stick is basically made up of 7 parts, which are

• the air spring

• the air piston

• the shock absorber

• the traction pegs

• the slide shaft

• the grip tip

~5~

The figure above has clearly showed the parts of the pogo stick with some description. Basically,

pogo stick is a very fun yet healthy sport equipment that suitable for kids and adults, just like

bicycle. However, this pogo stick is sold at the price of RM3800 at Lazada Malaysia, which we

think it is too expensive for a normal income family.

Therefore, our team aimed to make improvement to this pogo stick to make it more user friendly

with cheaper price so that this device can be a new sport trend and can be widely spread among

the nation. At the same time, we will assure the quality and the playing experience is maintained.

~6~

Objective

We start our project with the following objectives,

o To make the price of the pogo stick cheaper and acceptable by the public

o To make the pogo stick more comfortable and user friendly when been ride

o To make the device suitable and safe been played by kids

o Changed some components of the pogo stick to make it last longer and durable

~7~

Analysis of designed components

1) Cylinder body

We started the analysis with the main body, the body cylinder. Our team make some researches

on internet for the minimum weight that support the pogo stick and the result shown is around 40

lbs. or 18.14kg while the maximum weight is around 181 lbs. or 181.44kg. Based on that, we

make some justification to decide the most suitable material to make this pogo stick so that it can

withstand the weight load required.

Thickness = 0.003 m

Inner cylinder radius = 0.0366 m

Outer cylinder radius = 0.0381 m

Inside diameter = 0.0732 m

Outside Diameter = 0.0762 m

Length of cylinder = 0.9m

Cross setional area of cylinder rod

2π(R2 – r2) = 2π(0.03812 – 0.03662)(0.9)

= 0.0006336 m2

~8~

Maximum internal force strength needed based on minimum and maximum weight

σ = F/A [ 1 Pa = 1 N / m2 ≡ 1 kg / m ]

based on the average weight that need to be suport by the material base on below :-

Minimum

σ = 18.14 kg x 9.81 /(0.0006336 m2)

= 280.86 KPa

Maximum

σ = 181.44 kg x 9.81 /(0.0006336 m2)

= 2.81 MPa

From the stress calculation above we know that the strength of material need to be higher than

the value of the calculation.

Cylinder stress

Minimum Maximum

𝑃𝑟 𝑃𝑟

σθ = σθ =

𝑡𝑙 𝑡𝑙

= =

(0.003)(0.9) (0.003)(0.5)

Min Axial load for cylinder Max Axial load for cylinder

𝑃𝑟 𝑃𝑟

σaxial = 2𝑡𝑙 σaxial = 2𝑡𝑙

= =

2(0.003)(0.5) 2(0.003)(0.5)

From the calculation, we get the minumum axial load for the cylinder body is 2Mpa while

maximum is 19.05Mpa. The data is important as it is required for the following analysis.

~9~

Analysis of designed material in market

The material that used by the Vurtego V4 Pro pogo stick is 6061 Aluminium Alloys

The yeild stress for 6061 aluminium alloy,σy= 240 MPa

Poisson's Ratio,ν = 0.33

Modulus of elasticity,E = 68.9 GPa

Minimum Maximum

𝜎 −280.86 𝐾𝑃𝑎 𝜎 −2.81 MPa

𝐸𝑙𝑜𝑛𝑔 = = = −4.08𝑥10−6 𝐸𝑙𝑜𝑛𝑔 = = = −4.08𝑥10−5

𝐸 68.9 𝐺𝑃𝑎 𝐸 68.9 𝐺𝑃𝑎

𝜖𝑙𝑎𝑡 𝜖

𝜈 = − 𝜖 𝑙𝑎𝑡 =

𝜈=− =

𝜖𝑙𝑜𝑛𝑔 𝑙𝑜𝑛𝑔

Elat = -ν ϵlong = -0.33x−4.08𝑥10−6 = 1.35x10-6

∆𝑑 = 𝜖𝑙𝑎𝑡 𝑥 𝑑𝑜 = 1.35𝑥10−6 𝑥 0.0381 ∆𝑑 = 𝜖𝑙𝑎𝑡 𝑥 𝑑𝑜 = 1.35𝑥10−5 𝑥 0.0381

= 5.1435𝑥10−8 = 5.1435𝑥10−7

New diameter = 0.0381 + ∆𝑑 New diameter = 0.0381 + ∆𝑑

= 0.03810005144 m = 0.03810051435 𝑚

In this table we are going to test the material compression wether it can wisthand the load that we

applied on the material. We can see the increasing of diameter occur when the force applied to

the material, which mean the material undergo elongation . From the calculation, the elongation

with the respective force for the minimum is 0.03810005144 m while the maximum is

0.03810051435 m.

~ 10 ~

Calculation of high cycle fatigue strength for 6061 Aluminium Alloys

Material 6061 Aluminium Alloys

Ultimate tensile strength, Sut 290 Mpa

Endurance strength, S’e =0.5*Sut =0.5*290

=145 MPa

Fatigue Strength Coefficient, =290+0.3447 =290.3447MPa

σ’f=Sut+0.3447MPa

Fatigue Strength Exponent, b=-[log(290.3447)/(145)]/[log(2*5x108)]

b=-[log(σ’f)/(S’e)]/[log(2*Ne)] = -0.00188729

Ne=5x108

Fatigue strength, Sf =(σ’f)*(2Ne)b =(290.3447)*[2(5x108)]-0.00188729

=279.20 MPa

𝐹𝑜𝑟𝑐𝑒 𝑎𝑝𝑝𝑙𝑖𝑒𝑑 Maximum =4.43 GPa

𝑤𝑜𝑟𝑘𝑖𝑛𝑔 𝑠𝑡𝑟𝑒𝑠𝑠 = Minimum =443.28 KPa

𝐶𝑟𝑜𝑠𝑠 𝑠𝑒𝑐𝑡𝑖𝑜𝑛𝑎𝑙 𝑎𝑟𝑒𝑎

𝑠𝑎𝑓𝑒𝑡𝑦 𝑓𝑎𝑐𝑡𝑜𝑟 = minimum safety factor

𝑤𝑜𝑟𝑘𝑖𝑛𝑔 𝑠𝑡𝑟𝑒𝑠𝑠

240𝑥106

= 541.42

443.28𝑥103

240𝑥106

= 0.05418

4.43𝑥109

From the table above, the safety factor calculated in the calculation part may be differs from its

real-life counterpart. This is due to the lack of real-life product to carry out the measurement

process. Therefore, assumptions have to be made in order to estimate the dimension for the

component parts. Although we do not have the real product’s dimension, we still try to use the

dimension that is as close as possible to the real-life product’s dimension.

~ 11 ~

Analysis for the selection material

So the material that I would like to suggest to replace the material of Vurtego V4 Pro pogo stick

is 304 stainless steel.

The yeild stress for 304 stainless steel,σy= 215 MPa

Poisson's Ratio,ν = 0.29

Modulus of elasticity,E = 200 GPa

Minimum Maximum

𝜎 −280.86 𝐾𝑃𝑎 𝜎 −2.81 MPa

𝐸𝑙𝑜𝑛𝑔 = = = −1.40𝑥10−6 𝐸𝑙𝑜𝑛𝑔 = = = −1.41𝑥10−5

𝐸 200 𝐺𝑃𝑎 𝐸 200 𝐺𝑃𝑎

𝜖 𝜖

𝜈 = − 𝜖 𝑙𝑎𝑡 = 𝜈 = − 𝜖 𝑙𝑎𝑡 =

𝑙𝑜𝑛𝑔 𝑙𝑜𝑛𝑔

−6

Elat = -ν ϵlong = -0.29x−1.40𝑥10 Elat = -ν ϵlong = -0.29x -1.41x10-5

= 4.06x10-7 = 4.09x10-6

∆𝑑 = 𝜖𝑙𝑎𝑡 𝑥 𝑑𝑜 = 4.06𝑥10−7 𝑥 0.0381 ∆𝑑 = 𝜖𝑙𝑎𝑡 𝑥 𝑑𝑜 = 4.09𝑥10−6 𝑥 0.0381

= 1.54686𝑥10−8 = 1.55829𝑥10−7

New diameter = 0.0381 + ∆𝑑 New diameter = 0.0381 + ∆𝑑

= 0.03810001547 𝑚 = 0.03810015583 𝑚

In this table, we are going to test the material compression wether it can wisthand the load that

we applied on the material. We can see the increasing of diameter occur. From the calculation,

the elongation with the respective force for the minimum is 0.03810001547 m while the

maximum is 0.03810015583 m.

~ 12 ~

Calculation of high cycle fatigue strength for 304 Stainless steel

Material 304 Stainless steel

Ultimate tensile strength, Sut 568 Mpa

Endurance strength, S’e = 0.5*Sut =0.5*568

=284 MPa

Fatigue Strength Coefficient, σ’f=Sut+0.3447MPa

σ’f=Sut+0.3447MPa =568+0.3447 =568.3447MPa

Fatigue Strength Exponent, b=-[log(568.3447)/(284)]/[log(2*5x108)]

b=-[log(σ’f)/(S’e)]/[log(2*Ne)] = -0.001077704

Ne=5x108

Fatigue strength, Sf =(σ’f)*(2Ne)b Sf=(σ’f)*(2Ne)b

=(568.3447)*[2(5x108)]-0.001077704

=555.79MPa

𝐹𝑜𝑟𝑐𝑒 𝑎𝑝𝑝𝑙𝑖𝑒𝑑 Maximum =4.43 GPa

𝑤𝑜𝑟𝑘𝑖𝑛𝑔 𝑠𝑡𝑟𝑒𝑠𝑠 = Minimum =443.28 KPa

𝐶𝑟𝑜𝑠𝑠 𝑠𝑒𝑐𝑡𝑖𝑜𝑛𝑎𝑙 𝑎𝑟𝑒𝑎

𝑦𝑖𝑒𝑙𝑑 𝑠𝑡𝑟𝑒𝑠𝑠 yield strength of 304 Stainless steel = 215 MPa

𝑠𝑎𝑓𝑒𝑡𝑦 𝑓𝑎𝑐𝑡𝑜𝑟 = minimum safety factor

𝑤𝑜𝑟𝑘𝑖𝑛𝑔 𝑠𝑡𝑟𝑒𝑠𝑠

215𝑥106

= 485.02

443.28𝑥103

Maximum safety factor

215𝑥106

= 0.04853

4.43𝑥109

~ 13 ~

Cylinder Body Dimension

~ 14 ~

Price comparison in market

6061 Aluminium 304 stainless steel

Table 5

From the table above, our team make some research on the material price. The price of 6061

aluminium is more expensive compare to the 304 stainless steel .Therefore our team decided

to choose the 304 stainless steel as the material for our pogo stick cylinder body. However, it

is hard for us to get the actual dimension for the cylinder body because there were many

catalogue that need to be consider and refer. Through this, we have achive our objective to

reduce the cost of the product to make it cheaper yet still can maintain the quality of it.

~ 15 ~

Analysis of designed components

2) Spring

The second component we wish to improve from the Vurtego V4 pogo stick is the air spring.

The working principle of the air spring is the air is trapped within the rubber chamber as the

medium for compression and retraction of the pogo stick. As we know, air is compressible, so

when we exerted the force to the pogo stick, the air compressed and the pressure inside the

chamber increase. When the force is released, the air spring retracted with the elasticity of the

rubber and the air. The cycle is continued which made up the popping of the pogo stick.

• After a long period of playing, the air spring will be hot and is not suitable to be

continued to play. The heat produces by the air spring also reduce the life span of the

rubber chamber and fasten the aging process.

• Besides that, once the rubber chamber is broken, the air spring is spoiled and required

to be replaced, yet the price for an air spring is expensive.

• Pressure lose in the air spring after some time of playing, which required user to pump

the air spring in order to play.

~ 16 ~

Therefore, our team decided to replace the air spring with normal helical spring. Let say we

design the pogo stick to be played by user weighted between 20kg to 120kg.

And we design the spring to be both ends are squared and grounded, with number of coils =8.

For calculating the minimum and maximum shear stress in the spring, we apply the formula

8𝐹𝐷

𝜏 = 𝐾𝐵

𝜋𝑑3

4𝐶 + 2

𝐾𝐵 =

4𝐶 − 3

𝐷

𝐶=

𝑑

𝐷

𝐶=

𝑑

Where we set the D to be 0.07m and d = 0.01m. We get the C as 7. (6<C<12)

4(7) + 2

𝐾𝐵 = = 1.2

4(7) − 3

Minimum Maximum

F = 20kg (196.2N =200N) 120kg = (1177.2N = 1200N)

𝜏𝑚𝑖𝑛 = 42.78𝑀𝑝𝑎 𝜏𝑚𝑎𝑥 = 256.69𝑀𝑝𝑎

Table 1, constants A and m of 𝑆𝑢𝑡 = 𝐴⁄𝑑 𝑚 for Estimating Minimum Tensile Strength of

Common Spring Wires.

Material ASTM Exponent m Diameter, A, Relative

No. mm Mpa.mm Cost of Wire

Music wire A228 0.145 0.10-6.5 2211 2.6

OQ&T wire A229 0.187 0.5-12.7 1855 1.3

Hard-drawn wire A227 0.19 0.7-12.7 1783 1.0

Chrome- A232 0.168 0.8-11.1 2005 3.1

vanadium wire

Chrome-silicon A401 0.108 1.6-9.5 1974 4.0

wire

302 Stainless A313 0.146 0.3-2.5 1867 7.6-11

wire 0.263 2.5-5 2065

0.478 5-10 2911

Phosphor-bronze B159 0 0.1-0.6 1000 8.0

wire 0.028 0.6-2 913

0.064 2-7.5 932

Regarding the diameter of my spring design is 10mm, we eliminated the under-range

diameter like chrome silicon wire, music wire and phosphor-bronze wire. The choice left to

us is oil-tempered wire, hard drawn wire, chrome-vanadium wire and 302 stainless steel wire.

~ 17 ~

Material 𝑆𝑢𝑡 = 𝐴/𝑑 𝑚 𝑆𝑠𝑦 = 0.5𝑆𝑢𝑡

OQ&T wire 1206.0Mpa 603.0Mpa

Hard-drawn wire 1151.2Mpa 575.6Mpa

Chrome-vanadium wire 1361.8Mpa 680.9Mpa

302 Stainless steel wire 968.38Mpa 484.2Mpa

All the material can withstand the maximum shear stress of the design needed. We choose

hard-drawn wire (ASTM-A227) as our material as it has cheapest relative cost of wire

compares to other materials.

Material Elastic Limit, Percent of 𝑆𝑢𝑡 Diameter d, E Gpa G Gpa

Tension Torsion mm

Hard drawn 60-75 45-55 <8 198.6 80.7

spring A227 0.8-1.6 197.7 80.0

1.61-3 197.2 79.3

>3 196.5 78.6

8𝐹𝐷3 𝑁

𝑦=

𝑑4𝐺

Minimum Maximum

F=200N F=1200N

y=6.98mm y=47.89mm

𝐹 𝑑4 𝐺

𝑘= =

𝑦 8𝐷3 𝑁

Minimum Maximum

F=200N F=1200N

k=28.65N/mm k=25.06N/mm

So, in order to have the same jumping experience as the air spring, we set the spring constant

k to 25N/mm.

~ 18 ~

Drawing of the spring with analysis

~ 19 ~

Helical Spring Isometric Drawing

~ 20 ~

Analysis of designed components

3) Shock absorber

The next thing we want to improve is the shock absorber.

The main function of a shock absorber is to absorb the damp shock impulses on the user

when the spring retract or compress. We wish to design a better shock absorber to reduce the

impulse forces on the user.

Product Specification:

𝑅 = 70𝑚𝑚

𝑟 = 25.5𝑚𝑚

𝑎𝑟𝑒𝑎 = 2𝜋(𝑅 2 − 𝑟 2 )

= 2𝜋(702 − 25.52 )

= 26 701.97𝑚𝑚²

𝑓𝑜𝑟𝑐𝑒

𝑡𝑒𝑛𝑠𝑖𝑙𝑒 𝑠𝑡𝑟𝑒𝑛𝑔𝑡ℎ, 𝜎 =

𝑎𝑟𝑒𝑎

1779.92𝑁

=

26 701.97𝑚𝑚2

= 0.067𝑀𝑃𝑎

𝑠𝑝𝑒𝑐𝑖𝑚𝑒𝑛 𝑙𝑒𝑛𝑔𝑡ℎ

𝑠𝑡𝑟𝑎𝑖𝑛, 𝜀 =

𝑜𝑟𝑖𝑔𝑖𝑛𝑎𝑙 𝑙𝑒𝑛𝑔𝑡ℎ

5𝑚𝑚

=

20𝑚𝑚

= 0.25

~ 21 ~

𝜎

𝑚𝑜𝑑𝑢𝑙𝑢𝑠 𝑜𝑓 𝑒𝑙𝑎𝑠𝑡𝑖𝑐𝑖𝑡𝑦, 𝐸 =

𝜀

0.067𝑀𝑃𝑎

=

0.25

= 0.268𝑀𝑃𝑎

1

𝑚𝑜𝑑𝑢𝑙𝑢𝑠 𝑜𝑓 𝑟𝑒𝑠𝑖𝑙𝑖𝑒𝑛𝑐𝑒 = ×𝜎×𝜀

2

1

= × 0.067𝑀𝑃𝑎 × 0.268𝑀𝑃𝑎

2

= 0.009𝑀𝑃𝑎

𝑝𝑒𝑟𝑐𝑒𝑛𝑡 𝑜𝑓 𝑒𝑙𝑜𝑛𝑔𝑎𝑡𝑖𝑜𝑛 = × 100%

𝑙𝑒𝑛𝑔𝑡ℎ 𝑜𝑓 𝑜𝑟𝑖𝑔𝑖𝑛𝑎𝑙

5𝑚𝑚 − 20𝑚𝑚

= × 100%

20𝑚𝑚

= 75%

Based on the product justification, the calculation shows that the most suitable material for

shock absorber should have the characteristic of high tensile strength and percent of

elongation. In our product, the tensile strength is 0.067MPa and the percent of elongation is

75%. So, to achieve this, we choose 101-Sorbothane as the material for our shock absorber.

This is because the tensile strength and the percent of elongation are suits with our

justification.

Material selection:

101-Sorbothane

~ 22 ~

Analysis:

From this table of 101-Sorbothane, we choose tensile strength when the strain is at 100% and

the Young Modulus of material at 5 Hertz.

~ 23 ~

Figure: Isometric drawing of traction pegs

~ 24 ~

Analysis of designed components

4)Slide shaft

The last thing we want to improve from the Vurtego Pogo Stick is the slide shaft. Slide shaft

is the main part that act at as “leg” for a pogo stick. The material requirement of a slide shaft

is strict as it exerted the greatest force in a pogo stick.

Material Selection:

Aluminum Alloy 6061

Analysis:

1. Elastic Deformation

𝑃𝐿

𝛿=

𝐴𝐸

(1779.92𝑁)(550𝑚𝑚)

𝛿=

𝜋(12.52 𝑚𝑚)(69𝑥109 𝑃𝑎)

𝛿 = 0.29𝑥10−9 𝑚𝑚

~ 25 ~

2. Deflection

Figure Deflection

Calculating the maximum deflection of a 25mm shaft with a 400mm span when a

concentrated load of 1779.92 N is applied at the mid-point of the shaft (neglecting the

shaft weight)

Solid Shaft

𝜋𝐷2

𝐼=

64

𝜋(252 )

𝐼=

64

𝐼 = 1.92 𝑥 104 𝑚𝑚4

𝐶 = 5.27𝑥10−12 𝑁. 𝑚𝑚2

𝑃𝑙 3

𝛿𝑚𝑎𝑥 = = 𝑃𝑙 3 𝐶

48𝐸𝐼

𝛿𝑚𝑎𝑥 = (1779.92𝑁)(5503 𝑚𝑚)(5.27𝑥10−12 𝑁. 𝑚𝑚2 )

𝛿𝑚𝑎𝑥 = 1.56𝑚𝑚

𝑆′𝑒 = 0.5𝑆𝑢𝑡

𝑆 ′ 𝑒 = 0.5(110𝑀𝑃𝑎)

𝑆′𝑒 = 55 𝑀𝑃𝑎

~ 26 ~

4. Endurance Limit

When testing of actual parts is not practical, a set of Marin factors are used to adjust the

endurance limit

𝑆𝑒 = 𝑘𝑎 𝑘𝑏 𝑘𝑐 𝑘𝑑 𝑘𝑒 𝑘𝑓 𝑆′𝑒

𝑘𝑎 = 𝑎(𝑆𝑢𝑡 )𝑏

𝑘𝑎 = 𝑎(𝑆𝑢𝑡 )𝑏

𝑘𝑎 = (1.58𝑀𝑃𝑎)(110𝑀𝑃𝑎)−0.085

𝑘𝑎 = 1.06

𝑑

𝑘𝑏 = (7.62)−0.107 d < 50 mm

25 −0.107

𝑘𝑏 = ( )

7.62

𝑘𝑏 = 0.88

Therefore, kc =0.85

~ 27 ~

Temperature modification factor, kd

kd = 1

Reliability factor, ke

ke = 1

Miscellaneous-Effects Factor, kf

kf = 1

Therefore, by using the earlier formula we will get the endurance limit

𝑆𝑒 = 𝑘𝑎 𝑘𝑏 𝑘𝑐 𝑘𝑑 𝑘𝑒 𝑘𝑓 𝑆′𝑒

𝑆𝑒 = (1.06)(0.88)(0.85)(1)(1)(1)(55)

𝑆𝑒 = 43.60 𝑀𝑃𝑎

5. Fatigue Strength, Sf

𝑆𝑓 = 𝑎𝑁 𝑏

(𝑓𝑆𝑢𝑡 )2

𝑎=

𝑆𝑒

(0.90𝑥110𝑀𝑃𝑎)2

𝑎=

43.60𝑀𝑃𝑎

𝑎 = 224.79 𝑀𝑝𝑎

1 𝑓𝑆𝑢𝑡

𝑏 = log ( )

3 𝑆𝑒

1 0.9𝑥110𝑀𝑃𝑎

𝑏 = log ( )

3 43.60𝑀𝑃𝑎

𝑏 = 0.095

~ 28 ~

To determine the fatigue strength, by taking 80000 cycle as an example

𝑆𝑓 = (224.79𝑀𝑃𝑎)(80000)0.095

𝑆𝑓 = 657.01𝑀𝑃𝑎

6. Factor of safety

𝑆𝑦

𝑛=

𝜎𝑚𝑎𝑥

32𝑀

𝜎𝑚𝑎𝑥 =

𝜋𝑑 3

𝑀 = (1779.92 𝑁)(550𝑚𝑚)

𝑁

𝑀 = 0.98𝑥106

𝑚𝑚

32(0.97𝑥106 )

𝜎𝑚𝑎𝑥 =

𝜋(25)3

𝜎𝑚𝑎𝑥 = 638.18𝑀𝑃𝑎

95 𝑀𝑃𝑎

𝑛=

638.18 𝑀𝑃𝑎

𝑛 = 0.15

In this part, we decided to change the material of the slide shaft with higher endurance strength,

fatigue strength and safety factor. To achieved our aim, to implement a strong shaft to the pogo

stick so that it will not bend or break easily. So that the pogo stick would able to withstand

weight up to 100kg, which it is suitable for an adult.

The material we choose to replace Aluminum Alloy 6061 is 301 Stainless steel which has more

ultimate strength and fatigue strength than Aluminum Alloy 6061. The calculation will prove

that change in material will improve properties of the part and also the safety factor.

~ 29 ~

Material Selection

301 Stainless Steel

Analysis

𝑆′𝑒 = 0.5𝑆𝑢𝑡

𝑆 ′ 𝑒 = 0.5(515𝑀𝑃𝑎)

𝑆′𝑒 = 257.2 𝑀𝑃𝑎

2. Endurance Limit

When testing of actual parts is not practical, a set of Marin factors are used to adjust the

endurance limit

𝑆𝑒 = 𝑘𝑎 𝑘𝑏 𝑘𝑐 𝑘𝑑 𝑘𝑒 𝑘𝑓 𝑆′𝑒

𝑘𝑎 = 𝑎(𝑆𝑢𝑡 )𝑏

~ 30 ~

𝑘𝑎 = 𝑎(𝑆𝑢𝑡 )𝑏

𝑘𝑎 = (4.51𝑀𝑃𝑎)(515𝑀𝑃𝑎)−0.265

𝑘𝑎 = 0.86

𝑑

𝑘𝑏 = (7.62)−0.107 d < 50 mm

25 −0.107

𝑘𝑏 = ( )

7.62

𝑘𝑏 = 0.88

Therefore, kc = 0.85

kd = 1

Reliability factor, ke

ke = 1

Miscellaneous-Effects Factor, kf

kf = 1

Therefore, by using the earlier formula we will get the endurance limit

𝑆𝑒 = 𝑘𝑎 𝑘𝑏 𝑘𝑐 𝑘𝑑 𝑘𝑒 𝑘𝑓 𝑆′𝑒

𝑆𝑒 = (0.86)(0.88)(0.85)(1)(1)(1)(257.5)

𝑆𝑒 = 165.64 𝑀𝑃𝑎

~ 31 ~

3. Fatigue Strength, Sf

𝑆𝑓 = 𝑎𝑁 𝑏

(𝑓𝑆𝑢𝑡 )2

𝑎=

𝑆𝑒

(0.89𝑥515𝑀𝑃𝑎)2

𝑎=

257.5𝑀𝑃𝑎

𝑎 = 815.86 𝑀𝑝𝑎

1 𝑓𝑆𝑢𝑡

𝑏 = log ( )

3 𝑆𝑒

1 0.89𝑥515𝑀𝑃𝑎

𝑏 = log ( )

3 257.5𝑀𝑃𝑎

𝑏 = 0.083

𝑆𝑓 = (815.86𝑀𝑃𝑎)(80000)0.083

𝑆𝑓 = 2082.44𝑀𝑃𝑎

𝑆𝑦

𝑛=

𝜎𝑚𝑎𝑥

32𝑀

𝜎𝑚𝑎𝑥 =

𝜋𝑑 3

𝑀 = (1779.92 𝑁)(550𝑚𝑚)

𝑁

𝑀 = 0.98𝑥106

𝑚𝑚

32(0.98𝑥106 )

𝜎𝑚𝑎𝑥 =

𝜋(25)3

𝜎𝑚𝑎𝑥 = 638.18𝑀𝑃𝑎

~ 32 ~

Yield Strength for 301 Stainless Steel is 965MPa

965 𝑀𝑃𝑎

𝑛=

638.18 𝑀𝑃𝑎

𝑛 = 1.51

Therefore, we choose 301 Stainless Steel over Aluminum Alloy as our material for slide

shaft because of higher tensile strength, endurance strength, fatigue strength and factor

of safety. It as mention in the calculation above. The shaft that is made from 25mm

thick 301 stainless steel. Will the shaft bend? It’s really difficult to bend. From time to

time the pros will bend a shaft, but they also use some customizes parts and longer than

standard shafts, which weakens the design. Unless you’re a crazy manic, you probably

aren’t going to ever bend the shaft. You will possibly scratch the shaft, however. If the

shaft happens to have scratch, it can end up wearing down the bushing prematurely. If

you happen to notice a scratch on the shaft, simply sand it down with some sandpaper.

~ 33 ~

Dimension of Part

Slide Shaft

SLIDE SHAFT

~ 34 ~

Improved Design Product

~ 35 ~

Conclusion

After all the analysis and consideration, we believe we have come out a better pogo

stick design than the one in the market. Besides that, all the design objective also been

achieved by our team. We have been able to reduce the cost of the pogo stick, from RM3854

to RM1000 (estimated price) excluded profit and manufacturing cost. We believe with the

price of RM1000, pogo stick will be more acceptable by the public and it can be a new sport

trend.

Regarding the price, the riding experience of the pogo stick is maintained. We didn’t

sacrifice the quality or the riding experience to achieve the lower product price. We mostly

change the material of aluminum part in the Vertego pogo stick to stainless steel which has

better ultimate tensile strength (UTS). However, our pogo stick will be slightly heavier than

the Vurtego pogo stick as stainless steel is heavier than aluminum but the small increment of

the weight isn’t significant.

Of course, our product also believes to be more durable than the Vurtego pogo stick

as we change the air spring to helical spring which is easier to use and higher durability

compare to air spring. The same go to the shock absorber which is more durable than the

Vurtego’s.

~ 36 ~

Reference

https://www.makeitfrom.com/material-properties/ASTM-A227-Spring-Steel

http://www.matweb.com/search/datasheettext.aspx?matguid=7262f09758654ba5b9f67779db

0ef038

Aluminium = http://asm.matweb.com/search/SpecificMaterial.asp?bassnum=ma6061t6

Stainless Steel = http://asm.matweb.com/search/SpecificMaterial.asp?bassnum=mq304a

Price

Stainless steel = https://www.ubuy.com.my/en/search/?q=304+stainless+steel+pipe&page=2

Aluminium = https://www.ubuy.com.my/en/search/?ref_p=ser_tp&q=6061+aluminium+pipe

https://www.isotechinc.com/product/slide-shafts/

http://www.directindustry.com/industrial-manufacturer/slide-shaft-113762.html

https://www.sorbothane.com/Data/Sites/31/pdfs/data-sheets/101-sorbothane-material-

properties.pdf

https://www.vurtegopogo.com/

~ 37 ~

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