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Task 1 Some think nothing can be done to reduce global warming as it is a natural phenomena that takes place as and

when the earth ages with time. Do you agree or disagree? Support your position with at least three logical arguments.


INTRODUCTION What is global warming? Global warming actually refers to an average increase in

the Earth's temperature, which in turn causes changes in climate. A warmer Earth may lead to changes in rainfall patterns, a rise in sea level, and a wide range of impacts on plants, wildlife, and humans. When scientists talk about the issue of climate change, their concern is about global warming caused by human activities. The earth is really getting hotter although local temperatures fluctuate naturally, over the past 50 years the average global temperature has increased at the fastest rate in recorded history. And experts think the trend is accelerating: the 10 hottest years on record have all occurred since 1990. Scientists say that unless we curb global warming emissions, average U.S. temperatures could be 3 to 9 degrees higher by the end of the century. In my opinion, I totally disagree that nothing can be done to reduce global warming as it is a natural phenomenon that takes place as and when the earth ages with time.

Global mean surface temperature anomaly


1850 to 2006 relative to 1961-1990 2. Clearly America ought to take a leadership role in solving the problem. The table below shows the major causes of global warming. March 27. Activity Energy use and production Chlorofluorocarbons Agricultural practices Changes in land use Other industrial activities far the largest share of any country.1 Percent Contribution to Global Warming 57% 17% 14% 9% 3% Table shows the major causes of global warming Source: C&EN. Though Americans make up just 4 percent of the world's population. from the US Environmental Protection Agency. we produce 25 percent of the carbon dioxide pollution from fossil-fuel burning -. At the top is energy production. 2. Until renewable. non-polluting methods of energy production are developed. 1989. and lists them in order based on the percentage of global warming they have caused. Energy production creates greenhouse gases through the burning of fossil fuels. energy production will likely remain at the top of this list. In fact.1. which far outranks any other source of global warming and accounts for more than half of all global warming. p. the United States emits more carbon dioxide than China.1 CAUSES OF GLOBAL WARMING Many countries are the sources of global warming pollution The United States is the largest source of global warming pollution. 2 . India and Japan. 22. combined.

and ozone. The absorption of this longwave radiant energy warms the atmosphere. 2.While many greenhouse gases occur naturally and are needed to create the greenhouse effect that keeps the Earth warm enough to support life. Some of these longer wavelengths are absorbed by greenhouse gases in the atmosphere before they are lost to space. Gases that trap heat in the atmosphere are known as greenhouse gases. The major natural greenhouse gases are water vapor. and particles in the atmosphere. which causes 4-9%. These greenhouse gases act like a mirror and reflect back to the Earth some of the heat energy which would otherwise be lost to space. which causes 9-26%. A majority of climatologists have concluded that human activities are responsible for most of the warming.2 Human Activities and Greenhouse Gases Climatologists (scientists who study climate) have analyzed the global warming that has occurred since the late 1800's. rank second in the list. however. or CFCs. gases. people are beginning to call for decreases in the consumption of products that produce CFCs. human use of fossil fuels is the 3 . In recent times. public awareness about the dangers of CFCs has increased in some of the more developed countries. As a result. methane. Human activities contribute to global warming by enhancing Earth's natural greenhouse effect. carbon dioxide CO2. The reflecting back of heat energy by the atmosphere is called the "greenhouse effect". When sunlight reaches Earth's surface some is absorbed and warms the earth and most of the rest is radiated back to the atmosphere at a longer wavelength than the sun light. The greenhouse effect warms Earth's surface through a complex process involving sunlight.Chlorofluorocarbons. which causes 3-7%. which causes about 36-70% of the greenhouse effect on Earth (not including clouds).

The destroying of tropical forests alone is throwing hundreds of millions of tons of carbon dioxide into atmosphere each year. we release carbon dioxide and other heat-trapping gases into the atmosphere. the process they use to produce food. Trees and other plants remove CO2 from the air during photosynthesis. by the burning and cutting of about 34 million acres of trees each year. We are also losing temperate forests. the level of atmospheric methane has risen by 151 percent. The temperate forests of the world account for an absorption rate of 2 billion tons of carbon annually. because fewer trees mean less carbon dioxide conversion to oxygen. During the 150 years of the industrial age. By driving cars. whose chemical formula is CO2. in factories. Deforestation is responsible for 25% of all carbon emissions entering the atmosphere. mostly from agricultural activities such as raising cattle and growing rice. the atmospheric concentration of carbon dioxide has increased by 31 percent. using electricity from coal-fired power plants. We are losing millions of acres of rainforests each year. The clearing of land contributes to the buildup of CO2 by reducing the rate at which the gas is removed from the atmosphere or by the decomposition of dead vegetation.main source of excess greenhouse gases. and natural gas) occurs in automobiles. Over the same period. the earth is losing 10 million acres per year. 4 . In the temperate forests of Siberia alone. Most of the burning of fossil fuels (coal. or heating our homes with oil or natural gas. and in electric power plants that provide energy for houses and office buildings. oil. Deforestation is another significant source of greenhouse gases. CO2 is a greenhouse gas that slows the escape of heat into space. The burning of fossil fuels creates carbon dioxide. the equivalent in area to the size of Italy.

3 Population growth contributes to global warming 2. natural gas.Figure show the Greenhouse Effect Human activities add significantly to the level of naturally occurring greenhouse gases: • Carbon dioxide is released into the atmosphere by the burning of solid waste. when solid waste or fossil fuels are burned. and coal). wood and wood products. • Nitrous oxide emissions occur during various agricultural and industrial processes.1 Graph shows population grows from 1950 to 1993 5 . whether in landfills or in connection with livestock farming.3. 2. • Methane is emitted when organic waste decomposes. and fossil fuels (oil.

we have too many people on Earth. Because of past emissions. we have a small window in which to avoid truly dangerous warming and provide future generations with a sustainable world. we cannot avoid some level of warming from the heat-trapping emissions already present in the atmosphere. However. This will require immediate and sustained action to reduce our heat-trapping emissions through increased energy efficiency. some of which (such as carbon dioxide and nitrous oxide) last for 100 years or more. expanding our use of renewable energy. 6 . with aggressive emission reductions as well as flexibility in adapting to those changes we cannot avoid. and it clearly defines the problem as one that is within our power to address. Technology is partly responsible for explosive population growth and responsible for the resulting damage to Earth's resources. Conclusion The identification of humans as the main driver of global warming helps us understand how and why our climate is changing. There is a clear link between the problems of global warming and overpopulation. and slowing deforestation (among other solutions). as oil and gas fuels were exploited for our use. and make use of limited natural resources. as increases in CO2 levels follows growth in population. who are using technologies that are destructive for the Earth. Presently. 3. The industrial revolution caused a rapid increase in the Population growth. We cannot continue to grow.The intellectual powers that we enjoy has enabled us to make effective use of technology and thereby changed the environment.

• EcoBridge.J.(terjemahan Noraini Lumpur.A.. http://www.K.4.Dan Warming:Risk Perception and Risk-Mitigating Bahevior in Japan.oum.10(2). (Online) Available:http://www. Causes o f Global Warming. Available: http://www.(Online) Available:http://www. In SpringerLink (OUM Digital Collection) http://www.newdc.What is Global Warming? Available: ( SpringerLink: Mitegation & Adaption Strategi for Global Change..Tamin). 7 About Global • Global arming – Wikipedia.htm.(2006). • Jonathan Baron.html) Simulation from National • Simulation from National Geographic . the free encyclopedia.cewdc.Hutan tropika and persekitarannya.springerLink. 27-102007 • Mizue Ohe & Saburo Ikeda. In SpringerLink (OUM Digital Collection).SpringerLink:Climatic Change. Global Warming .org/wiki/Global_warming (2007 -10-23) • News in Science – Night flights are worse for global warming . References • Longman..Dewan Bahasa and Pustaka.

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