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Application of a fuzzy logic controller in temperature control of a pilot high- temperature short-time

Application of a fuzzy logic controller in temperature control of a pilot high- temperature short-time heat exchanger

J.S.

Shieh,

H.C.

Chen

and L.H.

Ferng

heat exchanger J.S. Shieh, H.C. Chen and L.H. Ferng This paper is based on the use

This paper is based on the use of a personal computer (PC-AT), ADDA (analogue to digitalldigital to analogue card) and an electro-pneumatic trans- ducer to control an aseptic processing high-temperature short-time (HTST) system, which requires accurate temperature control. In this study fuzzy algorithms based on linguistic rules describing the operator’s control strategy were applied to temperature control. The controller, with suitable membership functions, rules and defuzzification mechanism, was a simple controller for regulation of the HTST temperature and can be compared to the conventional proportional-integral-derivative (PID) method which controlled temperature within +0.5”C. Some results were not better than obtained with a traditional PID controller but in certain temperature ranges it could control the system temperature as well as the PID controller based on self-tuning of the rules and membership functions for the system.

Keywords: HTST; fuzzy logic controller, PID controller

Keywords: HTST; fuzzy logic controller, PID controller INTRODUCTION controller can control slightly better than the

INTRODUCTION

controller can control slightly better than the PI

controller. There followed several publications both on

Fuzzy set theory was first introduced by Zadeh (1965)

the theory and application

of fuzzy control. Tong

and it has been used successfully in a number of control applications. The first application of fuzzy set theory to the control of dynamic processes was reported by Mamdani and Assilian (1975). They described control

(1976) applied fuzzy logic to a pressurized tank contain- ing liquid, although it was no better than performance obtained by a controller designed using conventional techniques. Ostergaard (1976) applied fuzzy logic

of a small laboratory scale model of a steam engine and boiler combination. Using a fuzzy logic controller to regulate the engine speed and boiler pressure, they obtained acceptable control. Kickert and Lemke (1976) designed a fuzzy logic controller for a laboratory scale warm water plant. The first expriment applied fuzzy logic to design a controller on an industry plant was undertaken by Rutherford and Carter (1976). The purpose was to control the permeability at the Cleve- land sinter plant and they showed that the fuzzy logic

successfully on a heat exchanger.

(1983) attempted to use fuzzy algorithms to mimic kiln operators at the Durkee plant of the Oregon Portland cement company. Ingredients of food are dependent on place, season and climate. Food processes, therefore, often have ill- defined, time-varying and complicated systems, and it is suitable to control them using fuzzy set theory. The firs applications of fuzzy set theory to food control were reported by Eerikainen et al. (1988) and Aarts et al. (1990). Several authors have since conducted research

Sheridan and Skjoth

Food Industry Research

and

Development

Institute,

P.O.

into these fields, such as glutamic acid fermentation

Box 246. Hsinchu,

30099,

Taiwan,

Republic

of China

(Czogala and Rawlik, 1989; Kishimoto, 1990), done-

0956-7135/92/02009146

0

Butterworth-Heinemann

Ltd

Food Control

-

Vol3

No 2 1992

91

Fuzzy logic control of HTST heat exchanger: J.S. Shieh et al. ness of beef steaks

Fuzzy logic

control

of HTST heat exchanger:

J.S. Shieh

et al.

ness

of

beef

steaks

(Unklesbay

et

al.,

1988),

driving a car, controlling room temperature,

cooking

a

sensory

analysis

(Lincklaen

et

al.,

1989),

process

meal etc.

Although

they

are

not

familiar

with

any

control

for

food

process

(Brown

et

al.,

1990)

and

mathematical

description

of

the

process,

they

still

predictive

control

for corn quality

control

(Zhang et al.,

perform

well.

Fuzzy

set

theory,

proposed

by

L.A.

1990). This study attempted

to control

temperature

of a

Zadeh

(1965),

offers

the possibility

of creating

control

 

high

temperature

short-time

(HTST)

system

in

an

actions which functions

more

like human

thinking.

For

aseptic

process

by

using

a

fuzzy

logic

controller.

example;

 

Conventional

digital

control

algorithms,

such

as

a

IF temperature

IF temperature

     

proportional-integral-derivative

be developed

by formulating

 

(PTD)

controller,

the

transfer

function

can

of

is higher

is lower

THEN

THEN

valve is closed

valve

is open

the process

which is usually

very complex.

Fuzzy

logic

This

concept

is

very

simple

and

similar

to

on/off

controllers

can’ therefore

incorporate

human intelli-

control,

but

it

can

also

mimic

human

thinking.

If

gence

into

an HTST

system

to obtain

a more

flexible

suitable

membership

functions

are

chosen

for

the

control

environment.

system,

the

‘higher’

and

‘closed’

concepts

can

be

 

divided

into many

fuzzy sets, such as PB,

PS etc.

(see

below).

The

control

action

is thus

not just

the on/off

THEORY

 

control

and

depends

on

many

linguistic

sets.

It

is

 

therefore

closer

to

human

thinking

and

better

than

It is very important to control temperature of a HTST

conventional

control

theory

which

needs

complicated

system in an aseptic process. The FDA regulation of

mathematical

equations

to describe

the system.

 

aseptic processing and packaging systems specifies that

There

are

three

steps

(rules,

membership

functions

there shall be an accurate temperature recording device

and

defuzzification)

which determine

fuzzy

logic con-

and sensor which are installed between the holding

trol.

To

perform

fuzzy

inference

and

describe

 

the

tube and the inlet to the cooler. When the product

HTST

system,

the following

notations

will be used: PE,

temperature in the holding tube drops below the

product

error

(set

point -product

temperature); HE,

temperature specified in the scheduled process, pro-

hot water error

(set point-hot

water temperature);

 

V,

duct flow should be diverted away from the filler or

control

valve

output;

PB,

positive

big;

PS,

positive

aseptic surge tank by means of a flow-diversion system. Meanwhile, the evaluation of lethal value, F0 (Merson et al., 1978; Teixeira and Manson, 1983) is dependent on product temperature and time in the holding tube. Therefore, if the temperature of HTST can be con- trolled more accurately, the product will retain better quality and the shelf life will be extended. The procedures of aseptic processing (Teixeira and Manson, 1983) are preheating, heating, holding, cooling, subcooling and filling. Basically, these processes belong to a temperature control system. This pilot-scale HTST system was equipped with hot-water heating and water cooling apparatus. A two-stage plate exchanger was included in the system to heat and cool the product (Figure 1). Using the conventional PID

method,

it is very difficult to describe HTST transfer

function

from energy balance and because of a too

complicated mathematical model, modelling reduction was used to obtain low-order transfer function in order to control the HTST system with the PID method.

It is possible for people

to obtain good results when

Raw

prod

Product

out

;

Figure

1

HTST

92

 

Pressure

tube

 

Relief

valve

 

1Recycle

process

(-’

 

J

 

Cool

water

out

flow

chart

small; ZR,

zero;

NS, negative

small; NB, negative

big.

According

to

the

operator’s

experience

and

some

expert

knowledge,

the

following

six

rules

can

be

defined

to control

the HTST

system:

1. If PE

is PB

and

HE

is any,

then

V

is PB

2. If

PE

is PS and

HE

is PS

or

ZE,

then

V

is PS

3. If PE

is ZR

and

HE

is PS, then

V

is ZR

4. If PE

is ZR

and

HE

is NS, then

V

is NS

5. If

PE

is NS and

HE

is NS

or

ZR,

then

V

is NS

6. If PE

is NB and

HE

is any,

then

V

is NB

There are many shapes (Dombi,

Jones, 1991) of possible membership functions, such as triangle, trapezoid etc. which can be used in the fuzzy logic controller. For simplicity, a trapezoidal shape is used in the HTST system (Table 1). There are two main methods for defuzzification procedures, mean of maximum (MOM) and centre of area (COA) (Braae and Rutherford, 1978). The latter procedure has been adopted because it gives smoother signals. Therefore, the control input can be written as follows (Li and Lau,

1990; Kouati and

1989):

z_

CY(Mn x Un)

Ci’Mn

where M is the membership function; U is the universe of discourse; n is the number of rules.

Table

1

Membership

function

of HTST

 

Quantized

levels

Linguistic

 

sets

-4

-3

-2

-1

0

1

2

3

4

PB

0

0

0

0

0

0

0

0.6

1

PS

0

0

0

0

0

0.6

1

0.6

0

ZR

0

0

0

0.6

1

0.6

0

0

0

NS

0

0.6

1

0.6

0

0

0

0

0

NB

1

0.6

0

0

0

0

0

0

0

Food

Control

-

Vol3

No 2 7992

Fuzzy logic

control

of HTST heat exchanger:

J.S. Shieh

et al.

Table

2

Lookup

table

(Table 2). Comparing the third and fourth columns in Table 3, it is easy to obtain the size of valve open. Using

Product

 

Hot

water

error

 

this method, the control valve can open to various sizes

error

-2

-1

0

1

2

depending

on product

and hot water

error.

-2

-2

-2

-2

-2

0

-1

-2

-2

-2

-1

0

 

0

-2

-2

0

0

0

EXPERIMENTAL

METHOD

 

1

-2

0

2

I

1

2

0

2

2

2

2

A

APV

CREPACO

pilot-scale

HTST

system

was

Table

3

Quantized

variable

equipped with hot water heating and water cooling apparatus. A two-stage plate heat exchanger composed of stainless 316 material was included in the system to

HE

(“C)

PE

(“C)

V

(mA)

 

Quantized

level

heat and cool the product. Two T-type thermocouple

-5

-5

4

-2

sensors were installed at the site of product out and hot water input (Figure 2). High pressure steam from

-2.5

-2.5

8

-1

 

0

0

12

0

a boiler through the reducing valve decreased pressure

2.5

2.5

16

I

to 4 bars. Then, using regulating valve controlled steam

5

5

20

2

When

hot water

error

and product

error

have

been

into water to produce hot water which can heat product via a plate heat exchanger. The regulating valve was adjusted by electro-pneumatic converter which was controlled by an analogue to digital/digital to analogue

obtained,

one can decide

which quantized

levels belong

(ADDA) card. When product temperature was below

to them.

The values of membership

functions

 

can then

the set point the computer sends a signal via the

be obtained

from

Table

1. Meanwhile,

each

rule

has

a

different

grade

of

contribution

 

for

these

 

errors.

ADDA card to open the solid state relay (SSR) and

Combining

all rules produces

a lookup

table(Table

2).

control product returned to the original tank. On the

 

In

this

investigation,

the electro-pneumatic

 

trans-

other hand, signals from thermocouples were so small that they need to be amplified to a suitable range via an

ducer

has

a range

from

4

to

20mA

to

control

the

regulating

valve

from

closed

to open.

Therefore,

one

amplifier card which connected to the ADDA card. The whole system of process control was therefore

can

define

the

following

range:

HE

from

-5

 

to SC,

accomplished with an IBM PC-AT compatible com-

PE

from

-5

to

5°C

and

 

V

from

4

to

20mA.

The

values of quantized

variable

are shown

in Tabfe

3. The

puter which was linked with the HTST through an ADDA and amplifier card (&we 2).

first

and

second

column

represent

the

hot

water

and

product

temperature

range

in

different

 

quantized

 

levels.

The

third

column

is the valve range

in different

quantized

levels.

When

sensors

detect

the

hot

water

 

RESULTS

AND

DISCUSSION

and

product

temperature,

 

it can

decide

which

quan-

 

tized

level

belongs

to this value.

Then,

the quantized

 

In

general,

the

short-time

level of control

input is obtained

from the lookup

table

system is defined

high-temperature at a sterilizing

temperature

(HTST) from 95 to

at a sterilizing temperature (HTST) from 95 to   Recycle process Product in   Air
 

Recycle

process

Product

in

 

Air

Steam

 

Regulating

Reducing

valve

valve

Figure

2

Scheme

of control

system

for

HTST

Food Control - Vol3 No 2 1992

93

Fuzzy logic control of HTST heat exchanger: J.S. Shieh et al. 120°C and the holding

Fuzzy logic

control

of HTST heat exchanger:

J.S. Shieh

et al.

120°C and the holding

time is >5 s. Regarding

an ultra-

high temperature

ature

about

(UHT) system, the sterilized temper-

as

is defined

>135”C

and

the

holding

time

is

3-5 s. The holding

time is dependent

on the flow

time

constant

7 and

time

delay

td are easy

to acquire

from

the

reaction

curve

method.

According

to

the

equation

Cohen

proposed

by

Ziegler

and Coon

(Stephanopoulos,

and

Nichols

(1942),

1984), Lopez

et al.

rate

of product

and

length

of the

holding

tube.

From

(1967)

and

Rovira

et

al.

(1969),

it

is very

simple

to

the

microbiological

point of view, a suitable holding

calculate

the parameters:

proportional

(P),

integral

(I)

time

can

be

chosen

as

regards

some

bacteria.

This

and derivative

(D)

P, Zand D. In the HTST

system,

the

sytem can change

the pump rate and adjust

the holding

values

of k,,

7 and

td are 0.9,

79.2s

and 0.5s,

so the

time

from

20-30s.

It is thus able to sterilize high-acid

controller

parameters

 

of

P,

Z and

D

in the

preceding

food

such as juice

and cannot

be used to sterilize

low-

method

are shown

in Table

4.

acid food such as milk except

using UHT.

Different

set-

Figure

3

shows temperature

control of HTST with

point

values

were

therefore

chosen

between

95

to

the

methods

proposed

by Ziegler

and Nichols (1942)

120°C in order

to simulate

the HTST

system.

Accord-

and

Rovira

et al. (1969).

The

P, Z and D values were

ing to FDA regulations,

product

temperature

through

a

209.7,

1.0s

and

0.25s,

 

and

97.7,

107.1s

and

0.26s,

holding

tube

should

be larger

than the set point value,

respectively.

Although

Figure

3 shows only

two of the

which

is the

sterilized

temperature,

and the tempera-

 

ture

variation

at

the

holding

tube

should

be

<2”F

 

(?0.55”C).

Using

a

conventional

PID

method,

the

transfer

function

of

HTST

can

be

obtained

from

the

energy

balance.

System

parameters,

such

as process

gain k,,

Table 4

P, I and

D

values

of HTST

in different

methods

Tuning

method

P

1

6)

Ziegler-Nichols

 

209.7

 

1.0

Cohen-Coon

233.2

1.2

Lopez

et al.

ISE

206.9

1.4

 

IAE

168.0

2.0

ITAE

181.2

2.2

Rovira

et al.

IAE

97.7

 

107.1

 

ITAE

80.8

99.6

 

125-

.---

-

I

0

100

200

.

300

400

500

a

Time

(s)

 
 

125-

 

-

 

25-

b"

100

200

300

400

500

 

Time

(5)

 

Figure 3 Temperature

control

of

HTST

with

different

methods.

(a)

Ziegler-Nichols;

(b)

Rovira

et a/.

D

(s)

0.25

0.18

0.27

0.12

0.19

0.26

0.22

--Controllerout

I

600

600

/

I

700

700

traditional

94

a

-

b

C

0

I

L_

125r

i-t

0

I

100

/’

/

4

100

100

200

200

200

300

400

500

600

700

Time

(s)

 

I

!

300

400

500

600

700

Time

(s)

J

I

_J

300

400

500

600

700

Time

(s)

at different set-point values

using the method of Rovira ef al. Set-point: (a) 120°C; (b) 105°C;

(c)

Figure 4

95°C

Temperature

control

of HTST

Food Control - Vol3 No 2 1992

Fuzzy logic

control

of HTST heat exchanger:

J.S. Shieh

et al.

logic control of HTST heat exchanger: J.S. Shieh et al. methods from Table 4, it has

methods from

Table

4,

it has

similar

results

for

the

Figure

3

and

4

show

the

experimental

results

of

other methods.

In general, the tuning method proposed

HTST

using

the

conventional

PID

method

which

by Rovira

et al. (1969) is better

than the other methods.

belong

to a SISO (single input/single

output)

system.

In

From

temperature

Figure

3a,

it

is

stable

can

but

be

seen

that

the

controller

the

product

output

is

the

results.

HTST

system,

The holding

the

feedback

point

time of this system

can affect the

is so long

(i.e.

saturated

quickly, as in on/off control. It is therefore

25s) that the feedback

point

must be the hot water

to

easy to damage

the regulating

valve and is not suitable

prevent temperature

cycling

due

to phase

lag.

Using

to control

the system.

hot water as the feedback point,

it can

be seen

that

if

Figure

4

shows

temperature

control

of

HTST

at

different set-point values using the method of Rovira et

al. The

The different

P, I and

D values

were

80.8, 99.6s

were

and 0.22s.

set-point

values

120, 105 and 95°C.

the

product temperature

passes through the holding tube to exchange heat from

some

the

hot

hot

water

water.

temperature

can

be

kept

stable

stable,

as product

will be

more

the

Although

this

procedure

has

From

Figure

4, it can be.seen

that the method

of Rovira

advantages,

the

main

difficulty

is

determining

the

et al. can control

HTST

temperature

within

kO.5”C.

temperature

difference

of

hot

water

and

product

 

product

after

the

holding

tube.

According

to

FDA

125r

251

a

b

C

0

125

125

0

L-1)

r

100

200

300

400

500

600

700

 

Time

(s)

 

I

I

100

200

300

400

500

600

700

 

Time

(s)

100

200

300

400

500

600

700

Time

(s)

at different set-point values

using a fuzzy logic controller. Set-point: (a) 110°C; (b) 100°C;

95°C

Figure 5

Temperature

control

of HTST

Food Control

-

Vol3

No 2 1992

to

food safety and quality after the holding tube. For this reason we attempted to use the fuzzy logic controller to

solve this problem.

regulation, product temperature

is very

sensitive

By

using

fuzzy

set

theory,

the

two

input

variables

were chosen

temperature

output. The shape of membership

to be trapezoidal.

of

the area. Figure 5 shows temperature control of HTST

logic

controller. The product temperature was stable below the set-point when the set-point was high (Figure AZ). When set-point was low, the product temperature was stable above the set-point (Figure 5~). In Figure 5b the product temperature was just stable at the set point and can be compared to the conventional PID method which can control HTST temperature within f0.5”C. This fuzzy logic controller is therefore designed to control HTST temperature at 100°C. At other tem-

at

to

be the

errors

of hot water

and product

while the regulating

valve was the system

function

was chosen

from experience

Six rules were taken

was chosen

values

and the defuzzification

different

set-point

to be the centre

the

fuzzy

using

peratures rules and membership functions should be adjusted to obtain a lookup table such as Table 2 and to

control

the HTST

system

more

accurately.

CONCLUSIONS

The results of temperature control of HTST with

various conventional PID methods has been proved

very successful. Using the method of Rovira et al. gives better results than the other methods and it can control HTST temperature within ?0.5”C. However, it cannot use product temperature as a feedback point which could be a disadvantage regarding food safety and quality. A fuzzy logic controller was introduced to

this

with the fuzzy logic controller are not very successful over some ranges, but, it offers a good approach to solve this problem of controlling the system more carefully and accurately. Much research will have to be

carried out especially in the area of self-tuning rules and selection of membership function gain. Regarding self-tuning rules, there are many publications (Procyk,

system in order to solve this problem. The results

1977; Daley, 1984; Moore,l991)

investigating this area

of self-organizing fuzzy logic control (SOFLC). It can provide an adaptive rule-learning capability to comple- ment a fuzzy logic control strategy. The selection of the gains in membership functions of fuzzy logic control is not wholly subjective and several authors (Daley, 1986; 1987; Linkens and Abbod, 1992) have conducted

95

Fuzzy logic control of HTST heat exchanger: J.S. Shieh et al. research relating this to

Fuzzy logic control of HTST heat exchanger: J.S. Shieh et al.

research relating this to fuzzy logic control. Combing SOFLC and selection gain in membership functions will permit more accurate control of HTST temperature.

Lopez,

A.M.,

Miller,

Tuning

controllers

14, 57-62

Mamdani,

E.H.

and

J.A.,

Smith,

C.L.

with error

integral

Assilian,

S.

(1975)

and

Murrill,

P.W.

(1967)

criteria.

Instrum.

Technol.

An experiment

in linguistic

synthesis

with a fuzzy logic controller,

Inr. J.

Man-Machine

Stud.

7,

1-13

Merson,

R.L.,

Singh,

R.P.

and

Carruad,

P.A. (1978) An evaluation

of Ball’s formula

method

of thermal

process calculations.

Food

Technol.

32 (3),

66-72

Moore,

C.G.

(1991) Indirect

adaptive

fuzzy controllers.

PhD

Thesis,

Department

of

Aeronautics

and

Astronautics,

Southampton

University,

UK

Ostergaard,

J.J.

(1977)

Fuzzy

logic

control

of

a heat

exchanger

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Aarts,

R.J.,

Seppri,

L.,

Eerikiiinen,

T.

and

Linko,

P.

(1990)

In:

Engineering

and

Food,

Vol. 1, Physical

Properties

and

Process

Control(Spiess, W.E.L. and Schubert, H., eds), Elsevier Applied Science Publishers, London, pp. 909-918

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setting.

Braae,

M.

and

Rutherford,

D.A.

(1978)

Fuzzy relation

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Brown,

R.P.,

Davidson,

V.J.,

Hayward,

G.L.

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n s . I n s t . Received 16 July 1991 Revised 9 March 1992
n s . I n s t . Received 16 July 1991 Revised 9 March 1992
n s . I n s t . Received 16 July 1991 Revised 9 March 1992

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Food Control - Vol3 No 2 1992