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Two-Way Slabs, Direct Design Method and Equivalent Frame Method

Harun Alrasyid

Department of Civil Engineering, Faculty of Civil Engineering and Planning

In general, slabs are classified as being one way or two way. Slabs that primarily deflect in
one direction are referred to as one‐way slabs. When slabs are supported by columns
arranged generally in rows so that the slabs can deflect in two directions, they are usually
referred to as two‐way slabs.

Two‐way slabs can be strengthened by the addition of beams between the columns, by
thickening the slabs around the columns (drop panels), and by flaring the columns under
the slabs (column capitals).
4 Shear Resistance of Slabs
For two‐way slabs supported by beams or walls, shears are calculated at a distance d
from the faces of the walls or beams. The value of φVc is, as for beams, φ2λ √f c bw d
Shear is not usually a problem for these types of slabs.

Shear reinforcement for

slabs at columns.
5 Slabs without Interior Beams

For a slab without interior beams spanning between its supports

and with a ratio of its long span to short span not greater than 2.0,
the minimum thickness can be taken from Table 1. The values
selected from the table, however, must not be less than the
following values (ACI

1. Slabs without drop panels 5 in.

2. Thickness of those slabs with drop panels outside the panels 4 in.
Minimum Thickness of Slabs without Interior
Beams (Table 1)
7 Example 1
8 Example 1

Flat-plate floor slab

9 Example 1
10 Example 1

Sections for edge beam and slab
11 Slabs with Interior Beams
The minimum thickness of slabs or other two‐way construction may be obtained by
substituting into the equations to follow. In the equations, the quantity β is used to
take into account the effect of the shape of the panel on its deflection, while the effect
of beams (if any) is represented by αfm . If there are no beams present (as is the case
for flat slabs), αfm will equal 0.
12 Example 2
13 Example 2

A two-way slab.
14 Example 2
15 Limitations of Direct Design Method
1. There must be at least three continuous spans in each direction.
2. The panels must be rectangular, with the length of the longer side of any panel not
being more than two times the length of its shorter side lengths being measured c
to c of supports.
3. Span lengths of successive spans in each direction may not differ in length by more
than one‐third of the longer span.
4. Columns may not be offset by more than 10% of the span length in the direction of
the offset from either axis between center lines of successive columns.
5. The unfactored live load must not be more than two times the unfactored dead
load. All loads must be the result of gravity and must be uniformly distributed over
an entire panel.
6. If a panel is supported on all sides by beams, the relative stiffness of those beams
in the two perpendicular directions, as measured by the following expression, shall
not be less than 0.2 or greater than 5.0.
16 Distribution of Moments in Slabs

Distribution of positive and

negative moments.
Distribution of Total Span Moment in an End
Span (ACI Code
18 Distribution of Moments in Slabs

Sample moments for a flat plate with no
edge beams.
19 Example 3
Design an interior flat plate for the structure considered. This plate is shown in Figure
below. Assume a service live load equal to 80 psf, a service dead load equal to 110 psf
(including slab weight), fy = 60,000 psi, fc = 3000 psi, normal‐weight concrete, and
column heights of 12 ft.
20 Example 3
21 Example 3


Interior panel of flat-plate structure

22 Example 3
23 Summary of Moments and Steel Selections for Example 3
24 Minimum extensions for reinforcement in slabs without beams
25 Bar details
26 Example 4
27 Example 4
28 Example 4
29 Example 4
30 Example 4
31 Example 4
32 Example 4
33 Example 4
34 Example 4
35 Example 4
36 Example 4
37 Example 4
38 Example 4
Example 5
40 Example 5
41 Example 5
42 Example 5
43 Example 5
44 Example 5
45 Example 5

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Department of Civil Engineering, Faculty of Civil Engineering and Planning