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HISTORY OF

ARCHITECTURE
ARCHITECTURAL STYLE TIMELINE
ART NOUVEAU
ARCHITECTURE
ART NOUVEAU MOVEMENT

Art Nouveau means “New Art”.


Inspired by natural forms and structures, particularly the curved lines of plants and
flowers.

• It is an Ornamental Style began in 1890-1910 In Europe and flourished in major


European countries.
• It was one of the Earliest efforts to develop an original style of modern age.
• This style was interested in architecture as a form of stylistic expression rather
than as a structural system.
• Tried changing iron and glass into curving form.

The last third of the 19th century saw the development of a fundamentally
approach to architecture and interior design. All over Europe there was a need for
liberating change of direction, a desire to break away from set formulas based on
pastiche of historical styles and a search for original ideas, all of which resulted at
the beginning of the 1890s in the birth of Art Nouveau.
BIRTH OF ART NOUVEAU
Art Nouveau represents the beginning of modernism in design (Modern
Architecture).

• It occurred at a time when mass-produced consumer goods began to fill the


marketplace, and designers, architects, and artists began to understand that the
handcrafted work of centuries past could be lost.

• The desire to abandon the historical styles of the 19th century was an
important impetus behind Art Nouveau and one that establishes the
movement's modernism. Industrial production was, at that point, widespread,
and yet the decorative arts were increasingly dominated by poorly-made
objects imitating earlier periods.

• The practitioners of Art Nouveau sought to revive good workmanship, raise the
status of craft, and produce genuinely modern design that reflected the utility
of the items they were creating.
BIRTH OF ART NOUVEAU

• The academic system, which dominated art education from the 17th to the 19th
century, underpinned the widespread belief that media such as painting and
sculpture were superior to crafts such as furniture design and ironwork. The
consequence, many believed, was the neglect of good craftsmanship.

• Art Nouveau artists sought to overturn that belief, aspiring instead to "total
works of the arts," constructing the buildings and interiors in which every
element worked harmoniously within a related visual vocabulary. In the
process, Art Nouveau helped to narrow the gap between the fine and the
applied arts.

• Many Art Nouveau practitioners felt that earlier design had been excessively
ornamental, they evolved a belief that the function of an object should dictate
its form.
ART NOUVEAU MOVEMENT

It embraced all forms of art and design:

• architecture
• furniture
• glassware
• graphic design
• jewelry
• painting
• pottery
• metalwork
• textile

This was a sharp contrast to the traditional separation of art into the distinct
categories of fine art (painting and sculpture) and applied arts (ceramics, furniture,
and other practical objects).
ART NOUVEAU PAINTINGS
ART NOUVEAU GLASS WORK
ART NOUVEAU FURNITURE
ART NOUVEAU METAL ART
CHARACTERISTICS OF ART NOUVEAU MOVEMENT

Nature was a big inspiration for


Art Nouveau, but not necessarily
the 'pretty' side of nature —
more its vital organic force that
could be almost terrifying. Here,
whiplash curves resembling
vines literally overtake the house,
and iron support columns are
cast in the form of a stem or root
that is bursting alive at the top.
ART NOUVEAU ELEMENTS

Flowing Lines
• Characterized by graceful,
sinuous(Curved) lines.
• The lines are rarely angular.

Violent Curves
• Some artists referred to the curves in
Art Nouveau works as whiplash(A
quick blow delivered with a whip)
curves.
• These curvy lines connect the images
in the art and can even be found in
beautified plain items, such as
furniture & buildings.
CHARACTERISTICS OF ART NOUVEAU MOVEMENT

• Flat, decorative patterns.


• Intertwined(twist) organic forms such as stems or flowers.
• The use of new materials and the rejection of earlier styles.
• Art Nouveau is characterized by organic, especially floral and other plant-
inspired motifs, as well as highly stylized, flowing curvilinear forms.
• Emphasis on Handcrafting as opposed to machine Manufacturing.
ART NOUVEAU ELEMENTS

• In architecture, hyperbolas and parabolas in windows, arches and doors


are common and decorative mouldings ‘grow 'into plant – derived forms.
• Art Nouveau designers selected and modernized some of the more abstract
elements of Rococo style, such as flame and shell textures.
CHARACTERISTICS OF ART NOUVEAU MOVEMENT

• Asymmetrical Shapes

• Extensive use of Arches and Curved Forms.

• Curved Glass.

• Curving, Plant like Embellishments.

• Mosaics

• Stained Glass

• Japanese Motifs.

• Material Used: Stained Glass, Wrought Iron, Mosaic Tiles, Lime mortar, Wall
papers, Glazed Stucco.
ART NOUVEAU ARCHITECTS AND ARTISTS

• Charles Rennie Mackintosh (1868 – 1928) - was an


Scottish architect, designer, sculptor and decorative
artist, associated with the Arts & Crafts Movement, but
is best known as the United Kingdom's greatest
proponent of Art Nouveau. he who specialized in a
predominantly geometric line .

The Belgian architects and Artists


• Henry van de Velde (1863 – 1957) – Painter, Architect, Interior Designer
• Victor Horta (1861 – 1947), whose extremely sinuous and delicate structures
influenced the French architect Hector Guimard (1867 -1942) , another
important figure;
The American and French architects and Artists

• The American glassmaker Louis Comfort Tiffany (1848 – 1933)


• The French furniture and ironwork designer Louis Majorelle (1859-1926)
• The French glass and jewelry designer René Lalique (1860 – 1945)
• The American architect Louis Henry Sullivan (1856-1924), who used plant like
Art Nouveau ironwork to decorate his traditionally structured buildings.
ART NOUVEAU ARCHITECTS AND ARTISTS

The Spanish architects and Artists


• The Spanish architect and sculptor Antonio Gaudí (1852-1926), perhaps the most
original artist of the movement, who went beyond dependence on line to
transform buildings into curving, bulbous, brightly coloured, organic
constructions.
• The first Art Nouveau houses, the Hôtel Tassel by Victor Horta and the
Bloemenwerf house by Henry Van de Velde, were built in Brussels in 1893–1895.
Both Horta and Van de Velde designed not only the houses, but also all of the
interior decoration, furniture, carpets, and architectural details.

Hôtel Tassel, Brussels Villa Bloemenwerf, Brussels


ART NOUVEAU ARCHITECTS AND ARTISTS

There are major 3 centers of Art Nouveau style:

• Barcelona – Antoni Gaudi – Animal and plants forms to decorate towering


facades.

• Brussels – Victor Horta – changed iron, glass and brick into slender, graceful
forms inspired by flowers.

• Paris - Hector Guimard- Rendering fanciful plant like forms in iron and glass, for
entrances to metro subway.
ART NOUVEAU BUILDINGS IN BARCELONA

Sagrada Família, Barcelona Casa Mila, Barcelona


ART NOUVEAU ARCHITECTS AND ARTISTS

There are major 3 centers of Art Nouveau style:

• Barcelona – Antoni Gaudi – Animal and plants forms to decorate towering


facades.

• Brussels – Victor Horta – changed iron, glass and brick into slender, graceful
forms inspired by flowers.

• Paris - Hector Guimard- Rendering fanciful plant like forms in iron and glass, for
entrances to metro subway.
ART NOUVEAU BUILDINGS IN BRUSSELS

Paul-Emile Janson hotel, Brussels Hôtel Tassel, Brussels


ART NOUVEAU ARCHITECTS AND ARTISTS

There are major 3 centers of Art Nouveau style:

• Barcelona – Antoni Gaudi – Animal and plants forms to decorate towering


facades.

• Brussels – Victor Horta – changed iron, glass and brick into slender, graceful
forms inspired by flowers.

• Paris - Hector Guimard- Rendering fanciful plant like forms in iron and glass, for
example, entrances to metro subway.
ART NOUVEAU BUILDINGS IN BRUSSELS

Jassade, Paris
NEO-CLASSICAL ARCHITECTS

The leading Architects who practiced Baroque Architecture were:


Antoni Gaudi , Horta, Hector Guimard.

Antoni Gaudi (1852 – 1926)

Spanish architect whose idiosyncratic work, characterized by undulating curves and


richly colored scrambled textures, won widen international recognition only after the
mid-20th century.

Gaudí’s work employing organic or natural forms, curved or undulating lines,


reclaimed materials, ceramic bricks, trencadís mosaics, etc.

• Was Unique, Developed his own Unique Style.

• Never made plans, only 3D plans.

• Never used Straight lines, but Curved Lines.


ANTONI GAUDI
• Develop his unique style—blending element`s of Gothic art, art nouveau, known
as modernismo in Catalonia, and functional structure.

• His favorite forms were inclined columns to add stress to ceilings, paraboloid
arches, thin edge-butted tile vaults, and the richest, most colorful textures
possible, often mosaics made of broken tile scraps.

Paraboloid Aches Inclined Columns Thin-Edged Butted Vaults


ANTONI GAUDI
• He Soon developed his own style, composing his works with juxtapositions of
geometric masses and animating the surfaces with patterned brick or stone,
bright ceramic tiles and floral or reptilian metalwork.
• In 1883, Gaudí was charged with the construction of a Barcelona cathedral called
Basilica i Temple Expiatori de la Sagrada Familia
• The plans had been drawn up earlier, and construction had already begun, but
Gaudí completely changed the design, stamping it with his own distinctive style.
ANTONI GAUDI

Sagrada Família, Barcelona


ANTONI GAUDI

• He created a type of structure known as EQUILIBRATED i.e., it could stand on


its own without internal bracing, external buttressing, etc.

• The primary functional elements of this system were columns that tilted to
employ diagonal thrusts and lightweight tile vaults.

• He projects in such a way that the form does not become a mere stylistic
caprice, but rather finds its reason for being in the function for which it was
conceived.

• Notably, Gaudi used his equilibrated system to construct two Barcelona


apartment buildings: the casa ballot (1904–06) and the casa milà (1905–10),
whose floors were structured like clusters of tile lily pads.

• Both projects are considered to be characteristic of Gaudi's style. Casa Batlló


was declared a UNESCO world Heritage Site in 2005.
CASA MILA, BARCELONA
Casa Mila, Barcelona, Spain
• Apartment block built between 1906 -1910 in Barcelona. Commonly known as
La Pedrera is the largest housing building in Barcelona.
• The facade is an impressive wave-like mass of rough-shipped stone.
CASA MILA, BARCELONA
Construction Detail
Technical elements and structural materials: stone, brick, iron and ceramics.

Support:
• The building leans on pillars.
• Structure that eliminates the need for loadbearing walls and partitions allows
free distribution and the large openings of the facade.
• The structure is basically iron pillars but also combining other materials such
as brick and stone.
CASA MILA, BARCELONA
CASA MILA, BARCELONA
Decorative elements:
• Throughout the building, from the front
(wave pattern and iron bars) to the
inside of the housing (roofs and stucco
walls, furniture), the scale (stucco,
ceramics, paintings, iron) and above the
roof.

Interior space:
• Gaudí cared for until the end aesthetics
and functionality of the space. He and
his aides designed the ceilings of the
rooms and much of the furniture in
undulating waves.
CASA MILA, BARCELONA
Floor:
• Free. The building is organized around
two large courtyards, Each apartment
opens onto a courtyard and exterior, so
light and proper ventilation is ensured.
CASA MILA, BARCELONA

Outdoor spaces:
• Front: Despite the appearance that offers powerful, it is a simple lining and stand on the
rocks due to the internal structure of iron. T
• The rows of balconies heavy curl alternately inwards and outwards, and this gives the
whole unit a plastic.
• Forms that evoke nature: both the front and steep undulating, embodied the feeling of
waters that break the resistance of a stone structure, in continuity with the natural coastal
and mountain ranges of Catalonia.
• Iron railings: full of vitality organic mimic some marine rocks and sand on the beach.
• Windows: have a large amplitude, and undulating with gently curved corners that give the
building a great plasticity. Plastic unit: the sequence of raised wavy lines unifies the visual
of a building devoid of decoration.
• His strength anticipates architectural expressionism.
CASA MILA, BARCELONA
CASA MILA, BARCELONA
CASA MILA, BARCELONA
CASA BALTO, BARCELONA
The casa batllo is an apology of joy. a house that is a symbolic universe, a canvas
marine inspiration, a dream world with his organic, nature or suggest evokes
fantastic things. besides its artistic value, the work has enormous functionality.
CASA BALTO, BARCELONA
CASA BALTO, BARCELONA

Casa Balto Roof


CASA BALTO, BARCELONA

Casa Balto Courtyard


CASA BALTO, BARCELONA

• At the level of the main floor, gaudi incorporated a grand stand to see and be
seen, that protrudes a few feet on the passeig de gracia.

• he added large and oval windows. he introduced stone columns shaped


bones, masks shaped balconies .

• The building is crowned by a spectacular roof, consisting of large scales,


simulating the back of a dragon, and a tower from which projects a cross
with four arms pointing to the cardinal points. overlaid entire facade with
glass trencadís ceramic disks and achieve a wavy surface.

• Façade is overflowing, evocative and suggestive that all already know and
admire from over a century ago.
CASA BALTO, BARCELONA

Casa Balto Patio


CASA BALTO, BARCELONA

Casa Balto Facade


CASA BALTO, BARCELONA

Casa Balto Interior


CASA BALTO, BARCELONA

Casa Balto Interior