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Environmental Protection Agency Pt.

141

§ 140.5 Analytical procedures. 141.34 [Reserved]


141.35 Reporting of unregulated contami-
In determining the composition and nant monitoring results.
quality of effluent discharge from ma-
rine sanitation devices, the procedures Subpart E—Special Regulations, Including
contained in 40 CFR part 136, ‘‘Guide- Monitoring Regulations and Prohibition
lines Establishing Test Procedures for on Lead Use
the Analysis of Pollutants,’’ or subse-
141.40 Monitoring requirements for unregu-
quent revisions or amendments there- lated contaminants.
to, shall be employed. 141.41 Special monitoring for sodium.
141.42 Special monitoring for corrosivity
PART 141—NATIONAL PRIMARY characteristics.
DRINKING WATER REGULATIONS 141.43 Prohibition on use of lead pipes, sol-
der, and flux.
Subpart A—General Subpart F—Maximum Contaminant Level
Sec. Goals and Maximum Residual Dis-
141.1 Applicability. infectant Level Goals
141.2 Definitions.
141.3 Coverage. 141.50 Maximum contaminant level goals
141.4 Variances and exemptions. for organic contaminants.
141.5 Siting requirements. 141.51 Maximum contaminant level goals
141.6 Effective dates. for inorganic contaminants.
141.52 Maximum contaminant level goals
Subpart B—Maximum Contaminant Levels for microbiological contaminants.
141.53 Maximum contaminant level goals
141.11 Maximum contaminant levels for in- for disinfection byproducts.
organic chemicals. 141.54 Maximum residual disinfectant level
141.12 Maximum contaminant levels for goals for disinfectants.
total trihalomethanes. 141.55 Maximum contaminant level goals
141.13 Maximum contaminant levels for tur- for radionuclides.
bidity.
141.15 Maximum contaminant levels for ra- Subpart G—National Revised Primary
dium-226, radium-228, and gross alpha Drinking Water Regulations: Maximum
particle radioactivity in community Contaminant Levels and Maximum Re-
water systems. sidual Disinfectant Levels
141.16 Maximum contaminant levels for
beta particle and photon radioactivity 141.60 Effective dates.
from man-made radionuclides in commu- 141.61 Maximum contaminant levels for or-
nity water systems. ganic contaminants.
141.62 Maximum contaminant levels for in-
Subpart C—Monitoring and Analytical organic contaminants.
Requirements 141.63 Maximum contaminant levels (MCLs)
for microbiological contaminants.
141.21 Coliform sampling. 141.64 Maximum contaminant levels for dis-
141.22 Turbidity sampling and analytical re- infection byproducts.
quirements. 141.65 Maximum residual disinfectant lev-
141.23 Inorganic chemical sampling and ana- els.
lytical requirements. 141.66 Maximum contaminant levels for
141.24 Organic chemicals, sampling and ana- radionuclides.
lytical requirements.
141.25 Analytical methods for radioactivity. Subpart H—Filtration and Disinfection
141.26 Monitoring frequency for radioac-
tivity in community water systems. 141.70 General requirements.
141.27 Alternate analytical techniques. 141.71 Criteria for avoiding filtration.
141.28 Certified laboratories. 141.72 Disinfection.
141.29 Monitoring of consecutive public 141.73 Filtration.
water systems. 141.74 Analytical and monitoring require-
141.30 Total trihalomethanes sampling, ana- ments.
lytical and other requirements. 141.75 Reporting and recordkeeping require-
ments.
Subpart D—Reporting and Recordkeeping 141.76 Recycle provisions.

141.31 Reporting requirements. Subpart I—Control of Lead and Copper


141.32 Public notification.
141.33 Record maintenance. 141.80 General requirements.

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Pt. 141 40 CFR Ch. I (7–1–03 Edition)
141.81 Applicability of corrosion control 141.172 Disinfection profiling and
treatment steps to small, medium-size benchmarking.
and large water systems. 141.173 Filtration.
141.82 Description of corrosion control 141.174 Filtration sampling requirements.
treatment requirements. 141.175 Reporting and recordkeeping re-
141.83 Source water treatment require- quirements.
ments.
141.84 Lead service line replacement re- Subpart Q—Public Notification of Drinking
quirements.
Water Violations
141.85 Public education and supplemental
monitoring requirements. 141.201 General public notification require-
141.86 Monitoring requirements for lead and ments.
copper in tap water.
141.202 Tier 1 Public Notice—Form, manner,
141.87 Monitoring requirements for water
and frequency of notice.
quality parameters.
141.203 Tier 2 Public Notice—Form, manner,
141.88 Monitoring requirements for lead and
copper in source water. and frequency of notice.
141.89 Analytical methods. 141.204 Tier 3 Public Notice—Form, manner,
141.90 Reporting requirements. and frequency of notice.
141.91 Recordkeeping requirements. 141.205 Content of the public notice.
141.206 Notice to new billing units or new
Subpart J—Use of Non-Centralized customers.
Treatment Devices 141.207 Special notice of the availability of
unregulated contaminant monitoring re-
141.100 Criteria and procedures for public sults.
water systems using point-of-entry de- 141.208 Special notice for exceedance of the
vices. SMCL for fluoride.
141.101 Use of bottled water. 141.209 Special notice for nitrate
exceedances above MCL by non-commu-
Subpart K—Treatment Techniques nity water systems (NCWS), where grant-
141.110 General requirements. ed permission by the primacy agency
141.111 Treatment techniques for acryl- under § 141.11(d).
amide and epichlorohydrin. 141.210 Notice by primacy agency on behalf
of the public water system.
Subpart L—Disinfectant Residuals, Disinfec- APPENDIX A TO SUBPART Q OF PART 141—
tion Byproducts, and Disinfection By- NPDWR VIOLATIONS AND SITUATIONS RE-
product Precursors QUIRING PUBLIC NOTICE
APPENDIX B TO SUBPART Q OF PART 141—
141.130 General requirements. STANDARD HEALTH EFFECTS LANGUAGE
141.131 Analytical requirements. FOR PUBLIC NOTIFICATION
141.132 Monitoring requirements. APPENDIX C TO SUBPART Q OF PART 141—LIST
141.133 Compliance requirements. OF ACRONYMS USED IN PUBLIC NOTIFICA-
141.134 Reporting and recordkeeping re- TION REGULATION
quirements.
141.135 Treatment technique for control of Subparts R–S [Reserved]
disinfection byproduct (DBP) precursors.
Subpart T—Enhanced Filtration and Dis-
Subpart O—Consumer Confidence Reports
infection—Systems Serving Fewer Than
141.151 Purpose and applicability of this 10,000 People
subpart.
141.152 Effective dates. GENERAL REQUIREMENTS
141.153 Content of the reports. 141.500 General requirements.
141.154 Required additional health informa-
141.501 Who is subject to the requirements
tion.
of subpart T?
141.155 Report delivery and recordkeeping.
141.502 When must my system comply with
APPENDIX A TO SUBPART O OF PART 141—REG- these requirements?
ULATED CONTAMINANTS
141.503 What does subpart T require?
Subpart P—Enhanced Filtration and Dis- FINISHED WATER RESERVOIRS
infection—Systems Serving 10,000 or
More People 141.510 Is my system subject to the new fin-
ished water reservoir requirements?
141.170 General requirements. 141.511 What is required of new finished
141.171 Criteria for avoiding filtration. water reservoirs?

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Environmental Protection Agency § 141.2
ADDITIONAL WATERSHED CONTROL 141.562 My system only has two or fewer fil-
REQUIREMENTS FOR UNFILTERED SYSTEMS ters—is there any special provision re-
garding individual filter turbidity moni-
141.520 Is my system subject to the updated
toring?
watershed control requirements?
141.563 What follow-up action is my system
141.521 What updated watershed control re-
required to take based on continuous
quirements must my unfiltered system
turbidity monitoring?
implement to continue to avoid filtra-
141.564 My system practices lime soft-
tion?
ening—is there any special provision re-
141.522 How does the State determine
garding my individual filter turbidity
whether my system’s watershed control
monitoring?
requirements are adequate?
REPORTING AND RECORDKEEPING
DISINFECTION PROFILE
REQUIREMENTS
141.530 What is a disinfection profile and
141.570 What does subpart T require that my
who must develop one?
system report to the State?
141.531 What criteria must a State use to
determine that a profile is unnecessary? 141.571 What records does subpart T require
my system to keep?
141.532 How does my system develop a dis-
infection profile and when must it begin? AUTHORITY: 42 U.S.C. 300f, 300g–1, 300g–2,
141.533 What data must my system collect 300g–3, 300g–4, 300g–5, 300g–6, 300j–4, 300j–9,
to calculate a disinfection profile? and 300j–11.
141.534 How does my system use this data to
calculate an inactivation ratio? SOURCE: 40 FR 59570, Dec. 24, 1975, unless
141.535 What if my system uses otherwise noted.
chloramines, ozone, or chlorine dioxide NOTE: For community water systems serv-
for primary disinfection? ing 75,000 or more persons, monitoring must
141.536 My system has developed an inac- begin 1 year following promulation and the
tivation ratio; what must we do now? effective date of the MCL is 2 years following
promulgation. For community water sys-
DISINFECTION BENCHMARK tems serving 10,000 to 75,000 persons, moni-
toring must begin within 3 years from the
141.540 Who has to develop a disinfection
date of promulgation and the effective date
benchmark?
of the MCL is 4 years from the date of pro-
141.541 What are significant changes to dis-
mulgation. Effective immediately, systems
infection practice?
that plan to make significant modifications
141.542 What must my system do if we are
to their treatment processes for the purpose
considering a significant change to dis-
of complying with the TTHM MCL are re-
infection practices?
quired to seek and obtain State approval of
141.543 How is the disinfection benchmark their treatment modification plans. This
calculated? note affects §§ 141.2, 141.6, 141.12, 141.24 and
141.544 What if my system uses 141.30. For additional information see 44 FR
chloramines, ozone, or chlorine dioxide 68641, Nov. 29, 1979.
for primary disinfection?

COMBINED FILTER EFFLUENT REQUIREMENTS Subpart A—General


141.550 Is my system required to meet sub-
part T combined filter effluent turbidity § 141.1 Applicability.
limits? This part establishes primary drink-
141.551 What strengthened combined filter ing water regulations pursuant to sec-
effluent turbidity limits must my system tion 1412 of the Public Health Service
meet?
141.552 My system consists of ‘‘alternative
Act, as amended by the Safe Drinking
filtration’’ and is required to conduct a Water Act (Pub. L. 93–523); and related
demonstration—what is required of my regulations applicable to public water
system and how does the State establish systems.
my turbidity limits?
141.553 My system practices lime soft- § 141.2 Definitions.
ening—is there any special provision re-
As used in this part, the term:
garding my combined filter effluent?
Act means the Public Health Service
INDIVIDUAL FILTER TURBIDITY REQUIREMENTS Act, as amended by the Safe Drinking
141.560 Is my system subject to individual Water Act, Public Law 93–523.
filter turbidity requirements? Action level, is the concentration of
141.561 What happens if my system’s tur- lead or copper in water specified in
bidity monitoring equipment fails? § 141.80(c) which determines, in some

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§ 141.2 40 CFR Ch. I (7–1–03 Edition)

cases, the treatment requirements con- must consist of at least the following
tained in subpart I of this part that a components: Assessment of plant per-
water system is required to complete. formance; evaluation of major unit
Best available technology or BAT processes; identification and
means the best technology, treatment prioritization of performance limiting
techniques, or other means which the factors; assessment of the applicability
Administrator finds, after examination of comprehensive technical assistance;
for efficacy under field conditions and and preparation of a CPE report.
not solely under laboratory conditions, Confluent growth means a continuous
are available (taking cost into consid- bacterial growth covering the entire
eration). For the purposes of setting filtration area of a membrane filter, or
MCLs for synthetic organic chemicals, a portion thereof, in which bacterial
any BAT must be at least as effective colonies are not discrete.
as granular activated carbon. Contaminant means any physical,
Coagulation means a process using co- chemical, biological, or radiological
agulant chemicals and mixing by which substance or matter in water.
colloidal and suspended materials are Conventional filtration treatment
destabilized and agglomerated into means a series of processes including
flocs. coagulation, flocculation, sedimenta-
Community water system means a pub- tion, and filtration resulting in sub-
lic water system which serves at least stantial particulate removal.
15 service connections used by year- Corrosion inhibitor means a substance
round residents or regularly serves at capable of reducing the corrosivity of
least 25 year-round residents. water toward metal plumbing mate-
Compliance cycle means the nine-year rials, especially lead and copper, by
calendar year cycle during which pub- forming a protective film on the inte-
lic water systems must monitor. Each rior surface of those materials.
compliance cycle consists of three CT or CTcalc is the product of ‘‘resid-
three-year compliance periods. The ual disinfectant concentration’’ (C) in
first calendar year cycle begins Janu- mg/1 determined before or at the first
ary 1, 1993 and ends December 31, 2001; customer, and the corresponding ‘‘dis-
the second begins January 1, 2002 and infectant contact time’’ (T) in minutes,
ends December 31, 2010; the third begins i.e., ‘‘C’’ x ‘‘T’’. If a public water sys-
January 1, 2011 and ends December 31, tem applies disinfectants at more than
2019. one point prior to the first customer, it
must determine the CT of each dis-
Compliance period means a three-year
infectant sequence before or at the
calendar year period within a compli-
first customer to determine the total
ance cycle. Each compliance cycle has
percent inactivation or ‘‘total inac-
three three-year compliance periods.
tivation ratio.’’ In determining the
Within the first compliance cycle, the
total inactivation ratio, the public
first compliance period runs from Jan-
water system must determine the re-
uary 1, 1993 to December 31, 1995; the
sidual disinfectant concentration of
second from January 1, 1996 to Decem-
each disinfection sequence and cor-
ber 31, 1998; the third from January 1,
responding contact time before any
1999 to December 31, 2001. subsequent disinfection application
Comprehensive performance evaluation point(s). ‘‘CT99.9’’ is the CT value re-
(CPE) is a thorough review and anal- quired for 99.9 percent (3–log) inactiva-
ysis of a treatment plant’s perform- tion of Giardia lamblia cysts. CT99.9 for a
ance-based capabilities and associated variety of disinfectants and conditions
administrative, operation and mainte- appear in tables 1.1–1.6, 2.1, and 3.1 of
nance practices. It is conducted to § 141.74(b)(3).
identify factors that may be adversely
impacting a plant’s capability to
achieve compliance and emphasizes ap-
CTcalc
proaches that can be implemented CT99.9
without significant capital improve-
ments. For purpose of compliance with is the inactivation ratio. The sum of
subparts P and T of this part, the com- the inactivation ratios, or total inac-
prehensive performance evaluation tivation ratio shown as

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Environmental Protection Agency § 141.2

measurement point for which the par-


(CTcalc)
∑ (CT ) ticular ‘‘T’’ is being calculated. Dis-
infectant contact time in pipelines
99.9
must be calculated based on ‘‘plug
is calculated by adding together the in- flow’’ by dividing the internal volume
activation ratio for each disinfection of the pipe by the maximum hourly
sequence. A total inactivation ratio flow rate through that pipe. Disinfect-
equal to or greater than 1.0 is assumed ant contact time within mixing basins
to provide a 3-log inactivation of and storage reservoirs must be deter-
Giardia lamblia cysts. mined by tracer studies or an equiva-
Diatomaceous earth filtration means a lent demonstration.
process resulting in substantial partic- Disinfection means a process which
ulate removal in which (1) a precoat inactivates pathogenic organisms in
cake of diatomaceous earth filter water by chemical oxidants or equiva-
media is deposited on a support lent agents.
membrance (septum), and (2) while the Disinfection profile is a summary of
water is filtered by passing through the Giardia lamblia inactivation through
cake on the septum, additional filter the treatment plant. The procedure for
media known as body feed is continu- developing a disinfection profile is con-
ously added to the feed water to main- tained in § 141.172 (Disinfection
tain the permeability of the filter profiling and benchmarking) in subpart
cake. P and §§ 141.530–141.536 (Disinfection
Direct filtration means a series of profile) in subpart T of this part.
processes including coagulation and fil- Domestic or other non-distribution sys-
tration but excluding sedimentation tem plumbing problem means a coliform
resulting in substantial particulate re- contamination problem in a public
moval. water system with more than one serv-
Disinfectant means any oxidant, in- ice connection that is limited to the
cluding but not limited to chlorine, specific service connection from which
chlorine dioxide, chloramines, and the coliform-positive sample was
ozone added to water in any part of the taken.
treatment or distribution process, that Dose equivalent means the product of
is intended to kill or inactivate patho- the absorbed dose from ionizing radi-
genic microorganisms. ation and such factors as account for
Disinfectant contact time (‘‘T’’ in CT differences in biological effectiveness
calculations) means the time in min- due to the type of radiation and its
utes that it takes for water to move distribution in the body as specified by
from the point of disinfectant applica- the International Commission on
tion or the previous point of disinfect- Radiological Units and Measurements
ant residual measurement to a point (ICRU).
before or at the point where residual Effective corrosion inhibitor residual,
disinfectant concentration (‘‘C’’) is for the purpose of subpart I of this part
measured. Where only one ‘‘C’’ is meas- only, means a concentration sufficient
ured, ‘‘T’’ is the time in minutes that to form a passivating film on the inte-
it takes for water to move from the rior walls of a pipe.
point of disinfectant application to a Enhanced coagulation means the addi-
point before or at where residual dis- tion of sufficient coagulant for im-
infectant concentration (‘‘C’’) is meas- proved removal of disinfection byprod-
ured. Where more than one ‘‘C’’ is uct precursors by conventional filtra-
measured, ‘‘T’’ is (a) for the first meas- tion treatment.
urement of ‘‘C’’, the time in minutes Enhanced softening means the im-
that it takes for water to move from proved removal of disinfection byprod-
the first or only point of disinfectant uct precursors by precipitative soft-
application to a point before or at the ening.
point where the first ‘‘C’’ is measured Filter profile is a graphical represen-
and (b) for subsequent measurements of tation of individual filter performance,
‘‘C’’, the time in minutes that it takes based on continuous turbidity meas-
for water to move from the previous urements or total particle counts
‘‘C’’ measurement point to the ‘‘C’’ versus time for an entire filter run,

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§ 141.2 40 CFR Ch. I (7–1–03 Edition)

from startup to backwash inclusively, moacetic acid), rounded to two signifi-


that includes an assessment of filter cant figures after addition.
performance while another filter is Halogen means one of the chemical
being backwashed. elements chlorine, bromine or iodine.
Filtration means a process for remov- Initial compliance period means the
ing particulate matter from water by first full three-year compliance period
passage through porous media. which begins at least 18 months after
First draw sample means a one-liter promulgation, except for contaminants
sample of tap water, collected in ac- listed at § 141.61(a) (19)–(21), (c) (19)–(33),
cordance with § 141.86(b)(2), that has and § 141.62(b) (11)–(15), initial compli-
been standing in plumbing pipes at ance period means the first full three-
least 6 hours and is collected without year compliance period after promulga-
flushing the tap. tion for systems with 150 or more serv-
Flocculation means a process to en- ice connections (January 1993–Decem-
hance agglomeration or collection of ber 1995), and first full three-year com-
smaller floc particles into larger, more pliance period after the effective date
easily settleable particles through of the regulation (January 1996–Decem-
gentle stirring by hydraulic or mechan- ber 1998) for systems having fewer than
ical means. 150 service connections.
GAC10 means granular activated car- Large water system, for the purpose of
bon filter beds with an empty-bed con- subpart I of this part only, means a
tact time of 10 minutes based on aver- water system that serves more than
age daily flow and a carbon reactiva- 50,000 persons.
tion frequency of every 180 days. Lead service line means a service line
Ground water under the direct influence made of lead which connects the water
of surface water (GWUDI) means any main to the building inlet and any lead
water beneath the surface of the pigtail, gooseneck or other fitting
ground with significant occurrence of which is connected to such lead line.
insects or other macroorganisms, Legionella means a genus of bacteria,
algae, or large-diameter pathogens some species of which have caused a
such as Giardia lamblia or type of pneumonia called Legionnaires
Cryptosporidium, or significant and rel- Disease.
atively rapid shifts in water character- Man-made beta particle and photon
istics such as turbidity, temperature, emitters means all radionuclides emit-
conductivity, or pH which closely cor- ting beta particles and/or photons list-
relate to climatological or surface ed in Maximum Permissible Body Bur-
water conditions. Direct influence dens and Maximum Permissible Con-
must be determined for individual centration of Radionuclides in Air or
sources in accordance with criteria es- Water for Occupational Exposure, NBS
tablished by the State. The State de- Handbook 69, except the daughter prod-
termination of direct influence may be ucts of thorium–232, uranium–235 and
based on site-specific measurements of uranium–238.
water quality and/or documentation of Maximum contaminant level means the
well construction characteristics and maximum permissable level of a con-
geology with field evaluation. taminant in water which is delivered to
Gross alpha particle activity means the any user of a public water system.
total radioactivity due to alpha par- Maximum contaminant level goal or
ticle emission as inferred from meas- MCLG means the maximum level of a
urements on a dry sample. contaminant in drinking water at
Gross beta particle activity means the which no known or anticipated adverse
total radioactivity due to beta particle effect on the health of persons would
emission as inferred from measure- occur, and which allows an adequate
ments on a dry sample. margin of safety. Maximum contami-
Haloacetic acids (five) (HAA5) mean nant level goals are nonenforceable
the sum of the concentrations in milli- health goals.
grams per liter of the haloacetic acid Maximum residual disinfectant level
compounds (monochloroacetic acid, (MRDL) means a level of a disinfectant
dichloroacetic acid, trichloroacetic added for water treatment that may
acid, monobromoacetic acid, and dibro- not be exceeded at the consumer’s tap

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Environmental Protection Agency § 141.2

without an unacceptable possibility of port time within the distribution sys-


adverse health effects. For chlorine and tem.
chloramines, a PWS is in compliance Non-community water system means a
with the MRDL when the running an- public water system that is not a com-
nual average of monthly averages of munity water system. A non-commu-
samples taken in the distribution sys- nity water system is either a ‘‘tran-
tem, computed quarterly, is less than sient non-community water system
or equal to the MRDL. For chlorine di- (TWS)’’ or a ‘‘non-transient non-com-
oxide, a PWS is in compliance with the munity water system (NTNCWS).’’
MRDL when daily samples are taken at Non-transient non-community water
the entrance to the distribution system system or NTNCWS means a public
and no two consecutive daily samples water system that is not a community
exceed the MRDL. MRDLs are enforce- water system and that regularly serves
able in the same manner as maximum at least 25 of the same persons over 6
contaminant levels under Section 1412 months per year.
of the Safe Drinking Water Act. There Optimal corrosion control treatment, for
is convincing evidence that addition of the purpose of subpart I of this part
a disinfectant is necessary for control only, means the corrosion control
of waterborne microbial contaminants. treatment that minimizes the lead and
Notwithstanding the MRDLs listed in copper concentrations at users’ taps
§ 141.65, operators may increase resid-
while insuring that the treatment does
ual disinfectant levels of chlorine or
not cause the water system to violate
chloramines (but not chlorine dioxide)
any national primary drinking water
in the distribution system to a level
regulations.
and for a time necessary to protect
Performance evaluation sample means
public health to address specific micro-
a reference sample provided to a lab-
biological contamination problems
oratory for the purpose of dem-
caused by circumstances such as dis-
onstrating that the laboratory can suc-
tribution line breaks, storm runoff
cessfully analyze the sample within
events, source water contamination, or
limits of performance specified by the
cross-connections.
Agency. The true value of the con-
Maximum residual disinfectant level
centration of the reference material is
goal (MRDLG) means the maximum
unknown to the laboratory at the time
level of a disinfectant added for water
of the analysis.
treatment at which no known or an-
ticipated adverse effect on the health Person means an individual; corpora-
of persons would occur, and which al- tion; company; association; partner-
lows an adequate margin of safety. ship; municipality; or State, Federal,
MRDLGs are nonenforceable health or tribal agency.
goals and do not reflect the benefit of Picocurie (pCi) means the quantity of
the addition of the chemical for con- radioactive material producing 2.22 nu-
trol of waterborne microbial contami- clear transformations per minute.
nants. Point of disinfectant application is the
Maximum Total Trihalomethane Poten- point where the disinfectant is applied
tial (MTP) means the maximum con- and water downstream of that point is
centration of total trihalomethanes not subject to recontamination by sur-
produced in a given water containing a face water runoff.
disinfectant residual after 7 days at a Point-of-entry treatment device (POE)
temperature of 25 °C or above. is a treatment device applied to the
Medium-size water system, for the pur- drinking water entering a house or
pose of subpart I of this part only, building for the purpose of reducing
means a water system that serves contaminants in the drinking water
greater than 3,300 and less than or distributed throughout the house or
equal to 50,000 persons. building.
Near the first service connection means Point-of-use treatment device (POU) is
at one of the 20 percent of all service a treatment device applied to a single
connections in the entire system that tap used for the purpose of reducing
are nearest the water supply treatment contaminants in drinking water at
facility, as measured by water trans- that one tap.

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§ 141.2 40 CFR Ch. I (7–1–03 Edition)

Public water system means a system mary drinking water regulation is pro-
for the provision to the public of water vided for residential or similar uses for
for human consumption through pipes drinking and cooking; or
or, after August 5, 1998, other con- (3) The State determines that the
structed conveyances, if such system water provided for residential or simi-
has at least fifteen service connections lar uses for drinking, cooking, and
or regularly serves an average of at bathing is centrally treated or treated
least twenty-five individuals daily at at the point of entry by the provider, a
least 60 days out of the year. Such term pass-through entity, or the user to
includes: any collection, treatment, achieve the equivalent level of protec-
storage, and distribution facilities tion provided by the applicable na-
under control of the operator of such tional primary drinking water regula-
system and used primarily in connec- tions.
tion with such system; and any collec- Service line sample means a one-liter
tion or pretreatment storage facilities sample of water collected in accord-
not under such control which are used ance with § 141.86(b)(3), that has been
primarily in connection with such sys- standing for at least 6 hours in a serv-
tem. Such term does not include any ice line.
‘‘special irrigation district.’’ A public Single family structure, for the purpose
water system is either a ‘‘community of subpart I of this part only, means a
water system’’ or a ‘‘noncommunity building constructed as a single-family
water system.’’ residence that is currently used as ei-
Rem means the unit of dose equiva- ther a residence or a place of business.
lent from ionizing radiation to the Slow sand filtration means a process
total body or any internal organ or involving passage of raw water through
organ system. A ‘‘millirem (mrem)’’ is a bed of sand at low velocity (generally
1/1000 of a rem. less than 0.4 m/h) resulting in substan-
Repeat compliance period means any tial particulate removal by physical
subsequent compliance period after the and biological mechanisms.
initial compliance period. Small water system, for the purpose of
Residual disinfectant concentration subpart I of this part only, means a
(‘‘C’’ in CT calculations) means the water system that serves 3,300 persons
concentration of disinfectant measured or fewer.
in mg/l in a representative sample of Special irrigation district means an ir-
water. rigation district in existence prior to
Sanitary survey means an onsite re- May 18, 1994 that provides primarily
view of the water source, facilities, agricultural service through a piped
equipment, operation and maintenance water system with only incidental resi-
of a public water system for the pur- dential or similar use where the system
pose of evaluating the adequacy of such or the residential or similar users of
source, facilities, equipment, operation the system comply with the exclusion
and maintenance for producing and dis- provisions in section 1401(4)(B)(i)(II) or
tributing safe drinking water. (III).
Sedimentation means a process for re- Standard sample means the aliquot of
moval of solids before filtration by finished drinking water that is exam-
gravity or separation. ined for the presence of coliform bac-
Service connection, as used in the defi- teria.
nition of public water system, does not State means the agency of the State
include a connection to a system that or Tribal government which has juris-
delivers water by a constructed con- diction over public water systems. Dur-
veyance other than a pipe if: ing any period when a State or Tribal
(1) The water is used exclusively for government does not have primary en-
purposes other than residential uses forcement responsibility pursuant to
(consisting of drinking, bathing, and section 1413 of the Act, the term
cooking, or other similar uses); ‘‘State’’ means the Regional Adminis-
(2) The State determines that alter- trator, U.S. Environmental Protection
native water to achieve the equivalent Agency.
level of public health protection pro- Subpart H systems means public water
vided by the applicable national pri- systems using surface water or ground

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Environmental Protection Agency § 141.4

water under the direct influence of sur- disinfection and is open to the atmos-
face water as a source that are subject phere.
to the requirements of subpart H of Virus means a virus of fecal origin
this part. which is infectious to humans by wa-
Supplier of water means any person terborne transmission.
who owns or operates a public water Waterborne disease outbreak means the
system. significant occurrence of acute infec-
Surface water means all water which tious illness, epidemiologically associ-
is open to the atmosphere and subject ated with the ingestion of water from a
to surface runoff. public water system which is deficient
SUVA means Specific Ultraviolet Ab- in treatment, as determined by the ap-
sorption at 254 nanometers (nm), an in- propriate local or State agency.
dicator of the humic content of water. [40 FR 59570, Dec. 24, 1975, as amended at 41
It is a calculated parameter obtained FR 28403, July 9, 1976; 44 FR 68641, Nov. 29,
by dividing a sample’s ultraviolet ab- 1979; 51 FR 11410, Apr. 2, 1986; 52 FR 20674,
sorption at a wavelength of 254 nm June 2, 1987; 52 FR 25712, July 8, 1987; 53 FR
(UV 254) (in m =1) by its concentration of 37410, Sept. 26, 1988; 54 FR 27526, 27562, June
dissolved organic carbon (DOC) (in mg/ 29, 1989; 56 FR 3578, Jan. 30, 1991; 56 FR 26547,
June 7, 1991; 57 FR 31838, July 17, 1992; 59 FR
L). 34322, July 1, 1994; 61 FR 24368, May 14, 1996;
System with a single service connection 63 FR 23366, Apr. 28, 1998; 63 FR 69463, 69515,
means a system which supplies drink- Dec. 16, 1998; 66 FR 7061, Jan. 22, 2001; 67 FR
ing water to consumers via a single 1835, Jan. 14, 2002]
service line.
Too numerous to count means that the § 141.3 Coverage.
total number of bacterial colonies ex- This part shall apply to each public
ceeds 200 on a 47-mm diameter mem- water system, unless the public water
brane filter used for coliform detec- system meets all of the following con-
tion. ditions:
Total Organic Carbon (TOC) means (a) Consists only of distribution and
total organic carbon in mg/L measured storage facilities (and does not have
using heat, oxygen, ultraviolet irradia- any collection and treatment facili-
tion, chemical oxidants, or combina- ties);
tions of these oxidants that convert or- (b) Obtains all of its water from, but
ganic carbon to carbon dioxide, round- is not owned or operated by, a public
ed to two significant figures. water system to which such regula-
Total trihalomethanes (TTHM) means tions apply:
the sum of the concentration in (c) Does not sell water to any person;
milligrams per liter of the trihalo- and
methane compounds (trichloromethane (d) Is not a carrier which conveys
[chloroform], dibromochloromethane, passengers in interstate commerce.
bromodichloromethane and
tribromomethane [bromoform]), round- § 141.4 Variances and exemptions.
ed to two significant figures. (a) Variances or exemptions from
Transient non-community water system certain provisions of these regulations
or TWS means a non-community water may be granted pursuant to sections
system that does not regularly serve at 1415 and 1416 of the Act and subpart K
least 25 of the same persons over six of part 142 of this chapter (for small
months per year. system variances) by the entity with
Trihalomethane (THM) means one of primary enforcement responsibility,
the family of organic compounds, except that variances or exemptions
named as derivatives of methane, from the MCL for total coliforms and
wherein three of the four hydrogen variances from any of the treatment
atoms in methane are each substituted technique requirements of subpart H of
by a halogen atom in the molecular this part may not be granted.
structure. (b) EPA has stayed the effective date
Uncovered finished water storage facil- of this section relating to the total
ity is a tank, reservoir, or other facility coliform MCL of § 141.63(a) for systems
used to store water that will undergo that demonstrate to the State that the
no further treatment except residual violation of the total coliform MCL is

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§ 141.5 40 CFR Ch. I (7–1–03 Edition)

due to a persistent growth of total coli- (d) The regulations set forth in
forms in the distribution system rather § 141.41 shall take effect 18 months from
than fecal or pathogenic contamina- the date of promulgation. Suppliers
tion, a treatment lapse or deficiency, must complete the first round of sam-
or a problem in the operation or main- pling and reporting within 12 months
tenance of the distribution system. following the effective date.
(e) The regulations set forth in
[54 FR 27562, June 29, 1989, as amended at 56
FR 1557, Jan. 15, 1991; 63 FR 43846, Aug. 14,
§ 141.42 shall take effect 18 months from
1998] the date of promulgation. All require-
ments in § 141.42 must be completed
§ 141.5 Siting requirements. within 12 months following the effec-
tive date.
Before a person may enter into a fi-
(f) The regulations set forth in
nancial commitment for or initiate
§ 141.11(c) and § 141.23(g) are effective
construction of a new public water sys-
May 2, 1986. Section 141.23(g)(4) is effec-
tem or increase the capacity of an ex-
tive October 2, 1987.
isting public water system, he shall no-
(g) The regulations contained in
tify the State and, to the extent prac-
§ 141.6, paragraph (c) of the table in
ticable, avoid locating part or all of the
141.12, and 141.62(b)(1) are effective July
new or expanded facility at a site
1, 1991. The regulations contained in
which:
§§ 141.11(b), 141.23, 141.24, 142.57(b),
(a) Is subject to a significant risk 143.4(b)(12) and (b)(13), are effective
from earthquakes, floods, fires or other July 30, 1992. The regulations contained
disasters which could cause a break- in the revisions to §§ 141.32(e) (16), (25)
down of the public water system or a through (27) and (46); 141.61(c)(16); and
portion thereof; or 141.62(b)(3) are effective January 1, 1993.
(b) Except for intake structures, is The effective date of regulations con-
within the floodplain of a 100–year tained in § 141.61(c) (2), (3), and (4) is
flood or is lower than any recorded postponed.
high tide where appropriate records (h) Regulations for the analytic
exist. The U.S. Environmental Protec- methods listed at § 141.23(k)(4) for
tion Agency will not seek to override measuring antimony, beryllium, cya-
land use decisions affecting public nide, nickel, and thallium are effective
water systems siting which are made August 17, 1992. Regulations for the
at the State or local government lev- analytic methods listed at § 141.24(f)(16)
els. for dichloromethane, 1,2,4-trichloro-
benzene, and 1,1,2-trichloroethane are
§ 141.6 Effective dates.
effective August 17, 1992. Regulations
(a) Except as provided in paragraphs for the analytic methods listed at
(b) through (k) of this section, and in § 141.24(h)(12) for measuring dalapon,
§ 141.80(a)(2), the regulations set forth dinoseb, diquat, endothall, endrin,
in this part shall take effect on June glyphosate, oxamyl, picloram,
24, 1977. simazine, benzo(a)pyrene, di(2-
(b) The regulations for total trihalo- ethylhexyl)adipate, di(2-
methanes set forth in § 141.12(c) shall ethylhexyl)phthalate, hexachloroben-
take effect 2 years after the date of zene, hexachlorocyclopentadiene, and
promulgation of these regulations for 2,3,7,8-TCDD are effective August 17,
community water systems serving 1992. The revision to § 141.12(a) promul-
75,000 or more individuals, and 4 years gated on July 17, 1992 is effective on
after the date of promulgation for com- August 17, 1992.
munities serving 10,000 to 74,999 indi- (i) [Reserved]
viduals. (j) The arsenic maximum contami-
(c) The regulations set forth in nant levels (MCL) listed in § 141.62 is ef-
§§ 141.11(d); 141.21(a), (c) and (i); 141.22(a) fective for the purpose of compliance
and (e); 141.23(a)(3) and (a)(4); 141.23(f); on January 23, 2006. Requirements re-
141.24(e) and (f); 141.25(e); 141.27(a); lating to arsenic set forth in
141.28(a) and (b); 141.31(a), (d) and (e); §§ 141.23(i)(4), 141.23(k)(3) introductory
141.32(b)(3); and 141.32(d) shall take ef- text, 141.23(k)(3)(ii), 141.51(b), 141.62(b),
fect immediately upon promulgation. 141.62(b)(16), 141.62(c), 141.62(d), and

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Environmental Protection Agency § 141.13

142.62(b) revisions in Appendix A of sub- (4) No adverse health effects shall re-
part O for the consumer confidence sult.
rule, and Appendices A and B of sub-
[40 FR 59570, Dec. 24, 1975, as amended at 45
part Q for the public notification rule
FR 57342, Aug. 27, 1980; 47 FR 10998, Mar. 12,
are effective for the purpose of compli- 1982; 51 FR 11410, Apr. 2, 1986; 56 FR 3578, Jan.
ance on January 23, 2006. However, the 30, 1991; 56 FR 26548, June 7, 1991; 56 FR 30274,
consumer confidence rule reporting re- July 1, 1991; 56 FR 32113, July 15, 1991; 60 FR
quirements relating to arsenic listed in 33932, June 29, 1995; 65 FR 26022, May 4, 2000;
§ 141.154(b) and (f) are effective for the 66 FR 7061, Jan. 22, 2001]
purpose of compliance on February 22,
2002. § 141.12 Maximum contaminant levels
(k) Regulations set forth in for total trihalomethanes.
§§ 141.23(i)(1), 141.23(i)(2), 141.24(f)(15), The maximum contaminant level of
141.24(f)(22), 141.24(h)(11), 141.24(h)(20), 0.10 mg/L for total trihalomethanes
142.16(e), 142.16(j), and 142.16(k) are ef- (the sum of the concentrations of
fective for the purpose of compliance bromodichloromethane,
on January 22, 2004.
dibromochloromethane,
[44 FR 68641, Nov. 29, 1979, as amended at 45 tribromomethane (bromoform), and
FR 57342, Aug. 27, 1980; 47 FR 10998, Mar. 12, trichloromethane (chloroform)) applies
1982; 51 FR 11410, Apr. 2, 1986; 56 FR 30274, to subpart H community water systems
July 1, 1991; 57 FR 22178, May 27, 1992; 57 FR
31838, July 17, 1992; 59 FR 34322, July 1, 1994;
which serve a population of 10,000 peo-
61 FR 24368, May 14, 1996; 66 FR 7061, Jan. 22, ple or more until December 31, 2001.
2001; 66 FR 28350, May 22, 2001] This level applies to community water
systems that use only ground water
Subpart B—Maximum not under the direct influence of sur-
Contaminant Levels face water and serve a population of
10,000 people or more until December
§ 141.11 Maximum contaminant levels 31, 2003. Compliance with the maximum
for inorganic chemicals. contaminant level for total
(a) The maximum contaminant level trihalomethanes is calculated pursuant
for arsenic applies only to community to § 141.30. After December 31, 2003, this
water systems. The analyses and deter- section is no longer applicable.
mination of compliance with the 0.05 [63 FR 69463, Dec. 16, 1998, as amended at 66
milligrams per liter maximum con- FR 3776, Jan. 16, 2001]
taminant level for arsenic use the re-
quirements of § 141.23. § 141.13 Maximum contaminant levels
(b) The maximum contaminant level for turbidity.
for arsenic is 0.05 milligrams per liter The maximum contaminant levels
for community water systems until for turbidity are applicable to both
January 23, 2006. community water systems and non-
(c) [Reserved]
community water systems using sur-
(d) At the discretion of the State, ni-
face water sources in whole or in part.
trate levels not to exceed 20 mg/l may
The maximum contaminant levels for
be allowed in a non-community water
turbidity in drinking water, measured
system if the supplier of water dem-
onstrates to the satisfaction of the at a representative entry point(s) to
State that: the distribution system, are:
(1) Such water will not be available EDITORIAL NOTE: At 54 FR 27527, June 29,
to children under 6 months of age; and 1989, § 141.13 was amended by adding intro-
(2) The non-community water system ductory text, effective December 31, 1990,
is meeting the public notification re- however, introductory text already exists.
quirements under § 141.209, including The added text follows.
continuous posting of the fact that ni- The requirements in this section
trate levels exceed 10 mg/l and the po- apply to unfiltered systems until De-
tential health effects of exposure; and cember 30, 1991, unless the State has
(3) Local and State public health au- determined prior to that date, in writ-
thorities will be notified annually of ing pursuant to § 1412(b)(7)(C)(iii), that
nitrate levels that exceed 10 mg/l; and filtration is required. The requirements

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§ 141.15 40 CFR Ch. I (7–1–03 Edition)

in this section apply to filtered sys- mrem total body or organ dose equiva-
tems until June 29, 1993. The require- lents shall be calculated on the basis of
ments in this section apply to a 2 liter per day drinking water intake
unfiltered systems that the State has using the 168 hour data listed in ‘‘Max-
determined, in writing pursuant to imum Permissible Body Burdens and Max-
§ 1412(b)(7)(C)(iii), must install filtra- imum Permissible Concentration of Radio-
tion, until June 29, 1993, or until filtra- nuclides in Air or Water for Occupational
tion is installed, whichever is later. Exposure,’’ NBS Handbook 69 as amend-
(a) One turbidity unit (TU), as deter- ed August 1963, U.S. Department of
mined by a monthly average pursuant Commerce. If two or more radio-
to § 141.22, except that five or fewer tur- nuclides are present, the sum of their
bidity units may be allowed if the sup- annual dose equivalent to the total
plier of water can demonstrate to the body or to any organ shall not exceed 4
State that the higher turbidity does millirem/year.
not do any of the following:
(1) Interfere with disinfection; TABLE A—AVERAGE ANNUAL CONCENTRATIONS
(2) Prevent maintenance of an effec- ASSUMED TO PRODUCE A TOTAL BODY OR
tive disinfectant agent throughout the ORGAN DOSE OF 4 MREM/YR
distribution system; or
pCi per
(3) Interfere with microbiological de- Radionuclide Critical organ liter
terminations.
(b) Five turbidity units based on an Tritium ............................ Total body ..................... 20,000
Strontium–90 .................. Bone marrow ................. 8
average for two consecutive days pur-
suant to § 141.22.
[41 FR 28404, July 9, 1976]
[40 FR 59570, Dec. 24, 1975]
EFFECTIVE DATE NOTE: At 65 FR 76745, Dec.
§ 141.15 Maximum contaminant levels 7, 2000, § 141.16 was removed, effective Dec. 8,
for radium-226, radium-228, and 2003.
gross alpha particle radioactivity in
community water systems. Subpart C—Monitoring and
The following are the maximum con- Analytical Requirements
taminant levels for radium-226, ra-
dium-228, and gross alpha particle ra- § 141.21 Coliform sampling.
dioactivity: (a) Routine monitoring. (1) Public
(a) Combined radium-226 and radium- water systems must collect total coli-
228—5 pCi/1. form samples at sites which are rep-
(b) Gross alpha particle activity (in- resentative of water throughout the
cluding radium-226 but excluding radon distribution system according to a
and uranium)—15 pCi/1. written sample siting plan. These plans
[41 FR 28404, July 9, 1976] are subject to State review and revi-
sion.
EFFECTIVE DATE NOTE: At 65 FR 76745, Dec. (2) The monitoring frequency for
7, 2000, § 141.15 was removed, effective Dec. 8,
2003.
total coliforms for community water
systems is based on the population
§ 141.16 Maximum contaminant levels served by the system, as follows:
for beta particle and photon radio-
activity from man-made radio- TOTAL COLIFORM MONITORING FREQUENCY FOR
nuclides in community water sys- COMMUNITY WATER SYSTEMS
tems.
Minimum
(a) The average annual concentration number
Population served of sam-
of beta particle and photon radioac- ples per
tivity from man-made radionuclides in month
drinking water shall not produce an
25 to 1,000 1 .......................................................... 1
annual dose equivalent to the total 1,001 to 2,500 ....................................................... 2
body or any internal organ greater 2,501 to 3,300 ....................................................... 3
than 4 millirem/year. 3,301 to 4,100 ....................................................... 4
4,101 to 4,900 ....................................................... 5
(b) Except for the radionuclides list- 4,901 to 5,800 ....................................................... 6
ed in Table A, the concentration of 5,801 to 6,700 ....................................................... 7
man-made radionuclides causing 4 6,701 to 7,600 ....................................................... 8

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Environmental Protection Agency § 141.21

TOTAL COLIFORM MONITORING FREQUENCY FOR State cannot reduce the monitoring
COMMUNITY WATER SYSTEMS—Continued frequency for a non-community water
system using only ground water (ex-
Minimum
number cept ground water under the direct in-
Population served of sam- fluence of surface water, as defined in
ples per
month § 141.2) and serving 1,000 persons or
fewer to less than once/year.
7,601 to 8,500 ....................................................... 9 (ii) A non-community water system
8,501 to 12,900 ..................................................... 10
12,901 to 17,200 ................................................... 15 using only ground water (except
17,201 to 21,500 ................................................... 20 ground water under the direct influ-
21,501 to 25,000 ................................................... 25 ence of surface water, as defined in
25,001 to 33,000 ................................................... 30
33,001 to 41,000 ................................................... 40 § 141.2) and serving more than 1,000 per-
41,001 to 50,000 ................................................... 50 sons during any month must monitor
50,001 to 59,000 ................................................... 60 at the same frequency as a like-sized
59,001 to 70,000 ................................................... 70
70,001 to 83,000 ................................................... 80 community water system, as specified
83,001 to 96,000 ................................................... 90 in paragraph (a)(2) of this section, ex-
96,001 to 130,000 ................................................. 100 cept the State may reduce this moni-
130,001 to 220,000 ............................................... 120
220,001 to 320,000 ............................................... 150 toring frequency, in writing, for any
320,001 to 450,000 ............................................... 180 month the system serves 1,000 persons
450,001 to 600,000 ............................................... 210 or fewer. The State cannot reduce the
600,001 to 780,000 ............................................... 240
780,001 to 970,000 ............................................... 270 monitoring frequency to less than
970,001 to 1,230,000 ............................................ 300 once/year. For systems using ground
1,230,001 to 1,520,000 ......................................... 330 water under the direct influence of sur-
1,520,001 to 1,850,000 ......................................... 360
1,850,001 to 2,270,000 ......................................... 390 face water, paragraph (a)(3)(iv) of this
2,270,001 to 3,020,000 ......................................... 420 section applies.
3,020,001 to 3,960,000 ......................................... 450 (iii) A non-community water system
3,960,001 or more ................................................. 480
using surface water, in total or in part,
1 Includes public water systems which have at least 15
must monitor at the same frequency as
service connections, but serve fewer than 25 persons.
a like-sized community water system,
If a community water system serving as specified in paragraph (a)(2) of this
25 to 1,000 persons has no history of section, regardless of the number of
total coliform contamination in its persons it serves.
current configuration and a sanitary (iv) A non-community water system
survey conducted in the past five years using ground water under the direct
shows that the system is supplied sole- influence of surface water, as defined
ly by a protected groundwater source in § 141.2, must monitor at the same
and is free of sanitary defects, the frequency as a like-sized community
State may reduce the monitoring fre- water system, as specified in paragraph
quency specified above, except that in (a)(2) of this section. The system must
no case may the State reduce the mon- begin monitoring at this frequency be-
itoring frequency to less than one sam- ginning six months after the State de-
ple per quarter. The State must ap- termines that the ground water is
prove the reduced monitoring fre- under the direct influence of surface
quency in writing. water.
(3) The monitoring frequency for (4) The public water system must col-
total coliforms for non-community lect samples at regular time intervals
water systems is as follows: throughout the month, except that a
(i) A non-community water system system which uses only ground water
using only ground water (except (except ground water under the direct
ground water under the direct influ- influence of surface water, as defined
ence of surface water, as defined in in § 141.2), and serves 4,900 persons or
§ 141.2) and serving 1,000 persons or fewer, may collect all required samples
fewer must monitor each calendar on a single day if they are taken from
quarter that the system provides water different sites.
to the public, except that the State (5) A public water system that uses
may reduce this monitoring frequency, surface water or ground water under
in writing, if a sanitary survey shows the direct influence of surface water, as
that the system is free of sanitary de- defined in § 141.2, and does not practice
fects. Beginning June 29, 1994, the filtration in compliance with Subpart

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§ 141.21 40 CFR Ch. I (7–1–03 Edition)

H must collect at least one sample near least one repeat sample at a tap within
the first service connection each day five service connections downstream of
the turbidity level of the source water, the original sampling site. If a total
measured as specified in § 141.74(b)(2), coliform-positive sample is at the end
exceeds 1 NTU. This sample must be of the distribution system, or one away
analyzed for the presence of total coli- from the end of the distribution sys-
forms. When one or more turbidity tem, the State may waive the require-
measurements in any day exceed 1 ment to collect at least one repeat
NTU, the system must collect this coli- sample upstream or downstream of the
form sample within 24 hours of the first original sampling site.
exceedance, unless the State deter- (3) The system must collect all re-
mines that the system, for logistical peat samples on the same day, except
reasons outside the system’s control, that the State may allow a system
cannot have the sample analyzed with- with a single service connection to col-
in 30 hours of collection. Sample re- lect the required set of repeat samples
sults from this coliform monitoring over a four-day period or to collect a
must be included in determining com- larger volume repeat sample(s) in one
pliance with the MCL for total coli- or more sample containers of any size,
forms in § 141.63. as long as the total volume collected is
(6) Special purpose samples, such as at least 400 ml (300 ml for systems
those taken to determine whether dis- which collect more than one routine
infection practices are sufficient fol- sample/month).
lowing pipe placement, replacement, or (4) If one or more repeat samples in
repair, shall not be used to determine the set is total coliform-positive, the
compliance with the MCL for total public water system must collect an
coliforms in § 141.63. Repeat samples additional set of repeat samples in the
taken pursuant to paragraph (b) of this manner specified in paragraphs (b) (1)–
section are not considered special pur- (3) of this section. The additional sam-
pose samples, and must be used to de- ples must be collected within 24 hours
termine compliance with the MCL for of being notified of the positive result,
total coliforms in § 141.63. unless the State extends the limit as
(b) Repeat monitoring. (1) If a routine provided in paragraph (b)(1) of this sec-
sample is total coliform-positive, the tion. The system must repeat this
public water system must collect a set process until either total coliforms are
of repeat samples within 24 hours of not detected in one complete set of re-
being notified of the positive result. A peat samples or the system determines
system which collects more than one that the MCL for total coliforms in
routine sample/month must collect no § 141.63 has been exceeded and notifies
fewer than three repeat samples for the State.
each total coliform-positive sample (5) If a system collecting fewer than
found. A system which collects one five routine samples/month has one or
routine sample/month or fewer must more total coliform-positive samples
collect no fewer than four repeat sam- and the State does not invalidate the
ples for each total coliform-positive sample(s) under paragraph (c) of this
sample found. The State may extend section, it must collect at least five
the 24-hour limit on a case-by-case routine samples during the next month
basis if the system has a logistical the system provides water to the pub-
problem in collecting the repeat sam- lic, except that the State may waive
ples within 24 hours that is beyond its this requirement if the conditions of
control. In the case of an extension, paragraph (b)(5) (i) or (ii) of this sec-
the State must specify how much time tion are met. The State cannot waive
the system has to collect the repeat the requirement for a system to collect
samples. repeat samples in paragraphs (b) (1)–(4)
(2) The system must collect at least of this section.
one repeat sample from the sampling (i) The State may waive the require-
tap where the original total coliform- ment to collect five routine samples
positive sample was taken, and at least the next month the system provides
one repeat sample at a tap within five water to the public if the State, or an
service connections upstream and at agent approved by the State, performs

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Environmental Protection Agency § 141.21

a site visit before the end of the next contain total coliforms, then the sys-
month the system provides water to tem may count the subsequent sam-
the public. Although a sanitary survey ple(s) as a repeat sample instead of as
need not be performed, the site visit a routine sample.
must be sufficiently detailed to allow (7) Results of all routine and repeat
the State to determine whether addi- samples not invalidated by the State
tional monitoring and/or any correc- must be included in determining com-
tive action is needed. The State cannot pliance with the MCL for total coli-
approve an employee of the system to forms in § 141.63.
perform this site visit, even if the em- (c) Invalidation of total coliform sam-
ployee is an agent approved by the ples. A total coliform-positive sample
State to perform sanitary surveys. invalidated under this paragraph (c)
(ii) The State may waive the require- does not count towards meeting the
ment to collect five routine samples minimum monitoring requirements of
the next month the system provides this section.
water to the public if the State has de- (1) The State may invalidate a total
termined why the sample was total coliform-positive sample only if the
coliform-positive and establishes that conditions of paragraph (c)(1) (i), (ii),
the system has corrected the problem or (iii) of this section are met.
or will correct the problem before the (i) The laboratory establishes that
end of the next month the system improper sample analysis caused the
serves water to the public. In this case, total coliform-positive result.
the State must document this decision (ii) The State, on the basis of the re-
to waive the following month’s addi- sults of repeat samples collected as re-
tional monitoring requirement in writ- quired by paragraphs (b) (1) through (4)
ing, have it approved and signed by the of this section, determines that the
supervisor of the State official who total coliform-positive sample resulted
recommends such a decision, and make from a domestic or other non-distribu-
this document available to the EPA tion system plumbing problem. The
and public. The written documentation State cannot invalidate a sample on
must describe the specific cause of the the basis of repeat sample results un-
total coliform-positive sample and less all repeat sample(s) collected at
what action the system has taken and/ the same tap as the original total coli-
or will take to correct this problem. form-positive sample are also total
The State cannot waive the require- coliform-positive, and all repeat sam-
ment to collect five routine samples ples collected within five service con-
the next month the system provides nections of the original tap are total
water to the public solely on the coliform-negative (e.g., a State cannot
grounds that all repeat samples are invalidate a total coliform-positive
total coliform-negative. Under this sample on the basis of repeat samples if
paragraph, a system must still take at all the repeat samples are total coli-
least one routine sample before the end form-negative, or if the public water
of the next month it serves water to system has only one service connec-
the public and use it to determine com- tion).
pliance with the MCL for total coli- (iii) The State has substantial
forms in § 141.63, unless the State has grounds to believe that a total coli-
determined that the system has cor- form-positive result is due to a cir-
rected the contamination problem be- cumstance or condition which does not
fore the system took the set of repeat reflect water quality in the distribu-
samples required in paragraphs (b) (1)– tion system. In this case, the system
(4) of this section, and all repeat sam- must still collect all repeat samples re-
ples were total coliform-negative. quired under paragraphs (b) (1)–(4) of
(6) After a system collects a routine this section, and use them to deter-
sample and before it learns the results mine compliance with the MCL for
of the analysis of that sample, if it col- total coliforms in § 141.63. To invalidate
lects another routine sample(s) from a total coliform-positive sample under
within five adjacent service connec- this paragraph, the decision with the
tions of the initial sample, and the ini- rationale for the decision must be doc-
tial sample, after analysis, is found to umented in writing, and approved and

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§ 141.21 40 CFR Ch. I (7–1–03 Edition)

signed by the supervisor of the State measures, if any, the system needs to
official who recommended the decision. undertake to improve drinking water
The State must make this document quality.
available to EPA and the public. The (ii) In conducting a sanitary survey
written documentation must state the of a system using ground water in a
specific cause of the total coliform- State having an EPA-approved well-
positive sample, and what action the head protection program under section
system has taken, or will take, to cor- 1428 of the Safe Drinking Water Act,
rect this problem. The State may not information on sources of contamina-
invalidate a total coliform-positive tion within the delineated wellhead
sample solely on the grounds that all protection area that was collected in
repeat samples are total coliform-nega- the course of developing and imple-
tive.
menting the program should be consid-
(2) A laboratory must invalidate a
ered instead of collecting new informa-
total coliform sample (unless total
tion, if the information was collected
coliforms are detected) if the sample
since the last time the system was sub-
produces a turbid culture in the ab-
sence of gas production using an ana- ject to a sanitary survey.
lytical method where gas formation is (2) Sanitary surveys must be per-
examined (e.g., the Multiple-Tube Fer- formed by the State or an agent ap-
mentation Technique), produces a proved by the State. The system is re-
turbid culture in the absence of an acid sponsible for ensuring the survey takes
reaction in the Presence-Absence (P–A) place.
Coliform Test, or exhibits confluent (e) Fecal coliforms/Escherichia coli (E.
growth or produces colonies too numer- coli) testing. (1) If any routine or repeat
ous to count with an analytical method sample is total coliform-positive, the
using a membrane filter (e.g., Mem- system must analyze that total coli-
brane Filter Technique). If a labora- form-positive culture medium to deter-
tory invalidates a sample because of mine if fecal coliforms are present, ex-
such interference, the system must col- cept that the system may test for E.
lect another sample from the same lo- coli in lieu of fecal coliforms. If fecal
cation as the original sample within 24 coliforms or E. coli are present, the sys-
hours of being notified of the inter- tem must notify the State by the end
ference problem, and have it analyzed of the day when the system is notified
for the presence of total coliforms. The of the test result, unless the system is
system must continue to re-sample notified of the result after the State of-
within 24 hours and have the samples fice is closed, in which case the system
analyzed until it obtains a valid result. must notify the State before the end of
The State may waive the 24-hour time the next business day.
limit on a case-by-case basis.
(2) The State has the discretion to
(d) Sanitary surveys. (1)(i) Public
allow a public water system, on a case-
water systems which do not collect five
by-case basis, to forgo fecal coliform or
or more routine samples/month must
E. coli testing on a total coliform-posi-
undergo an initial sanitary survey by
June 29, 1994, for community public tive sample if that system assumes
water systems and June 29, 1999, for that the total coliform-positive sample
non-community water systems. There- is fecal coliform-positive or E. coli-posi-
after, systems must undergo another tive. Accordingly, the system must no-
sanitary survey every five years, ex- tify the State as specified in paragraph
cept that non-community water sys- (e)(1) of this section and the provisions
tems using only protected and dis- of § 141.63(b) apply.
infected ground water, as defined by (f) Analytical methodology. (1) The
the State, must undergo subsequent standard sample volume required for
sanitary surveys at least every ten total coliform analysis, regardless of
years after the initial sanitary survey. analytical method used, is 100 ml.
The State must review the results of (2) Public water systems need only
each sanitary survey to determine determine the presence or absence of
whether the existing monitoring fre- total coliforms; a determination of
quency is adequate and what additional total coliform density is not required.

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Environmental Protection Agency § 141.21

(3) Public water systems must con- ance with one of the analytical meth-
duct total coliform analyses in accord- ods in the following table.
Organism Methodology 12 Citation 1

Total Coliforms 2 .............. Total Coliform Fermentation Technique 3,4,5.................................................... 9221A, B


Total Coliform Membrane Filter Technique 6 ................................................... 9222 A, B, C
Presence-Absence (P–A) Coliform Test 5,7 ..................................................... 9221 D
ONPG–MUG Test 8 .......................................................................................... 9223
Colisure Test 9
E*Colite Test 10
m-ColiBlue24 Test 11
Readycult Coliforms 100 Presence/Absence Test 13
Membrane Filter Technique using Chromocult Coliform Agar 14
The procedures shall be done in accordance with the documents listed below. The incorporation by reference of the following
documents listed in footnotes 1, 6, 8, 9, 10, 11, 13 and 14 was approved by the Director of the Federal Register in accordance
with 5 U.S.C. 552(a) and 1 CFR Part 51. Copies of the documents may be obtained from the sources listed below. Information
regarding obtaining these documents can be obtained from the Safe Drinking Water Hotline at 800–426–4791. Documents may
be inspected at EPA’s Drinking Water Docket, EPA West, 1301 Constitution Avenue, NW, EPA West, Room B102, Washington
DC 20460 (Telephone: 202–566–2426); or at the Office of Federal Register, 800 North Capitol Street, NW, Suite 700, Wash-
ington, D.C. 20408.
1 Standard Methods for the Examination of Water and Wastewater, 18th edition (1992), 19th edition (1995), or 20th edition
(1998). American Public Health Association, 1015 Fifteenth Street, NW, Washington, DC 20005. The cited methods published in
any of these three editions may be used.
2 The time from sample collection to initiation of analysis may not exceed 30 hours. Systems are encouraged but not required
to hold samples below 10 deg. C during transit.
3 Lactose broth, as commercially available, may be used in lieu of lauryl tryptose broth, if the system conducts at least 25 par-
allel tests between this medium and lauryl tryptose broth using the water normally tested, and this comparison demonstrates that
the false-positive rate and false-negative rate for total coliform, using lactose broth, is less than 10 percent.
4 If inverted tubes are used to detect gas production, the media should cover these tubes at least one-half to two-thirds after
the sample is added.
5 No requirement exists to run the completed phase on 10 percent of all total coliform-positive confirmed tubes.
6 MI agar also may be used. Preparation and use of MI agar is set forth in the article, ‘‘New medium for the simultaneous de-
tection of total coliform and Escherichia coli in water’’ by Brenner, K.P., et. al., 1993, Appl. Environ. Microbiol. 59:3534–3544.
Also available from the Office of Water Resource Center (RC–4100T), 1200 Pennsylvania Avenue, NW, Washington DC, 20460,
EPA/600/J–99/225. Verification of colonies is not required.
7 Six-times formulation strength may be used if the medium is filter-sterilized rather than autoclaved.
8 The ONPG–MUG Test is also known as the Autoanalysis Colilert System.
9 A description of the Colisure Test, Feb 28, 1994, may be obtained from IDEXX Laboratories, Inc., One IDEXX Drive,
Westbrook, Maine 04092. The Colisure Test may be read after an incubation time of 24 hours.
10 A description of the E*Colite Test, ‘‘Presence/Absence for Coliforms and E. Coli in Water,’’ Dec 21, 1997, is available from
Charm Sciences, Inc., 36 Franklin Street, Malden, MA 02148–4120.
11 A description of the m-ColiBlue24 Test, Aug 17, 1999, is available from the Hach Company, 100 Dayton Avenue, Ames, IA
50010.
12 EPA strongly recommends that laboratories evaluate the false-positive and negative rates for the method(s) they use for
monitoring total coliforms. EPA also encourages laboratories to establish false-positive and false-negative rates within their own
laboratory and sample matrix (drinking water or source water) with the intent that if the method they choose has an unacceptable
false-positive or negative rate, another method can be used. The Agency suggests that laboratories perform these studies on a
minimum of 5% of all total coliform-positive samples, except for those methods where verification/confirmation is already re-
quired, e.g., the M-Endo and LES Endo Membrane Filter Tests, Standard Total Coliform Fermentation Technique, and Presence-
Absence Coliform Test. Methods for establishing false-positive and negative-rates may be based on lactose fermentation, the
rapid test for b–galactosidase and cytochrome oxidase, multi-test identification systems, or equivalent confirmation tests. False-
positive and false-negative information is often available in published studies and/or from the manufacturer(s).
13 The Readycult Coliforms 100 Presence/Absence Test is described in the document, ‘‘Readycult Coliforms 100 Presence/
Absence Test for Detection and Identification of Coliform Bacteria and Escherichla coli in Finished Waters’’, November 2000,
Version 1.0, available from EM Science (an affiliate of Merck KGgA, Darmstadt Germany), 480 S. Democrat Road, Gibbstown,
NJ 08027–1297. Telephone number is (800) 222–0342, e-mail address is: adellenbusch@emscience.com.
14 Membrane Filter Technique using Chromocult Coliform Agar is described in the document, ‘‘Chromocult Coliform Agar
Presence/Absence Membrane Filter Test Method for Detection and Identification of Coliform Bacteria and Escherichla coli in Fin-
ished Waters’’, November 2000, Version 1.0, available from EM Science (an affiliate of Merck KGgA, Darmstadt Germany), 480
S. Democrat Road, Gibbstown, NJ 08027–1297. Telephone number is (800) 222–0342, e-mail address is:
adellenbusch@emscience.com.

(4) [Reserved] coliforms, respectively. For EPA-ap-


(5) Public water systems must con- proved analytical methods which use a
duct fecal coliform analysis in accord- membrane filter, transfer the total
ance with the following procedure. coliform-positive culture by one of the
When the MTF Technique or Presence- following methods: remove the mem-
Absence (PA) Coliform Test is used to brane containing the total coliform
test for total coliforms, shake the lac- colonies from the substrate with a ster-
tose-positive presumptive tube or P–A ile forceps and carefully curl and insert
vigorously and transfer the growth the membrane into a tube of EC me-
with a sterile 3-mm loop or sterile ap- dium (the laboratory may first remove
plicator stick into brilliant green lac- a small portion of selected colonies for
tose bile broth and EC medium to de-
termine the presence of total and fecal

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§ 141.21 40 CFR Ch. I (7–1–03 Edition)

verification), swab the entire mem- (1998). Either edition may be used for
brane filter surface with a sterile cot- determining if a total coliform-positive
ton swab and transfer the inoculum to sample, as determined by a membrane
EC medium (do not leave the cotton filter technique, contains E. coli. Al-
swab in the EC medium), or inoculate ternatively, the 18th edition (1992) may
individual total coliform-positive colo- be used if the membrane filter con-
nies into EC Medium. Gently shake the taining a total coliform-positive col-
inoculated tubes of EC medium to in- ony(ies) is transferred to nutrient agar,
sure adequate mixing and incubate in a as described in Method 9221B (para-
waterbath at 44.5 ± 0.2 °C for 24 ± 2 graph 3) of Standard Methods (18th edi-
hours. Gas production of any amount tion), supplemented with 100 µg/mL of
in the inner fermentation tube of the MUG. If the 18th edition is used, incu-
EC medium indicates a positive fecal bate the agar plate at 35 °C for 4 hours
coliform test. The preparation of EC and then observe the colony(ies) under
medium is described in Method 9221E ultraviolet light (366 nm) in the dark
(paragraph 1a) in Standard Methods for for fluorescence. If fluorescence is visi-
the Examination of Water and Waste- ble, E. coli are present.
water, 18th edition (1992), 19th edition (iii) Minimal Medium ONPG–MUG
(1995), and 20th edition (1998); the cited (MMO–MUG) Test, as set forth in the
method in any one of these three edi- article ‘‘National Field Evaluation of a
tions may be used. Public water sys- Defined Substrate Method for the Si-
tems need only determine the presence multaneous Detection of Total Coli-
or absence of fecal coliforms; a deter- forms and Escherichia coli from Drink-
mination of fecal coliform density is ing Water: Comparison with Presence-
not required. Absence Techniques’’ (Edberg et al.),
(6) Public water systems must con- Applied and Environmental Microbi-
duct analysis of Escherichia coli in ac- ology, Volume 55, pp. 1003–1008, April
cordance with one of the following ana- 1989. (Note: The Autoanalysis Colilert
lytical methods: System is an MMO–MUG test). If the
(i) EC medium supplemented with 50 MMO–MUG test is total coliform-posi-
µg/mL of 4-methylumbelliferyl-beta-D- tive after a 24-hour incubation, test the
glucuronide (MUG) (final concentra- medium for fluorescence with a 366-nm
tion), as described in Method 9222G in ultraviolet light (preferably with a 6-
Standard Methods for the Examination watt lamp) in the dark. If fluorescence
of Water and Wastewater, 19th edition is observed, the sample is E. coli-posi-
(1995) and 20th edition (1998). Either tive. If fluorescence is questionable
edition may be used. Alternatively, the (cannot be definitively read) after 24
18th edition (1992) may be used if at hours incubation, incubate the culture
least 10 mL of EC medium, as described for an additional four hours (but not to
in paragraph (f)(5) of this section, is exceed 28 hours total), and again test
supplemented with 50 µg/mL of MUG the medium for fluorescence. The
before autoclaving. The inner inverted MMO–MUG Test with hepes buffer in
fermentation tube may be omitted. If lieu of phosphate buffer is the only ap-
the 18th edition is used, apply the pro- proved formulation for the detection of
cedure in paragraph (f)(5) of this sec- E. coli.
tion for transferring a total coliform- (iv) The Colisure Test. A description
positive culture to EC medium supple- of the Colisure Test may be obtained
mented with MUG, incubate the tube from the Millipore Corporation, Tech-
at 44.5 ± 0.2 °C for 24 ± 2 hours, and then nical Services Department, 80 Ashby
observe fluorescence with an ultra- Road, Bedford, MA 01730.
violet light (366 nm) in the dark. If flu- (v) The membrane filter method with
orescence is visible, E. coli are present. MI agar, a description of which is cited
(ii) Nutrient agar supplemented with in footnote 6 to the table in paragraph
100 µg/mL of 4-methylumbelliferyl- (f)(3) of this section.
beta-D-glucuronide (MUG) (final con- (vi) E*Colite Test, a description of
centration), as described in Method which is cited in footnote 10 to the
9222G in Standard Methods for the Ex- table at paragraph (f)(3) of this section.
amination of Water and Wastewater, (vii) m-ColiBlue24 Test, a descrip-
19th edition (1995) and 20th edition tion of which is cited in footnote 11 to

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Environmental Protection Agency § 141.22

the table in paragraph (f)(3) of this sec- tained from the Millipore Corp., Tech-
tion. nical Services Department, 80 Ashby
(viii) Readycult Coliforms 100 Pres- Road, Bedford, MA 01730. Copies may be
ence/Absence Test, a description of inspected at EPA’s Drinking Water
which is cited in footnote 13 to the Docket; 401 M St., SW.; Washington,
table at paragraph (f)(3) of this section. DC 20460, or at the Office of the Federal
(ix) Membrane Filter Technique Register; 800 North Capitol Street,
using Chromocult Coliform Agar, a NW., suite 700, Washington, DC.
description of which is cited in foot- (g) Response to violation. (1) A public
note 14 to the table at paragraph (f)(3) water system which has exceeded the
of this section. MCL for total coliforms in § 141.63 must
(7) As an option to paragraph report the violation to the State no
(f)(6)(iii) of this section, a system with later than the end of the next business
a total coliform-positive, MUG-nega- day after it learns of the violation, and
tive, MMO–MUG test may further ana- notify the public in accordance with
lyze the culture for the presence of E. subpart Q.
coli by transferring a 0.1 ml, 28-hour (2) A public water system which has
MMO–MUG culture to EC Medium + failed to comply with a coliform moni-
MUG with a pipet. The formulation and toring requirement, including the sani-
incubation conditions of EC Medium + tary survey requirement, must report
MUG, and observation of the results the monitoring violation to the State
are described in paragraph (f)(6)(i) of within ten days after the system dis-
this section. covers the violation, and notify the
(8) The following materials are incor- public in accordance with subpart Q.
porated by reference in this section
[54 FR 27562, June 29, 1989, as amended at 54
with the approval of the Director of the
FR 30001, July 17, 1989; 55 FR 25064, June 19,
Federal Register in accordance with 5 1990; 56 FR 642, Jan. 8, 1991; 57 FR 1852, Jan.
U.S.C. 552(a) and 1 CFR part 51. Copies 15, 1992; 57 FR 24747, June 10, 1992; 59 FR
of the analytical methods cited in 62466, Dec. 5, 1994; 60 FR 34085, June 29, 1995;
Standard Methods for the Examination 64 FR 67461, Dec. 1, 1999; 65 FR 26022, May 4,
of Water and Wastewater (18th, 19th, 2000; 67 FR 65246, Oct. 23, 2002; 67 FR 65896,
and 20th editions) may be obtained Oct. 29, 2002]
from the American Public Health Asso-
ciation et al.; 1015 Fifteenth Street, § 141.22 Turbidity sampling and ana-
lytical requirements.
NW., Washington, DC 20005–2605. Copies
of the MMO–MUG Test, as set forth in The requirements in this section
the article ‘‘National Field Evaluation apply to unfiltered systems until De-
of a Defined Substrate Method for the cember 30, 1991, unless the State has
Simultaneous Enumeration of Total determined prior to that date, in writ-
Coliforms and Escherichia coli from ing pursuant to section 1412(b)(7)(iii),
Drinking Water: Comparison with the that filtration is required. The require-
Standard Multiple Tube Fermentation ments in this section apply to filtered
Method’’ (Edberg et al.) may be ob- systems until June 29, 1993. The re-
tained from the American Water Works quirements in this section apply to
Association Research Foundation, 6666 unfiltered systems that the State has
West Quincy Avenue, Denver, CO 80235. determined, in writing pursuant to sec-
Copies of the MMO–MUG Test as set tion 1412(b)(7)(C)(iii), must install fil-
forth in the article ‘‘National Field tration, until June 29, 1993, or until fil-
Evaluation of a Defined Substrate tration is installed, whichever is later.
Method for the Simultaneous Enu- (a) Samples shall be taken by sup-
meration of Total Coliforms and Esch- pliers of water for both community and
erichia coli from Drinking Water: Com- non-community water systems at a
parison with the Standard Multiple representative entry point(s) to the
Tube Fermentation Method’’ (Edberg et water distribution system at least once
al.) may be obtained from the Amer- per day, for the purposes of making
ican Water Works Association Re- turbidity measurements to determine
search Foundation, 6666 West Quincy compliance with § 141.13. If the State
Avenue, Denver, CO 80235. A descrip- determines that a reduced sampling
tion of the Colisure Test may be ob- frequency in a non-community will not

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§ 141.23 40 CFR Ch. I (7–1–03 Edition)

pose a risk to public health, it can re- with this section. Non-transient, non-
duce the required sampling frequency. community water systems shall con-
The option of reducing the turbidity duct monitoring to determine compli-
frequency shall be permitted only in ance with the maximum contaminant
those public water systems that prac- levels specified in § 141.62 in accordance
tice disinfection and which maintain with this section. Transient, non-com-
an active residual disinfectant in the munity water systems shall conduct
distribution system, and in those cases monitoring to determine compliance
where the State has indicated in writ- with the nitrate and nitrite maximum
ing that no unreasonable risk to health contaminant levels in §§ 141.11 and
existed under the circumstances of this 141.62 (as appropriate) in accordance
option. Turbidity measurements shall with this section.
be made as directed in § 141.74(a)(1). (a) Monitoring shall be conducted as
(b) If the result of a turbidity anal- follows:
ysis indicates that the maximum al- (1) Groundwater systems shall take a
lowable limit has been exceeded, the
minimum of one sample at every entry
sampling and measurement shall be
point to the distribution system which
confirmed by resampling as soon as
is representative of each well after
practicable and preferably within one
treatment (hereafter called a sampling
hour. If the repeat sample confirms
point) beginning in the initial compli-
that the maximum allowable limit has
ance period. The system shall take
been exceeded, the supplier of water
each sample at the same sampling
shall report to the State within 48
point unless conditions make another
hours. The repeat sample shall be the
sampling point more representative of
sample used for the purpose of calcu-
each source or treatment plant.
lating the monthly average. If the
monthly average of the daily samples (2) Surface water systems shall take
exceeds the maximum allowable limit, a minimum of one sample at every
or if the average of two samples taken entry point to the distribution system
on consecutive days exceeds 5 TU, the after any application of treatment or
supplier of water shall report to the in the distribution system at a point
State and notify the public as directed which is representative of each source
in §§ 141.31 and subpart Q. after treatment (hereafter called a
(c) Sampling for non-community sampling point) beginning in the ini-
water systems shall begin within two tial compliance period. The system
years after the effective date of this shall take each sample at the same
part. sampling point unless conditions make
(d) The requirements of this § 141.22 another sampling point more rep-
shall apply only to public water sys- resentative of each source or treatment
tems which use water obtained in plant.
whole or in part from surface sources. NOTE: For purposes of this paragraph, sur-
(e) The State has the authority to de- face water systems include systems with a
termine compliance or initiate enforce- combination of surface and ground sources.
ment action based upon analytical re- (3) If a system draws water from
sults or other information compiled by more than one source and the sources
their sanctioned representatives and are combined before distribution, the
agencies. system must sample at an entry point
to the distribution system during peri-
[40 FR 59570, Dec. 24, 1975, as amended at 45 ods of normal operating conditions
FR 57344, Aug. 27, 1980; 47 FR 8998, Mar. 3,
1982; 47 FR 10998, Mar. 12, 1982; 54 FR 27527,
(i.e., when water is representative of
June 29, 1989; 59 FR 62466, Dec. 5, 1994; 65 FR all sources being used).
26022, May 4, 2000] (4) The State may reduce the total
number of samples which must be
§ 141.23 Inorganic chemical sampling analyzed by allowing the use of
and analytical requirements. compositing. Composite samples from
Community water systems shall con- a maximum of five samples are al-
duct monitoring to determine compli- lowed, provided that the detection
ance with the maximum contaminant limit of the method used for analysis is
levels specified in § 141.62 in accordance less than one-fifth of the MCL.

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Environmental Protection Agency § 141.23

Compositing of samples must be done composite. These samples must be ana-


in the laboratory. lyzed for the contaminants which ex-
(i) If the concentration in the com- ceeded one-fifth of the MCL in the
posite sample is greater than or equal composite sample. Detection limits for
to one-fifth of the MCL of any inor- each analytical method and MCLs for
ganic chemical, then a follow-up sam- each inorganic contaminant are the
ple must be taken within 14 days at following:
each sampling point included in the
DETECTION LIMITS FOR INORGANIC CONTAMINANTS
Detection limit
Contaminant MCL (mg/l) Methodology (mg/l)

Antimony ............................. 0.006 ........ Atomic Absorption; Furnace ............................................................... 0.003


Atomic Absorption; Platform .............................................................. 0.0008 5
ICP-Mass Spectrometry ..................................................................... 0.0004
Hydride-Atomic Absorption ................................................................ 0.001
Arsenic ................................ 0.010 6 ..... Atomic Absorption; Furnace ............................................................... 0.001
Atomic Absorption; Platform—Stabilized Temperature ..................... 0.0005 7
Atomic Absorption; Gaseous Hydride ................................................ 0.001
ICP-Mass Spectrometry ..................................................................... 0.0014 8
Asbestos ............................. 7 MFL 1 .... Transmission Electron Microscopy .................................................... 0.01 MFL
Barium ................................ 2 ............... Atomic Absorption; furnace technique ............................................... 0.002
Atomic Absorption; direct aspiration .................................................. 0.1
Inductively Coupled Plasma ............................................................... 0.002 (0.001)
Beryllium ............................. 0.004 ........ Atomic Absorption; Furnace ............................................................... 0.0002
Atomic Absorption; Platform .............................................................. 0.00002 5
Inductively Coupled Plasma 2 ............................................................ 0.0003
ICP-Mass Spectrometry ..................................................................... 0.0003
Cadmium ............................ 0.005 ........ Atomic Absorption; furnace technique ............................................... 0.0001
Inductively Coupled Plasma ............................................................... 0.001
Chromium ........................... 0.1 ............ Atomic Absorption; furnace technique ............................................... 0.001
Inductively Coupled Plasma ............................................................... 0.007 (0.001)
Cyanide ............................... 0.2 ............ Distillation, Spectrophotometric 3 ....................................................... 0.02
............. Distillation, Automated, Spectrophotometric 3 .................................... 0.005
............. Distillation, Amenable, Spectrophotometric 4 ..................................... 0.02
............. Distillation, Selective Electrode 3 ........................................................ 0.05
............. UV, Distillation, Spectrophotometric .................................................. 0.0005
............. Distillation, Spectrophotometric .......................................................... 0.0006
Mercury ............................... 0.002 ........ Manual Cold Vapor Technique .......................................................... 0.0002
Automated Cold Vapor Technique ..................................................... 0.0002
Nickel .................................. xl .............. Atomic Absorption; Furnace ............................................................... 0.001
Atomic Absorption; Platform .............................................................. 0.0006 5
Inductively Coupled Plasma 2 ............................................................ 0.005
ICP-Mass Spectrometry ..................................................................... 0.0005
Nitrate ................................. 10 (as N) Manual Cadmium Reduction .............................................................. 0.01
Automated Hydrazine Reduction ....................................................... 0.01
Automated Cadmium Reduction ........................................................ 0.05
Ion Selective Electrode ...................................................................... 1
Ion Chromatography .......................................................................... 0.01
Nitrite .................................. 1 (as N) ... Spectrophotometric ............................................................................ 0.01
Automated Cadmium Reduction ........................................................ 0.05
Manual Cadmium Reduction .............................................................. 0.01
Ion Chromatography .......................................................................... 0.004
Selenium ............................. 0.05 .......... Atomic Absorption; furnace ................................................................ 0.002
Atomic Absorption; gaseous hydride ................................................. 0.002
Thallium .............................. 0.002 ........ Atomic Absorption; Furnace ............................................................... 0.001
Atomic Absorption; Platform .............................................................. 0.0007 5
ICP-Mass Spectrometry ..................................................................... 0.0003
1 MFL = million fibers per liter >10 µm.
2 Using a 2X preconcentration step as noted in Method 200.7. Lower MDLs may be achieved when using a 4X
preconcentration.
3 Screening method for total cyanides.
4 Measures ‘‘free’’ cyanides.
5 Lower MDLs are reported using stabilized temperature graphite furnace atomic absorption.
6 The value for arsenic is effective January 23, 2006. Unit then, the MCL is 0.05 mg/L.
7 The MDL reported for EPA method 200.9 (Atomic Absorption; Platform—Stablized Temperature) was determined using a 2x
concentration step during sample digestion. The MDL determined for samples analyzed using direct analyses (i.e., no sample di-
gestion) will be higher. Using multiple depositions, EPA 200.9 is capable of obtaining MDL of 0.0001 mg/L.
8 Using selective ion monitoring, EPA Method 200.8 (ICP–MS) is capable of obtaining a MDL of 0.0001 mg/L.

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§ 141.23 40 CFR Ch. I (7–1–03 Edition)

(ii) If the population served by the (ii) The use of asbestos-cement pipe
system is >3,300 persons, then for finished water distribution and the
compositing may only be permitted by corrosive nature of the water.
the State at sampling points within a (4) A waiver remains in effect until
single system. In systems serving ≤3,300 the completion of the three-year com-
persons, the State may permit pliance period. Systems not receiving a
compositing among different systems waiver must monitor in accordance
provided the 5-sample limit is main- with the provisions of paragraph (b)(1)
tained. of this section.
(iii) If duplicates of the original sam- (5) A system vulnerable to asbestos
ple taken from each sampling point contamination due solely to corrosion
used in the composite sample are avail- of asbestos-cement pipe shall take one
able, the system may use these instead sample at a tap served by asbestos-ce-
of resampling. The duplicates must be ment pipe and under conditions where
analyzed and the results reported to asbestos contamination is most likely
the State within 14 days after com- to occur.
pleting analysis of the composite sam- (6) A system vulnerable to asbestos
ple, provided the holding time of the contamination due solely to source
sample is not exceeded. water shall monitor in accordance with
(5) The frequency of monitoring for the provision of paragraph (a) of this
asbestos shall be in accordance with section.
paragraph (b) of this section: the fre- (7) A system vulnerable to asbestos
quency of monitoring for antimony, ar- contamination due both to its source
senic, barium, beryllium, cadmium, water supply and corrosion of asbestos-
chromium, cyanide, fluoride, mercury, cement pipe shall take one sample at a
nickel, selenium and thallium shall be tap served by asbestos-cement pipe and
in accordance with paragraph (c) of under conditions where asbestos con-
this section; the frequency of moni- tamination is most likely to occur.
toring for nitrate shall be in accord- (8) A system which exceeds the max-
ance with paragraph (d) of this section; imum contaminant levels as deter-
and the frequency of monitoring for ni- mined in § 141.23(i) of this section shall
trite shall be in accordance with para- monitor quarterly beginning in the
graph (e) of this section. next quarter after the violation oc-
(b) The frequency of monitoring con- curred.
ducted to determine compliance with (9) The State may decrease the quar-
the maximum contaminant level for terly monitoring requirement to the
asbestos specified in § 141.62(b) shall be frequency specified in paragraph (b)(1)
conducted as follows: of this section provided the State has
(1) Each community and non-tran- determined that the system is reliably
sient, non-community water system is and consistently below the maximum
required to monitor for asbestos during contaminant level. In no case can a
the first three-year compliance period State make this determination unless
of each nine-year compliance cycle be- a groundwater system takes a min-
ginning in the compliance period start- imum of two quarterly samples and a
ing January 1, 1993. surface (or combined surface/ground)
(2) If the system believes it is not water system takes a minimum of four
vulnerable to either asbestos contami- quarterly samples.
nation in its source water or due to (10) If monitoring data collected after
corrosion of asbestos-cement pipe, or January 1, 1990 are generally con-
both, it may apply to the State for a sistent with the requirements of
waiver of the monitoring requirement § 141.23(b), then the State may allow
in paragraph (b)(1) of this section. If systems to use that data to satisfy the
the State grants the waiver, the sys- monitoring requirement for the initial
tem is not required to monitor. compliance period beginning January
(3) The State may grant a waiver 1, 1993.
based on a consideration of the fol- (c) The frequency of monitoring con-
lowing factors: ducted to determine compliance with
(i) Potential asbestos contamination the maximum contaminant levels in
of the water source, and § 141.62 for antimony, arsenic, barium,

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Environmental Protection Agency § 141.23

beryllium, cadmium, chromium, cya- public water system shall specify the
nide, fluoride, mercury, nickel, sele- basis for its request. The State shall
nium and thallium shall be as follows: review and, where appropriate, revise
(1) Groundwater systems shall take its determination of the appropriate
one sample at each sampling point dur- monitoring frequency when the system
ing each compliance period. Surface submits new monitoring data or when
water systems (or combined surface/ other data relevant to the system’s ap-
ground) shall take one sample annually propriate monitoring frequency be-
at each sampling point. come available.
(2) The system may apply to the (7) Systems which exceed the max-
State for a waiver from the monitoring imum contaminant levels as calculated
frequencies specified in paragraph (c)(1) in § 141.23(i) of this section shall mon-
of this section. States may grant a itor quarterly beginning in the next
public water system a waiver for moni- quarter after the violation occurred.
toring of cyanide, provided that the (8) The State may decrease the quar-
State determines that the system is terly monitoring requirement to the
not vulnerable due to lack of any in- frequencies specified in paragraphs
dustrial source of cyanide. (c)(1) and (c)(2) of this section provided
(3) A condition of the waiver shall re- it has determined that the system is
quire that a system shall take a min- reliably and consistently below the
imum of one sample while the waiver is maximum contaminant level. In no
effective. The term during which the case can a State make this determina-
waiver is effective shall not exceed one tion unless a groundwater system
compliance cycle (i.e., nine years). takes a minimum of two quarterly
(4) The State may grant a waiver pro- samples and a surface water system
vided surface water systems have mon- takes a minimum of four quarterly
itored annually for at least three years samples.
and groundwater systems have con- (d) All public water systems (commu-
ducted a minimum of three rounds of nity; non-transient, non-community;
monitoring. (At least one sample shall and transient, non-community sys-
have been taken since January 1, 1990). tems) shall monitor to determine com-
Both surface and groundwater systems pliance with the maximum contami-
shall demonstrate that all previous an- nant level for nitrate in § 141.62.
alytical results were less than the max- (1) Community and non-transient,
imum contaminant level. Systems that non-community water systems served
use a new water source are not eligible by groundwater systems shall monitor
for a waiver until three rounds of mon- annually beginning January 1, 1993;
itoring from the new source have been systems served by surface water shall
completed. monitor quarterly beginning January
(5) In determining the appropriate re- 1, 1993.
duced monitoring frequency, the State (2) For community and non-tran-
shall consider: sient, non-community water systems,
(i) Reported concentrations from all the repeat monitoring frequency for
previous monitoring; groundwater systems shall be quar-
(ii) The degree of variation in re- terly for at least one year following
ported concentrations; and any one sample in which the con-
(iii) Other factors which may affect centration is <50 percent of the MCL.
contaminant concentrations such as The State may allow a groundwater
changes in groundwater pumping rates, system to reduce the sampling fre-
changes in the system’s configuration, quency to annually after four consecu-
changes in the system’s operating pro- tive quarterly samples are reliably and
cedures, or changes in stream flows or consistently less than the MCL.
characteristics. (3) For community and non-tran-
(6) A decision by the State to grant a sient, non-community water systems,
waiver shall be made in writing and the State may allow a surface water
shall set forth the basis for the deter- system to reduce the sampling fre-
mination. The determination may be quency to annually if all analytical re-
initiated by the State or upon an appli- sults from four consecutive quarters
cation by the public water system. The are <50 percent of the MCL. A surface

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§ 141.23 40 CFR Ch. I (7–1–03 Edition)

water system shall return to quarterly maximum contaminant level, the sys-
monitoring if any one sample is ´50 tem shall take a confirmation sample
percent of the MCL. within 24 hours of the system’s receipt
(4) Each transient non-community of notification of the analytical results
water system shall monitor annually of the first sample. Systems unable to
beginning January 1, 1993. comply with the 24-hour sampling re-
(5) After the initial round of quar- quirement must immediately notify
terly sampling is completed, each com- persons served by the public water sys-
munity and non-transient non-commu- tem in accordance with § 141.202 and
nity system which is monitoring annu- meet other Tier 1 public notification
ally shall take subsequent samples dur- requirements under Subpart Q of this
ing the quarter(s) which previously re- part. Systems exercising this option
sulted in the highest analytical result. must take and analyze a confirmation
(e) All public water systems (commu- sample within two weeks of notifica-
nity; non-transient, non-community; tion of the analytical results of the
and transient, non-community sys- first sample.
tems) shall monitor to determine com- (3) If a State-required confirmation
pliance with the maximum contami- sample is taken for any contaminant,
nant level for nitrite in § 141.62(b). then the results of the initial and
(1) All public water systems shall confirmation sample shall be averaged.
take one sample at each sampling The resulting average shall be used to
point in the compliance period begin- determine the system’s compliance in
ning January 1, 1993 and ending Decem- accordance with paragraph (i) of this
ber 31, 1995. section. States have the discretion to
(2) After the initial sample, systems delete results of obvious sampling er-
where an analytical result for nitrite is rors.
<50 percent of the MCL shall monitor (g) The State may require more fre-
at the frequency specified by the State.
quent monitoring than specified in
(3) For community, non-transient,
paragraphs (b), (c), (d) and (e) of this
non-community, and transient non-
section or may require confirmation
community water systems, the repeat
samples for positive and negative re-
monitoring frequency for any water
sults at its discretion.
system shall be quarterly for at least
one year following any one sample in (h) Systems may apply to the State
which the concentration is ´50 percent to conduct more frequent monitoring
of the MCL. The State may allow a sys- than the minimum monitoring fre-
tem to reduce the sampling frequency quencies specified in this section.
to annually after determining the sys- (i) Compliance with §§ 141.11 or
tem is reliably and consistently less 141.62(b) (as appropriate) shall be deter-
than the MCL. mined based on the analytical result(s)
(4) Systems which are monitoring an- obtained at each sampling point.
nually shall take each subsequent sam- (1) For systems which are conducting
ple during the quarter(s) which pre- monitoring at a frequency greater than
viously resulted in the highest analyt- annual, compliance with the maximum
ical result. contaminant levels for antimony, as-
(f) Confirmation samples: bestos, barium, beryllium, cadmium,
(1) Where the results of sampling for chromium, cyanide, fluoride, mercury,
antimony, arsenic, asbestos, barium, nickel, selenium or thallium is deter-
beryllium, cadmium, chromium, cya- mined by a running annual average at
nide, fluoride, mercury, nickel, sele- any sampling point. If the average at
nium or thallium indicate an exceed- any sampling point is greater than the
ance of the maximum contaminant MCL, then the system is out of compli-
level, the State may require that one ance. If any one sample would cause
additional sample be collected as soon the annual average to be exceeded,
as possible after the initial sample was then the system is out of compliance
taken (but not to exceed two weeks) at immediately. Any sample below the
the same sampling point. method detection limit shall be cal-
(2) Where nitrate or nitrite sampling culated at zero for the purpose of deter-
results indicate an exceedance of the mining the annual average.

364

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Environmental Protection Agency § 141.23

(2) For systems which are monitoring (j) Each public water system shall
annually, or less frequently, the sys- monitor at the time designated by the
tem is out of compliance with the max- State during each compliance period.
imum contaminant levels for asbestos, (k) Inorganic analysis:
antimony, barium, beryllium, cad- (1) Analysis for the following con-
mium, chromium, cyanide, fluoride, taminants shall be conducted in ac-
mercury, nickel, selenium or thallium cordance with the methods in the fol-
if the level of a contaminant at any lowing table, or their equivalent as de-
sampling point is greater than the termined by EPA. Criteria for ana-
MCL. If a confirmation sample is re- lyzing arsenic, barium, beryllium, cad-
quired by the State, the determination mium, calcium, chromium, copper,
of compliance will be based on the av- lead, nickel, selenium, sodium, and
erage of the two samples. thallium with digestion or directly
without digestion, and other analytical
(3) Compliance with the maximum
test procedures are contained in Tech-
contaminant levels for nitrate and ni-
nical Notes on Drinking Water Methods,
trate is determined based on one sam- EPA–600/R–94–173, October 1994. This
ple if the levels of these contaminants document also contains approved ana-
are below the MCLs. If the levels of ni- lytical test methods which remain
trate and/or nitrite exceed the MCLs in available for compliance monitoring
the initial sample, a confirmation sam- until July 1, 1996. These methods will
ple is required in accordance with para- not be available for use after July 1,
graph (f)(2) of this section, and compli- 1996. This document is available from
ance shall be determined based on the the National Technical Information
average of the initial and confirmation Service, NTIS PB95–104766, U.S. De-
samples. partment of Commerce, 5285 Port
(4) Arsenic sampling results will be Royal Road, Springfield, Virginia 22161.
reported to the nearest 0.001 mg/L. The toll-free number is 800–553–6847.
SM 4
Contaminant and SM 4
EPA ASTM 3 (18th, 19th Other
methodology 13 (20th ed.)
ed.)

1. Alkalinity:
Titrimetric ......................................................................... .................. D1067— 2320 B ..... 2320 B
92B.
Electrometric titration ....................................................... .................. .................. .................. .................. I–1030–
85 5
2. Antimony:
Inductively Coupled Plasma (ICP)—Mass Spectrometry 200.8 2.
Hydride-Atomic Absorption .............................................. .................. D3697–92
Atomic Absorption; Platform ............................................ 200.9 2
Atomic Absorption; Furnace ............................................ .................. .................. 3113 B
3. Arsenic: 14
Inductively Coupled Plasma 15 ......................................... 200.7 2 ..... .................. 3120 B ..... 3120 B
ICP-Mass Spectrometry ................................................... 200.8 2.
Atomic Absorption; Platform ............................................ 200.9 2.
Atomic Absorption; Furnace ............................................ .................. D2972– 3113 B
97C.
Hydride Atomic Absorption .............................................. .................. D2972– 3114 B
97B.
4. Asbestos:
Transmission Electron Microscopy .................................. 100.1 9.
Transmission Electron Microscopy .................................. 100.2 10.
5. Barium:
Inductively Coupled Plasma ............................................ 200.7 2 ..... .................. 3120 B ..... 3120 B
ICP-Mass Spectrometry ................................................... 200.8 2.
Atomic Absorption; Direct ................................................ .................. .................. 3111 D
Atomic Absorption; Furnace ............................................ .................. .................. 3113 B
6. Beryllium:
Inductively Coupled Plasma ............................................ 200.7 2 ..... .................. 3120 B ..... 3120 B
ICP-Mass Spectrometry ................................................... 200.8 2.
Atomic Absorption; Platform ............................................ 200.9 2.
Atomic Absorption; Furnace ............................................ .................. D3645— 3113 B
97B.
7. Cadmium:
Inductively Coupled Plasma ............................................ 200.7 2
ICP-Mass Spectrometry ................................................... 200.8 2
Atomic Absorption; Platform ............................................ 200.9 2

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§ 141.23 40 CFR Ch. I (7–1–03 Edition)

SM 4
Contaminant and SM 4
EPA ASTM 3 (18th, 19th Other
methodology 13 (20th ed.)
ed.)

Atomic Absorption; Furnace ............................................ .................. .................. 3113 B.


8. Calcium:
EDTA titrimetric ................................................................ .................. D511— 3500–Ca 3500–Ca B.
93A. D.
Atomic Absorption; Direct Aspiration ............................... .................. D511— 3111 B.
93B.
Inductively Coupled Plasma ............................................ 200.7 2 ..... .................. 3120 B ..... 3120 B.
9. Chromium:
Inductively Coupled Plasma ............................................ 200.7 2 ..... .................. 3120 B ..... 3120 B.
ICP-Mass Spectrometry ................................................... 200.8 2.
Atomic Absorption; Platform ............................................ 200.9 2.
Atomic Absorption; Furnace ............................................ .................. .................. 3113 B.
10. Copper:
Atomic Absorption; Furnace ............................................ .................. D1688– 3113 B.
95C.
Atomic Absorption; Direct Aspiration ............................... .................. D1688– 3111 B.
95A.
Inductively Coupled Plasma ............................................ 200.7 2 ..... .................. 3120 B ..... 3120 B.
ICP-Mass spectrometry ................................................... 200.8 2.
Atomic Absorption; Platform ............................................ 200.9 2.
11. Conductivity:
Conductance .................................................................... .................. D1125– 2510 B ..... 2510 B.
95A.
12. Cyanide:
Manual Distillation followed by ........................................ .................. D2036– 4500–CN¥ 4500–CN¥
98A. C. C.
Spectrophotometric Manual ...................................... .................. D2036– 4500–CN¥ 4500–CN¥ I–3300-
98A. E. E. 85 5
Spectrophotometric Semi-automated ....................... 335.4 6.
Spectrophotometric, Amenable ................................ .................. D2036– 4500–CN¥ 4500–CN¥
98B. G. G.
Selective Electrode .......................................................... .................. .................. 4500–CN¥ 4500–CN¥
F. F.
UV/Distillation/Spectrophotometric ................................... .................. .................. .................. .................. Kelada
01 17
Distillation/Spectrophotometric ......................................... .................. .................. .................. .................. QuikChem
10–204–
00–1–
X 18
13. Fluoride:
Ion Chromatography ........................................................ 300.0 6 ..... D4327–97 4110 B ..... 4110 B.
Manual Distill.; Color. SPADNS ....................................... .................. .................. 4500–F¥ 4500–F¥
B,D. B,D.
Manual Electrode ............................................................. .................. D1179– 4500–F¥ 4500–F¥
93B. C. C.
Automated Electrode ....................................................... .................. .................. .................. .................. 380–
75WE 11
Automated Alizarin ........................................................... .................. .................. 4500–F¥ 4500–F¥ 29–71W 11
E. E.
14. Lead:
Atomic Absorption; Furnace ............................................ .................. D3559– 3113 B.
96D.
ICP-Mass spectrometry ................................................... 200.8 2.
Atomic Absorption; Platform ............................................ 200.9 2.
Differential Pulse Anodic Stripping Voltammetry ............. .................. .................. .................. .................. Method
1001 16
15. Magnesium:
Atomic Absorption ............................................................ .................. D511–93 B 3111 B.
ICP ................................................................................... 200.7 2 ..... .................. 3120 B ..... 3120 B.
Complexation Titrimetric Methods ................................... .................. D511–93 A 3500–Mg 3500–Mg
E. B.
16. Mercury:
Manual, Cold Vapor ......................................................... 245.1 2 ..... D3223–97 3112 B.
Automated, Cold Vapor ................................................... 245.2 1.
ICP-Mass Spectrometry ................................................... 200.8 2.
17. Nickel:
Inductively Coupled Plasma ............................................ 200.7 2 ..... .................. 3120 B ..... 3120 B.
ICP-Mass Spectrometry ................................................... 200.8 2.
Atomic Absorption; Platform ............................................ 200.9 2.
Atomic Absorption; Direct ................................................ .................. .................. 3111 B.
Atomic Absorption; Furnace ............................................ .................. .................. 3113 B.
18. Nitrate:

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Environmental Protection Agency § 141.23

SM 4
Contaminant and SM 4
EPA ASTM 3 (18th, 19th Other
methodology 13 (20th ed.)
ed.)

Ion Chromatography ........................................................ 300.0 6 ..... D4327–97 4110 B ..... 4110 B ..... B–1011 8
Automated Cadmium Reduction ...................................... 353.2 6 ..... D3867– 4500– 4500–
90A. NO3¥ F. NO3¥ F.
Ion Selective Electrode .................................................... .................. .................. 4500– 4500– 601 7
NO3¥ D. NO3¥ D.
Manual Cadmium Reduction ........................................... .................. D3867– 4500– 4500–
90B. NO3¥ E. NO3¥ E.
19. Nitrite:
Ion Chromatography ........................................................ 300.0 6 ..... D4327–97 4110 B ..... 4110 B ..... B–1011 8
Automated Cadmium Reduction ...................................... 353.2 6 ..... D3867– 4500– 4500–
90A. NO3¥. NO3¥ F.
Manual Cadmium Reduction ........................................... .................. D3867– 4500– 4500–
90B. NO3¥ E. NO3¥ E.
Spectrophotometric .......................................................... .................. .................. 4500– 4500¥
NO2¥ B. NO2¥ B.
20. Ortho-phosphate: 12
Colorimetric, Automated, Ascorbic Acid .......................... 365.1 6 ..... .................. 4500–P F 4500–P F.
Colorimetric, ascorbic acid, single reagent ...................... .................. D515–88A 4500–P E 4500–P E.
Colorimetric Phosphomolybdate; ..................................... .................. .................. .................. .................. I–1601–
85 5
Automated-segmented Flow; .................................... .................. .................. .................. .................. I–2601–
90 5
Automated Discrete .................................................. .................. .................. .................. .................. I–2598–
85 5
Ion Chromatography ........................................................ 300.0 6 ..... D4327–97 4110 B ..... 4110 B.
21. pH:
Electrometric .................................................................... 150.1 1 ..... D1293–95 4500–H∂ 4500–H∂
B. B.
150.2 1.
22. Selenium:
Hydride-Atomic Absorption .............................................. .................. D3859– 3114 B.
98A.
ICP-Mass Spectrometry ................................................... 200.8 2.
Atomic Absorption; Platform ............................................ 200.9 2.
Atomic Absorption; Furnace ............................................ .................. D3859– 3113 B.
98B.
23. Silica:
Colorimetric, Molybdate Blue; .......................................... .................. .................. .................. .................. I–1700–
85 5
Automated-segmented Flow ..................................... .................. .................. .................. .................. I–2700–
85 5
Colorimetric ...................................................................... .................. D859–95.
Molybdosilicate ................................................................. .................. .................. 4500–Si D 4500–SiO2
C.
Heteropoly Blue ............................................................... .................. .................. 4500–Si E 4500–SiO2
D.
Automated for Molybdate-reactive Silica ......................... .................. .................. 4500–Si F 4500–SiO2
E.
Inductively Coupled Plasma ............................................ 200.7 2 ..... .................. 3120 B ..... 3120 B.
24. Sodium:
Inductively Coupled Plasma ............................................ 200.7 2.
Atomic Absorption; Direct Aspiration ............................... .................. .................. 3111 B.
25. Temperature:
Thermometric ................................................................... .................. .................. 2550 ......... 2550.
26. Thallium:
ICP-Mass Spectrometry ................................................... 200.8 2.
Atomic Absorption; Platform ............................................ 200.9 2.
The procedures shall be done in accordance with the documents listed below. The incorporation by reference of the following
documents listed in footnotes 1–11 and 16 was approved by the Director of the Federal Register in accordance with 5 U.S.C.
552(a) and 1 CFR part 51. Copies of the documents may be obtained from the sources listed below. Information regarding ob-
taining these documents can be obtained from the Safe Drinking Water Hotline at 800–426–4791. Documents may be inspected
at EPA’sDrinking Water Docket, EPA West, 1301 Constitution Avenue, NW, Room B135, Washington, DC (Telephone: 202–
566–2426); or at the Office of the Federal Register, 800 North Capitol Street, NW., Suite 700, Washington, DC.
1 ‘‘Methods for Chemical Analysis of Water and Wastes’’, EPA/600/4–79/020, March 1983. Available at NTIS, PB84–128677.
2 ‘‘Methods for the Determination of Metals in Environmental Samples—Supplement I’’, EPA/600/R–94/111, May 1994. Avail-
able at NTIS, PB95–125472.
3 Annual Book of ASTM Standards, 1994, 1996, or 1999, Vols. 11.01 and 11.02, ASTM International; any year containing the
cited version of the method may be used. The previous versions of D1688–95A, D1688–95C (copper), D3559–95D (lead),
D1293–95 (pH), D1125–91A (conductivity) and D859–94 (silica) are also approved. These previous versions D1688–90A, C;
D3559–90D, D1293–84, D1125–91A and D859–88, respectively are located in the Annual Book of ASTM Standards, 1994, Vol.
11.01. Copies may be obtained from ASTM International, 100 Barr Harbor Drive, West Conshohocken, PA 19428.
4 Standard Methods for the Examination of Water and Wastewater, 18th edition (1992), 19th edition (1995), or 20th edition
(1998). American Public Health Association, 1015 Fifteenth Street, NW, Washington, DC 20005. The cited methods published in
any of these three editions may be used, except that the versions of 3111 B, 3111 D, 3113 B and 3114 B in the 20th edition
may not be used.

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§ 141.23 40 CFR Ch. I (7–1–03 Edition)
5 Method I–2601–90, Methods for Analysis by the U.S. Geological Survey National Water Quality Laboratory—Determination of
Inorganic and Organic Constituents in Water and Fluvial Sediment, Open File Report 93–125, 1993; For Methods I–1030–85; I–
1601–85; I–1700–85; I–2598–85; I–2700–85; and I–3300–85 See Techniques of Water Resources Investigation of the U.S. Geo-
logical Survey, Book 5, Chapter A–1, 3rd ed., 1989; Available from Information Services, U.S. Geological Survey, Federal Cen-
ter, Box 25286, Denver, CO 80225–0425.
6 ‘‘Methods for the Determination of Inorganic Substances in Environmental Samples’’, EPA/600/R–93/100, August 1993. Avail-
able at NTIS, PB94–120821.
7 The procedure shall be done in accordance with the Technical Bulletin 601 ‘‘Standard Method of Test for Nitrate in Drinking
Water’’, July 1994, PN 221890–001, Analytical Technology, Inc. Copies may be obtained from ATI Orion, 529 Main Street, Bos-
ton, MA 02129.
8 Method B–1011, ‘‘Waters Test Method for Determination of Nitrite/Nitrate in Water Using Single Column Ion Chroma-
tography,’’ August 1987. Copies may be obtained from Waters Corporation, Technical Services Division, 34 Maple Street, Mil-
ford, MA 01757.
9 Method 100.1, ‘‘Analytical Method For Determination of Asbestos Fibers in Water’’, EPA/600/4–83/043, EPA, September
1983. Available at NTIS, PB83–260471.
10 Method 100.2, ‘‘Determination of Asbestos Structure Over 10µm In Length In Drinking Water’’, EPA/600/R–94/134, June
1994. Available at NTIS, PB94–201902.
11 Industrial Method No. 129–71W, ‘‘Fluoride in Water and Wastewater’’, December 1972, and Method No. 380–75WE, ‘‘Fluo-
ride in Water and Wastewater’’, February 1976, Technicon Industrial Systems. Copies may be obtained from Bran & Luebbe,
1025 Busch Parkway, Buffalo Grove, IL 60089.
12 Unfiltered, no digestion or hydrolysis.
13 Because MDLs reported in EPA Methods 200.7 and 200.9 were determined using a 2X preconcentration step during sample
digestion, MDLs determined when samples are analyzed by direct analysis (i.e., no sample digestion) will be higher. For direct
analysis of cadmium and arsenic by Method 200.7, and arsenic by Method 3120 B sample preconcentration using pneumatic
nebulization may be required to achieve lower detection limits. Preconcentration may also be required for direct analysis of anti-
mony, lead, and thallium by Method 200.9; antimony and lead by Method 3113 B; and lead by Method D3559–90D unless mul-
tiple in-furnace depositions are made.
14 If ultrasonic nebulization is used in the determination of arsenic by Methods 200.7, 200.8, or SM 3120 B, the arsenic must
be in the pentavalent state to provide uniform signal response. For methods 200.7 and 3120 B, both samples and standards
must be diluted in the same mixed acid matrix concentration of nitric and hydrochloric acid with the addition of 100 µL of 30%
hydrogen peroxide per 100ml of solution. For direct analysis of arsenic with method 200.8 using ultrasonic nebulization, samples
and standards must contain one mg/L of sodium hypochlorite.
15 Starting January 23, 2006, analytical methods using the ICP–AES technology, may not be used because the detection limits
for these methods are 0.008 mg/L or higher. This restriction means that the two ICP–AES methods (EPA Method 200.7 and SM
3120 B) approved for use for the MCL of 0.05 mg/L may not be used for compliance determinations for the revised MCL of
0.010 mg/L. However, prior to January 23, 2006, systems may have compliance samples analyzed with these less sensitive
methods.
16 The description for Method Number 1001 for lead is available from Palintest, LTD, 21 Kenton Lands Road, P.O. Box 18395,
Erlanger, KY 41018. Or from the Hach Company, P.O. Box 389, Loveland, CO 80539.
17 The description for the Kelada 01 Method, ‘‘Kelada Automated Test Methods for Total Cyanide, Acid Dissociable Cyanide,
And Thiocyanate’’, Revision 1.2, August 2001, EPA # 821–B–01–009 for cyanide is available from the National Technical Infor-
mation Service (NTIS), PB 2001–108275, 5285 Port Royal Road, Springfield, VA 22161. The toll free telephone number is 800–
553–6847.
18 The description for the QuikChem Method 10–204–00–1-X, ‘‘Digestion and distillation of total cyanide in drinking and
wastewaters using MICRO DIST and determination of cyanide by flow injection analysis’’, Revision 2.1, November 30, 2000 for
cyanide is available from Lachat Instruments, 6645 W. Mill Rd., Milwaukee, WI 53218, USA. Phone: 414–358–4200.

(2) Sample collection for antimony,


arsenic, asbestos, barium, beryllium,
Con-
cadmium, chromium, cyanide, fluoride, Contaminant Preservative 1 tainer 2 Time 3
mercury, nickel, nitrate, nitrite, sele-
nium, and thallium under this section Thallium ........... HNO3 .............. P or G ..... 6 months
shall be conducted using the sample 1 For cyanide determinations samples must be adjusted with
sodium hydroxide to pH 12 at the time off collection. When
preservation, container, and maximum chilling is indicated the sample must be shipped and stored at
holding time procedures specified in 4 °C or less. Acidification of nitrate or metals samples may be
with a concentrated acid or a dilute (50% by volume) solution
the table below: of the applicable concentrated acid. Acidification of samples
for metals analysis is encouraged and allowed at the labora-
tory rather than at the time of sampling provided the shipping
time and other instructions in Section 8.3 of EPA Methods
200.7 or 200.8 or 200.9 are followed.
Con- 2 P=plastic, hard or soft; G=glass, hard or soft.
Contaminant Preservative 1 Time 3
tainer 2 3 In all cases samples should be analyzed as soon after col-
lection as possible. Follow additional (if any) information on
Antimony ......... HNO3 .............. P or G ..... 6 months preservation, containers or holding times that is specified in
Arsenic ............ Conc HNO3 to P or G ..... 6 months method.
4 Instructions for containers, preservation procedures and
pH <2.
Asbestos ......... 4 °C ................. P or G ..... 48 hours 4 holding times as specified in Method 100.2 must be adhered
to for all compliance analyses including those conducted with
Barium ............. HNO3 .............. P or G ..... 6 months Method 100.1.
Beryllium ......... HNO3 .............. P or G ..... 6 months 5 If the sample is chlorinated, the holding time for an

Cadmium ......... HNO3 .............. P or G ..... 6 months unacidified sample kept at 4 °C is extended to 14 days.
6 Nitrate-Nitrite refers to a measurement of total nitrate.
Chromium ........ HNO3 .............. P or G ..... 6 months
Cyanide ........... 4 °C, NaOH .... P or G ..... 14 days
Fluoride ........... None ............... P or G ..... 1 month (3) Analysis under this section shall
Mercury ........... HNO3 .............. P or G ..... 28 days only be conducted by laboratories that
Nickel .............. HNO3 .............. P or G ..... 6 months have been certified by EPA or the
Nitrate .............. 4 °C ................. P or G ..... 48 hours 5 State. Laboratories may conduct sam-
Nitrate-Nitrite 6 H2SO4 ............. P or G ..... 28 days
Nitrite ............... 4°C .................. P or G ..... 48 hours ple analysis under provisional certifi-
Selenium ......... HNO3 .............. P or G ..... 6 months cation until January 1, 1996. To receive

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Environmental Protection Agency § 141.23

certification to conduct analyses for (4) The State has the authority to de-
antimony, arsenic, asbestos, barium, termine compliance or initiate enforce-
beryllium, cadmium, chromium, cya- ment action based upon analytical re-
nide, fluoride, mercury, nickel, nitrate, sults and other information compiled
nitrite and selenium and thallium, the by their sanctioned representatives and
laboratory must: agencies.
(i) Analyze Performance Evaluation (m) If the result of an analysis made
(PE) samples provided by EPA, the under paragraph (l) of this section indi-
State or by a third party (with the ap- cates that the level of any contami-
proval of the State or EPA) at least nant listed in § 141.11 exceeds the max-
once a year. imum contaminant level, the supplier
(ii) For each contaminant that has of the water shall report to the State
been included in the PE sample and for within 7 days and initiate three addi-
each method for which the laboratory tional analyses at the same sampling
desires certification achieve quan- point within one month.
titative results on the analyses that (n) When the average of four analyses
are within the following acceptance made pursuant to paragraph (m) of this
limits: section, rounded to the same number of
significant figures as the maximum
contaminant level for the substance in
Contaminant Acceptance limit question, exceeds the maximum con-
Antimony ............................... ±30 at ´0.006 mg/1
taminant level, the supplier of water
Arsenic .................................. ±30 at ≥0.003 mg/L shall notify the State pursuant to
Asbestos ............................... 2 standard deviations based § 141.31 and give notice to the public
on study statistics. pursuant to subpart Q. Monitoring
Barium .................................. ±15% at ´0.15 mg/1
Beryllium ............................... ±15% at ´0.001 mg/1 after public notification shall be at a
Cadmium .............................. ±20% at ´0.002 mg/1 frequency designated by the State and
Chromium ............................. ±15% at ´0.01 mg/1 shall continue until the maximum con-
Cyanide ................................ ±25% at ´0.1 mg/1
Fluoride ................................. ±10% at ´1 to 10 mg/1
taminant level has not been exceeded
Mercury ................................. ±30% at ´0.0005 mg/1 in two successive samples or until a
Nickel .................................... ±15% at ´0.01 mg/1 monitoring schedule as a condition to a
Nitrate ................................... ±10% at ´0.4 mg/1 variance, exemption or enforcement
Nitrite .................................... ±15% at ´0.4 mg/1
Selenium ............................... ±20% at ´0.01 mg/1
action shall become effective.
Thallium ................................ ±30% at ´0.002 mg/1 (o) The provisions of paragraphs (m)
and (n) of this section notwithstanding,
(l) Analyses for the purpose of deter- compliance with the maximum con-
mining compliance with § 141.11 shall be taminant level for nitrate shall be de-
conducted using the requirements spec- termined on the basis of the mean of
ified in paragraphs (l) through (q) of two analyses. When a level exceeding
this section. the maximum contaminant level for
(1) Analyses for all community water nitrate is found, a second analysis shall
systems utilizing surface water sources be initiated within 24 hours, and if the
shall be completed by June 24, 1978. mean of the two analyses exceeds the
These analyses shall be repeated at maximum contaminant level, the sup-
yearly intervals. plier of water shall report his findings
(2) Analyses for all community water to the State pursuant to § 141.31 and
systems utilizing only ground water shall notify the public pursuant to sub-
sources shall be completed by June 24, part Q.
1979. These analyses shall be repeated (p) For the initial analyses required
at three-year intervals. by paragraph (l) (1), (2) or (3) of this
(3) For non-community water sys- section, data for surface waters ac-
tems, whether supplied by surface or quired within one year prior to the ef-
ground sources, analyses for nitrate fective date and data for ground waters
shall be completed by December 24, acquired within 3 years prior to the ef-
1980. These analyses shall be repeated fective date of this part may be sub-
at intervals determined by the State. stituted at the discretion of the State.

369

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§ 141.24 40 CFR Ch. I (7–1–03 Edition)

(q) [Reserved] nant levels for antimony, arsenic, asbestos,


barium, beryllium, cadmium, chromium, cy-
[56 FR 3579, Jan. 30, 1991, as amended at 56 anide, fluoride, mercury, nickel, selenium or
FR 30274, July 1, 1991; 57 FR 31838, July 17, thallium if the level of a contaminant is
1992; 59 FR 34322, July 1, 1994; 59 FR 62466, greater than the MCL. If confirmation sam-
Dec. 5, 1994; 60 FR 33932, 34085, June 29, 1995; ples are required by the State, the deter-
64 FR 67461, Dec. 1, 1999; 65 FR 26022, May 4, mination of compliance will be based on the
2000;66 FR 7061, Jan. 22, 2001; 67 FR 65246, Oct. annual average of the initial MCL exceed-
23, 2002; 67 FR 65897, Oct. 29, 2002; 67 FR 68911, ance and any State-required confirmation
Nov. 13, 2002; 68 FR 14506, Mar. 25, 2003] samples. If a system fails to collect the re-
EFFECTIVE DATE NOTE: At 66 FR 7061, Jan. quired number of samples, compliance (aver-
22, 2001, § 141.23 was amended by adding para- age concentration) will be based on the total
graph (c)(9) and revising paragraphs (i)(1) number of samples collected.
and (i)(2), effective Mar. 23, 2001, except for
the amendments to paragraphs (i)(1) and
* * * * *
(i)(2) which are effective Jan. 22, 2004. At 66
FR 16134, Mar. 23, 2001, the effective date was
delayed until May 22, 2001. At 66 FR 28350, § 141.24 Organic chemicals, sampling
May 22, 2001, the effective date for paragraph and analytical requirements.
(c)(9) was delayed until Jan. 22, 2004. For the (a)–(d) [Reserved]
convenience of the user, the revised and (e) Analyses for the contaminants in
added text is set forth as follows:
this section shall be conducted using
§ 141.23 Inorganic chemical sampling and the following EPA methods or their
analytical requirements. equivalent as approved by EPA.
(1) The following documents are in-
* * * * * corporated by reference. This incorpo-
(c) *ensp;* * ration by reference was approved by
(9) All new systems or systems that use a the Director of the Federal Register in
new source of water that begin operation accordance with 5 U.S.C. 552(a) and 1
after January 22, 2004 must demonstrate CFR part 51. Copies may be inspected
compliance with the MCL within a period of at EPA’s Drinking Water Docket, 1301
time specified by the State. The system Constitution Avenue, NW., EPA West,
must also comply with the initial sampling Room B102, Washington DC 20460 (Tele-
frequencies specified by the State to ensure
a system can demonstrate compliance with
phone: 202–566–2426); or at the Office of
the MCL. Routine and increased monitoring the Federal Register, 800 North Capitol
frequencies shall be conducted in accordance Street, NW., Suite 700, Washington,
with the requirements in this section. DC. Method 508A and 515.1 are in Meth-
ods for the Determination of Organic
* * * * * Compounds in Drinking Water, EPA/600/
4–88–039, December 1988, Revised, July
(i) * * *
1991. Methods 547, 550 and 550.1 are in
(1) For systems which are conducting mon-
itoring at a frequency greater than annual, Methods for the Determination of Organic
compliance with the maximum contaminant Compounds in Drinking Water—Supple-
levels for antimony, arsenic, asbestos, bar- ment I, EPA/600–4–90–020, July 1990.
ium, beryllium, cadmium, chromium, cya- Methods 548.1, 549.1, 552.1 and 555 are in
nide, fluoride, mercury, nickel, selenium or Methods for the Determination of Organic
thallium is determined by a running annual Compounds in Drinking Water—Supple-
average at any sampling point. If the aver- ment II, EPA/600/R–92–129, August 1992.
age at any sampling point is greater than
Methods 502.2, 504.1, 505, 506, 507, 508,
the MCL, then the system is out of compli-
ance. If any one sample would cause the an- 508.1, 515.2, 524.2, 525.2, 531.1, 551.1 and
nual average to be exceeded, then the system 552.2 are in Methods for the Determina-
is out of compliance immediately. Any sam- tion of Organic Compounds in Drinking
ple below the method detection limit shall Water—Supplement III, EPA/600/R–95–
be calculated at zero for the purpose of de- 131, August 1995. Method 1613 is titled
termining the annual average. If a system ‘‘Tetra-through Octa-Chlorinated
fails to collect the required number of sam- Dioxins and Furans by Isotope-Dilution
ples, compliance (average concentration)
HRGC/HRMS’’, EPA/821–B–94–005, Octo-
will be based on the total number of samples
collected. ber 1994. These documents are available
(2) For systems which are monitoring an- from the National Technical Informa-
nually, or less frequently, the system is out tion Service, NTIS PB91–231480, PB91–
of compliance with the maximum contami- 146027, PB92–207703, PB95–261616 and

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Environmental Protection Agency § 141.24

PB95–104774, U.S. Department of Com- ther King Drive, Cincinnati, OH 45268.


merce, 5285 Port Royal Road, Spring- ASTM Method D 5317–93 is available in
field, Virginia 22161. The toll-free num- the Annual Book of ASTM Standards,
ber is 800–553–6847. Method 6651 shall be (1999), Vol. 11.02, ASTM International,
followed in accordance with Standard 100 Barr Harbor Drive, West
Methods for the Examination of Water Conshohocken, PA 19428, or in any edi-
and Wastewater, 18th edition (1992), 19th tion published after 1993. EPA Method
edition (1995), or 20th edition (1998), 515.4, ‘‘Determination of Chlorinated
American Public Health Association Acids in Drinking Water by Liquid-Liq-
(APHA); any of these three editions uid Microextraction, Derivatization
may be used. Method 6610 shall be fol- and Fast Gas Chromatography with
lowed in accordance with Standard Electron Capture Detection,’’ Revision
Methods for the Examination of Water 1.0, April 2000, EPA /815/B–00/001 can be
and Wastewater, (18th Edition Supple- accessed and downloaded directly on-
ment) (1994), or with the 19th edition line at www.epa.gov/safewater/methods/
(1995) or 20th edition (1998) of Standard sourcalt.html. The Syngenta AG–625,
Methods for the Examination of Water ‘‘Atrazine in Drinking Water by
and Wastewater; any of these three edi- Immunoassay’’, February 2001 is avail-
tions may be used. The APHA docu- able from Syngenta Crop Protection,
ments are available from APHA, 1015 Inc., 410 Swing Road, Post Office Box
Fifteenth Street NW., Washington, 18300, Greensboro, NC 27419, Phone
D.C. 20005. Other required analytical number (336) 632–6000. Method 531.2
test procedures germane to the conduct ‘‘Measurement of N-
of these analyses are contained in methylcarbamoyloximes and N-
Technical Notes on Drinking Water Meth- methylcarbamates in Water by Direct
ods, EPA/600/R–94–173, October 1994, Aqueous Injection HPLC with
NTIS PB95–104766. EPA Methods 515.3 Postcolumn Derivatization,’’ Revision
and 549.2 are available from U.S. Envi- 1.0, September 2001, EPA 815/B/01/002
ronmental Protection Agency, Na- can be accessed and downloaded di-
tional Exposure Research Laboratory rectly on-line at www.epa.gov/safewater/
(NERL)-Cincinnati, 26 West Martin Lu- methods/sourcalt.html.
EPA meth- Standard
Contaminant ASTM Other
od 1 methods

1. Benzene .................................................................................................... 502.2,


524.2.
2. Carbon tetrachloride ................................................................................. 502.2,
524.2,
551.1.
3. Chlorobenzene .......................................................................................... 502.2,
524.2.
4. 1,2-Dichlorobenzene ................................................................................. 502.2,
524.2.
5. 1,4-Dichlorobenzene ................................................................................. 502.2,
524.2.
6. 1,2-Dichloroethane .................................................................................... 502.2,
524.2.
7. cis-Dichloroethylene .................................................................................. 502.2,
524.2.
8. trans-Dichloroethylene .............................................................................. 502.2,
524.2.
9. Dichloromethane ....................................................................................... 502.2,
524.2.
10. 1,2-Dichloropropane ................................................................................ 502.2,
524.2.
11. Ethylbenzene .......................................................................................... 502.2,
524.2.
12. Styrene .................................................................................................... 502.2,
524.2.
13. Tetrachloroethylene ................................................................................. 502.2,
524.2,
551.1.
14. 1,1,1-Trichloroethane .............................................................................. 502.2,
524.2,
551.1.

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§ 141.24 40 CFR Ch. I (7–1–03 Edition)

EPA meth- Standard


Contaminant ASTM Other
od 1 methods

15. Trichloroethylene ..................................................................................... 502.2,


524.2,
551.1.
16. Toluene ................................................................................................... 502.2,
524.2.
17. 1,2,4-Trichlorobenzene ........................................................................... 502.2,
524.2.
18. 1,1-Dichloroethylene ............................................................................... 502.2,
524.2.
19. 1,1,2-Trichloroethane .............................................................................. 502.2,
524.2,
551.1.
20. Vinyl chloride ........................................................................................... 502.2,
524.2.
21. Xylenes (total) ......................................................................................... 502.2,
524.2.
22. 2,3,7,8-TCDD (dioxin) ............................................................................. 1613.
23. 2,4-D 4 (as acid, salts and esters) .......................................................... 515.2, 555, .................. D5317–93.
515.1,
515.3,
515.4.
24. 2,4,5-TP 4 (Silvex) ................................................................................... 515.2, 555, .................. D5317–93.
515.1,
515.3,
515.4.
25. Alachlor 2 ................................................................................................. 507, 525.2,
508.1,
505,
551.1.
26. Atrazine 2 ................................................................................................. 507, 525.2, .................. .................. Syngenta
508.1, AG–625.
505,
551.1.
27. Benzo(a)pyrene ....................................................................................... 525.2, 550,
550.1.
28. Carbofuran .............................................................................................. 531.1, 6610.
531.2.
29. Chlordane ................................................................................................ 508, 525.2,
508.1,
505.
30. Dalapon ................................................................................................... 552.1,
515.1,
552.2,
515.3,
515.4.
31. Di(2-ethylhexyl)adipate ............................................................................ 506, 525.2.
32. Di(2-ethylhexyl)phthalate ......................................................................... 506, 525.2.
33. Dibromochloropropane (DBCP) .............................................................. 504.1,
551.1.
34. Dinoseb 4 ................................................................................................. 515.2, 555,
515.1,
515.3,
515.4.
35. Diquat ...................................................................................................... 549.2.
36. Endothall ................................................................................................. 548.1.
37. Endrin ...................................................................................................... 508, 525.2,
508.1,
505,
551.1.
38. Ethylene dibromide (EDB) ...................................................................... 504.1,
551.1.
39. Glyphosate .............................................................................................. 547 ........... 6651.
40. Heptachlor ............................................................................................... 508, 525.2,
508.1,
505,
551.1.
41. Heptachlor Epoxide ................................................................................. 508, 525.2,
508.1,
505,
551.1.

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Environmental Protection Agency § 141.24

EPA meth- Standard


Contaminant ASTM Other
od 1 methods

42. Hexachlorobenzene ................................................................................ 508, 525.2,


508.1,
505,
551.1.
43. Hexachlorocyclopentadiene .................................................................... 508, 525.2,
508.1,
505,
551.1.
44. Lindane ................................................................................................... 508, 525.2,
508.1,
505,
551.1.
45. Methoxychlor ........................................................................................... 508, 525.2,
508.1,
505,
551.1.
46. Oxamyl .................................................................................................... 531.1, 6610.
531.2.
47. PCBs 3(as decachlorobiphenyl) ............................................................. 508A.
48. PCBs 3 (as Aroclors) ............................................................................... 508.1, 508,
525.2,
505.
49. Pentachlorophenol .................................................................................. 515.2, .................. D5317–93.
525.2,
555,
515.1,
515.3,
515.4.
50. Picloram 4 ................................................................................................ 515.2, 555, .................. D5317–93.
515.1,
515.3,
515.4.
51. Simazine 2 ............................................................................................... 507, 525.2,
508.1,
505,
551.1.
52. Toxaphene .............................................................................................. 508, 508.1,
525.2,
505.
53. Total Trihalomethanes ............................................................................ 502.2,
524.2,
551.1.
1 For previously approved EPA methods which remain available for compliance monitoring until June 1, 2001, see paragraph
(e)(2) of this section.
2 Substitution of the detector specified in Method 505, 507, 508 or 508.1 for the purpose of achieving lower detection limits is
allowed as follows. Either an electron capture or nitrogen phosphorous detector may be used provided all regulatory require-
ments and quality control criteria are met.
3 PCBs are qualitatively identified as Aroclors and measured for compliance purposes as decachlorobiphenyl. Users of Method
505 may have more difficulty in achieving the required detection limits than users of Methods 508.1, 525.2 or 508.
4 Accurate determination of the chlorinated esters requires hydrolysis of the sample as described in EPA Methods 515.1,
515.2, 515.3, 515.4 and 555 and ASTM Method D5317–93.

(2) The following EPA methods will Rev. 3.0 are in ‘‘Methods for the Deter-
remain available for compliance moni- mination of Organic Compounds in
toring until June 1, 2001. The following Drinking Water’’, December 1988, re-
documents are incorporated by ref- vised July 1991; methods 506 and 551 are
erence. This incorporation by reference in ‘‘Methods for the Determination of
was approved by the Director of the Organic Compounds in Drinking
Federal Register in accordance with 5 Water—Supplement I’’, July 1990;
U.S.C. 552(a) and 1 CFR Part 51. Copies methods 515.2 Rev. 1.0 and 524.2 Rev. 4.0
may be inspected at EPA’s Drinking are in ‘‘Methods for the Determination
Water Docket, 401 M St., SW., Wash- of Organic Compounds in Drinking
ington, DC 20460; or at the Office of the Water—Supplement II,’’ August 1992;
Federal Register, 800 North Capitol and methods 504.1 Rev. 1.0, 508.1 Rev.
Street, NW., Suite 700, Washington, 1.0, 525.2 Rev.1.0 are available from US
DC. EPA methods 502.2 Rev. 2.0, 505 EPA NERL, Cincinnati, OH 45268
Rev. 2.0, 507 Rev. 2.0, 508 Rev. 3.0, 531.1

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§ 141.24 40 CFR Ch. I (7–1–03 Edition)

(f) Beginning with the initial compli- (6) After a minimum of three years of
ance period, analysis of the contami- annual sampling, the State may allow
nants listed in § 141.61(a) (1) through groundwater systems with no previous
(21) for the purpose of determining detection of any contaiminant listed in
compliance with the maximum con- § 141.61(a) to take one sample during
taminant level shall be conducted as each compliance period.
follows: (7) Each community and non-tran-
(1) Groundwater systems shall take a sient non–community ground water
minimum of one sample at every entry system which does not detect a con-
point to the distribution system which taminant listed in § 141.61(a) (1)
is representative of each well after through (21) may apply to the State for
treatment (hereafter called a sampling a waiver from the requirements of
point). Each sample must be taken at paragraphs (f)(5) and (f)(6) of this sec-
the same sampling point unless condi- tion after completing the initial moni-
tions make another sampling point toring. (For purposes of this section,
more representative of each source, detection is defined as ´0.0005 mg/l.) A
treatment plant, or within the dis- waiver shall be effective for no more
tribution system. than six years (two compliance peri-
(2) Surface water systems (or com- ods). States may also issue waivers to
bined surface/ground) shall take a min- small systems for the initial round of
imum of one sample at points in the monitoring for 1,2,4-trichlorobenzene.
distribution system that are represent- (8) A State may grant a waiver after
ative of each source or at each entry evaluating the following factor(s):
point to the distribution system after
(i) Knowledge of previous use (includ-
treatment (hereafter called a sampling
ing transport, storage, or disposal) of
point). Each sample must be taken at
the contaminant within the watershed
the same sampling point unless condi-
or zone of influence of the system. If a
tions make another sampling point
determination by the State reveals no
more representative of each source,
previous use of the contaminant within
treatment plant, or within the dis-
the watershed or zone of influence, a
tribution system.
waiver may be granted.
(3) If the system draws water from
(ii) If previous use of the contami-
more than one source and the sources
nant is unknown or it has been used
are combined before distribution, the
previously, then the following factors
system must sample at an entry point
to the distribution system during peri- shall be used to determine whether a
ods of normal operating conditions waiver is granted.
(i.e., when water representative of all (A) Previous analytical results.
sources is being used). (B) The proximity of the system to a
(4) Each community and non-tran- potential point or non-point source of
sient non-community water system contamination. Point sources include
shall take four consecutive quarterly spills and leaks of chemicals at or near
samples for each contaminant listed in a water treatment facility or at manu-
§ 141.61(a) (2) through (21) during each facturing, distribution, or storage fa-
compliance period, beginning in the cilities, or from hazardous and munic-
initial compliance period. ipal waste landfills and other waste
(5) If the initial monitoring for con- handling or treatment facilities.
taminants listed in § 141.61(a) (1) (C) The environmental persistence
through (8) and the monitoring for the and transport of the contaminants.
contaminants listed in § 141.61(a) (9) (D) The number of persons served by
through (21) as allowed in paragraph the public water system and the prox-
(f)(18) has been completed by December imity of a smaller system to a larger
31, 1992, and the system did not detect system.
any contaminant listed in § 141.61(a) (1) (E) How well the water source is pro-
through (21), then each ground and sur- tected against contamination, such as
face water system shall take one sam- whether it is a surface or groundwater
ple annually beginning with the initial system. Groundwater systems must
compliance period. consider factors such as depth of the

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Environmental Protection Agency § 141.24

well, the type of soil, and wellhead pro- (iii) If the State determines that the
tection. Surface water systems must system is reliably and consistently
consider watershed protection. below the MCL, the State may allow
(9) As a condition of the waiver a the system to monitor annually. Sys-
groundwater system must take one tems which monitor annually must
sample at each sampling point during monitor during the quarter(s) which
the time the waiver is effective (i.e., previously yielded the highest analyt-
one sample during two compliance pe- ical result.
riods or six years) and update its vul- (iv) Systems which have three con-
nerability assessment considering the secutive annual samples with no detec-
factors listed in paragraph (f)(8) of this tion of a contaminant may apply to the
section. Based on this vulnerability as- State for a waiver as specified in para-
sessment the State must reconfirm graph (f)(7) of this section.
that the system is non-vulnerable. If (v) Groundwater systems which have
the State does not make this recon- detected one or more of the following
firmation within three years of the ini- two-carbon organic compounds: tri-
tial determination, then the waiver is chloroethylene, tetrachloroethylene,
invalidated and the system is required 1,2-dichloroethane, 1,1,1-trichloro-
to sample annually as specified in ethane, cis-1,2-dichloroethylene, trans-
paragraph (5) of this section.
1,2-dichloroethylene, or 1,1-
(10) Each community and non-tran- dichloroethylene shall monitor quar-
sient non–community surface water terly for vinyl chloride. A vinyl chlo-
system which does not detect a con-
ride sample shall be taken at each sam-
taminant listed in § 141.61(a) (1)
pling point at which one or more of the
through (21) may apply to the State for
two-carbon organic compounds was de-
a waiver from the requirements of (f)(5)
tected. If the results of the first anal-
of this section after completing the ini-
ysis do not detect vinyl chloride, the
tial monitoring. Composite samples
State may reduce the quarterly moni-
from a maximum of five sampling
points are allowed, provided that the toring frequency of vinyl chloride mon-
detection limit of the method used for itoring to one sample during each com-
analysis is less than one-fifth of the pliance period. Surface water systems
MCL. Systems meeting this criterion are required to monitor for vinyl chlo-
must be determined by the State to be ride as specified by the State.
non-vulnerable based on a vulner- (12) Systems which violate the re-
ability assessment during each compli- quirements of § 141.61(a) (1) through
ance period. Each system receiving a (21), as determined by paragraph (f)(15)
waiver shall sample at the frequency of this section, must monitor quar-
specified by the State (if any). terly. After a minimum of four con-
(11) If a contaminant listed in secutive quarterly samples which show
§ 141.61(a) (2) through (21) is detected at the system is in compliance as speci-
a level exceeding 0.0005 mg/l in any fied in paragraph (f)(15) of this section
sample, then: the system and the State determines
(i) The system must monitor quar- that the system is reliably and consist-
terly at each sampling point which re- ently below the maximum contaminant
sulted in a detection. level, the system may monitor at the
(ii) The State may decrease the quar- frequency and times specified in para-
terly monitoring requirement speci graph (f)(11)(iii) of this section.
fied in paragraph (f)(11)(i) of this sec- (13) The State may require a con-
tion provided it has determined that firmation sample for positive or nega-
the system is reliably and consistently tive results. If a confirmation sample is
below the maximum contaminant required by the State, the result must
level. In no case shall the State make be averaged with the first sampling re-
this determination unless a ground- sult and the average is used for the
water system takes a minimum of two compliance determination as specified
quarterly samples and a surface water by paragraph (f)(15). States have discre-
system takes a minimum of four quar- tion to delete results of obvious sam-
terly samples. pling errors from this calculation.

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§ 141.24 40 CFR Ch. I (7–1–03 Edition)

(14) The State may reduce the total (A) Inject 5-ml or equal larger
number of samples a system must ana- amounts of each aqueous sample (up to
lyze by allowing the use of 5 samples are allowed) into a 25-ml
compositing. Composite samples from purging device using the sample intro-
a maximum of five sampling points are duction technique described in the
allowed, provided that the detection method.
limit of the method used for analysis is (B) The total volume of the sample in
less than one-fifth of the MCL. the purging device must be 25 ml.
Compositing of samples must be done (C) Purge and desorb as described in
in the laboratory and analyzed within the method.
14 days of sample collection. (15) Compliance with § 141.61(a) (1)
(i) If the concentration in the com- through (21) shall be determined based
posite sample is greater than or equal on the analytical results obtained at
to 0.0005 mg/l for any contaminant list- each sampling point.
ed in § 141.61(a), then a follow-up sam- (i) For systems which are conducting
ple must be taken within 14 days at monitoring at a frequency greater than
each sampling point included in the annual, compliance is determined by a
composite, and be analyzed for that running annual average of all samples
contaminant. taken at each sampling point. If the
(ii) If duplicates of the original sam- annual average of any sampling point
ple taken from each sampling point is greater than the MCL, then the sys-
used in the composite sample are avail- tem is out of compliance. If the initial
able, the system may use these instead sample or a subsequent sample would
of resampling. The duplicates must be cause the annual average to be exceed-
analyzed and the results reported to ed, then the system is out of compli-
the State within 14 days after com- ance immediately.
pleting analysis of the composite sam- (ii) If monitoring is conducted annu-
ple, provided the holding time of the ally, or less frequently, the system is
sample is not exceeded. out of compliance if the level of a con-
(iii) If the population served by the taminant at any sampling point is
system is > 3,300 persons, then greater than the MCL. If a confirma-
compositing may only be permitted by tion sample is required by the State,
the State at sampling points within a the determination of compliance will
single system. In systems serving ≤ be based on the average of two samples.
3,300 persons, the State may permit (16) [Reserved]
compositing among different systems (17) Analysis under this section shall
provided the 5-sample limit is main- only be conducted by laboratories that
tained. are certified by EPA or the State ac-
(iv) Compositing samples prior to GC cording to the following conditions
analysis. (laboratories may conduct sample
(A) Add 5 ml or equal larger amounts analysis under provisional certification
of each sample (up to 5 samples are al- until January 1, 1996):
lowed) to a 25 ml glass syringe. Special (i) To receive certification to conduct
precautions must be made to maintain analyses for the contaminants in
zero headspace in the syringe. § 141.61(a) (2) through (21) the labora-
(B) The samples must be cooled at 4 tory must:
°C during this step to minimize vola- (A) Analyze Performance Evaluation
tilization losses. (PE) samples provided by EPA, the
(C) Mix well and draw out a 5-ml ali- State, or by a third party (with the ap-
quot for analysis. proval of the State or EPA) at least
(D) Follow sample introduction, once a year by each method for which
purging, and desorption steps described the laboratory desires certification.
in the method. (B) Achieve the quantitative accept-
(E) If less than five samples are used ance limits under paragraphs
for compositing, a proportionately (f)(17)(i)(C) and (D) of this section for
small syringe may be used. at least 80 percent of the regulated or-
(v) Compositing samples prior to GC/ ganic contaminants included in the PE
MS analysis. sample.

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Environmental Protection Agency § 141.24

(C) Achieve quantitative results on (19) States may increase required


the analyses performed under para- monitoring where necessary to detect
graph (f)(17)(i)(A) of this section that variations within the system.
are within ±20% of the actual amount (20) Each certified laboratory must
of the substances in the Performance determine the method detection limit
Evaluation sample when the actual (MDL), as defined in appendix B to part
amount is greater than or equal to 0.010 136, at which it is capable of detecting
mg/l. VOCs. The acceptable MDL is 0.0005
(D) Achieve quantitative results on mg/l. This concentration is the detec-
tion concentration for purposes of this
the analyses performed under para-
section.
graph (f)(17)(i)(A) of this section that
(21) Each public water system shall
are within ±40 percent of the actual monitor at the time designated by the
amount of the substances in the Per- State within each compliance period.
formance Evaluation sample when the (g) [Reserved]
actual amount is less than 0.010 mg/l. (h) Analysis of the contaminants list-
(E) Achieve a method detection limit ed in § 141.61(c) for the purposes of de-
of 0.0005 mg/l, according to the proce- termining compliance with the max-
dures in appendix B of part 136. imum contaminant level shall be con-
(ii) To receive certification to con- ducted as follows: 7
duct analyses for vinyl chloride, the (1) Groundwater systems shall take a
laboratory must: minimum of one sample at every entry
(A) Analyze Performance Evaluation point to the distribution system which
(PE) samples provided by EPA, the is representative of each well after
State, or by a third party (with the ap- treatment (hereafter called a sampling
proval of the State or EPA) at least point). Each sample must be taken at
once a year by each method for which the same sampling point unless condi-
the laboratory desires certification. tions make another sampling point
more representative of each source or
(B) Achieve quantitative results on
treatment plant.
the analyses performed under para- (2) Surface water systems shall take
graph (f)(17)(ii)(A) of this section that a minimum of one sample at points in
are within ±40 percent of the actual the distribution system that are rep-
amount of vinyl chloride in the Per- resentative of each source or at each
formance Evaluation sample. entry point to the distribution system
(C) Achieve a method detection limit after treatment (hereafter called a
of 0.0005 mg/l, according to the proce- sampling point). Each sample must be
dures in appendix B of part 136. taken at the same sampling point un-
(D) Obtain certification for the con- less conditions make another sampling
taminants listed in § 141.61(a)(2) point more representative of each
through (21). source or treatment plant.
(18) States may allow the use of mon- NOTE: For purposes of this paragraph, sur-
itoring data collected after January 1, face water systems include systems with a
combination of surface and ground sources.
1988, required under section 1445 of the
(3) If the system draws water from
Act for purposes of initial monitoring
more than one source and the sources
compliance. If the data are generally
are combined before distribution, the
consistent with the other requirements
system must sample at an entry point
of this section, the State may use these
to the distribution system during peri-
data (i.e., a single sample rather than ods of normal operating conditions
four quarterly samples) to satisfy the (i.e., when water representative of all
initial monitoring requirement of para- sources is being used).
graph (f)(4) of this section. Systems (4) Monitoring frequency:
which use grandfathered samples and (i) Each community and non-tran-
did not detect any contaminant listed sient non-community water system
§ 141.61(a)(2) through (21) shall begin
monitoring annually in accordance 7 Monitoring for the contaminants
with paragraph (f)(5) of this section be- aldicarb, aldicarb sulfoxide, and aldicarb
ginning with the initial compliance pe- sulfone shall be conducted in accordance
riod. with § 141.40.

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§ 141.24 40 CFR Ch. I (7–1–03 Edition)

shall take four consecutive quarterly the type of soil and the integrity of the
samples for each contaminant listed in well casing.
§ 141.61(c) during each compliance pe- (v) Elevated nitrate levels at the
riod beginning with the initial compli- water supply source.
ance period. (vi) Use of PCBs in equipment used in
(ii) Systems serving more than 3,300 the production, storage, or distribution
persons which do not detect a contami- of water (i.e., PCBs used in pumps,
nant in the initial compliance period transformers, etc.).
may reduce the sampling frequency to (7) If an organic contaminant listed
a minimum of two quarterly samples in in § 141.61(c) is detected (as defined by
one year during each repeat compli- paragraph (h)(18) of this section) in any
ance period. sample, then:
(iii) Systems serving less than or (i) Each system must monitor quar-
equal to 3,300 persons which do not de- terly at each sampling point which re-
tect a contaminant in the initial com- sulted in a detection.
pliance period may reduce the sam- (ii) The State may decrease the quar-
pling frequency to a minimum of one terly monitoring requirement specified
sample during each repeat compliance in paragraph (h)(7)(i) of this section
period. provided it has determined that the
(5) Each community and non-tran- system is reliably and consistently
sient water system may apply to the below the maximum contaminant
State for a waiver from the require- level. In no case shall the State make
ment of paragraph (h)(4) of this sec- this determination unless a ground-
tion. A system must reapply for a water system takes a minimum of two
waiver for each compliance period. quarterly samples and a surface water
(6) A State may grant a waiver after system takes a minimum of four quar-
evaluating the following factor(s): terly samples.
Knowledge of previous use (including (iii) After the State determines the
transport, storage, or disposal) of the system is reliably and consistently
contaminant within the watershed or below the maximum contaminant level
zone of influence of the system. If a de- the State may allow the system to
termination by the State reveals no monitor annually. Systems which mon-
previous use of the contaminant within itor annually must monitor during the
the watershed or zone of influence, a quarter that previously yielded the
waiver may be granted. If previous use highest analytical result.
of the contaminant is unknown or it (iv) Systems which have 3 consecu-
has been used previously, then the fol- tive annual samples with no detection
lowing factors shall be used to deter- of a contaminant may apply to the
mine whether a waiver is granted. State for a waiver as specified in para-
(i) Previous analytical results. graph (h)(6) of this section.
(ii) The proximity of the system to a (v) If monitoring results in detection
potential point or non-point source of of one or more of certain related con-
contamination. Point sources include taminants (aldicarb, aldicarb sulfone,
spills and leaks of chemicals at or near aldicarb sulfoxide and heptachlor, hep-
a water treatment facility or at manu- tachlor epoxide), then subsequent mon-
facturing, distribution, or storage fa- itoring shall analyze for all related
cilities, or from hazardous and munic- contaminants.
ipal waste landfills and other waste (8) Systems which violate the re-
handling or treatment facilities. Non- quirements of § 141.61(c) as determined
point sources include the use of pes- by paragraph (h)(11) of this section
ticides to control insect and weed pests must monitor quarterly. After a min-
on agricultural areas, forest lands, imum of four quarterly samples show
home and gardens, and other land ap- the system is in compliance and the
plication uses. State determines the system is reliably
(iii) The environmental persistence and consistently below the MCL, as
and transport of the pesticide or PCBs. specified in paragraph (h)(11) of this
(iv) How well the water source is pro- section, the system shall monitor at
tected against contamination due to the frequency specified in paragraph
such factors as depth of the well and (h)(7)(iii) of this section.

378

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Environmental Protection Agency § 141.24

(9) The State may require a con- tem is out of compliance. If the initial
firmation sample for positive or nega- sample or a subsequent sample would
tive results. If a confirmation sample is cause the annual average to be exceed-
required by the State, the result must ed, then the system is out of compli-
be averaged with the first sampling re- ance immediately. Any samples below
sult and the average used for the com- the detection limit shall be calculated
pliance determination as specified by as zero for purposes of determining the
paragraph (h)(11) of this section. States annual average.
have discretion to delete results of ob- (ii) If monitoring is conducted annu-
vious sampling errors from this cal- ally, or less frequently, the system is
culation. out of compliance if the level of a con-
(10) The State may reduce the total taminant at any sampling point is
number of samples a system must ana- greater than the MCL. If a confirma-
lyze by allowing the use of tion sample is required by the State,
compositing. Composite samples from the determination of compliance will
a maximum of five sampling points are be based on the average of two samples.
allowed, provided that the detection (12) [Reserved]
limit of the method used for analysis is (13) Analysis for PCBs shall be con-
less than one-fifth of the MCL. ducted as follows using the methods in
Compositing of samples must be done paragraph (e) of this section:
in the laboratory and analyzed within (i) Each system which monitors for
14 days of sample collection. PCBs shall analyze each sample using
(i) If the concentration in the com- either Method 508.1, 525.2, 508 or 505.
posite sample detects one or more con- Users of Method 505 may have more dif-
taminants listed in § 141.61(c), then a ficulty in achieving the required
follow-up sample must be taken within Aroclor detection limits than users of
14 days at each sampling point included Methods 508.1, 525.2 or 508.
in the composite, and be analyzed for (ii) If PCBs (as one of seven Aroclors)
that contaminant. are detected (as designated in this
(ii) If duplicates of the original sam- paragraph) in any sample analyzed
ple taken from each sampling point using Method 505 or 508, the system
used in the composite sample are avail- shall reanalyze the sample using Meth-
able, the system may use these instead od 508A to quantitate PCBs (as
of resampling. The duplicates must be decachlorobiphenyl).
analyzed and the results reported to
the State within 14 days after comple- Detection limit (mg/
Aroclor l)
tion of the composite analysis or before
the holding time for the initial sample 1016 ....................................................... 0.00008
is exceeded whichever is sooner. 1221 ....................................................... 0.02
1232 ....................................................... 0.0005
(iii) If the population served by the
1242 ....................................................... 0.0003
system is >3,300 persons, then 1248 ....................................................... 0.0001
compositing may only be permitted by 1254 ....................................................... 0.0001
the State at sampling points within a 1260 ....................................................... 0.0002
single system. In systems serving ≤
3,300 persons, the State may permit (iii) Compliance with the PCB MCL
compositing among different systems shall be determined based upon the
provided the 5-sample limit is main- quantitative results of analyses using
tained. Method 508A.
(11) Compliance with § 141.61(c) shall (14) If monitoring data collected after
be determined based on the analytical January 1, 1990, are generally con-
results obtained at each sampling sistent with the requirements of
point. § 141.24(h), then the State may allow
(i) For systems which are conducting systems to use that data to satisfy the
monitoring at a frequency greater than monitoring requirement for the initial
annual, compliance is determined by a compliance period beginning January
running annual average of all samples 1, 1993.
taken at each sampling point. If the (15) The State may increase the re-
annual average of any sampling point quired monitoring frequency, where
is greater than the MCL, then the sys- necessary, to detect variations within

379

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§ 141.24 40 CFR Ch. I (7–1–03 Edition)

the system (e.g., fluctuations in con- once a year by each method for which
centration due to seasonal use, changes the laboratory desires certification.
in water source). (B) For each contaminant that has
(16) The State has the authority to been included in the PE sample achieve
determine compliance or initiate en- quantitative results on the analyses
forcement action based upon analytical that are within the following accept-
results and other information compiled ance limits:
by their sanctioned representatives and
Contaminant Acceptance limits (percent)
agencies.
(17) Each public water system shall DBCP ..................................... ±40
monitor at the time designated by the EDB ....................................... ±40.
Alachlor .................................. ±45.
State within each compliance period. Atrazine .................................. ±45.
(18) Detection as used in this para- Benzo[a]pyrene ...................... 2 standard deviations.
graph shall be defined as greater than Carbofuran ............................. ±45.
Chlordane .............................. ±45.
or equal to the following concentra- Dalapon ................................. 2 standard deviations.
tions for each contaminant. Di(2-ethylhexyl)adipate .......... 2 standard deviations.
Di(2-ethylhexyl)phthalate ....... 2 standard deviations.
Detection Dinoseb .................................. 2 standard deviations.
Contaminant limit (mg/l) Diquat .................................... 2 standard deviations.
Endothall ................................ 2 standard deviations.
Alachlor ............................................................ .0002 Endrin .................................... ±30.
Aldicarb ............................................................ .0005 Glyphosate ............................. 2 standard deviations.
Aldicarb sulfoxide ............................................ .0005 Heptachlor ............................. ±45.
Aldicarb sulfone ............................................... .0008 Heptachlor epoxide ................ ±45.
Atrazine ............................................................ .0001 Hexachlorobenzene ............... 2 standard deviations.
Benzo[a]pyrene ................................................ .00002 Hexachloro- cyclopentadiene 2 standard deviations.
Carbofuran ....................................................... .0009 Lindane .................................. ±45.
Chlordane ........................................................ .0002 Methoxychlor ......................... ±45.
Dalapon ........................................................... .001 Oxamyl ................................... 2 standard deviations.
1,2–Dibromo–3–chloropropane (DBCP) .......... .00002 PCBs (as 0–200.
Di (2-ethylhexyl) adipate .................................. .0006 Decachlorobiphenyl)
Di (2-ethylhexyl) phthalate ............................... .0006 Picloram ................................. 2 standard deviations.
Dinoseb ............................................................ .0002 Simazine ................................ 2 standard deviations.
Diquat .............................................................. .0004 Toxaphene ............................. ±45.
2,4-D ................................................................ .0001 Aldicarb .................................. 2 standard deviations.
Endothall .......................................................... .009 Aldicarb sulfoxide .................. 2 standard deviations.
Endrin .............................................................. .00001 Aldicarb sulfone ..................... 2 standard deviations.
Ethylene dibromide (EDB) ............................... .00001 Pentachlorophenol ................. ±50.
Glyphosate ....................................................... .006 2,3,7,8-TCDD (Dioxin) ........... 2 standard deviations.
Heptachlor ....................................................... .00004 2,4-D ...................................... ±50.
Heptachlor epoxide .......................................... .00002 2,4,5-TP (Silvex) .................... ±50.
Hexachlorobenzene ......................................... .0001
Hexachlorocyclopentadiene ............................. .0001 (ii) [Reserved]
Lindane ............................................................ .00002
Methoxychlor ................................................... .0001 (Approved by the Office of Management and
Oxamyl ............................................................. .002 Budget under control number 2040–0090)
Picloram ........................................................... .0001
Polychlorinated biphenyls (PCBs) (as [40 FR 59570, Dec. 24, 1975, as amended at 44
decachlorobiphenyl) ..................................... .0001 FR 68641, Nov. 29, 1979; 45 FR 57345, Aug. 27,
Pentachlorophenol ........................................... .00004 1980; 47 FR 10998, Mar. 12, 1982; 52 FR 25712,
Simazine .......................................................... .00007 July 8, 1987; 53 FR 5147, Feb. 19, 1988; 53 FR
Toxaphene ....................................................... .001 25110, July 1, 1988; 56 FR 3583, Jan. 30, 1991; 56
2,3,7,8-TCDD (Dioxin) ..................................... .000000005
FR 30277, July 1, 1991; 57 FR 22178, May 27,
2,4,5-TP (Silvex) .............................................. .0002
1992; 57 FR 31841, July 17, 1992; 59 FR 34323,
July 1, 1994; 59 FR 62468, Dec. 5, 1994; 60 FR
(19) Anaylsis under this section shall 34085, June 29, 1995; 64 FR 67464, Dec. 1, 1999;
only be conducted by laboratories that 65 FR 26022, May 4, 2000; 67 FR 65250, Oct. 23,
have received certification by EPA or 2002; 67 FR 65898, Oct. 29, 2002]
the State and have met the following EFFECTIVE DATE NOTE: At 66 FR 7063, Jan.
conditions: 22, 2001, § 141.24 was amended by adding a new
(i) To receive certification to conduct sentence to the end of paragraph (f)(15) intro-
analyses for the contaminants in ductory text; revising paragraphs (f)(15)(i)
and (f)(15)(ii) and adding new paragraphs
§ 141.61(c) the laboratory must:
(f)(15)(iii) through (f)(15)(v); adding para-
(A) Analyze Performance Evaluation graph (f)(22); adding a new sentence to the
(PE) samples provided by EPA, the end of paragraph (h)(11) introductory text;
State, or by a third party (with the ap- revising paragraphs (h)(11)(i) and (h)(11)(ii)
proval of the State or EPA) at least and adding new paragraphs (h)(11)(iii)

380

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Environmental Protection Agency § 141.25
through (h)(11)(v); and adding paragraph (h) * * *
(h)(20), effective Mar. 23, 2001, except for the (11)* * * If one sampling point is in viola-
amendments to (f)(15), (h)(11), and (h)(20), tion of an MCL, the system is in violation of
which are effective Jan. 22, 2004. At 66 FR the MCL.
16134, Mar. 23, 2001, the effective date was de- (i) For systems monitoring more than once
layed until May 22, 2001. At 66 FR 28350, May per year, compliance with the MCL is deter-
22, 2001, the effective date of (f)(22) was also mined by a running annual average at each
delayed until Jan. 22, 2004. For the conven-
sampling point.
ience of the user, the revised and added text
is set forth as follows: (ii) Systems monitoring annually or less
frequently whose sample result exceeds the
§ 141.24 Organic chemicals other than total regulatory detection level as defined by
trihalomethanes, sampling and analytical paragraph (h)(18) of this section must begin
methods. quarterly sampling. The system will not be
(f) * * * considered in violation of the MCL until it
(15) * * * If one sampling point is in viola- has completed one year of quarterly sam-
tion of an MCL, the system is in violation of pling.
the MCL. (iii) If any sample result will cause the
(i) For systems monitoring more than once running annual average to exceed the MCL
per year, compliance with the MCL is deter-
at any sampling point, the system is out of
mined by a running annual average at each
compliance with the MCL immediately.
sampling point.
(ii) Systems monitoring annually or less (iv) If a system fails to collect the required
frequently whose sample result exceeds the number of samples, compliance will be based
MCL must begin quarterly sampling. The on the total number of samples collected.
system will not be considered in violation of (v) If a sample result is less than the detec-
the MCL until it has completed one year of tion limit, zero will be used to calculate the
quarterly sampling. annual average.
(iii) If any sample result will cause the
running annual average to exceed the MCL
at any sampling point, the system is out of * * * * *
compliance with the MCL immediately. (20) All new systems or systems that use a
(iv) If a system fails to collect the required new source of water that begin operation
number of samples, compliance will be based after January 22, 2004 must demonstrate
on the total number of samples collected. compliance with the MCL within a period of
(v) If a sample result is less than the detec- time specified by the State. The system
tion limit, zero will be used to calculate the
must also comply with the initial sampling
annual average.
frequencies specified by the State to ensure
a system can demonstrate compliance with
* * * * * the MCL. Routine and increased monitoring
(22) All new systems or systems that use a frequencies shall be conducted in accordance
new source of water that begin operation with the requirements in this section.
after January 22, 2004 must demonstrate
compliance with the MCL within a period of § 141.25 Analytical methods for radio-
time specified by the State. The system activity.
must also comply with the initial sampling
frequencies specified by the State to ensure
(a) Analysis for the following con-
a system can demonstrate compliance with taminants shall be conducted to deter-
the MCL. Routine and increased monitoring mine compliance with §§ 141.15 and
frequencies shall be conducted in accordance 141.16 (radioactivity) in accordance
with the requirements in this section. with the methods in the following
table, or their equivalent determined
* * * * * by EPA in accordance with § 141.27.

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10:39 Aug 22, 2003

§ 141.25
Reference (method or page number)
Contaminant Methodology
EPA 1 EPA 2 EPA 3 EPA 4 SM 5 ASTM 6 USGS 7 DOE 8 Other
Jkt 200158

Naturally occurring:
Gross alpha11 Evaporation ............ 900.0 ........ p 1 ........... 00–01 ....... p 1 ........... 302, 7110 B ..................... ........................ R–1120–76 ....
and beta.
Gross alpha11 .. Co-precipitation ...... .................. .................. 00–02 ....... .................. 7110 C .............................
Radium 226 ..... Radon emanation ... 903.1 ........ p 16 ......... Ra–04 ...... p 19 ......... 305,7500–Ra C ............... D 3454–97 ..... R–1141–76 .... Ra–04 ...... N.Y.9
Radiochemi- cal ...... 903.0 ........ p 13 ......... Ra–03 ...... .................. 304,7500–Ra B ............... D 2460–97 ..... R–1140–76 ....
PO 00000

Radium 228 ..... Radiochemi- cal ...... 904.0 ........ p 24 ......... Ra–05 ...... p 19 ......... 7500–Ra D ...................... ........................ R–1142–76 .... .................. N.Y.9,
N.J.10
Uranium12 ........ Radiochemi- cal ...... 908.0 ........ .................. .................. .................. 7500–U B
Fluorometric ............ 908.1 ........ .................. .................. .................. 7500–U C (17th Ed.) ....... D2907–97 ...... R–1180–76, U–04
R–1181–76.
Frm 00382

Alpha spectrometry .................. .................. 00–07 ....... p 33 ......... 7500–U C (18th, 19th or D 3972–97 ..... R–1182–76 .... U–02
20th Ed.).
Laser .................. .................. .................. .................. .......................................... D 5174–97 .....
Phosphorimetry.
Man-made:
Fmt 8010

Radioact- .......... Radiochemi- ........... 901.0 ........ p 4 ........... .................. .................. 7500–CsB ........................ D 2459–72 ..... R–1111–76 ....
ive cesium ........ cal ...........................
Gamma ray spec- 901.1 ........ .................. .................. p 92 ......... 7120 ................................. D 3649–91 ..... R– 1110–76 ... 4.5.2.3 ......
trometry.
382

Radioact- .......... Radiochemi- ........... 902.0 ........ p 6, p 9 .... .................. .................. 7500–I B, 7500–I C, D 3649–91 .....
Sfmt 8010

ive iodine .......... cal ........................... 7500–I D.


Gamma ray spec- 901.1 ........ .................. .................. p 92 ......... 7120 ................................. D 4785–93 ..... ........................ 4.5.2.3 ......
trometry.
Radioact- .......... Radiochemi- ........... 905.0 ........ p 29 ......... Sr–04 ....... p 65 ......... 303, 7500–Sr B ............... ........................ R–1160–76 .... Sr–01, Sr–
ive Strontium cal ........................... 02
Y:\SGML\200158T.XXX

89, 90.
Tritium .............. Liquid scintillation ... 906.0 ........ p 34 ......... H–02 ........ p 87 ......... 306, 7500–3H B .............. D 4107–91 ..... R–1171–76 ....

40 CFR Ch. I (7–1–03 Edition)


Gamma emitters Gamma ray ............. 901.1 ........ .................. .................. p 92 ......... 7120 ................................. D 3649–91 ..... R–1110–76 .... Ga–01–R
Spectrometry .......... 902.0, .................. .................. .................. 7500–Cs B, 7500–I B ...... D 4785–93 .....
901.0.
The procedures shall be done in accordance with the documents listed below. The incorporation by reference of documents 1 through 10 was approved by the Director of the Federal
Register in accordance with 5 U.S.C. 552(a) and 1 CFR part 51. Copies of the documents may be obtained from the sources listed below. Information regarding obtaining these documents
can be obtained from the Safe Drinking Water Hotline at 800–426–4791. Documents may be inspected at EPA’s Drinking Water Docket, EPA West, 1301 Constitution Avenue, NW., Room
B135, Washington, DC (Telephone: 202–566–2426); or at the Office of the Federal Register, 800 North Capitol Street, NW., Suite 700, Washington, DC.
1 ‘‘Prescribed Procedures for the Measurement of Radioactivity in Drinking Water’’, EPA 600/4–80–032, August 1980. Available at the U.S. Department of Commerce, National Technical
Information Service (NTIS), 5285 Port Royal Road, Springfield, VA 22161 (Telephone 800–553–6847), PB 80–224744.
200158T

2 ‘‘Interim Radiochemical Methodology for Drinking Water’’, EPA 600/4–75–008(revised), March 1976. Available NTIS, ibid. PB 253258.
3 ‘‘Radiochemistry Procedures Manual’’, EPA 520/5–84–006, December, 1987. Available NTIS, ibid. PB 84–215581.
4 ‘‘Radiochemical Analytical Procedures for Analysis of Environmental Samples’’, March 1979. Available at NTIS, ibid. EMSL LV 053917.
5 ‘‘Standard Methods for the Examination of Water and Wastewater’’, 13th, 17th, 18th, 19th Editions, or 20th edition, 1971, 1989, 1992, 1995, 1998. Available at American Public Health
Association, 1015 Fifteenth Street NW., Washington, DC 20005 . Methods 302, 303, 304, 305 and 306 are only in the 13th edition. Methods 7110B, 7500–Ra B, 7500–Ra C, 7500–Ra D,
7500–U B, 7500–Cs B, 7500–I B, 7500–I C, 7500–I D, 7500–Sr B, 7500–3H B are in the 17th, 18th, 19th and 20th editions. Method 7110 C is in the 18th, 19th and 20th editions. Method
7500–U C Fluorometric Uranium is only in the 17th Edition, and 7500–U C Alpha spectrometry is only in the 18th, 19th and 20th editions. Method 7120 is only in the 19th and 20th editions.
Methods 302, 303, 304, 305 and 306 are only in the 13th edition.
6 Annual Book of ASTM Standards, Vol. 11.01 and 11.02, 1999; ASTM International any year containing the cited version of the method may be used. Copies may be obtained from
ASTM International, 100 Barr Harbor Drive, West Conshohocken, PA 19428.
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10:39 Aug 22, 2003

Environmental Protection Agency


7 ‘‘Methods for Determination of Radioactive Substances in Water and Fluvial Sediments’’, Chapter A5 in Book 5 of Techniques of Water-Resources Investigations of the United States
Geological Survey, 1977. Available at U.S. Geological Survey (USGS) Information Services, Box 25286, Federal Center, Denver, CO 80225–0425.
8 ‘‘EML Procedures Manual’’, 28th (1997) or 27th (1990) Editions, Volumes 1 and 2; either edition may be used. In the 27th Edition Method Ra–04 is listed as Ra–05 and Method Ga–01–
R is listed as Sect. 4.5.2.3. Available at the Environmental Measurements Laboratory, U.S. Department of Energy (DOE), 376 Hudson Street, New York, NY 10014–3621.
Jkt 200158

9 ‘‘Determination of Ra–226 and Ra–228 (Ra–02)’’, January 1980, Revised June 1982. Available at Radiological Sciences Institute for Laboratories and Research, New York State Depart-
ment of Health, Empire State Plaza, Albany, NY 12201.
10 ‘‘Determination of Radium 228 in Drinking Water’’, August 1980. Available at State of New Jersey, Department of Environmental Protection, Division of Environmental Quality, Bureau of
Radiation and Inorganic Analytical Services, 9 Ewing Street, Trenton, NJ 08625.
11 Natural uranium and thorium-230 are approved as gross alpha calibration standards for gross alpha with co-precipitation and evaporation methods; americium-241 is approved with co-
precipitation methods.
12 In uranium (U) is determined by mass, a 0.67 pCi/µg of uranium conversion factor must be used. This conversion factor is based on the 1:1 activity ration of U–234 and U–238 that is
PO 00000

characteristic of naturally occurring uranium.


Frm 00383
Fmt 8010

383
Sfmt 8010
Y:\SGML\200158T.XXX
200158T

§ 141.25
§ 141.26 40 CFR Ch. I (7–1–03 Edition)

(b) When the identification and meas- their sanctioned representatives and
urement of radionuclides other than agencies.
those listed in paragraph (a) of this [41 FR 28404, July 9, 1976, as amended at 45
section is required, the following ref- FR 57345, Aug. 27, 1980; 62 FR 10173, Mar. 5,
erences are to be used, except in cases 1997; 67 FR 65250, Oct. 23, 2002]
where alternative methods have been
EFFECTIVE DATE NOTE: At 65 FR 76745, Dec.
approved in accordance with § 141.27. 7, 2000, § 141.25 was amended by revising para-
(1) Procedures for Radiochemical Anal- graphs (a) introductory text, (c)(1), (c)(2) in-
ysis of Nuclear Reactor Aqueous Solu- troductory text, and (d), and by redesig-
tions, H. L. Krieger and S. Gold, EPA– nating Table B in paragragh (c)(2) as Table
R4–73–014. USEPA, Cincinnati, Ohio, C, effective Dec. 8, 2003. For the convenience
May 1973. of the user, the revised text is set forth as
(2) HASL Procedure Manual, Edited by follows:
John H. Harley. HASL 300, ERDA § 141.25 Analytical methods for radioac-
Health and Safety Laboratory, New tivity.
York, NY., 1973. (a) Analysis for the following contami-
(c) For the purpose of monitoring ra- nants shall be conducted to determine com-
dioactivity concentrations in drinking pliance with § 141.66 (radioactivity) in ac-
water, the required sensitivity of the cordance with the methods in the following
table, or their equivalent determined by EPA
radioanalysis is defined in terms of a
in accordance with § 141.27.
detection limit. The detection limit
shall be that concentration which can
be counted with a precision of plus or * * * * *
minus 100 percent at the 95 percent (c) * * *
confidence level (1.96s where s is the (1) To determine compliance with
standard deviation of the net counting § 141.66(b), (c), and (e) the detection limit
rate of the sample). shall not exceed the concentrations in Table
B to this paragraph.
(1) To determine compliance with
§ 141.15(a) the detection limit shall not TABLE B—DETECTION LIMITS FOR GROSS ALPHA
exceed 1 pCi/1. To determine compli- PARTICLE ACTIVITY, RADIUM 226, RADIUM
ance with § 141.15(b) the detection limit 228, AND URANIUM
shall not exceed 3 pCi/1.
(2) To determine compliance with Detection
Contaminant limit
§ 141.16 the detection limits shall not
exceed the concentrations listed in Gross alpha particle activity .......................... 3 pCi/L.
Table B. Radium 226 ................................................... 1 pCi/L.
Radium 228 ................................................... 1 pCi/L.
Uranium ......................................................... Reserve
TABLE B—DETECTION LIMITS FOR MAN-MADE
BETA PARTICLE AND PHOTON EMITTERS (2) To determine compliance with § 141.66(d)
the detection limits shall not exceed the
Radionuclide Detection limit
concentrations listed in Table C to this para-
Tritium .................................... 1,000 pCi/1. graph.
Strontium–89 ......................... 10 pCi/1.
Strontium–90 ......................... 2 pCi/1.
Iodine–131 ............................. 1 pCi/1.
* * * * *
Cesium–134 ........................... 10 pCi/1. (d) To judge compliance with the max-
Gross beta ............................. 4 pCi/1. imum contaminant levels listed in § 141.66,
Other radionuclides ............... 1⁄10 of the applicable limit.
averages of data shall be used and shall be
rounded to the same number of significant
(d) To judge compliance with the figures as the maximum contaminant level
maximum contaminant levels listed in for the substance in question.
§§ 141.15 and 141.16, averages of data
shall be used and shall be rounded to * * * * *
the same number of significant figures
as the maximum contaminant level for § 141.26 Monitoring frequency for ra-
the substance in question. dioactivity in community water sys-
(e) The State has the authority to de- tems.
termine compliance or initiate enforce- (a) Monitoring requirements for gross
ment action based upon analytical re- alpha particle activity, radium–226 and
sults or other information compiled by radium–228.

384

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Environmental Protection Agency § 141.26

(1) Initial sampling to determine (ii) A supplier of water shall monitor


compliance with § 141.15 shall begin in conformance with paragraph (a)(1) of
within two years of the effective date this section within one year of the in-
of these regulations and the analysis troduction of a new water source for a
shall be completed within three years community water system. More fre-
of the effective date of these regula- quent monitoring shall be conducted
tions. Compliance shall be based on the when ordered by the State in the event
analysis of an annual composite of four of possible contamination or when
consecutive quarterly samples or the changes in the distribution system or
average of the analyses of four samples treatment processing occur which may
obtained at quarterly intervals. increase the concentration of radioac-
(i) A gross alpha particle activity tivity in finished water.
measurement may be substituted for (iii) A community water system
the required radium–226 and radium–228 using two or more sources having dif-
analysis Provided, That the measured ferent concentrations of radioactivity
gross alpha particle activity does not shall monitor source water, in addition
exceed 5 pCi/1 at a confidence level of to water from a free-flowing tap, when
95 percent (1.65s where s is the stand- ordered by the State.
ard deviation of the net counting rate (iv) Monitoring for compliance with
of the sample). In localities where ra-
§ 141.15 after the initial period need not
dium–228 may be present in drinking
include radium–228 except when re-
water, it is recommended that the
quired by the State, Provided, That the
State require radium–226 and/or ra-
average annual concentration of ra-
dium–228 analyses when the gross alpha
dium–228 has been assayed at least
particle activity exceeds 2 pCi/1.
once using the quarterly sampling pro-
(ii) When the gross alpha particle ac-
cedure required by paragraph (a)(1) of
tivity exceeds 5 pCi/1, the same or an
this section.
equivalent sample shall be analyzed for
radium–226. If the concentration of ra- (v) Suppliers of water shall conduct
dium–226 exceeds 3 pCi/1 the same or an annual monitoring of any community
equivalent sample shall be analyzed for water system in which the radium–226
radium–228. concentration exceeds 3 pCi/1, when or-
(2) For the initial analysis required dered by the State.
by paragraph (a)(1) of this section, data (4) If the average annual maximum
acquired within one year prior to the contaminant level for gross alpha par-
effective date of this part may be sub- ticle activity or total radium as set
stituted at the discretion of the State. forth in § 141.15 is exceeded, the sup-
(3) Suppliers of water shall monitor plier of a community water system
at least once every four years following shall give notice to the State pursuant
the procedure required by paragraph to § 141.31 and notify the public as re-
(a)(1) of this section. At the discretion quired by subpart Q. Monitoring at
of the State, when an annual record quarterly intervals shall be continued
taken in conformance with paragraph until the annual average concentration
(a)(1) of this section has established no longer exceeds the maximum con-
that the average annual concentration taminant level or until a monitoring
is less than half the maximum con- schedule as a condition to a variance,
taminant levels established by § 141.15, exemption or enforcement action shall
analysis of a single sample may be sub- become effective.
stituted for the quarterly sampling (b) Monitoring requirements for man-
procedure required by paragraph (a)(1) made radioactivity in community
of this section. water systems.
(i) More frequent monitoring shall be (1) Within two years of the effective
conducted when ordered by the State date of this part, systems using surface
in the vicinity of mining or other oper- water sources and serving more than
ations which may contribute alpha par- 100,000 persons and such other commu-
ticle radioactivity to either surface or nity water systems as are designated
ground water sources of drinking by the State shall be monitored for
water. compliance with § 141.16 by analysis of

385

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§ 141.26, Note 40 CFR Ch. I (7–1–03 Edition)

a composite of four consecutive quar- be analyzed for strontium–89 and ce-


terly samples or analysis of four quar- sium–134. If the gross beta particle ac-
terly samples. Compliance with § 141.16 tivity exceeds 50 pCi/1, an analysis of
may be assumed without further anal- the sample must be performed to iden-
ysis if the average annual concentra- tify the major radioactive constituents
tion of gross beta particle activity is present and the appropriate organ and
less than 50 pCi/1 and if the average an- total body doses shall be calculated to
nual concentrations of tritium and determine compliance with § 141.16.
strontium–90 are less than those listed (ii) For iodine–131, a composite of
in table A, Provided, That if both radio- five consecutive daily samples shall be
nuclides are present the sum of their analyzed once each quarter. As ordered
annual dose equivalents to bone mar- by the State, more frequent moni-
row shall not exceed 4 millirem/year. toring shall be conducted when iodine–
(i) If the gross beta particle activity 131 is identified in the finished water.
exceeds 50 pCi/1, an analysis of the
(iii) Annual monitoring for stron-
sample must be performed to identify
tium–90 and tritium shall be conducted
the major radioactive constituents
by means of the analysis of a com-
present and the appropriate organ and
posite of four consecutive quarterly
total body doses shall be calculated to
determine compliance with § 141.16. samples or analysis of four quarterly
(ii) Suppliers of water shall conduct samples. The latter procedure is rec-
additional monitoring, as ordered by ommended.
the State, to determine the concentra- (iv) The State may allow the substi-
tion of man-made radioactivity in prin- tution of environmental surveillance
cipal watersheds designated by the data taken in conjunction with a nu-
State. clear facility for direct monitoring of
(iii) At the discretion of the State, manmade radioactivity by the supplier
suppliers of water utilizing only ground of water where the State determines
waters may be required to monitor for such data is applicable to a particular
man-made radioactivity. community water system.
(2) For the initial analysis required (5) If the average annual maximum
by paragraph (b)(1) of this section data contaminant level for man-made radio-
acquired within one year prior to the activity set forth in § 141.16 is exceeded,
effective date of this part may be sub- the operator of a community water
stituted at the discretion of the State. system shall give notice to the State
(3) After the initial analysis required pursuant to § 141.31 and to the public as
by paragraph (b)(1) of this section sup- required by subpart Q. Monitoring at
pliers of water shall monitor at least monthly intervals shall be continued
every four years following the proce- until the concentration no longer ex-
dure given in paragraph (b)(1) of this ceeds the maximum contaminant level
section. or until a monitoring schedule as a
(4) Within two years of the effective condition to a variance, exemption or
date of these regulations the supplier enforcement action shall become effec-
of any community water system des- tive.
ignated by the State as utilizing wa-
ters contaminated by effluents from [41 FR 28404, July 9, 1976, as amended at 65
nuclear facilities shall initiate quar- FR 26022, May 4, 2000]
terly monitoring for gross beta particle EFFECTIVE DATE NOTE: At 65 FR 76745, Dec.
and iodine–131 radioactivity and annual 7, 2000, § 141.26 was revised, effective Dec. 8,
monitoring for strontium–90 and trit- 2003. For the convenience of the user, the re-
ium. vised text is set forth as follows:
(i) Quarterly monitoring for gross
§ 141.26 Monitoring frequency and compli-
beta particle activity shall be based on ance requirements for radionuclides in
the analysis of monthly samples or the community water systems
analysis of a composite of three month- (a) Monitoring and compliance require-
ly samples. The former is rec- ments for gross alpha particle activity, ra-
ommended. If the gross beta particle dium-226, radium-228, and uranium.
activity in a sample exceeds 15 pCi/1, (1) Community water systems (CWSs) must
the same or an equivalent sample shall conduct initial monitoring to determine

386

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Environmental Protection Agency § 141.26, Note
compliance with § 141.66(b), (c), and (e) by De- propriate historical data for a representative
cember 31, 2007. For the purposes of moni- point in the distribution system may use the
toring for gross alpha particle activity, ra- monitoring data from the last compliance
dium-226, radium-228, uranium, and beta par- monitoring period that began between June
ticle and photon radioactivity in drinking 2000 and December 8, 2003, provided that the
water, ‘‘detection limit’’ is defined as in State finds that the historical data satisfac-
§ 141.25(c). torily demonstrate that each entry point to
(i) Applicability and sampling location for the distribution system is expected to be in
existing community water systems or compliance based upon the historical data
sources. All existing CWSs using ground and reasonable assumptions about the varia-
water, surface water or systems using both bility of contaminant levels between entry
ground and surface water (for the purpose of points. The State must make a written find-
this section hereafter referred to as systems) ing indicating how the data conforms to the
must sample at every entry point to the dis- these requirements.
tribution system that is representative of all (iii) For gross alpha particle activity, ura-
sources being used (hereafter called a sam- nium, radium-226, and radium-228 moni-
pling point) under normal operating condi- toring, the State may waive the final two
tions. The system must take each sample at quarters of initial monitoring for a sampling
the same sampling point unless conditions point if the results of the samples from the
make another sampling point more rep- previous two quarters are below the detec-
resentative of each source or the State has tion limit.
designated a distribution system location, in (iv) If the average of the initial monitoring
accordance with paragraph (a)(2)(ii)(C) of results for a sampling point is above the
this section. MCL, the system must collect and analyze
(ii) Applicability and sampling location for quarterly samples at that sampling point
new community water systems or sources. until the system has results from four con-
All new CWSs or CWSs that use a new source secutive quarters that are at or below the
of water must begin to conduct initial moni- MCL, unless the system enters into another
toring for the new source within the first schedule as part of a formal compliance
quarter after initiating use of the source. agreement with the State.
CWSs must conduct more frequent moni- (3) Reduced monitoring: States may allow
toring when ordered by the State in the community water systems to reduce the fu-
event of possible contamination or when ture frequency of monitoring from once
changes in the distribution system or treat- every three years to once every six or nine
ment processes occur which may increase years at each sampling point, based on the
the concentration of radioactivity in fin- following criteria.
ished water. (i) If the average of the initial monitoring
(2) Initial monitoring: Systems must con- results for each contaminant (i.e., gross
duct initial monitoring for gross alpha par- alpha particle activity, uranium, radium-226,
ticle activity, radium-226, radium-228, and or radium-228) is below the detection limit
uranium as follows: specified in Table B, in § 141.25(c)(1), the sys-
(i) Systems without acceptable historical tem must collect and analyze for that con-
data, as defined below, must collect four con- taminant using at least one sample at that
secutive quarterly samples at all sampling sampling point every nine years.
points before December 31, 2007. (ii) For gross alpha particle activity and
(ii) Grandfathering of data: States may uranium, if the average of the initial moni-
allow historical monitoring data collected at toring results for each contaminant is at or
a sampling point to satisfy the initial moni- above the detection limit but at or below 1⁄2
toring requirements for that sampling point, the MCL, the system must collect and ana-
for the following situations. lyze for that contaminant using at least one
(A) To satisfy initial monitoring require- sample at that sampling point every six
ments, a community water system having years. For combined radium-226 and radium-
only one entry point to the distribution sys- 228, the analytical results must be combined.
tem may use the monitoring data from the If the average of the combined initial moni-
last compliance monitoring period that toring results for radium-226 and radium-228
began between June 2000 and December 8, is at or above the detection limit but at or
2003. below 1⁄2 the MCL, the system must collect
(B) To satisfy initial monitoring require- and analyze for that contaminant using at
ments, a community water system with mul- least one sample at that sampling point
tiple entry points and having appropriate every six years.
historical monitoring data for each entry (iii) For gross alpha particle activity and
point to the distribution system may use the uranium, if the average of the initial moni-
monitoring data from the last compliance toring results for each contaminant is above
1⁄2 the MCL but at or below the MCL, the sys-
monitoring period that began between June
2000 and December 8, 2003. tem must collect and analyze at least one
(C) To satisfy initial monitoring require- sample at that sampling point every three
ments, a community water system with ap- years. For combined radium-226 and radium-

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§ 141.26, Note 40 CFR Ch. I (7–1–03 Edition)
228, the analytical results must be combined. ticle and photon radioactivity, a system
If the average of the combined initial moni- must monitor at a frequency as follows:
toring results for radium-226 and radium-228 (1) Community water systems (both sur-
is above 1⁄2 the MCL but at or below the face and ground water) designated by the
MCL, the system must collect and analyze at State as vulnerable must sample for beta
least one sample at that sampling point particle and photon radioactivity. Systems
every three years. must collect quarterly samples for beta
(iv) Systems must use the samples col- emitters and annual samples for tritium and
lected during the reduced monitoring period strontium-90 at each entry point to the dis-
to determine the monitoring frequency for tribution system (hereafter called a sam-
subsequent monitoring periods (e.g., if a sys- pling point), beginning within one quarter
tem’s sampling point is on a nine year moni- after being notified by the State. Systems al-
toring period, and the sample result is above ready designated by the State must continue
1⁄2 MCL, then the next monitoring period for to sample until the State reviews and either
that sampling point is three years). reaffirms or removes the designation.
(v) If a system has a monitoring result (i) If the gross beta particle activity minus
that exceeds the MCL while on reduced mon- the naturally occurring potassium-40 beta
itoring, the system must collect and analyze particle activity at a sampling point has a
quarterly samples at that sampling point running annual average (computed quar-
until the system has results from four con- terly) less than or equal to 50 pCi/L (screen-
secutive quarters that are below the MCL, ing level), the State may reduce the fre-
unless the system enters into another sched- quency of monitoring at that sampling point
ule as part of a formal compliance agree- to once every 3 years. Systems must collect
ment with the State. all samples required in paragraph (b)(1) of
(4) Compositing: To fulfill quarterly moni- this section during the reduced monitoring
toring requirements for gross alpha particle period.
activity, radium-226, radium-228, or uranium, (ii) For systems in the vicinity of a nuclear
a system may composite up to four consecu- facility, the State may allow the CWS to uti-
tive quarterly samples from a single entry lize environmental surveillance data col-
point if analysis is done within a year of the lected by the nuclear facility in lieu of moni-
first sample. States will treat analytical re- toring at the system’s entry point(s), where
sults from the composited as the average an- the State determines if such data is applica-
alytical result to determine compliance with ble to a particular water system. In the
the MCLs and the future monitoring fre- event that there is a release from a nuclear
quency. If the analytical result from the facility, systems which are using surveil-
composited sample is greater than 1⁄2 MCL, lance data must begin monitoring at the
the State may direct the system to take ad- community water system’s entry point(s) in
ditional quarterly samples before allowing accordance with paragraph (b)(1) of this sec-
the system to sample under a reduced moni- tion.
toring schedule. (2) Community water systems (both sur-
(5) A gross alpha particle activity measure- face and ground water) designated by the
ment may be substituted for the required ra- State as utilizing waters contaminated by
dium-226 measurement provided that the effluents from nuclear facilities must sample
measured gross alpha particle activity does for beta particle and photon radioactivity.
not exceed 5 pCi/l. A gross alpha particle ac- Systems must collect quarterly samples for
tivity measurement may be substituted for beta emitters and iodine-131 and annual sam-
the required uranium measurement provided ples for tritium and strontium-90 at each
that the measured gross alpha particle activ- entry point to the distribution system (here-
ity does not exceed 15 pCi/l. The gross alpha after called a sampling point), beginning
measurement shall have a confidence inter- within one quarter after being notified by
val of 95% (1.65s, where s is the standard de- the State. Systems already designated by
viation of the net counting rate of the sam- the State as systems using waters contami-
ple) for radium-226 and uranium. When a sys- nated by effluents from nuclear facilities
tem uses a gross alpha particle activity must continue to sample until the State re-
measurement in lieu of a radium-226 and/or views and either reaffirms or removes the
uranium measurement, the gross alpha par- designation.
ticle activity analytical result will be used (i) Quarterly monitoring for gross beta par-
to determine the future monitoring fre- ticle activity shall be based on the analysis
quency for radium-226 and/or uranium. If the of monthly samples or the analysis of a com-
gross alpha particle activity result is less posite of three monthly samples. The former
than detection, 1⁄2 the detection limit will be is recommended.
used to determine compliance and the future (ii) For iodine-131, a composite of five con-
monitoring frequency. secutive daily samples shall be analyzed
(b) Monitoring and compliance requirements once each quarter. As ordered by the State,
for beta particle and photon radioactivity.To more frequent monitoring shall be conducted
determine compliance with the maximum when iodine-131 is identified in the finished
contaminant levels in § 141.66(d) for beta par- water.

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Environmental Protection Agency § 141.27
(iii) Annual monitoring for strontium-90 MCL is being met must return to quarterly
and tritium shall be conducted by means of monitoring until they meet the require-
the analysis of a composite of four consecu- ments set forth in paragraph (b)(1)(ii) or
tive quarterly samples or analysis of four (b)(2)(i) of this section.
quarterly samples. The latter procedure is (c) General monitoring and compliance re-
recommended. quirements for radionuclides.
(iv) If the gross beta particle activity beta (1) The State may require more frequent
minus the naturally occurring potassium-40 monitoring than specified in paragraphs (a)
beta particle activity at a sampling point and (b) of this section, or may require con-
has a running annual average (computed firmation samples at its discretion. The re-
quarterly) less than or equal to 15 pCi/L, the sults of the initial and confirmation samples
State may reduce the frequency of moni- will be averaged for use in compliance deter-
toring at that sampling point to every 3 minations.
years. Systems must collect all samples re- (2) Each public water systems shall mon-
quired in paragraph (b)(2) of this section dur- itor at the time designated by the State dur-
ing the reduced monitoring period. ing each compliance period.
(v) For systems in the vicinity of a nuclear (3) Compliance: Compliance with § 141.66 (b)
facility, the State may allow the CWS to uti- through (e) will be determined based on the
lize environmental surveillance data col- analytical result(s) obtained at each sam-
lected by the nuclear facility in lieu of moni- pling point. If one sampling point is in viola-
toring at the system’s entry point(s), where tion of an MCL, the system is in violation of
the State determines if such data is applica- the MCL.
ble to a particular water system. In the (i) For systems monitoring more than once
event that there is a release from a nuclear per year, compliance with the MCL is deter-
facility, systems which are using surveil- mined by a running annual average at each
lance data must begin monitoring at the sampling point. If the average of any sam-
community water system’s entry point(s) in pling point is greater than the MCL, then
accordance with paragraph (b)(2) of this sec- the system is out of compliance with the
tion. MCL.
(3) Community water systems designated (ii) For systems monitoring more than
by the State to monitor for beta particle and once per year, if any sample result will cause
photon radioactivity can not apply to the the running average to exceed the MCL at
State for a waiver from the monitoring fre- any sample point, the system is out of com-
quencies specified in paragraph (b)(1) or pliance with the MCL immediately.
(b)(2) of this section. (iii) Systems must include all samples
(4) Community water systems may analyze taken and analyzed under the provisions of
for naturally occurring potassium-40 beta this section in determining compliance, even
particle activity from the same or equiva- if that number is greater than the minimum
lent sample used for the gross beta particle required.
activity analysis. Systems are allowed to (iv) If a system does not collect all re-
subtract the potassium-40 beta particle ac- quired samples when compliance is based on
tivity value from the total gross beta par- a running annual average of quarterly sam-
ticle activity value to determine if the ples, compliance will be based on the running
screening level is exceeded. The potassium-40 average of the samples collected.
beta particle activity must be calculated by (v) If a sample result is less than the detec-
multiplying elemental potassium concentra- tion limit, zero will be used to calculate the
tions (in mg/L) by a factor of 0.82. annual average, unless a gross alpha particle
(5) If the gross beta particle activity minus activity is being used in lieu of radium-226
the naturally occurring potassium-40 beta and/or uranium. If the gross alpha particle
particle activity exceeds the screening level, activity result is less than detection, 1⁄2 the
an analysis of the sample must be performed detection limit will be used to calculate the
to identify the major radioactive constitu- annual average.
ents present in the sample and the appro- (4) States have the discretion to delete re-
priate doses must be calculated and summed sults of obvious sampling or analytic errors.
to determine compliance with § 141.66(d)(1), (5) If the MCL for radioactivity set forth in
using the formula in § 141.66(d)(2). Doses must § 141.66 (b) through (e) is exceeded, the oper-
also be calculated and combined for meas- ator of a community water system must give
ured levels of tritium and strontium to de- notice to the State pursuant to § 141.31 and to
termine compliance. the public as required by subpart Q of this
(6) Systems must monitor monthly at the part.
sampling point(s) which exceed the max-
imum contaminant level in § 141.66(d) begin- § 141.27 Alternate analytical tech-
ning the month after the exceedance occurs. niques.
Systems must continue monthly monitoring
until the system has established, by a rolling (a) With the written permission of
average of 3 monthly samples, that the MCL the State, concurred in by the Admin-
is being met. Systems who establish that the istrator of the U.S. EPA, an alternate

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§ 141.28 40 CFR Ch. I (7–1–03 Edition)

analytical technique may be employed. the drinking water treatment process


An alternate technique shall be accept- shall analyze for total trihalomethanes
ed only if it is substantially equivalent in accordance with this section. For
to the prescribed test in both precision systems serving 75,000 or more individ-
and accuracy as it relates to the deter- uals, sampling and analyses shall begin
mination of compliance with any MCL. not later than 1 year after the date of
The use of the alternate analytical promulgation of this regulation. For
technique shall not decrease the fre- systems serving 10,000 to 74,999 individ-
quency of monitoring required by this uals, sampling and analyses shall begin
part. not later than 3 years after the date of
[45 FR 57345, Aug. 27, 1980] promulgation of this regulation. For
the purpose of this section, the min-
§ 141.28 Certified laboratories. imum number of samples required to be
(a) For the purpose of determining taken by the system shall be based on
compliance with §§ 141.21 through the number of treatment plants used
141.27, 141.30, 141.40, 141.74 and 141.89, by the system, except that multiple
samples may be considered only if they wells drawing raw water from a single
have been analyzed by a laboratory aquifer may, with the State approval,
certified by the State except that be considered one treatment plant for
measurements for alkalinity, calcium, determining the minimum number of
conductivity, disinfectant residual, samples. All samples taken within an
orthophosphate, pH, silica, tempera- established frequency shall be collected
ture and turbidity may be performed within a 24-hour period.
by any person acceptable to the State. (b)(1) For all community water sys-
(b) Nothing in this part shall be con- tems utilizing surface water sources in
strued to preclude the State or any whole or in part, and for all commu-
duly designated representative of the nity water systems utilizing only
State from taking samples or from ground water sources that have not
using the results from such samples to been determined by the State to qual-
determine compliance by a supplier of ify for the monitoring requirements of
water with the applicable requirements paragraph (c) of this section, analyses
of this part. for total trihalomethanes shall be per-
formed at quarterly intervals on at
[45 FR 57345, Aug. 27, 1980; 47 FR 10999, Mar.
least four water samples for each treat-
12, 1982, as amended at 59 FR 34323, July 1,
1994; 64 FR 67465, Dec. 1, 1999] ment plant used by the system. At
least 25 percent of the samples shall be
§ 141.29 Monitoring of consecutive taken at locations within the distribu-
public water systems. tion system reflecting the maximum
When a public water system supplies residence time of the water in the sys-
water to one or more other public tem. The remaining 75 percent shall be
water systems, the State may modify taken at representative locations in
the monitoring requirements imposed the distribution system, taking into
by this part to the extent that the account number of persons served, dif-
interconnection of the systems justi- ferent sources of water and different
fies treating them as a single system treatment methods employed. The re-
for monitoring purposes. Any modified sults of all analyses per quarter shall
monitoring shall be conducted pursu- be arithmetically averaged and re-
ant to a schedule specified by the State ported to the State within 30 days of
and concurred in by the Administrator the system’s receipt of such results.
of the U.S. Environmental Protection Results shall also be reported to EPA
Agency. until such monitoring requirements
have been adopted by the State. All
§ 141.30 Total trihalomethanes sam- samples collected shall be used in the
pling, analytical and other require- computation of the average, unless the
ments. analytical results are invalidated for
(a) Community water system which technical reasons. Sampling and anal-
serve a population of 10,000 or more in- yses shall be conducted in accordance
dividuals and which add a disinfectant with the methods listed in paragraph
(oxidant) to the water in any part of (e) of this section.

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Environmental Protection Agency § 141.30

(2) Upon the written request of a the system. The system’s monitoring
community water system, the moni- frequency may only be reduced upon a
toring frequency required by paragraph written determination by the State
(b)(1) of this section may be reduced by that, based upon the data submitted by
the State to a minimum of one sample the system, the system has a maximum
analyzed for TTHMs per quarter taken TTHM potential of less than 0.10 mg/l
at a point in the distribution system and that, based upon an assessment of
reflecting the maximum residence time the local conditions of the system, the
of the water in the system, upon a system is not likely to approach or ex-
written determination by the State ceed the maximum contaminant level
that the data from at least 1 year of for total TTHMs. The results of all
monitoring in accordance with para- analyses shall be reported to the State
graph (b)(1) of this section and local within 30 days of the system’s receipt
conditions demonstrate that total of such results. Results shall also be re-
trihalomethane concentrations will be ported to EPA until such monitoring
consistently below the maximum con- requirements have been adopted by the
taminant level. State. All samples collected shall be
(3) If at any time during which the used for determining whether the sys-
reduced monitoring frequency pre- tem must comply with the monitoring
scribed under this paragraph applies, requirements of paragraph (b) of this
the results from any analysis exceed section, unless the analytical results
0.10 mg/l of TTHMs and such results are are invalidated for technical reasons.
confirmed by at least one check sample Sampling and analyses shall be con-
taken promptly after such results are ducted in accordance with the methods
received, or if the system makes any listed in paragraph (e) of this section.
significant change to its source of (2) If at any time during which the
water or treatment program, the sys- reduced monitoring frequency pre-
tem shall immediately begin moni- scribed under paragraph (c)(1) of this
toring in accordance with the require- section applies, the results from any
ments of paragraph (b)(1) of this sec- analysis taken by the system for max-
tion, which monitoring shall continue imum TTHM potential are equal to or
for at least 1 year before the frequency greater than 0.10 mg/l, and such results
may be reduced again. At the option of are confirmed by at least one check
the State, a system’s monitoring fre- sample taken promptly after such re-
quency may and should be increased sults are received, the system shall im-
above the minimum in those cases mediately begin monitoring in accord-
where it is necessary to detect vari- ance with the requirements of para-
ations of TTHM levels within the dis- graph (b) of this section and such moni-
tribution system. toring shall continue for at least one
(c)(1) Upon written request to the year before the frequency may be re-
State, a community water system uti- duced again. In the event of any sig-
lizing only ground water sources may nificant change to the system’s raw
seek to have the monitoring frequency water or treatment program, the sys-
required by paragraph (b)(1) of this sec- tem shall immediately analyze an addi-
tion reduced to a minimum of one sam- tional sample for maximum TTHM po-
ple for maximum TTHM potential per tential taken at a point in the distribu-
year for each treatment plant used by tion system reflecting maximum resi-
the system taken at a point in the dis- dence time of the water in the system
tribution system reflecting maximum for the purpose of determining whether
residence time of the water in the sys- the system must comply with the mon-
tem. The system shall submit the re- itoring requirements of paragraph (b)
sults of at least one sample for max- of this section. At the option of the
imum TTHM potential using the proce- State, monitoring frequencies may and
dure specified in paragraph (g) of this should be increased above the min-
section. A sample must be analyzed imum in those cases where this is nec-
from each treatment plant used by the essary to detect variation of TTHM
system and be taken at a point in the levels within the distribution system.
distribution system reflecting the max- (d) Compliance with § 141.12 shall be
imum residence time of the water in determined based on a running annual

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§ 141.30 40 CFR Ch. I (7–1–03 Edition)

average of quarterly samples collected ity throughout the distribution sys-


by the system as prescribed in para- tem;
graph (b)(1) or (2) of this section. If the (3) Provide baseline water quality
average of samples covering any 12 survey data of the distribution system.
month period exceeds the Maximum Such data should include the results
Contaminant Level, the supplier of from monitoring for coliform and fecal
water shall report to the State pursu- coliform bacteria, fecal streptococci,
ant to § 141.31 and notify the public pur- standard plate counts at 35 °C and 20
suant to subpart Q. Monitoring after °C, phosphate, ammonia nitrogen and
public notification shall be at a fre- total organic carbon. Virus studies
quency designated by the State and should be required where source waters
shall continue until a monitoring are heavily contaminated with sewage
schedule as a condition to a variance, effluent;
exemption or enforcement action shall (4) Conduct additional monitoring to
become effective. assure continued maintenance of opti-
(e) Sampling and analyses made pur- mal biological quality in finished
suant to this section shall be con- water, for example, when chloramines
ducted by one of the total are introduced as disinfectants or when
trihalomethanes methods as directed pre-chlorination is being discontinued.
in § 141.24(e), and the Technical Notes on Additional monitoring should also be
Drinking Water Methods, EPA–600/R–94– required by the State for chlorate,
173, October 1994, which is available chlorite and chlorine dioxide when
from NTIS, PB–104766, or in § 141.131(b). chlorine dioxide is used. Standard plate
Samples for TTHM shall be count analyses should also be required
dechlorinated upon collection to pre- by the State as appropriate before and
vent further production of after any modifications;
trihalomethanes, according to the pro- (5) Consider inclusion in the plan of
cedures described in the methods, ex- provisions to maintain an active dis-
cept acidification is not required if infectant residual throughout the dis-
only THMs or TTHMs are to be deter- tribution system at all times during
mined. Samples for maximum TTHM and after the modification.
potential should not be dechlorinated (g) The water sample for determina-
or acidified, and should be held for tion of maximum total trihalomethane
seven days at 25 °C (or above) prior to potential is taken from a point in the
analysis. distribution system that reflects max-
(f) Before a community water system imum residence time. Procedures for
makes any significant modifications to sample collection and handling are
its existing treatment process for the given in the methods. No reducing
purposes of achieving compliance with agent is added to ‘‘quench’’ the chem-
§ 141.12, such system must submit and ical reaction producing THMs at the
obtain State approval of a detailed time of sample collection. The intent is
plan setting forth its proposed modi- to permit the level of THM precursors
fication and those safeguards that it to be depleted and the concentration of
will implement to ensure that the bac- THMs to be maximized for the supply
teriological quality of the drinking being tested. Four experimental pa-
water served by such system will not rameters affecting maximum THM pro-
be adversely affected by such modifica- duction are pH, temperature, reaction
tion. Each system shall comply with time and the presence of a disinfectant
the provisions set forth in the State- residual. These parameters are dealt
approved plan. At a minimum, a State with as follows: Measure the disinfect-
approved plan shall require the system ant residual at the selected sampling
modifying its disinfection practice to: point. Proceed only if a measurable
(1) Evaluate the water system for disinfectant residual is present. Collect
sanitary defects and evaluate the triplicate 40 ml water samples at the
source water for biological quality; pH prevailing at the time of sampling,
(2) Evaluate its existing treatment and prepare a method blank according
practices and consider improvements to the methods. Seal and store these
that will minimize disinfectant de- samples together for seven days at 25
mand and optimize finished water qual- °C or above. After this time period,

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Environmental Protection Agency § 141.32

open one of the sample containers and which would normally receive such no-
check for disinfectant residual. Ab- tification from the supplier.
sence of a disinfectant residual invali- (d) The public water system, within
dates the sample for further analysis. 10 days of completing the public notifi-
Once a disinfectant residual has been cation requirements under Subpart Q
demonstrated, open another of the of this part for the initial public notice
sealed samples and determine total and any repeat notices, must submit to
THM concentration using an approved the primacy agency a certification that
analytical method.
it has fully complied with the public
(h) The requirements in paragraphs
(a) through (g) of this section apply to notification regulations. The public
subpart H community water systems water system must include with this
which serve a population of 10,000 or certification a representative copy of
more until December 31, 2001. The re- each type of notice distributed, pub-
quirements in paragraphs (a) through lished, posted, and made available to
(g) of this section apply to community the persons served by the system and
water systems which use only ground to the media.
water not under the direct influence of (e) The water supply system shall
surface water that add a disinfectant submit to the State within the time
(oxidant) in any part of the treatment stated in the request copies of any
process and serve a population of 10,000 records required to be maintained
or more until December 31, 2003. After under § 141.33 hereof or copies of any
December 31, 2003, this section is no documents then in existence which the
longer applicable. State or the Administrator is entitled
[44 FR 68641, Nov. 29, 1979, as amended at 45 to inspect pursuant to the authority of
FR 15545, 15547, Mar. 11, 1980; 58 FR 41345, section 1445 of the Safe Drinking Water
Aug. 3, 1993; 59 FR 62469, Dec. 5, 1994; 60 FR Act or the equivalent provisions of
34085, June 29, 1995; 63 FR 69464, Dec. 16, 1998; State law.
65 FR 26022, May 4, 2000; 66 FR 3776, Jan. 16,
2001] [40 FR 59570, Dec. 24, 1975, as amended at 45
FR 57345, Aug. 27, 1980; 65 FR 26022, May 4,
Subpart D—Reporting and 2000]
Recordkeeping § 141.32 Public notification.
§ 141.31 Reporting requirements. The requirements in this section
(a) Except where a shorter period is apply until the requirements of Sub-
specified in this part, the supplier of part Q of this part are applicable. Pub-
water shall report to the State the re- lic water systems where EPA directly
sults of any test measurement or anal- implements the public water system
ysis required by this part within (1) supervision program must comply with
The first ten days following the month the requirements in Subpart Q of this
in which the result is received, or (2) part on October 31, 2000. All other pub-
the first ten days following the end of lic water systems must comply with
the required monitoring period as stip- the requirements in Subpart Q of this
ulated by the State, whichever of these part on May 6, 2002 or on the date the
is shortest. State-adopted rule becomes effective,
(b) Except where a different reporting whichever comes first.
period is specified in this part, the sup-
(a) Maximum contaminant levels
plier of water must report to the State
within 48 hours the failure to comply (MCLs), maximum residual disinfectant
with any national primary drinking levels (MRDLs). The owner or operator
water regulation (including failure to of a public water system which fails to
comply with monitoring requirements) comply with an applicable MCL or
set forth in this part. treatment technique established by
(c) The supplier of water is not re- this part or which fails to comply with
quired to report analytical results to the requirements of any schedule pre-
the State in cases where a State lab- scribed pursuant to a variance or ex-
oratory performs the analysis and re- emption, shall notify persons served by
ports the results to the State office the system as follows:

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§ 141.32 40 CFR Ch. I (7–1–03 Edition)

(1) Except as provided in paragraph of the public water system must give
(a)(3) of this section, the owner or oper- notice at least once every three
ator of a public water system must months by mail delivery (by direct
give notice: mail or with the water bill) or by hand
(i) By publication in a daily news- delivery, for as long as the violation or
paper of general circulation in the area failure exists.
served by the system as soon as pos- (3)(i) In lieu of the requirements of
sible, but in no case later than 14 days paragraphs (a) (1) and (2) of this sec-
after the violation or failure. If the tion, the owner or operator of a com-
area served by a public water system is munity water system in an area that is
not served by a daily newspaper of gen- not served by a daily or weekly news-
eral circulation, notice shall instead be paper of general circulation must give
given by publication in a weekly news- notice by hand delivery or by contin-
paper of general circulation serving the uous posting in conspicuous places
area; and within the area served by the system.
(ii) By mail delivery (by direct mail Notice by hand delivery or posting
or with the water bill), or by hand de- must begin as soon as possible, but no
livery, not later than 45 days after the later than 72 hours after the violation
violation or failure. The State may or failure for acute violations (as de-
waive mail or hand delivery if it deter- fined in paragraph (a)(1)(iii) of this sec-
mines that the owner or operator of tion), or 14 days after the violation or
the public water system in violation failure (for any other violation). Post-
has corrected the violation or failure
ing must continue for as long as the
within the 45-day period. The State
violation or failure exists. Notice by
must make the waiver in writing and
hand delivery must be repeated at least
within the 45-day period; and
every three months for as long as the
(iii) For violations of the MCLs of
violation or failure exists.
contaminants or MRDLs of disinfect-
ants that may pose an acute risk to (ii) In lieu of the requirements of
human health, by furnishing a copy of paragraphs (a) (1) and (2) of this sec-
the notice to the radio and television tion, the owner or operator of a non-
stations serving the area served by the community water system may give no-
public water system as soon as possible tice by hand delivery or by continuous
but in no case later than 72 hours after posting in conspicuous places within
the violation. The following violations the area served by the system. Notice
are acute violations: by hand delivery or posting must begin
(A) Any violations specified by the as soon as possible, but no later than 72
State as posing an acute risk to human hours after the violation or failure for
health. acute violations (as defined in para-
(B) Violation of the MCL for nitrate graph (a)(1)(iii) of this section), or 14
or nitrite as defined in § 141.62 and de- days after the violation or failure (for
termined according to § 141.23(i)(3). any other violation). Posting must con-
(C) Violation of the MCL for total tinue for as long as the violation or
coliforms, when fecal coliforms or E. failure exists. Notice by hand delivery
coli are present in the water distribu- must be repeated at least every three
tion system, as specified in § 141.63(b). months for as long as the violation or
(D) Occurrence of a waterborne dis- failure exists.
ease outbreak, as defined in § 141.2, in (b) Other violations, variances, exemp-
an unfiltered system subject to the re- tions. The owner or operator of a public
quirements of subpart H of this part, water system which fails to perform
after December 30, 1991 (see monitoring required by section 1445(a)
§ 141.71(b)(4)). of the Act (including monitoring re-
(E) Violation of the MRDL for chlo- quired by the National Primary Drink-
rine dioxide as defined in § 141.65 and ing Water Regulations (NPDWRs) of
determined according to § 141.133(c)(2). this part), fails to comply with a test-
(2) Except as provided in paragraph ing procedure established by this part,
(a)(3) of this section, following the ini- is subject to a variance granted under
tial notice given under paragraph (a)(1) section 1415(a)(1)(A) or 1415(a)(2) of the
of this section, the owner or operator Act, or is subject to an exemption

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Environmental Protection Agency § 141.32

under section 1416 of the Act, shall no- the violation exists, or a variance or
tify persons served by the system as exemption remains in effect. Notice by
follows: hand delivery must be repeated at least
(1) Except as provided in paragraph every three months for as long as the
(b)(3) or (b)(4) of this section, the owner violation exists or a variance or ex-
or operator of a public water system emption remains in effect.
must give notice within three months (4) In lieu of the requirements of
of the violation or granting of a vari- paragraphs (b)(1), (b)(2), and (b)(3) of
ance or exemption by publication in a this section, the owner or operator of a
daily newspaper of general circulation public water system, at the discretion
in the area served by the system. If the of the State, may provide less frequent
area served by a public water system is notice for minor monitoring violations
not served by a daily newspaper of gen- as defined by the State, if EPA has ap-
eral circulation, notice shall instead be proved the State’s application for a
given by publication in a weekly news- program revision under § 142.16. Notice
paper of general circulation serving the of such violations must be given no less
area. frequently than annually.
(2) Except as provided in paragraph (c) Notice to new billing units. The
(b)(3) or (b)(4) of this section, following owner or operator of a community
the initial notice given under para- water system must give a copy of the
graph (b)(1) of this section, the owner most recent public notice for any out-
or operator of the public water system standing violation of any maximum
must give notice at least once every contaminant level, or any maximum
three months by mail delivery (by di- residual disinfectant level, or any
rect mail or with the water bill) or by treatment technique requirement, or
hand delivery, for as long as the viola- any variance or exemption schedule to
tion exists. Repeat notice of the exist- all new billing units or new hookups
ence of a variance or exemption must prior to or at the time service begins.
be given every three months for as long (d) General content of public notice.
as the variance or exemption remains Each notice required by this section
in effect. must provide a clear and readily under-
(3)(i) In lieu of the requirements of standable explanation of the violation,
paragraphs (b)(1) and (b)(2) of this sec- any potential adverse health effects,
tion, the owner or operator of a com- the population at risk, the steps that
munity water system in an area that is the public water system is taking to
not served by a daily or weekly news- correct such violation, the necessity
paper of general circulation must give for seeking alternative water supplies,
notice, within three months of the vio- if any, and any preventive measures
lation or granting of the variance or the consumer should take until the
exemption, by hand delivery or by con- violation is corrected. Each notice
tinuous posting in conspicuous places shall be conspicuous and shall not con-
with the area served by the system. tain unduly technical language, unduly
Posting must continue for as long as small print, or similar problems that
the violation exists or a variance or ex- frustrate the purpose of the notice.
emption remains in effect. Notice by Each notice shall include the telephone
hand delivery must be repeated at least number of the owner, operator, or des-
every three months for as long as the ignee of the public water system as a
violation exists or a variance or ex- source of additional information con-
emption remains in effect. cerning the notice. Where appropriate,
(ii) In lieu of the requirements of the notice shall be multi-lingual.
paragraphs (b)(1) and (b)(2) of this sec- (e) Mandatory health effects language.
tion, the owner or operator of a non- When providing the information on po-
community water system may give no- tential adverse health effects required
tice, within three months of the viola- by paragraph (d) of this section in no-
tion or the granting of the variance or tices of violations of maximum con-
exemption, by hand delivery or by con- taminant levels or treatment tech-
tinuous posting in conspicuous places nique requirements, or notices of the
within the area served by the system. granting or the continued existence of
Posting must continue for as long as exemptions or variances, or notices of

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§ 141.32 40 CFR Ch. I (7–1–03 Edition)

failure to comply with a variance or which meets this standard is associated


exemption schedule, the owner or oper- with little to none of this risk and
ator of a public water system shall in- should be considered safe.
clude the language specified below for (3) 1,2-Dichloroethane. The United
each contaminant. (If language for a States Environmental Protection
particular contaminant is not specified Agency (EPA) sets drinking water
below at the time notice is required, standards and has determined that 1,2-
this paragraph does not apply.) dichloroethane is a health concern at
(1) Trichloroethylene. The United certain levels of exposure. This chem-
States Environmental Protection ical is used as a cleaning fluid for fats,
Agency (EPA) sets drinking water oils, waxes, and resins. It generally
standards and has determined that tri- gets into drinking water from improper
chloroethylene is a health concern at waste disposal. This chemical has been
certain levels of exposure. This chem- shown to cause cancer in laboratory
ical is a common metal cleaning and animals such as rats and mice when
dry cleaning fluid. It generally gets the animals are exposed at high levels
into drinking water by improper waste over their lifetimes. Chemicals that
disposal. This chemical has been shown cause cancer in laboratory animals
to cause cancer in laboratory animals
also may increase the risk of cancer in
such as rats and mice when the ani-
humans who are exposed at lower lev-
mals are exposed at high levels over
els over long periods of time. EPA has
their lifetimes. Chemicals that cause
set the enforceable drinking water
cancer in laboratory animals also may
standard for 1,2-dichloroethane at 0.005
increase the risk of cancer in humans
parts per million (ppm) to reduce the
who are exposed at lower levels over
risk of cancer or other adverse health
long periods of time. EPA has set forth
the enforceable drinking water stand- effects which have been observed in
ard for trichloroethylene at 0.005 parts laboratory animals. Drinking water
per million (ppm) to reduce the risk of which meets this standard is associated
cancer or other adverse health effects with little to none of this risk and
which have been observed in laboratory should be considered safe.
animals. Drinking water which meets (4) Vinyl chloride. The United States
this standard is associated with little Environmental Protection Agency
to none of this risk and should be con- (EPA) sets drinking water standards
sidered safe. and has determined that vinyl chloride
(2) Carbon tetrachloride. The United is a health concern at certain levels of
States Environmental Protection exposure. This chemical is used in in-
Agency (EPA) sets drinking water dustry and is found in drinking water
standards and has determined that car- as a result of the breakdown of related
bon tetrachloride is a health concern solvents. The solvents are used as
at certain levels of exposure. This cleaners and degreasers of metals and
chemical was once a popular household generally get into drinking water by
cleaning fluid. It generally gets into improper waste disposal. This chemical
drinking water by improper waste dis- has been associated with significantly
posal. This chemical has been shown to increased risks of cancer among cer-
cause cancer in laboratory animals tain industrial workers who were ex-
such as rats and mice when the ani- posed to relatively large amounts of
mals are exposed at high levels over this chemical during their working ca-
their lifetimes. Chemicals that cause reers. This chemical has also been
cancer in laboratory animals also may shown to cause cancer in laboratory
increase the risk of cancer in humans animals when the animals are exposed
who are exposed at lower levels over at high levels over their lifetimes.
long periods of of time. EPA has set Chemicals that cause increased risk of
the enforceable drinking water stand- cancer among exposed industrial work-
ard for carbon tetrachloride at 0.005 ers and in laboratory animals also may
parts per million (ppm) to reduce the increase the risk of cancer in humans
risk of cancer or other adverse health who are exposed at lower levels over
effects which have been observed in long periods of time. EPA has set the
laboratory animals. Drinking water enforceable drinking water standard

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Environmental Protection Agency § 141.32

for vinyl chloride at 0.002 part per mil- their lifetimes. Chemicals which cause
lion (ppm) to reduce the risk of cancer adverse effects in laboratory animals
or other adverse health effects which also may cause adverse health effects
have been observed in humans and lab- in humans who are exposed at lower
oratory animals. Drinking water which levels over long periods of time. EPA
meets this standard is associated with has set the enforceable drinking water
little to none of this risk and should be standard for 1,1-dichloroethylene at
considered safe. 0.007 parts per million (ppm) to reduce
(5) Benzene. The United States Envi- the risk of these adverse health effects
ronmental Protection Agency (EPA) which have been observed in laboratory
sets drinking water standards and has animals. Drinking water which meets
determined that benzene is a health this standard is associated with little
concern at certain levels of exposure. to none of this risk and should be con-
This chemical is used as a solvent and sidered safe.
degreaser of metals. It is also a major (7) Para-dichlorobenzene. The United
component of gasoline. Drinking water States Environmental Protection
contamination generally results from Agency (EPA) sets drinking water
leaking undergound gasoline and petro- standards and has determined that
leum tanks or improper waste disposal. para-dichlorobenzene is a health con-
This chemical has been associated with cern at certain levels of exposure. This
significantly increased risks of leu- chemical is a component of deodor-
kemia among certain industrial work- izers, moth balls, and pesticides. It
ers who were exposed to relatively generally gets into drinking water by
large amounts of this chemical during improper waste disposal. This chemical
their working careers. This chemical has been shown to cause liver and kid-
has also been shown to cause cancer in ney damage in laboratory animals such
laboratory animals when the animals as rats and mice when the animals are
are exposed at high levels over their exposed to high levels over their life-
lifetimes. Chemicals that cause in- times. Chemicals which cause adverse
creased risk of cancer among exposed effects in laboratory animals also may
industrial workers and in laboratory cause adverse health effects in humans
animals also may increase the risk of who are exposed at lower levels over
cancer in humans who are exposed at long periods of time. EPA has set the
lower levels over long periods of time. enforceable drinking water standard
EPA has set the enforceable drinking for para-dichlorobenzene at 0.075 parts
water standard for benzene at 0.005 per million (ppm) to reduce the risk of
parts per million (ppm) to reduce the these adverse health effects which have
risk of cancer or other adverse health been observed in laboratory animals.
effects which have been observed in hu- Drinking water which meets this
mans and laboratory animals. Drinking standard is associated with little to
water which meets this standard is as- none of this risk and should be consid-
sociated with little to none of this risk ered safe.
and should be considered safe. (8) 1,1,1-Trichloroethane. The United
(6) 1,1-Dichloroethylene. The United States Environmental Protection
States Environmental Protection Agency (EPA) sets drinking water
Agency (EPA) sets drinking water standards and has determined that the
standards and has determined that 1,1- 1,1,1-trichloroethane is a health con-
dichloroethylene is a health concern at cern at certain levels of exposure. This
certain levels of exposure. This chem- chemical is used as a cleaner and
ical is used in industry and is found in degreaser of metals. It generally gets
drinking water as a result of the break- into drinking water by improper waste
down of related solvents. The solvents disposal. This chemical has been shown
are used as cleaners and degreasers of to damage the liver, nervous system,
metals and generally get into drinking and circulatory system of laboratory
water by improper waste disposal. This animals such as rats and mice when
chemical has been shown to cause liver the animals are exposed at high levels
and kidney damage in laboratory ani- over their lifetimes. Some industrial
mals such as rats and mice when the workers who were exposed to relatively
animals are exposed at high levels over large amounts of this chemical during

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§ 141.32 40 CFR Ch. I (7–1–03 Edition)

their working careers also suffered tion Agency (EPA) sets drinking water
damage to the liver, nervous system, standards and has determined that the
and circulatory system. Chemicals presence of total coliforms is a possible
which cause adverse effects among ex- health concern. Total coliforms are
posed industrial workers and in labora- common in the environment and are
tory animals also may cause adverse generally not harmful themselves. The
health effects in humans who are ex- presence of these bacteria in drinking
posed at lower levels over long periods water, however, generally is a result of
of time. EPA has set the enforceable a problem with water treatment or the
drinking water standard for 1,1,1-tri- pipes which distribute the water, and
chloroethane at 0.2 parts per million indicates that the water may be con-
(ppm) to protect against the risk of taminated with organisms that can
these adverse health effects which have cause disease. Disease symptoms may
been observed in humans and labora- include diarrhea, cramps, nausea, and
tory animals. Drinking water which possibly jaundice, and any associated
meets this standard is associated with headaches and fatigue. These symp-
little to none of this risk and should be toms, however, are not just associated
considered safe. with disease-causing organisms in
(9) Fluoride. drinking water, but also may be caused
[NOTE: EPA is not specifying language that by a number of factors other than your
must be included in a public notice for a vio- drinking water. EPA has set an en-
lation of the fluoride maximum contaminant
level in this section because § 143.5 of this
forceable drinking water standard for
part includes the necessary information. See total coliforms to reduce the risk of
paragraph (f) of this section.] these adverse health effects. Under this
(10) Microbiological contaminants (for standard, no more than 5.0 percent of
use when there is a violation of the the samples collected during a month
treatment technique requirements for can contain these bacteria, except that
filtration and disinfection in subpart H systems collecting fewer than 40 sam-
or subpart P of this part). The United ples/month that have one total coli-
States Environmental Protection form-positive sample per month are
Agency (EPA) sets drinking water not violating the standard. Drinking
standards and has determined that the water which meets this standard is
presence of microbiological contami- usually not associated with a health
nants are a health concern at certain risk from disease-causing bacteria and
levels of exposure. If water is inad- should be considered safe.
equately treated, microbiological con- (12) Fecal Coliforms/E. coli (To be used
taminants in that water may cause dis- when there is a violation of § 141.63(b)
ease. Disease symptoms may include or both § 141.63 (a) and (b)). The United
diarrhea, cramps, nausea, and possibly States Environmental Protection
jaundice, and any associated headaches Agency (EPA) sets drinking water
and fatigue. These symptoms, however, standards and has determined that the
are not just associated with disease- presence of fecal coliforms or E. coli is
causing organisms in drinking water, a serious health concern. Fecal coli-
but also may be caused by a number of forms and E. coli are generally not
factors other than your drinking harmful themselves, but their presence
water. EPA has set enforceable require- in drinking water is serious because
ments for treating drinking water to they usually are associated with sew-
reduce the risk of these adverse health age or animal wastes. The presence of
effects. Treatment such as filtering and these bacteria in drinking water is gen-
disinfecting the water removes or de- erally a result of a problem with water
stroys microbiological contaminants. treatment or the pipes which distribute
Drinking water which is treated to the water, and indicates that the water
meet EPA requirements is associated may be contaminated with organisms
with little to none of this risk and that can cause disease. Disease symp-
should be considered safe. toms may include diarrhea, cramps,
(11) Total coliforms (To be used when nausea, and possibly jaundice, and as-
there is a violation of § 141.63(a), and sociated headaches and fatigue. These
not a violation of § 141.63(b)). The symptoms, however, are not just asso-
United States Environmental Protec- ciated with disease-causing organisms

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Environmental Protection Agency § 141.32

in drinking water, but also may be ed. Any water system that continues to
caused by a number of factors other exceed the action level after installa-
than your drinking water. EPA has set tion of corrosion control and/or source
an enforceable drinking water standard water treatment must eventually re-
for fecal coliforms and E. coli to reduce place all lead service lines contributing
the risk of these adverse health effects. in excess of 15 (ppb) of lead to drinking
Under this standard all drinking water water. Any water system that exceeds
samples must be free of these bacteria. the action level must also undertake a
Drinking water which meets this public education program to inform
standard is associated with little or consumers of ways they can reduce
none of this risk and should be consid- their exposure to potentially high lev-
ered safe. State and local health au- els of lead in drinking water.
thorities recommend that consumers
(14) Copper. The United States Envi-
take the following precautions: [To be
ronmental Protection Agency (EPA)
inserted by the public water system,
sets drinking water standards and has
according to instructions from State or
local authorities]. determined that copper is a health con-
(13) Lead. The United States Environ- cern at certain exposure levels. Copper,
mental Protection Agency (EPA) sets a reddish-brown metal, is often used to
drinking water standards and has de- plumb residential and commercial
termined that lead is a health concern structures that are connected to water
at certain exposure levels. Materials distribution systems. Copper contami-
that contain lead have frequently been nating drinking water as a corrosion
used in the construction of water sup- byproduct occurs as the result of the
ply distribution systems, and plumbing corrosion of copper pipes that remain
systems in private homes and other in contact with water for a prolonged
buildings. The most commonly found period of time. Copper is an essential
materials include service lines, pipes, nutrient, but at high doses it has been
brass and bronze fixtures, and solders shown to cause stomach and intestinal
and fluxes. Lead in these materials can distress, liver and kidney damage, and
contaminate drinking water as a result anemia. Persons with Wilson’s disease
of the corrosion that takes place when may be at a higher risk of health ef-
water comes into contact with those fects due to copper than the general
materials. Lead can cause a variety of public. EPA’s national primary drink-
adverse health effects in humans. At ing water regulation requires all public
relatively low levels of exposure, these water systems to install optimal corro-
effects may include interference with sion control to minimize copper con-
red blood cell chemistry, delays in nor- tamination resulting from the corro-
mal physical and mental development sion of plumbing materials. Public
in babies and young children, slight water systems serving 50,000 people or
deficits in the attention span, hearing, fewer that have copper concentrations
and learning abilities of children, and below 1.3 parts per million (ppm) in
slight increases in the blood pressure of
more than 90% of tap water samples
some adults. EPA’s national primary
(the EPA ‘‘action level’’) are not re-
drinking water regulation requires all
quired to install or improve their
public water systems to optimize cor-
treatment. Any water system that ex-
rosion control to minimize lead con-
tamination resulting from the corro- ceeds the action level must also mon-
sion of plumbing materials. Public itor their source water to determine
water systems serving 50,000 people or whether treatment to remove copper in
fewer that have lead concentrations source water is needed.
below 15 parts per billion (ppb) in more (15) Asbestos. The United States Envi-
than 90% of tap water samples (the ronmental Protection Agency (EPA)
EPA ‘‘action level’’) have optimized sets drinking water standards and has
their corrosion control treatment. Any determined that asbestos fibers greater
water system that exceeds the action than 10 micrometers in length are a
level must also monitor their source health concern at certain levels of ex-
water to determine whether treatment posure. Asbestos is a naturally occur-
to remove lead in source water is need- ring mineral. Most asbestos fibers in

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§ 141.32 40 CFR Ch. I (7–1–03 Edition)

drinking water are less than 10 mi- 2 parts per million (ppm) to protect
crometers in length and occur in drink- against the risk of these adverse health
ing water from natural sources and effects. Drinking water that meets the
from corroded asbestos-cement pipes in EPA standard is associated with little
the distribution system. The major to none of this risk and is considered
uses of asbestos were in the production safe with respect to barium.
of cements, floor tiles, paper products, (17) Cadmium. The United States En-
paint, and caulking; in transportation- vironmental Protection Agency (EPA)
related applications; and in the produc- sets drinking water standards and has
tion of textiles and plastics. Asbestos determined that cadmium is a health
was once a popular insulating and fire concern at certain levels of exposure.
retardent material. Inhalation studies Food and the smoking of tobacco are
have shown that various forms of as- common sources of general exposure.
bestos have produced lung tumors in This inorganic metal is a contaminant
laboratory animals. The available in- in the metals used to galvanize pipe. It
formation on the risk of developing generally gets into water by corrosion
gastrointestinal tract cancer associ- of galvanized pipes or by improper
ated with the ingestion of asbestos waste disposal. This chemical has been
from drinking water is limited. Inges- shown to damage the kidney in ani-
tion of intermediate-range chrysotile mals such as rats and mice when the
asbestos fibers greater than 10 microm- animals are exposed at high levels over
eters in length is associated with caus- their lifetimes. Some industrial work-
ing benign tumors in male rats. Chemi- ers who were exposed to relatively
cals that cause cancer in laboratory large amounts of this chemical during
animals also may increase the risk of working careers also suffered damage
cancer in humans who are exposed over to the kidney. EPA has set the drink-
long periods of time. EPA has set the ing water standard for cadmium at
drinking water standard for asbestos at 0.005 parts per million (ppm) to protect
7 million long fibers per liter to reduce against the risk of these adverse health
the potential risk of cancer or other effects. Drinking water that meets the
adverse health effects which have been EPA standard is associated with little
observed in laboratory animals. Drink- to none of this risk and is considered
ing water which meets the EPA stand- safe with respect to cadmium.
ard is associated with little to none of (18) Chromium. The United States En-
this risk and should be considered safe vironmental Protection Agency (EPA)
with respect to asbestos. sets drinking water standards and has
(16) Barium. The United States Envi- determined that chromium is a health
ronmental Protection Agency (EPA) concern at certain levels of exposure.
sets drinking water standards and has This inorganic metal occurs naturally
determined that barium is a health in the ground and is often used in the
concern at certain levels of exposure. electroplating of metals. It generally
This inorganic chemical occurs natu- gets into water from runoff from old
rally in some aquifers that serve as mining operations and improper waste
sources of ground water. It is also used disposal from plating operations. This
in oil and gas drilling muds, auto- chemical has been shown to damage
motive paints, bricks, tiles and jet the kidney, nervous system, and the
fuels. It generally gets into drinking circulatory system of laboratory ani-
water after dissolving from naturally mals such as rats and mice when the
occurring minerals in the ground. This animals are exposed at high levels.
chemical may damage the heart and Some humans who were exposed to
cardiovascular system, and is associ- high levels of this chemical suffered
ated with high blood pressure in lab- liver and kidney damage, dermatitis
oratory animals such as rats exposed and respiratory problems. EPA has set
to high levels during their lifetimes. In the drinking water standard for chro-
humans, EPA believes that effects from mium at 0.1 parts per million (ppm) to
barium on blood pressure should not protect against the risk of these ad-
occur below 2 parts per million (ppm) verse health effects. Drinking water
in drinking water. EPA has set the that meets the EPA standard is associ-
drinking water standard for barium at ated with little to none of this risk and

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Environmental Protection Agency § 141.32

is considered safe with respect to chro- also set a drinking water standard for
mium. nitrite at 1 ppm. To allow for the fact
(19) Mercury. The United States Envi- that the toxicity of nitrate and nitrite
ronmental Protection Agency (EPA) are additive, EPA has also established
sets drinking water standards and has a standard for the sum of nitrate and
determined that mercury is a health nitrite at 10 ppm. Drinking water that
concern at certain levels of exposure. meets the EPA standard is associated
This inorganic metal is used in elec- with little to none of this risk and is
trical equipment and some water considered safe with respect to nitrate.
pumps. It usually gets into water as a (21) Nitrite. The United States Envi-
result of improper waste disposal. This ronmental Protection Agency (EPA)
chemical has been shown to damage sets drinking water standards and has
the kidney of laboratory animals such
determined that nitrite poses an acute
as rats when the animals are exposed
health concern at certain levels of ex-
at high levels over their lifetimes. EPA
posure. This inorganic chemical is used
has set the drinking water standard for
mercury at 0.002 parts per million in fertilizers and is found in sewage and
(ppm) to protect against the risk of wastes from humans and/or farm ani-
these adverse health effects. Drinking mals and generally gets into drinking
water that meets the EPA standard is water as a result of those activities.
associated with little to none of this While excessive levels of nitrite in
risk and is considered safe with respect drinking water have not been observed,
to mercury. other sources of nitrite have caused se-
(20) Nitrate. The United States Envi- rious illness and sometimes death in
ronmental Protection Agency (EPA) infants under six months of age. The
sets drinking water standards and has serious illness in infants is caused be-
determined that nitrate poses an acute cause nitrite interferes with the oxy-
health concern at certain levels of ex- gen carrying capacity of the child’s
posure. Nitrate is used in fertilizer and blood. This is an acute disease in that
is found in sewage and wastes from symptoms can develop rapidly. How-
human and/or farm animals and gen- ever, in most cases, health deteriorates
erally gets into drinking water from over a period of days. Symptoms in-
those activities. Excessive levels of ni- clude shortness of breath and blueness
trate in drinking water have caused se- of the skin. Clearly, expert medical ad-
rious illness and sometimes death in vice should be sought immediately if
infants under six months of age. The these symptoms occur. The purpose of
serious illness in infants is caused be- this notice is to encourage parents and
cause nitrate is converted to nitrite in other responsible parties to provide in-
the body. Nitrite interferes with the fants with an alternate source of drink-
oxygen carrying capacity of the child’s ing water. Local and State health au-
blood. This is an acute disease in that thorities are the best source for infor-
symptoms can develop rapidly in in- mation concerning alternate sources of
fants. In most cases, health deterio-
drinking water for infants. EPA has set
rates over a period of days. Symptoms
the drinking water standard at 1 part
include shortness of breath and blue-
per million (ppm) for nitrite to protect
ness of the skin. Clearly, expert med-
against the risk of these adverse ef-
ical advice should be sought imme-
diately if these symptoms occur. The fects. EPA has also set a drinking
purpose of this notice is to encourage water standard for nitrate (converted
parents and other responsible parties to nitrite in humans) at 10 ppm and for
to provide infants with an alternate the sum of nitrate and nitrite at 10
source of drinking water. Local and ppm. Drinking water that meets the
State health authorities are the best EPA standard is associated with little
source for information concerning al- to none of this risk and is considered
ternate sources of drinking water for safe with respect to nitrite.
infants. EPA has set the drinking (22) Selenium. The United States En-
water standard at 10 parts per million vironmental Protection Agency (EPA)
(ppm) for nitrate to protect against the sets drinking water standards and has
risk of these adverse effects. EPA has determined that selenium is a health

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§ 141.32 40 CFR Ch. I (7–1–03 Edition)

concern at certain high levels of expo- This organic chemical is a widely used
sure. Selenium is also an essential nu- pesticide. When soil and climatic con-
trient at low levels of exposure. This ditions are favorable, alachlor may get
inorganic chemical is found naturally into drinking water by runoff into sur-
in food and soils and is used in elec- face water or by leaching into ground
tronics, photocopy operations, the water. This chemical has been shown
manufacture of glass, chemicals, drugs, to cause cancer in laboratory animals
and as a fungicide and a feed additive. such as rats and mice when the ani-
In humans, exposure to high levels of mals are exposed at high levels over
selenium over a long period of time has their lifetimes. Chemicals that cause
resulted in a number of adverse health cancer in laboratory animals also may
effects, including a loss of feeling and increase the risk of cancer in humans
control in the arms and legs. EPA has who are exposed over long periods of
set the drinking water standard for se- time. EPA has set the drinking water
lenium at 0.05 parts per million (ppm) standard for alachlor at 0.002 parts per
to protect against the risk of these ad- million (ppm) to reduce the risk of can-
verse health effects. Drinking water cer or other adverse health effects
that meets the EPA standard is associ- which have been observed in laboratory
ated with little to none of this risk and animals. Drinking water that meets
is considered safe with respect to sele- this standard is associated with little
nium. to none of this risk and is considered
(23) Acrylamide. The United States safe with respect to alachlor.
Environmental Protection Agency (25) Aldicarb. The United States Envi-
(EPA) sets drinking water standards ronmental Protection Agency (EPA)
and has determined that acrylamide is sets drinking water standards and has
a health concern at certain levels of determined that aldicarb is a health
exposure. Polymers made from acryl- concern at certain levels of exposure.
amide are sometimes used to treat Aldicarb is a widely used pesticide.
water supplies to remove particulate Under certain soil and climatic condi-
contaminants. Acrylamide has been tions (e.g., sandy soil and high rain-
shown to cause cancer in laboratory fall), aldicarb may leach into ground
animals such as rats and mice when water after normal agricultural appli-
the animals are exposed at high levels cations to crops such as potatoes or
over their lifetimes. Chemicals that peanuts or may enter drinking water
cause cancer in laboratory animals supplies as a result of surface runoff.
also may increase the risk of cancer in This chemical has been shown to dam-
humans who are exposed over long pe- age the nervous system in laboratory
riods of time. Sufficiently large doses animals such as rats and dogs exposed
of acrylamide are known to cause neu- to high levels. EPA has set the drink-
rological injury. EPA has set the ing water standard for aldicarb at 0.003
drinking water standard for acrylamide parts per million (ppm) to protect
using a treatment technique to reduce against the risk of adverse health ef-
the risk of cancer or other adverse fects. Drinking water that meets the
health effects which have been ob- EPA standard is associated with little
served in laboratory animals. This to none of this risk and is considered
treatment technique limits the amount safe with respect to aldicarb.
of acrylamide in the polymer and the (26) Aldicarb sulfoxide. The United
amount of the polymer which may be States Environmental Protection
added to drinking water to remove par- Agency (EPA) sets drinking water
ticulates. Drinking water systems standards and has determined that
which comply with this treatment aldicarb sulfoxide is a health concern
technique have little to no risk and are at certain levels of exposure. Aldicarb
considered safe with respect to acryl- is a widely used pesticide. Aldicarb
amide. sulfoxide in ground water is primarily
(24) Alachlor. The United States Envi- a breakdown product of aldicarb. Under
ronmental Protection Agency (EPA) certain soil and climatic conditions
sets drinking water standards and has (e.g., sandy soil and high rainfall),
determined that alachlor is a health aldicarb sulfoxide may leach into
concern at certain levels of exposure. ground water after normal agricultural

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Environmental Protection Agency § 141.32

applications to crops such as potatoes of these adverse health effects. Drink-


or peanuts or may enter drinking ing water that meets the EPA standard
water supplies as a result of surface is associated with little to none of this
runoff. This chemical has been shown risk and is considered safe with respect
to damage the nervous system in lab- to atrazine.
oratory animals such as rats and dogs (29) Carbofuran. The United States
exposed to high levels. EPA has set the Environmental Protection Agency
drinking water standard for aldicarb (EPA) sets drinking water standards
sulfoxide at 0.004 parts per million and has determined that carbofuran is
(ppm) to protect against the risk of ad- a health concern at certain levels of
verse health effects. Drinking water exposure. This organic chemical is a
that meets the EPA standard is associ- pesticide. When soil and climatic con-
ated with little to none of this risk and ditions are favorable, carbofuran may
is considered safe with respect to get into drinking water by runoff into
aldicarb sulfoxide. surface water or by leaching into
(27) Aldicarb sulfone. The United ground water. This chemical has been
States Environmental Protection shown to damage the nervous and re-
Agency (EPA) sets drinking water productive systems of laboratory ani-
standards and has determined that mals such as rats and mice exposed at
aldicarb sulfone is a health concern at high levels over their lifetimes. Some
certain levels of exposure. Aldicarb is a humans who were exposed to relatively
widely used pesticide. Aldicarb sulfone large amounts of this chemical during
is formed from the breakdown of their working careers also suffered
aldicarb and is considered for registra- damage to the nervous system. Effects
tion as a pesticide under the name on the nervous system are generally
aldoxycarb. Under certain soil and cli- rapidly reversible. EPA has set the
matic conditions (e.g., sandy soil and drinking water standard for carbofuran
high rainfall), aldicarb sulfone may at 0.04 parts per million (ppm) to pro-
leach into ground water after normal tect against the risk of these adverse
agricultural applications to crops such health effects. Drinking water that
as potatoes or peanuts or may enter meets the EPA standard is associated
drinking water supplies as a result of with little to none of this risk and is
surface runoff. This chemical has been considered safe with respect to
shown to damage the nervous system carbofuran.
in laboratory animals such as rats and (30) Chlordane. The United States En-
dogs exposed to high levels. EPA has vironmental Protection Agency (EPA
set the drinking water standard for sets drinking water standards and has
aldicarb sulfone at 0.002 parts per mil- determined that chlordane is a health
lion (ppm) to protect against the risk concern at certain levels of exposure.
of adverse health effects. Drinking This organic chemical is a pesticide
water that meets the EPA standard is used to control termites. Chlordane is
associated with little to none of this not very mobile in soils. It usually gets
risk and is considered safe with respect into drinking water after application
to aldicarb sulfone. near water supply intakes or wells.
(28) Atrazine. The United States Envi- This chemical has been shown to cause
ronmental Protection Agency (EPA) cancer in laboratory animals such as
sets drinking water standards and has rats and mice when the animals are ex-
determined that atrazine is a health posed at high levels over their life-
concern at certain levels of exposure. times. Chemicals that cause cancer in
This organic chemical is a herbicide. laboratory animals also may increase
When soil and climatic conditions are the risk of cancer in humans who are
favorable, atrazine may get into drink- exposed over long periods of time. EPA
ing water by runoff into surface water has set the drinking water standard for
or by leaching into ground water. This chlordane at 0.002 parts per million
chemical has been shown to affect off- (ppm) to reduce the risk of cancer or
spring of rats and the heart of dogs. other adverse health effects which have
EPA has set the drinking water stand- been observed in laboratory animals.
ard for atrazine at 0.003 parts per mil- Drinking water that meets the EPA
lion (ppm) to protect against the risk standard is associated with little to

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§ 141.32 40 CFR Ch. I (7–1–03 Edition)

none of this risk and is considered safe tion Agency (EPA) establishes drinking
with respect to chlordane. water standards and has determined
(31) Dibromochloropropane (DBCP). that cis-1,2-dichloroethylene is a
The United States Environmental Pro- health concern at certain levels of ex-
tection Agency (EPA) sets drinking posure. This organic chemical is used
water standards and has determined as a solvent and intermediate in chem-
that DBCP is a health concern at cer- ical production. It generally gets into
tain levels of exposure. This organic water by improper waste disposal. This
chemical was once a popular pesticide. chemical has been shown to damage
When soil and climatic conditions are the liver, nervous system, and cir-
favorable, dibromochloropropane may culatory system of laboratory animals
get into drinking water by runoff into such as rats and mice when exposed at
surface water or by leaching into high levels over their lifetimes. Some
ground water. This chemical has been humans who were exposed to relatively
shown to cause cancer in laboratory large amounts of this chemical also
animals such as rats and mice when suffered damage to the nervous system.
the animals are exposed at high levels EPA has set the drinking water stand-
over their lifetimes. Chemicals that ard for cis-1,2-dichloroethylene at 0.07
cause cancer in laboratory animals parts per million (ppm) to protect
also may increase the risk of cancer in against the risk of these adverse health
humans who are exposed over long pe- effects. Drinking water that meets the
riods of time. EPA has set the drinking EPA standard is associated with little
water standard for DBCP at 0.0002 parts
to none of this risk and is considered
per million (ppm) to reduce the risk of
safe with respect to cis-1,2-
cancer or other adverse health effects
dichloroethylene.
which have been observed in laboratory
animals. Drinking water that meets (34) trans-1,2-Dichloroethylene. The
the EPA standard is associated with United States Environmental Protec-
little to none of this risk and is consid- tion Agency (EPA) establishes drinking
ered safe with respect to DBCP. water standards and has determined
(32) o-Dichlorobenzene. The United that trans-1,2-dichloroethylene is a
States Environmental Protection health concern at certain levels of ex-
Agency (EPA) sets drinking water posure. This organic chemical is used
standards and has determined that o- as a solvent and intermediate in chem-
dichlorobenzene is a health concern at ical production. It generally gets into
certain levels of exposure. This organic water by improper waste disposal. This
chemical is used as a solvent in the chemical has been shown to damage
production of pesticides and dyes. It the liver, nervous system, and the cir-
generally gets into water by improper culatory system of laboratory animals
waste disposal. This chemical has been such as rats and mice when exposed at
shown to damage the liver, kidney and high levels over their lifetimes. Some
the blood cells of laboratory animals humans who were exposed to relatively
such as rats and mice exposed to high large amounts of this chemical also
levels during their lifetimes. Some in- suffered damage to the nervous system.
dustrial workers who were exposed to EPA has set drinking water standard
relatively large amounts of this chem- for trans-1,2-dichloroethylene at 0.1
ical during working careers also suf- parts per million (ppm) to protect
fered damage to the liver, nervous sys- against the risk of these adverse health
tem, and circulatory system. EPA has effects. Drinking water that meets the
set the drinking water standard for o- EPA standard is associated with little
dichlorobenzene at 0.6 parts per million to none of this risk and is considered
(ppm) to protect against the risk of safe with respect to trans-1,2-
these adverse health effects. Drinking dichloroethylene.
water that meets the EPA standard is (35) 1,2-Dichloropropane. The United
associated with little to none of this States Environmental Protection
risk and is considered safe with respect Agency (EPA) sets drinking water
to o-dichlorobenzene. standards and has determined that 1,2-
(33) cis-1,2-Dichloroethylene. The dichloropropane is a health concern at
United States Environmental Protec- certain levels of exposure. This organic

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Environmental Protection Agency § 141.32

chemical is used as a solvent and pes- supplies as a flocculent to remove par-


ticide. When soil and climatic condi- ticulates. Epichlorohydrin generally
tions are favorable, 1,2-dichloropropane gets into drinking water by improper
may get into drinking water by runoff use of these polymers. This chemical
into surface water or by leaching into has been shown to cause cancer in lab-
ground water. It may also get into oratory animals such as rats and mice
drinking water through improper waste when the animals are exposed at high
disposal. This chemical has been shown levels over their lifetimes. Chemicals
to cause cancer in laboratory animals that cause cancer in laboratory ani-
such as rats and mice when the ani- mals also may increase the risk of can-
mals are exposed at high levels over cer in humans who are exposed over
their lifetimes. Chemicals that cause long periods of time. EPA has set the
cancer in laboratory animals also may drinking water standard for
increase the risk of cancer in humans epichlorohydrin using a treatment
who are exposed over long periods of technique to reduce the risk of cancer
time. EPA has set the drinking water or other adverse health effects which
standard for 1,2-dichloropropane at have been observed in laboratory ani-
0.005 parts per million (ppm) to reduce mals. This treatment technique limits
the risk of cancer or other adverse the amount of epichlorohydrin in the
health effects which have been ob- polymer and the amount of the poly-
served in laboratory animals. Drinking mer which may be added to drinking
water that meets the EPA standard is water as a flocculent to remove partic-
associated with little to none of this ulates. Drinking water systems which
risk and is considered safe with respect comply with this treatment technique
to 1,2-dichloropropane. have little to no risk and are consid-
(36) 2,4–D. The United States Envi- ered safe with respect to
ronmental Protection Agency (EPA) epichlorohydrin.
sets drinking water standards and has (38) Ethylbenzene. The United States
determined that 2,4–D is a health con- Environmental Protection Agency
cern at certain levels of exposure. This (EPA) sets drinking water standards
organic chemical is used as a herbicide and has determined ethylbenzene is a
and to control algae in reservoirs. health concern at certain levels of ex-
When soil and climatic conditions are posure. This organic chemical is a
favorable, 2,4–D may get into drinking major component of gasoline. It gen-
water by runoff into surface water or erally gets into water by improper
by leaching into ground water. This waste disposal or leaking gasoline
chemical has been shown to damage tanks. This chemical has been shown
the liver and kidney of laboratory ani- to damage the kidney, liver, and nerv-
mals such as rats exposed at high lev- ous system of laboratory animals such
els during their lifetimes. Some hu- as rats exposed to high levels during
mans who were exposed to relatively their lifetimes. EPA has set the drink-
large amounts of this chemical also ing water standard for ethylbenzene at
suffered damage to the nervous system. 0.7 part per million (ppm) to protect
EPA has set the drinking water stand- against the risk of these adverse health
ard for 2,4–D at 0.07 parts per million effects. Drinking water that meets the
(ppm) to protect against the risk of EPA standard is associated with little
these adverse health effects. Drinking to none of this risk and is considered
water that meets the EPA standard is safe with respect to ethylbenzene.
associated with little to none of this (39) Ethylene dibromide (EDB). The
risk and is considered safe with respect United States Environmental Protec-
to 2,4–D. tion Agency (EPA) sets drinking water
(37) Epichlorohydrin. The United standards and has determined that
States Environmental Protection EDB is a health concern at certain lev-
Agency (EPA) sets drinking water els of exposure. This organic chemical
standards and has determined that was once a popular pesticide. When soil
epichlorohydrin is a health concern at and climatic conditions are favorable,
certain levels of exposure. Polymers EDB may get into drinking water by
made from epichlorohydrin are some- runoff into surface water or by leach-
times used in the treatment of water ing into ground water. This chemical

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§ 141.32 40 CFR Ch. I (7–1–03 Edition)

has been shown to cause cancer in lab- mals are exposed at high levels over
oratory animals such as rats and mice their lifetimes. Chemicals that cause
when the animals are exposed at high cancer in laboratory animals also may
levels over their lifetimes. Chemicals increase the risk of cancer in humans
that cause cancer in laboratory ani- who are exposed over long periods of
mals also may increase the risk of can- time. EPA has set the drinking water
cer in humans who are exposed over standards for heptachlor epoxide at
long periods of time. EPA has set the 0.0002 part per million (ppm) to reduce
drinking water standard for EDB at the risk of cancer or other adverse
0.00005 part per million (ppm) to reduce health effects which have been ob-
the risk of cancer or other adverse served in laboratory animals. Drinking
health effects which have been ob- water that meets this standard is asso-
served in laboratory animals. Drinking ciated with little to none of this risk
water that meets this standard is asso- and is considered safe with respect to
ciated with little to none of this risk heptachlor epoxide.
and is considered safe with respect to (42) Lindane. The United States Envi-
EDB. ronmental Protection Agency (EPA)
(40) Heptachlor. The United States sets drinking water standards and has
Environmental Protection Agency determined that lindane is a health
(EPA) sets drinking water standards concern at certain levels of exposure.
and has determined that heptachlor is This organic chemical is used as a pes-
a health concern at certain levels of ticide. When soil and climatic condi-
exposure. This organic chemical was tions are favorable, lindane may get
once a popular pesticide. When soil and into drinking water by runoff into sur-
climatic conditions are favorable, hep- face water or by leaching into ground
tachlor may get into drinking water by water. This chemical has been shown
runoff into surface water or by leach- to damage the liver, kidney, nervous
ing into ground water. This chemical system, and immune system of labora-
has been shown to cause cancer in lab- tory animals such as rats, mice and
oratory animals such as rats and mice dogs exposed at high levels during their
when the animals are exposed at high lifetimes. Some humans who were ex-
levels over their lifetimes. Chemicals posed to relatively large amounts of
that cause cancer in laboratory ani- this chemical also suffered damage to
mals also may increase the risk of can- the nervous system and circulatory
cer in humans who are exposed over system. EPA has established the drink-
long periods of time. EPA has set the ing water standard for lindane at 0.0002
drinking water standards for hepta- part per million (ppm) to protect
chlor at 0.0004 part per million (ppm) to against the risk of these adverse health
reduce the risk of cancer or other ad- effects. Drinking water that meets the
verse health effects which have been EPA standard is associated with little
observed in laboratory animals. Drink- to none of this risk and is considered
ing water that meets this standard is safe with respect to lindane.
associated with little to none of this (43) Methoxychlor. The United States
risk and is considered safe with respect Environmental Protection Agency
to heptachlor. (EPA) sets drinking water standards
(41) Heptachlor epoxide. The United and has determined that methoxychlor
States Environmental Protection is a health concern at certain levels of
Agency (EPA) sets drinking water exposure. This organic chemical is used
standards and has determined that hep- as a pesticide. When soil and climatic
tachlor epoxide is a health concern at conditions are favorable, methoxychlor
certain levels of exposure. This organic may get into drinking water by runoff
chemical was once a popular pesticide. into surface water or by leaching into
When soil and climatic conditions are ground water. This chemical has been
favorable, heptachlor expoxide may get shown to damage the liver, kidney,
into drinking water by runoff into sur- nervous system, and reproductive sys-
face water or by leaching into ground tem of laboratory animals such as rats
water. This chemical has been shown exposed at high levels during their life-
to cause cancer in laboratory animals times. It has also been shown to
such as rats and mice when the ani- produce growth retardation in rats.

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Environmental Protection Agency § 141.32

EPA has set the drinking water stand- (46) Pentachlorophenol. The United
ard for methoxychlor at 0.04 part per States Environmental Protection
million (ppm) to protect against the Agency (EPA) sets drinking water
risk of these adverse health effects. standards and has determined that
Drinking water that meets the EPA pentachlorophenol is a health concern
standard is associated with little to at certain levels of exposure. This or-
none of this risk and is considered safe ganic chemical is used as a wood pre-
with respect to methoxychlor. servative, herbicide, disinfectant, and
(44) Monochlorobenzene. The United defoliant. It generally gets into drink-
States Environmental Protection ing water by runoff into surface water
Agency (EPA) sets drinking water or leaching into ground water. This
standards and has determined that chemical has been shown to produce
monochlorobenzene is a health concern adverse reproductive effects and to
at certain levels of exposure. This or- damage the liver and kidneys of lab-
ganic chemical is used as a solvent. It oratory animals such as rats exposed
generally gets into water by improper to high levels during their lifetimes.
waste disposal. This chemical has been Some humans who were exposed to rel-
shown to damage the liver, kidney and atively large amounts of this chemical
nervous system of laboratory animals also suffered damage to the liver and
such as rats and mice exposed to high kidneys. This chemical has been shown
levels during their lifetimes. EPA has to cause cancer in laboratory animals
set the drinking water standard for such as rats and mice when the ani-
monochlorobenzene at 0.1 part per mil- mals are exposed to high levels over
lion (ppm) to protect against the risk their lifetimes. Chemicals that cause
of these adverse health effects. Drink- cancer in laboratory animals also may
ing water that meets the EPA standard increase the risk of cancer in humans
is associated with little to none of this who are exposed over long periods of
risk and is considered safe with respect time. EPA has set the drinking water
to monochlorobenzene. standard for pentachlorophenol at 0.001
(45) Polychlorinated biphenyls (PCBs). parts per million (ppm) to protect
The United States Environmental Pro- against the risk of cancer or other ad-
tection Agency (EPA) sets drinking verse health effects. Drinking water
water standards and has determined that meets the EPA standard is associ-
that polychlorinated biphenyls (PCBs) ated with little to none of this risk and
are a health concern at certain levels is considered safe with respect to
of exposure. These organic chemicals pentachlorophenol.
were once widely used in electrical (47) Styrene. The United States Envi-
transformers and other industrial ronmental Protection Agency (EPA)
equipment. They generally get into sets drinking water standards and has
drinking water by improper waste dis- determined that styrene is a health
posal or leaking electrical industrial concern at certain levels of exposure.
equipment. This chemical has been This organic chemical is commonly
shown to cause cancer in laboratory used to make plastics and is sometimes
animals such as rats and mice when a component of resins used for drinking
the animals are exposed at high levels water treatment. Styrene may get into
over their lifetimes. Chemicals that drinking water from improper waste
cause cancer in laboratory animals disposal. This chemical has been shown
also may increase the risk of cancer in to damage the liver and nervous sys-
humans who are exposed over long pe- tem in laboratory animals when ex-
riods of time. EPA has set the drinking posed at high levels during their life-
water standard for PCBs at 0.0005 part times. EPA has set the drinking water
per million (ppm) to reduce the risk of standard for styrene at 0.1 part per mil-
cancer or other adverse health effects lion (ppm) to protect against the risk
which have been observed in laboratory of these adverse health effects. Drink-
animals. Drinking water that meets ing water that meets the EPA standard
this standard is associated with little is associated with little to none of this
to none of this risk and is considered risk and is considered safe with respect
safe with respect to PCBs. to styrene.

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§ 141.32 40 CFR Ch. I (7–1–03 Edition)

(48) Tetrachloroethylene. The United health concern at certain levels of ex-


States Environmental Protection posure. This organic chemical was once
Agency (EPA) sets drinking water a pesticide widely used on cotton, corn,
standards and has determined that soybeans, pineapples and other crops.
tetrachloroethylene is a health concern When soil and climatic conditions are
at certain levels of exposure. This or- favorable, toxaphene may get into
ganic chemical has been a popular sol- drinking water by runoff into surface
vent, particularly for dry cleaning. It water or by leaching into ground
generally gets into drinking water by water. This chemical has been shown
improper waste disposal. This chemical to cause cancer in laboratory animals
has been shown to cause cancer in lab- such as rats and mice when the ani-
oratory animals such as rats and mice mals are exposed at high levels over
when the animals are exposed at high their lifetimes. Chemicals that cause
levels over their lifetimes. Chemicals cancer in laboratory animals also may
that cause cancer in laboratory ani- increase the risk of cancer in humans
mals also may increase the risk of can- who are exposed over long periods of
cer in humans who are exposed over time. EPA has set the drinking water
long periods of time. EPA has set the standard for toxaphene at 0.003 part per
drinking water standard for million (ppm) to reduce the risk of can-
tetrachloroethylene at 0.005 part per cer or other adverse health effects
million (ppm) to reduce the risk of can- which have been observed in laboratory
cer or other adverse health effects animals. Drinking water that meets
which have been observed in laboratory
this standard is associated with little
animals. Drinking water that meets
to none of this risk and is considered
this standard is associated with little
safe with respect to toxaphene.
to none of this risk and is considered
safe with respect to (51) 2,4,5–TP. The United States Envi-
tetrachloroethylene. ronmental Protection Agency (EPA)
(49) Toluene. The United States Envi- sets drinking water standards and has
ronmental Protection Agency (EPA) determined that 2,4,5–TP is a health
sets drinking water standards and has concern at certain levels of exposure.
determined that toluene is a health This organic chemical is used as a her-
concern at certain levels of exposure. bicide. When soil and climatic condi-
This organic chemical is used as a sol- tions are favorable, 2,4,5–TP may get
vent and in the manufacture of gaso- into drinking water by runoff into sur-
line for airplanes. It generally gets into face water or by leaching into ground
water by improper waste disposal or water. This chemical has been shown
leaking underground storage tanks. to damage the liver and kidney of lab-
This chemical has been shown to dam- oratory animals such as rats and dogs
age the kidney, nervous system, and exposed to high levels during their life-
circulatory system of laboratory ani- times. Some industrial workers who
mals such as rats and mice exposed to were exposed to relatively large
high levels during their lifetimes. amounts of this chemical during work-
Some industrial workers who were ex- ing careers also suffered damage to the
posed to relatively large amounts of nervous system. EPA has set the drink-
this chemical during working careers ing water standard for 2,4,5–TP at 0.05
also suffered damage to the liver, kid- part per million (ppm) to protect
ney and nervous system. EPA has set against the risk of these adverse health
the drinking water standard for tol- effects. Drinking water that meets the
uene at 1 part per million (ppm) to pro- EPA standard is associated with little
tect against the risk of adverse health to none of this risk and is considered
effects. Drinking water that meets the safe with respect to 2,4,5–TP.
EPA standard is associated with little (52) Xylenes. The United States Envi-
to none of this risk and is considered ronmental Protection Agency (EPA)
safe with respect to toluene. sets drinking water standards and has
(50) Toxaphene. The United States determined that xylene is a health con-
Environmental Protection Agency cern at certain levels of exposure. This
(EPA) sets drinking water standards organic chemical is used in the manu-
and has determined that toxaphene is a facture of gasoline for airplanes and as

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Environmental Protection Agency § 141.32

a solvent for pesticides, and as a clean- waste disposal. Beryllium compounds


er and degreaser of metals. It usually have been associated with damage to
gets into water by improper waste dis- the bones and lungs and induction of
posal. This chemical has been shown to cancer in laboratory animals such as
damage the liver, kidney and nervous rats and mice when the animals are ex-
system of laboratory animals such as posed at high levels over their life-
rats and dogs exposed to high levels times. There is limited evidence to sug-
during their lifetimes. Some humans gest that beryllium may pose a cancer
who were exposed to relatively large risk via drinking water exposure.
amounts of this chemical also suffered Therefore, EPA based the health as-
damage to the nervous system. EPA sessment on noncancer effects with an
has set the drinking water standard for extra uncertainty factor to account for
xylene at 10 parts per million (ppm) to possible carcinogenicity. Chemicals
protect against the risk of these ad- that cause cancer in laboratory ani-
verse health effects. Drinking water mals also may increase the risk of can-
that meets the EPA standard is associ- cer in humans who are exposed over
ated with little to none of this risk and long periods of time. EPA has set the
is considered safe with respect to xy- drinking water standard for beryllium
lene. at 0.004 part per million (ppm) to pro-
(53) Antimony. The United States En- tect against the risk of these adverse
vironmental Protection Agency (EPA) health effects. Drinking water which
sets drinking water standards and has meets the EPA standard is associated
determined that antimony is a health with little to none of this risk and
concern at certain levels of exposure. should be considered safe with respect
This inorganic chemical occurs natu- to beryllium.
rally in soils, ground water and surface
(55) Cyanide. The United States Envi-
waters and is often used in the flame
ronmental Protection Agency (EPA)
retardant industry. It is also used in
sets drinking water standards and has
ceramics, glass, batteries, fireworks
determined that cyanide is a health
and explosives. It may get into drink-
concern at certain levels of exposure.
ing water through natural weathering
This inorganic chemical is used in elec-
of rock, industrial production, munic-
ipal waste disposal or manufacturing troplating, steel processing, plastics,
processes. This chemical has been synthetic fabrics and fertilizer prod-
shown to decrease longevity, and al- ucts. It usually gets into water as a re-
tered blood levels of cholesterol and sult of improper waste disposal. This
glucose in laboratory animals such as chemical has been shown to damage
rats exposed to high levels during their the spleen, brain and liver of humans
lifetimes. EPA has set the drinking fatally poisoned with cyanide. EPA has
water standard for antimony at 0.006 set the drinking water standard for cy-
parts per million (ppm) to protect anide at 0.2 parts per million (ppm) to
against the risk of these adverse health protect against the risk of these ad-
effects. Drinking water which meets verse health effects. Drinking water
the EPA standard is associated with which meets the EPA standard is asso-
little to none of this risk and should be ciated with little to none of this risk
considered safe with respect to anti- and should be considered safe with re-
mony. spect to cyanide.
(54) Beryllium. The United States En- (56) [Reserved]
vironmental Protection Agency (EPA) (57) Thallium. The United States En-
sets drinking water standards and has vironmental Protection Agency (EPA)
determined that beryllium is a health sets drinking water standards and has
concern at certain levels of exposure. determined that thallium is a health
This inorganic metal occurs naturally concern at certain high levels of expo-
in soils, ground water and surface wa- sure. This inorganic metal is found
ters and is often used in electrical naturally in soils and is used in elec-
equipment and electrical components. tronics, pharmaceuticals, and the man-
It generally gets into water from run- ufacture of glass and alloys. This
off from mining operations, discharge chemical has been shown to damage
from processing plants and improper the kidney, liver, brain and intestines

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§ 141.32 40 CFR Ch. I (7–1–03 Edition)

of laboratory animals when the ani- standards and has determined that
mals are exposed at high levels over dichloromethane (methylene chloride)
their lifetimes. EPA has set the drink- is a health concern at certain levels of
ing water standard for thallium at 0.002 exposure. This organic chemical is a
parts per million (ppm) to protect widely used solvent. It is used in the
against the risk of these adverse health manufacture of paint remover, as a
effects. Drinking water which meets metal degreaser and as an aerosol pro-
the EPA standard is associated with pellant. It generally gets into drinking
little to none of this risk and should be water after improper discharge of
considered safe with respect to thal- waste disposal. This chemical has been
lium. shown to cause cancer in laboratory
(58) Benzo[a]pyrene. The United animals such as rats and mice when
States Environmental Protection the animals are exposed at high levels
Agency (EPA) sets drinking water over their lifetimes. Chemicals that
standards and has determined that cause cancer in laboratory animals
benzo[a]pyrene is a health concern at also may increase the risk of cancer in
certain levels of exposure. Cigarette humans who are exposed over long pe-
smoke and charbroiled meats are com- riods of time. EPA has set the drinking
mon source of general exposure. The water standard for dichloromethane at
major source of benzo[a]pyrene in 0.005 parts per million (ppm) to reduce
drinking water is the leaching from the risk of cancer or other adverse
coal tar lining and sealants in water health effects which have been ob-
storage tanks. This chemical has been served in laboratory animals. Drinking
shown to cause cancer in animals such water which meets this standard is as-
as rats and mice when the animals are sociated with little to none of this risk
exposed at high levels. EPA has set the and should be considered safe with re-
drinking water standard for spect to dichloromethane.
benzo[a]pyrene at 0.0002 parts per mil- (61) Di (2-ethylhexyl)adipate. The
lion (ppm) to protect against the risk United States Environmental Protec-
of cancer. Drinking water which meets tion Agency (EPA) sets drinking water
the EPA standard is associated with standards and has determined that
little to none of this risk and should be di(2-ethylhexyl)adipate is a health con-
considered safe with respect to cern at certain levels of exposure. Di(2-
benzo[a]pyrene. ethylhexyl)adipate is a widely used
(59) Dalapon. The United States Envi- plasticizer in a variety of products, in-
ronmental Protection Agency (EPA) cluding synthetic rubber, food pack-
sets drinking water standards and has aging materials and cosmetics. It may
determined that dalapon is a health get into drinking water after improper
concern at certain levels of exposure. waste disposal. This chemical has been
This organic chemical is a widely used shown to damage liver and testes in
herbicide. It may get into drinking laboratory animals such as rats and
water after application to control mice exposed to high levels. EPA has
grasses in crops, drainage ditches and set the drinking water standard for
along railroads. This chemical has been di(2-ethylhexyl)adipate at 0.4 parts per
shown to cause damage to the kidney million (ppm) to protect against the
and liver in laboratory animals when risk of adverse health effects. Drinking
the animals are exposed to high levels water which meets the EPA standards
over their lifetimes. EPA has set the is associated with little to none of this
drinking water standard for dalapon at risk and should be considered safe with
0.2 parts per million (ppm) to protect respect to di(2-ethylhexyl)adipate.
against the risk of these adverse health (62) Di(2-ethylhexyl)phthalate. The
effects. Drinking water which meets United States Environmental Protec-
the EPA standard is associated with tion Agency (EPA) sets drinking water
little to none of this risk and should be standards and has determined that
considered safe with respect to di(2-ethylhexyl)phthalate is a health
dalapon. concern at certain levels of exposure.
(60) Dichloromethane. The United Di(2-ethylhexyl)phthalate is a widely
States Environmental Protection used plasticizer, which is primarily
Agency (EPA) sets drinking water used in the production of polyvinyl

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Environmental Protection Agency § 141.32

chloride (PVC) resins. It may get into (65) Endothall. The United States En-
drinking water after improper waste vironmental Protection Agency (EPA)
disposal. This chemical has been shown has determined that endothall is a
to cause cancer in laboratory animals health concern at certain levels of ex-
such as rats and mice exposed to high posure. This organic chemical is a her-
levels over their lifetimes. EPA has set bicide used to control terrestrial and
the drinking water standard for di(2- aquatic weeds. It may get into water
ethylhexyl)phthalate at 0.006 parts per by runoff into surface water. This
million (ppm) to reduce the risk of can- chemical has been shown to damage
cer or other adverse health effects the liver, kidney, gastrointestinal
which have been observed in laboratory tract and reproductive system of lab-
animals. Drinking water which meets oratory animals such as rats and mice
the EPA standard is associated with exposed at high levels over their life-
little to none of this risk and should be times. EPA has set the drinking water
considered safe with respect to di(2- standard for endothall at 0.1 parts per
ethylhexyl)phthalate. million (ppm) to protect against the
(63) Dinoseb. The United States Envi- risk of these adverse health effects.
ronmental Protection Agency (EPA) Drinking water which meets the EPA
standard is associated with little to
sets drinking water standards and has
none of this risk and should be consid-
determined that dinoseb is a health
ered safe with respect to endothall.
concern at certain levels of exposure.
(66) Endrin. The United States Envi-
Dinoseb is a widely used pesticide and
ronmental Protection Agency (EPA)
generally gets into drinking water
sets drinking water standards and has
after application on orchards, vine-
determined that endrin is a health con-
yards and other crops. This chemical
cern at certain levels of exposure. This
has been shown to damage the thyroid organic chemical is a pesticide no
and reproductive organs in laboratory longer registered for use in the United
animals such as rats exposed to high States. However, this chemical is per-
levels. EPA has set the drinking water sistent in treated soils and accumu-
standard for dinoseb at 0.007 parts per lates in sediments and aquatic and ter-
million (ppm) to protect against the restrial biota. This chemical has been
risk of adverse health effects. Drinking shown to cause damage to the liver,
water which meets the EPA standard is kidney and heart in laboratory animals
associated with little to none of this such as rats and mice when the ani-
risk and should be considered safe with mals are exposed at high levels over
respect to dinoseb. their lifetimes. EPA has set the drink-
(64) Diquat. The United States Envi- ing water standard for endrin at 0.002
ronmental Protection Agency (EPA) parts per million (ppm) to protect
sets drinking water standards and has against the risk of these adverse health
determined that diquat is a health con- effects which have been observed in
cern at certain levels of exposure. This laboratory animals. Drinking water
organic chemical is a herbicide used to that meets the EPA standard is associ-
control terrestrial and aquatic weeds. ated with little to none of this risk and
It may get into drinking water by run- should be considered safe with respect
off into surface water. This chemical to endrin.
has been shown to damage the liver, (67) Glyphosate. The United States
kidney and gastrointestinal tract and Environmental Protection Agency
causes cataract formation in labora- (EPA) sets drinking water standards
tory animals such as dogs and rats ex- and has determined that glyphosate is
posed at high levels over their life- a health concern at certain levels of
times. EPA has set the drinking water exposure. This organic chemical is a
standard for diquat at 0.02 parts per herbicide used to control grasses and
million (ppm) to protect against the weeds. It may get into drinking water
risk of these adverse health effects. by runoff into surface water. This
Drinking water which meets the EPA chemical has been shown to cause dam-
standard is associated with little to age to the liver and kidneys in labora-
none of this risk and should be consid- tory animals such as rats and mice
ered safe with respect to diquat. when the animals are exposed at high

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§ 141.32 40 CFR Ch. I (7–1–03 Edition)

levels over their lifetimes. EPA has set (70) Oxamyl. The United States Envi-
the drinking water standard for ronmental Protection Agency (EPA)
glyphosate at 0.7 parts per million establishes drinking water standards
(ppm) to protect against the risk of and has determined that oxamyl is a
these adverse health effects. Drinking health concern at certain levels of ex-
water which meets the EPA standard is posure. This organic chemical is used
associated with little to none of this as a pesticide for the control of insects
risk and should be considered safe with and other pests. It may get into drink-
respect to glyphosate. ing water by runoff into surface water
(68) Hexachlorobenzene. The United or leaching into ground water. This
States Environmental Protection chemical has been shown to damage
Agency (EPA) sets drinking water the kidneys of laboratory animals such
standards and has determined that as rats when exposed at high levels
hexachlorobenzene is a health concern over their lifetimes. EPA has set the
at certain levels of exposure. This or- drinking water standard for oxamyl at
ganic chemical is produced as an impu- 0.2 parts per million (ppm) to protect
rity in the manufacture of certain sol- against the risk of these adverse health
vents and pesticides. This chemical has effects. Drinking water which meets
been shown to cause cancer in labora- the EPA standard is associated with
tory animals such as rats and mice little to none of this risk and should be
when the animals are exposed to high considered safe with respect to oxamyl.
levels during their lifetimes. Chemicals
(71) Picloram. The United States Envi-
that cause cancer in laboratory ani-
ronmental Protection Agency (EPA)
mals also may increase the risk of can-
sets drinking water standards and has
cer in humans who are exposed over
determined that picloram is a health
long periods of time. EPA has set the
drinking water standard for concern at certain levels of exposure.
hexachlorobenzene at 0.001 parts per This organic chemical is used as a pes-
million (ppm) to protect against the ticide for broadleaf weed control. It
risk of cancer and other adverse health may get into drinking water by runoff
effects. Drinking water which meets into surface water or leaching into
the EPA standard is associated with ground water as a result of pesticide
little to none of this risk and should be application and improper waste dis-
considered safe with respect to posal. This chemical has been shown to
hexachlorobenzene. cause damage to the kidneys and liver
(69) Hexachlorocyclopentadiene. The in laboratory animals such as rats
United States Environmental Protec- when the animals are exposed at high
tion Agency (EPA) establishes drinking levels over their lifetimes. EPA has set
water standards and has determined the drinking water standard for
that hexachlorocyclopentadiene is a picloram at 0.5 parts per million (ppm)
health concern at certain levels of ex- to protect against the risk of these ad-
posure. This organic chemical is used verse health effects. Drinking water
as an intermediate in the manufacture which meets the EPA standard is asso-
of pesticides and flame retardants. It ciated with little to none of this risk
may get into water by discharge from and should be considered safe with re-
production facilities. This chemical spect to picloram.
has been shown to damage the kidney (72) Simazine. The United States En-
and the stomach of laboratory animals vironmental Protection Agency (EPA)
when exposed at high levels over their sets drinking water standards and has
lifetimes. EPA has set the drinking determined that simazine is a health
water standard for concern at certain levels of exposure.
hexachlorocyclopentadiene at 0.05 This organic chemical is a herbicide
parts per million (ppm) to protect used to control annual grasses and
against the risk of these adverse health broadleaf weeds. It may leach into
effects. Drinking water which meets ground water or runs off into surface
the EPA standard is associated with water after application. This chemical
little to none of this risk and should be may cause cancer in laboratory ani-
considered safe with respect to mals such as rats and mice exposed at
hexachlorocyclopentadiene. high levels during their lifetimes.

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Environmental Protection Agency § 141.32

Chemicals that cause cancer in labora- standards and has determined that
tory animals also may increase the dioxin is a health concern at certain
risk of cancer in humans who are ex- levels of exposure. This organic chem-
posed over long periods of time. EPA ical is an impurity in the production of
has set the drinking water standard for some pesticides. It may get into drink-
simazine at 0.004 parts per million ing water by industrial discharge of
(ppm) to reduce the risk of cancer or wastes. This chemical has been shown
other adverse health effects. Drinking to cause cancer in laboratory animals
water which meets the EPA standard is such as rats and mice when the ani-
associated with little to none of this mals are exposed at high levels over
risk and should be considered safe with their lifetimes. Chemicals that cause
respect to simazine. cancer in laboratory animals also may
(73) 1,2,4-Trichlorobenzene. The United increase the risk of cancer in humans
States Environmental Protection who are exposed over long periods of
Agency (EPA) sets drinking water time. EPA has set the drinking water
standards and has determined that standard for dioxin at 0.00000003 parts
1,2,4-trichlorobenzene is a health con- per million (ppm) to reduce the risk of
cern at certain levels of exposure. This cancer or other adverse health effects
organic chemical is used as a dye car- which have been observed in laboratory
rier and as a precursor in herbicide animals. Drinking water which meets
manufacture. It generally gets into this standard is associated with little
drinking water by discharges from in- to none of this risk and should be con-
dustrial activities. This chemical has sidered safe with respect to dioxin.
been shown to cause damage to several (76) Chlorine. The United States Envi-
organs, including the adrenal glands. ronmental Protection Agency (EPA)
EPA has set the drinking water stand- sets drinking water standards and has
ard for 1,2,4-trichlorobenzene at 0.07 determined that chlorine is a health
parts per million (ppm) to protect concern at certain levels of exposure.
against the risk of these adverse health Chlorine is added to drinking water as
effects. Drinking water which meets a disinfectant to kill bacteria and
the EPA standard is associated with other disease-causing microorganisms
little to none of this risk and should be and is also added to provide continuous
considered safe with respect to 1,2,4- disinfection throughout the distribu-
trichlorobenzene. tion system. Disinfection is required
(74) 1,1,2-Trichloroethane. The United for surface water systems. However, at
States Environmental Protection high doses for extended periods of time,
Agency (EPA) sets drinking water chlorine has been shown to affect blood
standards and has determined 1,1,2-tri- and the liver in laboratory animals.
chloroethane is a health concern at EPA has set a drinking water standard
certain levels of exposure. This organic for chlorine to protect against the risk
chemical is an intermediate in the pro- of these adverse effects. Drinking
duction of 1,1-dichloroethylene. It gen- water which meets this EPA standard
erally gets into water by industrial dis- is associated with little to none of this
charge of wastes. This chemical has risk and should be considered safe with
been shown to damage the kidney and respect to chlorine.
liver of laboratory animals such as rats (77) Chloramines. The United States
exposed to high levels during their life- Environmental Protection Agency
times. EPA has set the drinking water (EPA) sets drinking water standards
standard for 1,1,2-trichloroethane at and has determined that chloramines
0.005 parts per million (ppm) to protect are a health concern at certain levels
against the risk of these adverse health of exposure. Chloramines are added to
effects. Drinking water which meets drinking water as a disinfectant to kill
the EPA standard is associated with bacteria and other disease-causing
little to none of this risk and should be microorganisms and are also added to
considered safe with respect to 1,1,2-tri- provide continuous disinfection
chloroethane. throughout the distribution system.
(75) 2,3,7,8–TCDD (Dioxin). The United Disinfection is required for surface
States Environmental Protection water systems. However, at high doses
Agency (EPA) sets drinking water for extended periods of time,

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§ 141.32 40 CFR Ch. I (7–1–03 Edition)

chloramines have been shown to affect compliance with chlorine dioxide levels
blood and the liver in laboratory ani- within the distribution system mini-
mals. EPA has set a drinking water mizes the potential risk of these viola-
standard for chloramines to protect tions to present consumers.
against the risk of these adverse ef- (ii) The chlorine dioxide violations
fects. Drinking water which meets this reported today include exceedances of
EPA standard is associated with little the EPA standard within the distribu-
to none of this risk and should be con- tion system serving water users. Viola-
sidered safe with respect to tions of the chlorine dioxide standard
chloramines. within the distribution system may
(78) Chlorine dioxide. The United harm human health based on short-
States Environmental Protection term exposures. Certain groups, includ-
Agency (EPA) sets drinking water ing pregnant women, infants, and
standards and has determined that young children, may be especially sus-
chlorine dioxide is a health concern at ceptible to adverse effects of excessive
certain levels of exposure. Chlorine di- exposure to chlorine dioxide-treated
oxide is used in water treatment to kill water. The purpose of this notice is to
bacteria and other disease-causing advise that such persons should con-
microorganisms and can be used to sider reducing their risk of adverse ef-
control tastes and odors. Disinfection fects from these chlorine dioxide viola-
is required for surface water systems. tions by seeking alternate sources of
However, at high doses, chlorine diox- water for human consumption until
ide-treated drinking water has been such exceedances are rectified. Local
shown to affect blood in laboratory and State health authorities are the
animals. Also, high levels of chlorine best sources for information con-
dioxide given to laboratory animals in cerning alternate drinking water.
drinking water have been shown to (79) Disinfection byproducts and treat-
cause neurological effects on the devel- ment technique for DBPs. The United
oping nervous system. These States Environmental Protection
neurodevelopmental effects may occur Agency (EPA) sets drinking water
as a result of a short-term excessive standards and requires the disinfection
chlorine dioxide exposure. To protect of drinking water. However, when used
against such potentially harmful expo- in the treatment of drinking water,
sures, EPA requires chlorine dioxide disinfectants react with naturally-oc-
monitoring at the treatment plant, curring organic and inorganic matter
where disinfection occurs, and at rep- present in water to form chemicals
resentative points in the distribution called disinfection byproducts (DBPs).
system serving water users. EPA has EPA has determined that a number of
set a drinking water standard for chlo- DBPs are a health concern at certain
rine dioxide to protect against the risk levels of exposure. Certain DBPs, in-
of these adverse effects.
cluding some trihalomethanes (THMs)
NOTE: In addition to the language in this and some haloacetic acids (HAAs), have
introductory text of paragraph (e)(78), sys- been shown to cause cancer in labora-
tems must include either the language in tory animals. Other DBPs have been
paragraph (e)(78)(i) or (e)(78)(ii) of this sec-
shown to affect the liver and the nerv-
tion. Systems with a violation at the treat-
ment plant, but not in the distribution sys- ous system, and cause reproductive or
tem, are required to use the language in developmental effects in laboratory
paragraph (e)(78)(i) of this section and treat animals. Exposure to certain DBPs
the violation as a nonacute violation. Sys- may produce similar effects in people.
tems with a violation in the distribution sys- EPA has set standards to limit expo-
tem are required to use the language in para- sure to THMs, HAAs, and other DBPs.
graph (e)(78)(ii) of this section and treat the (80) Bromate. The United States Envi-
violation as an acute violation.
ronmental Protection Agency (EPA)
(i) The chlorine dioxide violations re- sets drinking water standards and has
ported today are the result of determined that bromate is a health
exceedances at the treatment facility concern at certain levels of exposure.
only, and do not include violations Bromate is formed as a byproduct of
within the distribution system serving ozone disinfection of drinking water.
users of this water supply. Continued Ozone reacts with naturally occurring

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Environmental Protection Agency § 141.35

bromide in the water to form bromate. (a) Records of bacteriological anal-


Bromate has been shown to produce yses made pursuant to this part shall
cancer in rats. EPA has set a drinking be kept for not less than 5 years.
water standard to limit exposure to Records of chemical analyses made
bromate. pursuant to this part shall be kept for
(81) Chlorite. The United States Envi- not less than 10 years. Actual labora-
ronmental Protection Agency (EPA) tory reports may be kept, or data may
sets drinking water standards and has be transferred to tabular summaries,
determined that chlorite is a health provided that the following informa-
concern at certain levels of exposure. tion is included:
Chlorite is formed from the breakdown (1) The date, place, and time of sam-
of chlorine dioxide, a drinking water pling, and the name of the person who
disinfectant. Chlorite in drinking collected the sample;
water has been shown to affect blood (2) Identification of the sample as to
and the developing nervous system. whether it was a routine distribution
EPA has set a drinking water standard system sample, check sample, raw or
for chlorite to protect against these ef- process water sample or other special
fects. Drinking water which meets this purpose sample;
standard is associated with little to (3) Date of analysis;
none of these risks and should be con- (4) Laboratory and person responsible
sidered safe with respect to chlorite. for performing analysis;
(f) Public notices for fluoride. Notice of (5) The analytical technique/method
violations of the maximum contami- used; and
nant level for fluoride, notices of (6) The results of the analysis.
variances and exemptions from the (b) Records of action taken by the
maximum contaminant level for fluo-
system to correct violations of primary
ride, and notices of failure to comply
drinking water regulations shall be
with variance and exemption schedules
kept for a period not less than 3 years
for the maximum contaminant level
after the last action taken with respect
for fluoride shall consist of the public
to the particular violation involved.
notice prescribed in § 143.5(b), plus a de-
(c) Copies of any written reports,
scription of any steps which the system
summaries or communications relating
is taking to come into compliance.
to sanitary surveys of the system con-
(g) Public notification by the State. The
ducted by the system itself, by a pri-
State may give notice to the public re-
vate consultant, or by any local, State
quired by this section on behalf of the
or Federal agency, shall be kept for a
owner or operator of the public water
period not less than 10 years after com-
system if the State complies with the
pletion of the sanitary survey involved.
requirements of this section. However,
(d) Records concerning a variance or
the owner or operator of the public
exemption granted to the system shall
water system remains legally respon-
be kept for a period ending not less
sible for ensuring that the require-
than 5 years following the expiration of
ments of this section are met.
such variance or exemption.
[52 FR 41546, Oct. 28, 1987, as amended at 54 (e) Copies of public notices issued
FR 15188, Apr. 17, 1989; 54 FR 27527, 27566, pursuant to Subpart Q of this part and
June 29, 1989; 55 FR 25064, June 19, 1990; 56 FR certifications made to the primacy
3587, Jan. 30, 1991; 56 FR 26548, June 7, 1991; 56
agency pursuant to § 141.31 must be
FR 30279, July 1, 1991; 57 FR 31843, July 17,
1992; 59 FR 34323, July 1, 1994; 60 FR 33932, kept for three years after issuance.
June 29, 1995; 63 FR 69464, 69515, Dec. 16, 1998; [40 FR 59570, Dec. 24, 1975, as amended at 65
65 FR 26022, May 4, 2000] FR 26022, May 4, 2000]

§ 141.33 Record maintenance. § 141.34 [Reserved]


Any owner or operator of a public
water system subject to the provisions § 141.35 Reporting of unregulated con-
of this part shall retain on its premises taminant monitoring results.
or at a convenient location near its (a) Does this reporting apply to me? (1)
premises the following records: This section applies to any owner or

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§ 141.35 40 CFR Ch. I (7–1–03 Edition)

operator of a public water system re- national drinking water contaminant


quired to monitor for unregulated con- occurrence database at the time of the
taminants under § 141.40. This section next database update. Exception: Re-
requires you to report the results of porting to EPA of monitoring results
this monitoring. received by public water systems prior
(2) Exception. You do not need to re- to May 13, 2002, must occur by August
port results if you are a system serving 9, 2002.
a population of 10,000 or less, since EPA (d) What information must I report? (1)
will arrange for testing and reporting You must provide the following ‘‘point
of the results. However, you will still of contact’’ information: name, mail-
need to comply with consumer con- ing address, phone number, and e-mail
fidence reporting and public notifica- address for:
tion requirements for these results. (i) PWS Technical Contact, the per-
(b) To whom must I report? You must son at your PWS that is responsible for
report the results of unregulated con- the technical aspects of your unregu-
taminant monitoring to EPA and pro- lated contaminant monitoring regula-
vide a copy to the State. You must also
tion (UCMR) activities, such as details
notify the public of the monitoring re-
concerning sampling and reporting;
sults as provided in Subpart O (Con-
sumer Confidence Reports) and Subpart (ii) PWS Official, the person at your
Q (Public Notification) of this part. PWS that is able to function as the of-
(c) When must I report monitoring re- ficial spokesperson for your UCMR ac-
sults? You must report the results of tivities; and
unregulated contaminant monitoring (iii) Laboratory Contact Person, the
within thirty (30) days following the person at your laboratory that is able
month in which you received the re- to address questions concerning the
sults from the laboratory. EPA will analysis that they provided for you.
conduct its quality control review of (2) You must update this information
the data for sixty (60) days after you if it changes during the course of
report the data, which will also allow UCMR implementation.
for quality control review by systems (3) You must report the information
and States. After the quality control specified for data elements 1 through 16
review, EPA will place the data in the in the following table for each sample.
TABLE 1—UNREGULATED CONTAMINANT MONITORING REPORTING REQUIREMENTS
Data Element Definition

1. Public Water System (PWS) Identifica- The code used to identify each PWS. The code begins with the standard two-char-
tion Number. acter postal State abbreviation; the remaining seven characters are unique to
each PWS.
2. Public Water System Facility Identifica- The Sampling point identification number and sampling point type identification
tion Number—Sampling Point Identifica- must either be static or traceable to previous numbers and type identifications
tion Number and Sampling Point Type throughout the period of unregulated contaminant monitoring. The Sampling
Identification. point identification number is a three-part alphanumeric designation, made up of:
a. The Public Water System Facility Identification Number is an identification num-
ber established by the State, or at the State’s discretion the PWS, that is unique
to the PWS for an intake for each source of water, a treatment plant, a distribu-
tion system, or any other facility associated with water treatment or delivery and
provides for the relationship of facilities to each other to be maintained;
b. The Sampling Point Identification Number is an identification number established
by the State, or at the State’s discretion the PWS, that is unique to each PWS
facility that identifies the specific sampling point and allows the relationship of
the sampling point to other facilities to be maintained; and
c. Sampling Point Type Identification is one of following:
SR—Untreated water collected at the source of the water system facility.
EP—Entry point to the distribution system.
MD—midpoint in the distribution system where the disinfectant residual would be
expected to be typical for the system such as the location for sampling coliform
indicator bacteria as described in 40 CFR 141.21.
MR—point of maximum retention is the point located the furthest from the entry
point to the distribution system which is approved by the State for trihalomethane
(THM) (disinfectant byproducts (DBP)) and/or total coliform sampling.
LD—location in the distribution system where the disinfectant residual is the lowest
which is approved by the State for THM (DBP) and/or total coliform sampling.
3. Sample Collection Date .......................... The date the sample is collected reported as 4-digit year, 2-digit month, and 2-digit
day.

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Environmental Protection Agency § 141.35

TABLE 1—UNREGULATED CONTAMINANT MONITORING REPORTING REQUIREMENTS—Continued


Data Element Definition

4. Sample Identification Number ................. An alphanumeric value of up to 15 characters assigned by the laboratory to
uniquely identify containers or groups of containers containing water samples
collected at the same time and sampling point.
5. Contaminant/Parameter .......................... The unregulated contaminant or water quality parameter for which the sample is
being analyzed.
6. Analytical Results—Sign ......................... An alphanumeric value indicating whether the sample analysis result was:
a. (<) ‘‘less than’’ means the contaminant was not detected or was detected at a
level ‘‘less than’’ the MRL.
b. (=) ‘‘equal to’’ means the contaminant was detected at a level ‘‘equal to’’ the
value reported in ‘‘Analytical Result—Value.’’
7. Analytical Result—Value ......................... The actual numeric value of the analysis for chemical and microbiological results,
or the minimum reporting level (MRL) if the analytical result is less than the con-
taminant’s MRL.
8. Analytical Result—Unit of Measure ........ The unit of measurement for the analytical results reported. [e.g., micrograms per
liter, (µg/L); colony-forming units per 100 milliliters, (CFU/100 mL), etc.]
9. Analytical Method Number ...................... The identification number of the analytical method used.
10. Sample Analysis Type .......................... The type of sample collected. Permitted values include:
a. RFS—Raw field sample—untreated sample collected and submitted for analysis
under this rule.
b. RDS—Raw duplicate field sample—untreated field sample duplicate collected at
the same time and place as the raw field sample and submitted for analysis
under this rule.
c. TFS—Treated field sample—treated sample collected and submitted for analysis
under this rule.
d. TDS—Treated duplicate field sample—treated field sample duplicate collected at
the same time and place as the treated field sample and submitted for analysis
under this rule.
11. Sample Batch Identification Number .... The sample batch identification number consists of three parts:
a. Up to a 10-character laboratory identification code assigned by EPA.
b. Up to a 15-character code assigned by the laboratory to uniquely identify each
extraction or analysis batch.
c. The date that the samples contained in each extraction batch extracted or in an
analysis batch were analyzed, reported as an 8-digit number in the form 4-digit
year, 2-digit month, and 2-digit day.
12. Minimum Reporting Level ..................... Minimum Reporting Level (MRL) refers to the lowest concentration of an analyte
that may be reported. Unregulated contaminant monitoring (UCM) MRLs are es-
tablished in § 141.40 monitoring requirements for unregulated contaminants.
13. Minimum Reporting Level Unit of The unit of measure to express the concentration, count, or other value of a con-
Measure. taminant level for the Minimum Reporting Level reported. (e.g., µg/L, colony
forming units/100 mL (CFU/100 mL), etc.).
14. Analytical Precision ............................... Precision is the degree of agreement between two repeated measurements and is
monitored through the use of duplicate spiked samples. For purposes of the Un-
regulated Contaminant Monitoring Regulation (UCMR), Analytical Precision is
defined as the relative percent difference (RPD) between spiked matrix dupli-
cates. The RPD for the spiked matrix duplicates analyzed in the same batch of
samples as the analytical result being reported is to be entered in this field. Pre-
cision is calculated as Relative Percent Difference (RPD) of spiked matrix dupli-
cates from the mean using:
RPD = absolute value of [(X1—X2) /(X1 +X2)/2 ] × 100%.
where:
X1 is the concentration observed in spiked field sample minus the concentration
observed in unspiked field sample.
X2 is the concentration observed in duplicate spiked field sample minus the con-
centration observed in unspiked field sample.
15. Analytical Accuracy ............................... Accuracy describes how close a result is to the true value measured through the
use of spiked field samples. For purposes of unregulated contaminant moni-
toring, accuracy is defined as the percent recovery of the contaminant in the
spiked matrix sample analyzed in the same analytical batch as the sample result
being reported and calculated using:
% recovery = [(amt. found in spiked sample—amt. found in sample)/amt. spiked] ×
100%.
16. Spiking Concentration ........................... The concentration of method analyte(s) added to a sample to be analyzed for cal-
culating analytical precision and accuracy where the value reported use the
same unit of measure reported for Analytical Results.
17. Presence/Absence ................................ Reserved.

(e) How must I report this information? toring under this rule using EPA’s
(1) You must report results from moni-

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§ 141.40 40 CFR Ch. I (7–1–03 Edition)

electronic reporting system. For qual- Subpart E—Special Regulations,


ity control purposes, you must instruct Including Monitoring Regula-
the organization(s) responsible for the tions and Prohibition on Lead
analysis of unregulated contaminant Use
samples taken under § 141.40 to enter
the results into the reporting system, § 141.40 Monitoring requirements for
in the format specified by EPA. You unregulated contaminants.
are responsible for reviewing those re- (a) Requirements for owners and opera-
sults and approving the reporting (via tors of public water systems. (1) Do I have
the electronic system) of the results to to monitor for unregulated contaminants?
EPA. You must also provide a copy of (i) Transient systems. If you own or op-
the results to the State, as directed by erate a transient non-community
the State. water system, you do not have to mon-
(2) If you report more than one set of itor for unregulated contaminants.
valid results for the same sampling (ii) Large systems not purchasing their
point and the same sampling event (for entire water supply from another system.
example, because you have had more If you own or operate a wholesale or re-
than one organization (e.g., a labora- tail public water system (other than a
tory) analyze replicate samples col- transient system) that serves more
lected under § 141.40, or because you than 10,000 persons, as determined by
have collected multiple samples during the State, and do not purchase your en-
a single monitoring event at the same tire water supply from another public
sampling point), EPA will use the high- water system, you must monitor as fol-
est of the reported values as the offi- lows:
(A) You must monitor for the un-
cial result.
regulated contaminants on List 1 of
(f) Does the laboratory to which I send
Table 1, Unregulated Contaminant
samples report the results for me? While Monitoring Regulation (1999) List, in
you must instruct the organization paragraph (a)(3) of this section.
conducting unregulated contaminant (B) You must monitor for the unregu-
analysis (e.g., a laboratory) to enter lated contaminants on List 2 of Table
the results into EPA’s electronic re- 1, Unregulated Contaminant Moni-
porting system, you are responsible for toring Regulation (1999) List, in para-
reviewing and approving the submis- graph (a)(3) of this section, if notified
sion of the results to EPA. If the ana- by your State or EPA that you are part
lytical organization or laboratory can- of the Screening Surveys.
not enter these data for you using (C) You must monitor for the unregu-
EPA’s electronic reporting system, lated contaminants on List 3 of Table
then you may explain to EPA in writ- 1, Unregulated Contaminant Moni-
ing the reasons why alternate report- toring Regulation (1999) List, in para-
ing is necessary and must receive graph (a)(3) of this section, if notified
EPA’s approval to use an alternate re- by your State or EPA that you are part
porting procedure. of the Pre-Screen Testing.
(g) Can I report previously collected (iii) Large systems purchasing their en-
data to meet the testing and reporting re- tire water supply from another system. If
quirements for the contaminants listed in you own or operate a public water sys-
§ 141.40(a)(3)? Yes, as long as the data tem (other than a transient system)
meet the specific requirements of that serves more than 10,000 persons
and purchase your entire water supply
§ 141.40(a)(3), (4), (5), and Appendix A of
from a wholesale or retail public water
§ 141.40 and you report the data with
system, you must monitor as follows:
the information specified in paragraph
(A) You must monitor for the un-
(d) of this section. regulated contaminants on List 1 of
[64 FR 50611, Sept. 17, 1999, as amended at 66 Table 1, Unregulated Contaminant
FR 2300, Jan. 11, 2001; 66 FR 27215, May 16, Monitoring Regulation (1999) List, in
2001; 67 FR 11046, Mar. 12, 2002] paragraph (a)(3) of this section, that

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Environmental Protection Agency § 141.40

have a ‘‘sampling location’’ indicated (A) You must monitor for the un-
as ‘‘distribution system’’. regulated contaminants on List 1 of
(B) You must monitor for the unregu- Table 1, Unregulated Contaminant
lated contaminants on List 2 of Table Monitoring Regulation (1999) List, in
1, Unregulated Contaminant Moni- paragraph (a)(3) of this section, that
toring Regulation (1999) List, in para- have a ‘‘sampling location’’ indicated
graph (a)(3) of this section, that have a as ‘‘distribution system’’ if you are no-
‘‘sampling location’’ indicated as ‘‘dis- tified by your State or EPA that you
tribution system’’ if notified by your are part of the State Monitoring Plan
State or EPA that you are part of the for small systems.
Screening Surveys. (B) You must monitor for the unregu-
(C) You must monitor for the unregu- lated contaminants on List 2 of Table
lated contaminants on List 3 of Table 1, Unregulated Contaminant Moni-
1, Unregulated Contaminant Moni- toring Regulation (1999) List, in para-
toring Regulation (1999) List, in para- graph (a)(3) of this section, that have a
graph (a)(3) of this section, that have a ‘‘sampling location’’ indicated as ‘‘dis-
‘‘sampling location’’ indicated as ‘‘dis- tribution system’’ if you are notified
tribution system’’ if notified by your by your State or EPA that you are part
State or EPA that you are part of the of the Screening Surveys.
Pre-Screen Testing. (C) You must monitor for the unregu-
lated contaminants on List 3 of Table
(iv) Small systems not purchasing their
1, Unregulated Contaminant Moni-
entire water supply from another system.
toring Regulation (1999) List, in para-
If you own or operate a public water
graph (a)(3) of this section, that have a
system (other than a transient system)
‘‘sampling location’’ indicated as ‘‘dis-
that serves 10,000 or fewer persons and
tribution system’’ if you are notified
do not purchase your entire water sup-
by your State or EPA that you are part
ply from another public water system,
of the Pre-Screen Testing.
you must monitor as follows:
(2) How would I be selected for the mon-
(A) You must monitor for the un- itoring under the State Monitoring Plan,
regulated contaminants on List 1 of the Screening Surveys, or the Pre-Screen
Table 1, Unregulated Contaminant Testing? (i) State Monitoring Plan.
Monitoring Regulation (1999) List, in Only a representative sample of small
paragraph (a)(3) of this section, if you systems must monitor for unregulated
are notified by your State or EPA that contaminants. EPA will select a na-
you are part of the State Monitoring tional representative sample of small
Plan for small systems. public water systems in each State
(B) You must monitor for the unregu- through the use of a random number
lated contaminants on List 2 of Table generator. Selection will be weighted
1, Unregulated Contaminant Moni- by population served within each sys-
toring Regulation (1999) List, in para- tem water source type (surface or
graph (a)(3) of this section, if you are ground water) and system size category
notified by your State or EPA that you (systems serving 25–500, 501–3,300, and
are part of the Screening Surveys. 3,301–10,000 persons). EPA may allocate
(C) You must monitor for the unregu- additional systems to water source
lated contaminants on List 3 of Table types or system size categories to in-
1, Unregulated Contaminant Moni- crease the statistical inferential abil-
toring Regulation (1999) List, in para- ity for those categories. EPA will also
graph (a)(3) of this section, if you are select a small group of systems to be
notified by your State or EPA that you ‘‘Index systems.’’ Systems selected as
are part of the Pre-Screen Testing. Index systems are required to provide
(v) Small systems purchasing their en- information about their site and oper-
tire water supply from another system. If ation that will serve to allow extrapo-
you own or operate a public water sys- lation of their results to other systems
tem (other than a transient system) of similar size, rather than collecting
that serves 10,000 or fewer persons and detailed information at every small
purchase your entire water supply from system. Each State will have the op-
another public water system, you must portunity to make some modifications
monitor as follows: to the list of small systems that EPA

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§ 141.40 40 CFR Ch. I (7–1–03 Edition)

selects. You will be notified by the occurrence of contaminants for which


State or EPA if your system is part of EPA needs to evaluate new analytical
the final State Monitoring Plan. methods in locations where the con-
(ii) Screening Surveys. The purpose of taminants are most likely to be found.
the Screening Surveys is to determine EPA will select up to 200 systems to
the occurrence of contaminants in participate in this testing after consid-
drinking water or sources of drinking ering the characteristics of the con-
water for which analytical methods taminants, precipitation, system oper-
have recently been developed for un- ation, and environmental conditions.
regulated contaminant monitoring.
You will be notified by the State or
EPA will select up to 300 systems to
EPA that your system has been se-
participate in each survey by using a
random number generator. You will be lected for monitoring under the Pre-
notified by the State or EPA if your Screen Testing program.
system is selected for monitoring (3) For which contaminants must I mon-
under the Screening Surveys. itor? Lists 1, 2 and 3 of unregulated con-
(iii) Pre-screen Testing. The purpose of taminants are listed in the following
Pre-Screen Testing is to determine the table:
TABLE 1—UNREGULATED CONTAMINANT MONITORING REGULATION (1999) LIST
List 1—Assessment Monitoring Chemical Contaminants

6-period
during
4-minimum
2–CAS reg- 3-analytical 5-sampling which
1-contaminant reporting
istry number methods location monitoring
level to be
completed

2, 4-dinitrotoluene ............................................. 121–14–2 EPA Method 2 µg/L e EPTDS f 2001–2003


525.2 a
2, 6 dinitrotoluene ............................................. 606–20–2 EPA Method 2 µg/L e EPTDS f 2001–2003
525.2 a
Acetochlor ......................................................... 34256–82–1 EPA Method 2 µg/L o EPTDS f 2001–2003
525.2 a
DCPA mono-acid degradate h ........................... 887–54–7 EPA Method 1 µg/L e EPTDS f 2001–2003
515.1 a, EPA
Method 515.2 a,
EPA Method
515.3 i,j, EPA
Method 515.4 k,
D5317–93 b,
AOAC 992.32 c
DCPA di-acid degradate h ................................. 2136–79–0 EPA Method 1 µg/L e EPTDS f 2001–2003
515.1 a, EPA
Method 515.2 a,
EPA Method
515.3 i,j, EPA
Method 515.4 k,
D5317–93 b,
AOAC 992.32 c
4,4′-DDE ............................................................ 72–55–9 EPA Method 0.8 µg/L e EPTDS f 2001–2003
508 a, EPA
Method 508.1 a,
EPA Method
525.2 a, D5812–
96 b, AOAC
990.06 c
EPTC ................................................................. 759–94–4 EPA Method 1 µg/L e EPTDS f 2001–2003
507 a, EPA
Method 525.2 a,
D5475–93 b,
AOAC 991.07 c
Molinate ............................................................. 2212–67–1 EPA Method 0.9 µg/L e EPTDS f 2001–2003
507 a, EPA
Method 525.2 a,
D5475–93 b,
AOAC 991.07 c

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Environmental Protection Agency § 141.40

TABLE 1—UNREGULATED CONTAMINANT MONITORING REGULATION (1999) LIST—Continued


List 1—Assessment Monitoring Chemical Contaminants

6-period
during
4-minimum
2–CAS reg- 3-analytical 5-sampling which
1-contaminant reporting
istry number methods location monitoring
level to be
completed

MTBE ................................................................ 1634–04–4 EPA Method 5 µg/L g EPTDS f 2001–2003


502.2 a,n, SM
6200C d,n, EPA
Method 524.2 a,
D5790–95 b, SM
6210D d, SM
6200B d
Nitrobenzene ..................................................... 98–95–3 EPA Method 10 µg/L g EPTDS f 2001–2003
524.2 a, D5790–
95 b, SM6210D d,
SM6200B d
Perchlorate ........................................................ 14797–73–0 EPA Method 4 µg/L m EPTDS f 2001–2003
314.0 l
Terbacil .............................................................. 5902–51–2 EPA Method 2 µg/L e EPTDS f 2001–2003
507 , EPA
a

Method 525.2 a,
D5475–93 b,
AOAC 991.07 c
Column headings are:
1—Chemical or microbiological contaminant: the name of the contaminants to be analyzed.
2—CAS (Chemical Abstract Service Number) Registry No. or Identification Number: a unique number identifying the chemical
contaminants.
3—Analytical Methods: method numbers identifying the methods that must be used to test the contaminants.
4—Minimum Reporting Level: the value and unit of measure at or above which the concentration or density of the contaminant
must be measured using the Approved Analytical Methods.
5—Sampling Location: the locations within a PWS at which samples must be collected.
6—Years During Which Monitoring to be Completed: The years during which the sampling and testing are to occur for the indi-
cated contaminant.
The procedures shall be done in accordance with the documents listed next in these footnotes. The incorporation by reference
of the following documents listed in footnotes b-d, i, k and l was approved by the Director of the Federal Register in accordance
with 5 U.S.C. 552(a) and 1 CFR part 51. Copies of the documents may be obtained from the following sources. Information re-
garding obtaining these documents can be obtained from the Safe Drinking Water Hotline at 800–426–4791. Documents may be
inspected at EPA’s Drinking Water Docket, 401 M Street, SW., Washington, DC 20460 (Telephone: 202–260–3027); or at the
Office of Federal Register, 800 North Capitol Street, NW., Suite 700, Washington, DC.
a The version of the EPA methods which you must follow for this Rule are listed at § 141.24 (e).
b Annual Book of ASTM Standards, 1996, 1998 and 1999, Vol. 11.02, American Society for Testing and Materials. Method
D5812–96, ‘‘Standard Test Method for Determination of Organochlorine Pesticides in Water by Capillary Column Gas Chroma-
tography’’, is located in the Annual Book of ASTM Standards, 1998 and 1999, Vol. 11.02. Methods D5790–95, ‘‘Standard Test
Method for Measurement of Purgeable Organic Compounds in Water by Capillary Column Gas Chromatography/Mass Spectrom-
etry’’; D5475–93, ‘‘Standard Test Method for Nitrogen- and Phosphorus-Containing Pesticides in Water by Gas Chromatography
with a Nitrogen-Phosphorus Detector’’; and D5317–93, ‘‘Standard Test Method for Determination of Chlorinated Organic Acid
Compounds in Water by Gas Chromatography with an Electron Capture Detector’’ are located in the Annual Book of ASTM
Standards, 1996 and 1998, Vol 11.02. Copies may be obtained from the American Society for Testing and Materials, 100 Barr
Harbor Drive, West Conshohocken, PA 19428.
c Official Methods of Analysis of AOAC (Association of Official Analytical Chemist) International, Sixteenth Edition, 4th Revi-
sion, 1998, Volume I, AOAC International, First Union National Bank Lockbox, PO Box 75198, Baltimore, MD 21275–5198. 800–
379–2622.
d SM 6210 D is only found in the 18th and 19th editions of Standard Methods for the Examination of Water and Wastewater,
1992 and 1995, American Public Health Association; either edition may be used. SM 6200 B and 6200 C are only found in the
20th edition of Standard Methods for the Examination of Water and Wastewater, 1998. Copies may be obtained from the Amer-
ican Public Health Association, 1015 Fifteenth Street NW, Washington, DC 20005.
e Minimum Reporting Level determined by multiplying by 10 the least sensitive method’s detection limit (detection limit
=standard deviation times the Student’s t value for 99% confidence level with n-1 degrees of freedom), or when available, multi-
plying by 5 the least sensitive method’s estimated detection limit (where the estimated detection limit equals the concentration of
compound yielding approximately a 5 to 1 signal to noise ratio or the calculated detection limit, whichever is greater).
f Entry Points to the Distribution System (EPTDS), after treatment, representing each non-emergency water source in use over
the twelve-month period of monitoring: this only includes entry points for sources in operation during the months in which sam-
pling is to occur. Sampling must occur at the EPTDS, unless the State has specified other sampling points that are used for
compliance monitoring under 40 CFR 141.24 (f)(1), (2), and (3). See 40 CFR 141.40(a)(5)(ii)(C) for a complete explanation of re-
quirements, including the use of source (raw) water sampling points.
g Minimum Reporting Levels (MRL) for Volatile Organic Compounds (VOC) determined by multiplying either the published de-
tection limit or 0.5 µg/L times 10, whichever is greater. The detection limit of 0.5 µg/L (0.0005 mg/L) was selected to conform to
VOC detection limit requirements of 40 CFR 141.24(f)(17)(E).
h The approved methods do not allow for the identification and quantitation of the individual acids. The single analytical result
obtained should be reported as total DCPA mono- and di-acid degradates.
i EPA Method 515.3, ‘‘Determination of Chlorinated Acids in Drinking Water by Liquid-Liquid Extraction, Derivatization and Gas
Chromatography with Electron Capture Detection,’’ Revision 1.0 July 1996. EPA 815-R–00–014, ‘‘Methods for the Determination
of Organic and Inorganic compounds in Drinking Water, Volume 1,’’ August 2000. Available from the National Technical Informa-
tion Service, NTIS PB2000–106981, U.S. Department of Commerce, 5285 Port Royal Road, Springfield, Virginia 22161. The toll
free number is 800–553–6847. Alternatively, the method can be assessed and downloaded directly on-line at www.epa.gov/
safewater/methods/sourcalt.html.

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§ 141.40 40 CFR Ch. I (7–1–03 Edition)
J Since EPA Method 515.3 does not include a solvent wash step following hydrolysis, the parent DCPA is not removed prior to
analysis, therefore, only non-detect data may be reported using EPA Method 515.3. All samples with results above the MRL
must be analyzed by one of the other approved methods.
k EPA Method 515.4, ‘‘Determination of Chlorinated Acids in Drinking Water by Liquid-Liquid Microextraction, Derivatization and
Fast Gas Chromatography with Electron Capture Detection,’’ Revision 1.0, April 2000, EPA #815/B–00/001. Available by request-
ing a copy from the EPA Safe Drinking Water Hotline within the United States at 800–426–4791 (Hours are Monday through Fri-
day, excluding federal holidays, from 9 a.m. to 5:30 p.m. Eastern Time). Alternatively, the method can be assessed and
downloaded directly on-line at www.epa.gov/safewater/methods/sourcalt.html.
l EPA Method 314.0, ‘‘Determination of Perchlorate in Drinking Water Using Ion Chromatography,’’ Revision 1.0, EPA 815-B–
99–003, November 1999. EPA 815-R–00–014, ‘‘Methods for the Determination of Organic and Inorganic Compounds in Drinking
Water, Volume 1,’’ August 2000. Available from the National Technical Information Service, NTIS PB2000–106981, U.S. Depart-
ment of Commerce, 5285 Port Royal Road, Springfield, Virginia 22161. The toll free number is 800–553–6847. Alternatively, the
method can be assessed and downloaded directly on-line at www.epa.gov/safewater/methods/sourcalt.html.
m MRL was established at a concentration, which is at least 1⁄4th the lowest known adverse health concentration, at which ac-
ceptable precision and accuracy has been demonstrated in spiked matrix samples.
n Sample preservation techniques and holding times specified in EPA Method 524.2 must be used by laboratories using either
EPA Method 502.2 or Standard Methods 6200C.

List 2—Screening Survey Chemical Contaminants

6-Period during
4-Minimum
2-CAS registry 3-Analytical 5-Sampling which
1-Contaminant reporting
number methods location monitoring to be
level completed

1,2- 122–66–7 .............. EPA Method 526 a 0.5 µg/L ................ EPTDS e ................ 2001—Selected
diphenylhydrazin- Systems serving
e. ≤10,000 per-
sons;
2002—Selected
systems serving
> 10,000 per-
sons.
2-methyl-phenol ..... 95–48–7 ................ EPA Method 528 b 1 µg/L f .................. EPTDS e ................ Same as above.
2,4-dichlorophenol 120–83–2 .............. EPA Method 528 b 1 µg/L f .................. EPTDS e ................ Same as above.
2,4-dinitrophenol .... 51–28–5 ................ EPA Method 528 b 5 µg/L f .................. EPTDS e ................ Same as above.
2,4,6- 88–06–2 ................ EPA Method 528 b 1 µg/L f .................. EPTDS e ................ Same as above.
trichlorophenol.
Alachlor ESA ......... Reserved d ............ Reserved d ............ Reserved d ............ Reserved d ............ Reserved d
Diazinon ................ 333–41–5 .............. EPA Method 526 a 0.5 µg/L f ............... EPTDS e ................ 2001—Seleected
Systems serving
≤10,000 per-
sons;
2002—Selected
systems serving
> 10,000 per-
sons.
Disulfoton .............. 298–04–4 .............. EPA Method 526 a 0.5 µg/L f ............... EPTDS e ................ Same as above.
Diuron .................... 330–54–1 .............. EPA Method 532 c 1 µg/L f .................. EPTDS e ................ Same as above.
Fonofos ................. 944–22–9 .............. EPA Method 526 a 0.5 µg/L f ............... EPTDS e ................ Same as above.
Linuron .................. 330–55–2 .............. EPA Method 532 c 1 µg/L f .................. EPTDS e ................ Same as above.
Nitrobenzene ......... 98–95–3 ................ EPA Method 526 a 0.5 µg/L f ............... EPTDS e ................ Same as above.
Prometon ............... 1610–18–0 ............ EPA Method 526 a 0.5 µg/L f ............... EPTDS e ................ Same as above.
RDX ....................... 121–82–4 .............. Reserved d ............ Reserved d ............ Reserved d ............ Reserved d.
Terbufos ................ 13071–79-9 ........... EPA Method 526 a 0.5 µg/L f ............... EPTDS e ................ 2001—Selected
Systems serving
≤10,000 per-
sons;
2002-Selected sys-
tems serving >
10,000 persons.

LIST 2—SCREENING SURVEY MICROBIOLOGICAL CONTAMINANTS TO BE SAMPLED


6—period during
2—identification 3—analytical 4—minimum re- 5—sampling loca-
1—contaminant which monitoring
number methods porting level tion to be completed

Aeromonas ................... NA ....................... EPA Method 0.2—CFU/100mL f Distribution Sys- 2003


1605 h. temg.
Column headings are:
1 —Chemical or microbiological contaminant: the name of the contaminants to be analyzed.
2 —CAS (Chemical Abstract Service Number) Registry No. or Identification Number: a unique number identifying the chemical
contaminants.
3 —Analytical Methods: method numbers identifying the methods that must be used to test the contaminants.
4 —Minimum Reporting Level: the value and unit of measure at or above which the concentration or density of the contaminant
must be measured using the Approved Analytical Methods.
5 —Sampling Location: the locations within a PWS at which samples must be collected.

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Environmental Protection Agency § 141.40
6 —Years During Which Monitoring to be Completed: the years during which the sampling and testing are to occur for the indi-
cated contaminant.
The procedures shall be done in accordance with the documents listed next in these footnotes. The incorporation by reference
of the following documents listed in footnotes a–c, was approved by the Director of the Federal Register in accordance with 5
U.S.C. 552(a) and 1 CFR part 51. Copies of the documents may be obtained from the following sources. Information regarding
obtaining these documents can be obtained from the Safe Drinking Water Hotline at 800–426–4791. Copies of the documents
may be obtained from the sources listed in these footnotes. Information regarding obtaining these documents can be obtained
from the Safe Drinking Water Hotline at 800–426–4791. Documents may be inspected at EPA’s Drinking Water Docket, 401 M
Street, SW., Washington, DC 20460 (Telephone: 202–260–3027); or at the Office of Federal Register, 800 North Capitol Street,
NW., Suite 700, Washington, DC.
a EPA Method 526, ‘‘Determination of Selected Semivolatile Organic Compounds in Drinking Water by Solid Phase Extraction
and Capillary Column Gas Chromatography/Mass Spectrometry (GC/MS),’’ Revision 1.0, June 2000. EPA 815–R–00–014,
‘‘Methods for the Determination of Organic and Inorganic Compounds in Drinking Water, Volume 1,’’ August 2000. Available from
the National Technical Information Service, NTIS PB2000–106981, U.S. Department of Commerce, 5285 Port Royal Road,
Springfield, Virginia 22161. The toll free number is 800–553–6847. Alternatively, the method can be assessed and downloaded
directly on-line at www.epa.gov/safewater/methods/sourcalt.html.
b EPA Method 528, ‘‘Determination of Phenols in Drinking Water by Solid Phase Extraction and Capillary Column Gas Chroma-
tography/Mass Spectrometry (GC/MS),’’ Revision 1.0, April 2000. EPA 815–R–00–014, ‘‘Methods for the Determination of Or-
ganic and Inorganic Compounds in Drinking Water, Volume 1,’’ August 2000. Available from the National Technical Information
Service, NTIS PB2000–106981, U.S. Department of Commerce, 5285 Port Royal Road, Springfield, Virginia 22161. The toll free
number is 800–553–6847. Alternatively, the method can be assessed and downloaded directly on-line at www.epa.gov/
nerlcwww/ordmeth.htm.
c EPA Method 532, ‘‘Determination of Phenylurea Compounds in Drinking Water by Solid Phase Extraction and High Perform-
ance Liquid Chromatography with UV Detection,’’ Revision 1.0, June 2000. EPA 815–R–00–014, ‘‘Methods for the Determination
of Organic and Inorganic Compounds in Drinking Water, Volume 1,’’ August 2000. Available from the National Technical Informa-
tion Service, NTIS PB2000–106981, U.S. Department of Commerce, 5285 Port Royal Road, Springfield, Virginia 22161. The toll
free number is 800–553–6847. Alternatively, the method can be assessed and downloaded directly on-line at www.epa.gov/
safewater/methods/sourcalt.html.
d To be specified at a later time.
e Entry Points to the Distribution System (EPTDS), after treatment, representing each non-emergency water source in use over
the twelve-month period of monitoring: this only includes entry points for sources in operation during the months in which sam-
pling is to occur. Sampling must occur at the EPTDS, source water sampling points are not permitted for List 2 contaminant
monitoring.
f Minimum Reporting Level represents the value of the lowest concentration precision and accuracy determination made during
methods development and documented in the method. If method options are permitted, the concentration used was for the least
sensitive option.
g Three samples must be taken from the distribution system, which is owned or controlled by the selected PWS. The sample
locations must include one sample from a point (MD from § 141.35(d)(3), Table 1) where the disinfectant residual is representa-
tive of the distribution system. This sample location may be selected from sample locations which have been previously identified
for samples to be analyzed for coliform indicator bacteria. Coliform sample locations encompass a variety of sites including mid-
point samples which may contain a disinfectant residual that is typical of the system. Coliform sample locations are described in
40 CFR 141.21. This same approach must be used for the Aeromonas midpoint sample where the disinfectant residual would
not have declined and would be typical for the distribution system. Additionally, two samples must be taken from two different lo-
cations: the distal or dead-end location in the distribution system (MR from § 141.35(d)(3), Table 1), avoiding disinfectant booster
stations, and from a location where previous determinations have indicated the lowest disinfectant residual in the distribution sys-
tem (LD from § 141.35(d)(3), Table 1). If these two locations of distal and low disinfectant residual sites coincide, then the sec-
ond sample must be taken at a location between the MD and MR sites. Locations in the distribution system where the disinfect-
ant residual is expected to be low are similar to TTHM sampling points. Sampling locations for TTHMs are described in 63 FR
69468.
h EPA Method 1605 ‘‘Aeromonas in Finished Water by Membrane Filtration using Ampicillin-Dextrin Agar with Vancomycin
(ADA–V)’’, October 2001, EPA # 821–R–01–034. The method can be accessed and downloaded directly on-line at
www.epa.gov/microbes.

List 3—Pre-screen Testing Radionuclides To Be Sampled After Notice of Analytical Methods Availability
6-Period during
4-Minimum
2-CAS registry 3-Analytical meth- 5-Sampling which
1-Contaminant reporting
number ods location monitoring to be
level completed

Lead-210 ............... 14255–04–0 .......... Reserved a ............. Reserved a ............. Reserved a ............. Reserved.a
Polonium-210 ........ 13981–52–7 .......... Reserved a ............. Reserved a ............. Reserved a ............. Reserved.a

List 3—Pre-screen Testing Microorganisms To Be Sampled After Notice of Analytical Methods Availability

6-Period during
2-Identification 3-Analytical meth- 4-Minimum report- 5-Sampling loca-
1-Contaminant which monitoring to
number ods ing level tion be completed

Cyanobacteria Reserved a ............. Reserved a ............. Reserved a ............. Reserved a ............. Reserved.a
(blue-green
algae, other
freshwater algae
and their toxins).
Echoviruses ........... Reserved a ............. Reserved a ............. Reserved a ............. Reserved a ............. Reserved.a
Coxsackieviruses ... Reserved a ............. Reserved a ............. Reserved a ............. Reserved a ............. Reserved.a
Helicobacter pylori Reserved a ............. Reserved a ............. Reserved a ............. Reserved a ............. Reserved.a
Microsporidia ......... Reserved a ............. Reserved a ............. Reserved a ............. Reserved a ............. Reserved.a
Calciviruses ........... Reserved a ............. Reserved a ............. Reserved a ............. Reserved a ............. Reserved.a
Adenoviruses ......... Reserved a ............. Reserved a ............. Reserved a ............. Reserved a ............. Reserved.a
Column headings are:
1–Chemical or microbiological contaminant: the name of the contaminants to be analyzed.
2–CAS (Chemical Abstract Service Number) Registry No. or Identification Number: a unique number identifying the chemical
contaminants.

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§ 141.40 40 CFR Ch. I (7–1–03 Edition)
3–Analytical Methods: method numbers identifying the methods that must be used to test the contaminants.
4–Minimum Reporting Level: the value and unit of measure at or above which the concentration or density of the contaminant
must be measured using the Approved Analytical Methods.
5–Sampling Location: the locations within a PWS at which samples must be collected.
6–Years During Which Monitoring to be Completed: the years during which the sampling and testing are to occur for the indi-
cated contaminant.
a To be determined at a later time.

(4) What general requirements must I relevant contaminant type. You must
follow for monitoring List 1 contaminants? analyze the parameters for each sam-
(i) All systems. You must: pling event of each sampling point,
(A) Collect samples of the listed con- using the method indicated, and report
taminants in accordance with para- using the data elements 1 through 10 in
graph (a)(5) of this section and Appen- Table 1, § 141.35(d), Unregulated Con-
dix A of this section and any other spe- taminant Monitoring Reporting Re-
cific instructions provided to you by quirements;
the State or EPA,
(C) Review the laboratory testing re-
(B) Analyze the additional param-
sults to ensure reliability; and
eters specified below in Table 2. ‘‘Water
Quality Parameters to be Monitored (D) Report the results as specified in
with UCMR Contaminants’’ for each § 141.35.

TABLE 2—WATER QUALITY PARAMETERS TO BE MONITORED WITH UCMR CONTAMINANTS


Analytical methods
Parameter Contaminant type
EPA method Standard methods 1 Other

pH ................................ Microbiological ............. EPA Method 150.12, 4500–H∂ B .................. ASTM D1293–843,
EPA Method 150.22. ASTM D1293–953.
Turbidity ....................... Microbiological ............. EPA Method 180.1 4,5 .. 2130 B 4 ....................... GLI Method 24,6.
Temperature ................ Microbiological ............. ...................................... 2550.
Free Disinfectant Re- Microbiological ............. ...................................... 4500–Cl D, 4500–Cl F, ASTM 1253–863
sidual. 4500–Cl G, 4500–Cl
H, 4500–ClO2 D,
4500–ClO2 E, 4500–
O3 B.
Total Disinfectant Re- Microbiological ............. ...................................... 4500–Cl D, 4500–Cl ASTM D 1253–86 3
sidual. E,4 4500–Cl F,
4500–Cl G4, 4500–Cl
I.
The procedures shall be done in accordance with the documents listed in these footnotes. The incorporation by reference of
the following documents was approved by the Director of the Federal Register in accordance with 5 U.S.C. 552(a) and 1 CFR
part 51. Copies of the documents may be obtained from the sources listed in these footnotes. Information regarding obtaining
these documents can be obtained from the Safe Drinking Water Hotline at 800–426–4791. Documents may be inspected at
EPA’s Drinking Water Docket, 401 M Street, SW., Washington, DC 20460 (Telephone: 202–260–3027); or at the Office of Fed-
eral Register, 800 North Capitol Street, NW., Suite 700, Washington, DC.
1 The 18th and 19th Editions of Standard Methods for the Examination of Water and Wastewater, 1992 and 1995. Methods
2130 B; 2550; 4500–Cl D, E, F, G, H, I; 4500–ClO2 D, E; 4500–H∂ B; and 4500–O3 B in the 20th edition Standard Methods for
the Examination of Water and Wastewater, 1998, American Public Health Association, 1015 Fifteenth St. NW, Washington D.C.,
20005.
2 EPA Methods 150.1 and 150.2 are available from US EPA, NERL, 26 W. Martin Luther King Dr., Cincinnati, Ohio 45268. The
identical methods are also in ‘‘Methods for Chemical Analysis of Water and Wastes,’’ EPA–600/4–79–020, March 1983, available
from the National Technical Information Service (NTIS), U.S. Department of Commerce, 5285 Port Royal Rd., Springfield, Vir-
ginia 22161, PB84–128677. (Note: NTIS toll-free number is 800–553–6847.)
3 Annual Book of ASTM Standards, Editions 1994, 1996, 1998 and 1999, Volumes 11.01, American Society for Testing and
Materials, 100 Barr Harbor Drive, West Conshohocken, PA 19428. Version D1293–84, ‘‘Standard Test Methods for pH of Water’’
is located in the Annual Book of ASTM Standards, 1994, Volumes 11.01. Version D1293–95, ‘‘Standard Test Methods for pH of
Water’’ is located in the Annual Book of ASTM Standards, 1996, 1998 and 1999, Volumes 11.01.
4 ‘‘Technical Notes on Drinking Water,’’ EPA–600/R–94–173, October 1994, Available at NTIS, PB95–104766.
5 ‘‘Methods for the Determination of Inorganic Substances in Environmental Samples,’’ EPA–600/R–93–100, August 1993.
Available at NTIS, PB94–121811
6 GLI Method 2, ‘‘Turbidity,’’ November 2, 1992, Great Lakes Instruments Inc., 8855 North 55th St., Milwaukee, Wisconsin
53223.

(ii) Large systems. In addition to para- tion (1999) List, in paragraph (a)(3) of
graph (a)(4)(i) of this section, you must this section, and in Appendix A of this
arrange for testing of the samples ac- section.
cording to the methods specified for
each contaminant in Table 1, Unregu-
lated Contaminant Monitoring Regula-

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Environmental Protection Agency § 141.40

(iii) Small systems. Unless directed collection. You must not collect sam-
otherwise by the State or EPA, in addi- ples on Friday, Saturday or Sunday be-
tion to paragraph (a)(4)(i) of this sec- cause sampling on these days would
tion , you must: not allow samples to be shipped and re-
(A) Properly receive, store, maintain ceived at the laboratory within 30
and use the sampling equipment sent hours.
to you from the laboratory designated (B) No compositing of samples. You
by EPA; must not composite (that is, combine,
(B) Sample at the times specified by mix or blend) the samples. You must
the State or the EPA; collect, preserve and test each sample
(C) Collect and pack samples in ac- separately.
cordance with the instructions sent to (C) Review and reporting of results.
you by the laboratory designated by After you have received the laboratory
EPA; and results, you must review and confirm
(D) Send the samples to the labora- the system information and data re-
tory designated by EPA. garding sample collection and test re-
(5) What specific sampling and qual- sults. You must report the results as
ity control requirements must I follow provided in § 141.35.
for monitoring of List 1 contaminants? (ii) Large systems. In addition to para-
(i) All systems. Unless the State or EPA graph (a)(5)(i) of this section, you must
informs you of other sampling arrange- comply with the following:
ments, you must comply with the fol- (A) Timeframe. You must collect the
lowing requirements: samples in one twelve-month period
(A) Sample collection and shipping during the years indicated in column 6
time. If you must ship the samples for of Table 1, Unregulated Contaminant
testing, you must collect the samples Monitoring Regulation (1999) List.
early enough in the day to allow ade- (B) Frequency. You must collect the
quate time to send the samples for samples within the timeframe and ac-
overnight delivery to the laboratory cording to the following frequency
since some samples must be processed specified by contaminant type and
at the laboratory within 30 hours of water source type:
TABLE 3—MONITORING FREQUENCY BY CONTAMINANT AND WATER SOURCE TYPES
Contaminant type Water source type Timeframe Frequency

Chemical ........................ Surface water ............... Twelve (12) months ...... Four quarterly samples taken as follows: Select
either the first, second, or third month of a
quarter and sample in that same month of
each of four (4) consecutive quarters a to en-
sure that one of those sampling events oc-
curs during the vulnerable time.b
Ground water ................ Twelve (12) months ...... Two (2) times in a year taken as follows: Sam-
ple during one (1) month of the vulnerable
time b and during one (1) month five (5) to
seven (7) months earlier or later.c
Microbiological ............... Surface and ground Twelve (12) months ...... Six (6) times in a year taken as follows: Select
water. either the first, second, or third month of a
quarter and sample in that same month of
each of four (4) consecutive quarters, and
sample an additional 2 months during the
warmest (vulnerable) quarter of the year.d
a ‘‘Select either the first, second, or third month of a quarter and sample in that same month of each of four (4) consecutive
quarters’’ means that you must monitor during each of the four (4) months of either: January, April, July, October; or February,
May, August, November; or March, June, September, December.
b ‘‘Vulnerable time’’ means May 1 through July 31, unless the State or EPA informs you that it has selected a different time pe-
riod for sampling as your system’s vulnerable time.
c ‘‘Sample during one (1) month of the vulnerable time and during one (1) month five (5) to seven (7) months earlier or later’’
means, for example, that if you select May as your ‘‘vulnerable time’’ month to sample, then one (1) month five (5) to seven (7)
months earlier would be either October, November or December of the preceding year, and one (1) month five (5) to seven (7)
months later would be either, October, November, or December of the same year.
d This means that you must monitor during each of the six (6) months of either: January, April, July, August, September, Octo-
ber; or February, May, July, August, September, November; or March, June, July, August, September, December; unless the
State or EPA informs you that a different vulnerable quarter has been selected for your system.

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§ 141.40 40 CFR Ch. I (7–1–03 Edition)

(C) Location. You must collect sam- levels in column 4 of List 1 of Table 1,
ples at the location specified for each Unregulated Contaminant Monitoring
listed contaminant in column 5 of the Regulation (1999) List, in paragraph
Table 1, UCMR (1999) List, in paragraph (a)(3) of this section, and the quality
(a)(3) of this section. The sampling lo- control procedures specified in Appen-
cation for chemical contaminants must dix A of this section.
be the entry point to the distribution (F) Sampling deviations. If you do not
system or the compliance monitoring collect a sample according to the pro-
point specified by the State or EPA cedures specified for a listed contami-
under 40 CFR 141.24 (f)(1), (2), and (3). nant, you must resample within 14 days
Except as provided in this paragraph of observing the occurrence of the error
(a)(5)(ii)(C), if the compliance moni- (which may include notification from
toring point as specified by the State is the laboratory that you must re-
for source (raw) water and any of the sample) following the procedures speci-
contaminants in paragraph (a)(3) of fied for the method. (This resampling
this section are detected, then you is not for confirmation sampling but to
must complete the source water moni- correct the sampling error.)
toring for the indicated timeframe and (G) Testing. (1) Except as provided in
also sample at the entry point to the paragraph (a)(5)(ii)(G)(2) and (3) of this
distribution system representative of section, you must arrange for the test-
the affected source water only for the ing of the contaminants identified in
contaminant(s) found in the source List 1 of Table 1 by a laboratory cer-
water over the next twelve month
tified under § 141.28 for compliance
timeframe, beginning in the next re-
analysis using any of the analytical
quired monitoring period as indicated
methods listed in column 3 for each
in paragraph (a)(5)(ii)(B), Table 3 of
contaminant in List 1 of Table 1, Un-
this section, even though monitoring
regulated Contaminant Monitoring
might extend beyond the last year indi-
Regulation (1999) List, in paragraph
cated in column 6, Period during which
(a)(3) of this section, whether you use
monitoring to be completed, in Table 1
the EPA analytical methods or non-
of paragraph (a)(3). Exception: If the
EPA methods listed in List 1 of Table
State or EPA determines that sam-
1. Laboratories are automatically cer-
pling at the entry point to the distribu-
tion system is unnecessary because no tified for the analysis of UCMR con-
treatment was instituted between the taminants in List 1 of Table 1 if they
source water and the distribution sys- are already certified to conduct com-
tem that would affect measurement of pliance monitoring for a contaminant
the contaminants listed in paragraph included in the same method being ap-
(a)(3) of this section, then you do not proved for UCMR analysis. Labora-
have to sample at the entry point to tories certified under § 141.28 for com-
the distribution system. Note: The pliance analysis using EPA Method
sampling for List 2 chemical contami- 515.3 are automatically approved to
nants must be at the entry point to the conduct UCMR analysis using EPA
distribution system, as specified in Method 515.4.
Table 1, List 2. (2) You must arrange for the testing
(D) Sampling instructions. You must of Perchlorate as identified in List 1 of
follow the sampling procedure for the Table 1 by a laboratory certified under
method specified in column 3 of List 1 § 141.28 for compliance analysis using
of Table 1, Unregulated Contaminant an approved ion chromatographic
Monitoring Regulation (1999) List, in method as listed in § 141.28 and that has
paragraph (a)(3) of this section, for analyzed and successfully passed the
each contaminant. Performance Testing (PT) Program ad-
(E) Testing and analytical methods. ministered by EPA.
For each listed contaminant, you must (3) You must arrange for the testing
use the analytical method specified in of the chemical contaminants identi-
column 3 of List 1 of Table 1, Unregu- fied in List 2 of Table 1 by a laboratory
lated Contaminant Monitoring Regula- certified under § 141.28 for compliance
tion (1999) List, in paragraph (a)(3) of analysis using EPA Method 525.2 if per-
this section, the minimum reporting forming UCMR analysis using EPA

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Environmental Protection Agency § 141.40

Methods 526 or 528, or a laboratory cer- and telephone number for the labora-
tified under § 141.28 for compliance tory, and a prepaid return shipping
analysis using EPA Methods 549.1 or docket and return address label. If any
549.2 if performing UCMR analysis of the materials listed in the kit’s in-
using EPA Method 532. You must ar- structions are not included or arrive
range for the testing for Aeromonas damaged, you must notify EPA’s des-
using the approved method as identi- ignated laboratory which sent you the
fied in List 2 of Table 1 by a laboratory sample collection kits.
which is both certified under § 141.28 for (E) Sampling instructions. You must
compliance analysis for coliform indi- comply with the instructions sent to
cator bacteria using an EPA approved you by the State or EPA concerning
membrane filtration procedure and the use of containers, collection (how
which also has been granted approval to fill the sample bottle),
for UCMR monitoring of Aeromonas by dechlorination and/or preservation, and
successfully passing the Aeromonas Per- sealing and preparing the sample and
formance Testing (PT) Program admin- shipping containers for shipment. You
istered by EPA. must also comply with the instructions
(iii) Small systems that are part of the sent to you by EPA’s designated lab-
State Monitoring Plan. Unless directed oratory concerning the handling of
otherwise by the State or EPA, in addi- sample containers for specific contami-
tion to paragraph (a)(5)(i) of this sec- nants.
tion, you must comply with the fol- (F) Duplicate samples. EPA will select
lowing: systems in the State Monitoring Plan
(A) Timeframe and frequency. You that must collect duplicate samples for
must collect samples at the times spec- quality control. If your system is se-
ified for you by the State or EPA, lected, you will receive two sample
within the timeframe specified in para- kits that you must use. You must use
graph (a)(5)(ii)(A) of this section and the same sampling protocols for both
according to the frequency specified in sets of samples, following the instruc-
paragraph (a)(5)(ii)(B) of this section tions in the duplicate sample kit.
for the contaminant type and water (G) Sampling forms. You must com-
source type. pletely fill out the sampling forms sent
(B) Location. You must collect sam- to you by the laboratory, including the
ples at the locations specified for you data elements 1 through 4 listed in
by the State or EPA. § 141.35(d) for each sample. If EPA re-
(C) Sampling deviations. If you do not quests that you conduct field analysis
collect a sample according to the in- of water quality parameters specified
structions provided to you for a listed in paragraph (a)(4)(i)(B) of this section,
contaminant, then you must report the you must also complete the sampling
deviation on the sample reporting form form to include the information for
that you send to the laboratory with data elements 5 through 10 listed in
the samples. You must resample fol- § 141.35(d) for each sample. You must
lowing instructions that you will be sign and date the sampling forms.
sent from EPA’s designated laboratory (H) Sample submission. Once you have
or the State. collected the samples and completely
(D) Sample kits. You must store and filled in the sampling forms, you must
maintain the sample collection kits send the samples and the sampling
sent to you by EPA’s designated lab- forms to the laboratory designated in
oratory in a secure place until used for your instructions.
sampling. You should read the instruc- (6) What additional requirements must I
tions for each kit when you receive it. follow if my system is selected as an Index
If indicated in the kit’s instructions, system? If your system is selected as an
you must freeze the cold packs. The Index system in the State Monitoring
sample kit will include all necessary Plan, you must assist the State or EPA
containers, packing materials and cold in identifying appropriate sampling lo-
packs, instructions for collecting the cations and provide information on
sample and sample treatment (such as which wells and intakes are in use at
dechlorination or preservation), report the time of sampling, well casing and
forms for each sample, contact name screen depths (if known) for those

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§ 141.40 40 CFR Ch. I (7–1–03 Edition)

wells, and the pumping rate of each rector of a State or Tribal drinking
well or intake at the time of sampling. water program, participate in unregu-
(7) What must I do if my system is se- lated contaminant monitoring, includ-
lected for the Screening Surveys or Pre- ing Assessment Monitoring (which in-
Screen Testing? (i) All systems. You cludes the State Monitoring Plan for
must: small systems), the Screening Surveys,
(A) Analyze the additional param- and Pre-Screen Testing of all systems?
eters specified in paragraph You can enter into a Memorandum of
§ 141.40(a)(4)(i), Table 2, ‘‘Water Quality Agreement (MOA) with the EPA that
Parameters to be Monitored with describes your State’s or Tribe’s activi-
UCMR Contaminants’’ for each rel- ties to:
evant contaminant type. You must (i) Accept or modify the initial plan.
analyze the parameters for each sam- EPA will first specify the systems serv-
pling event of each sampling point, ing 10,000 or fewer persons by water
using the method indicated, and report source and size in an initial State Mon-
the results using the data elements 1 itoring Plan for each State using a ran-
through 10 in Table 1, § 141.35(d), Un- dom number generator. EPA will also
regulated Contaminant Monitoring Re- generate a replacement list of systems
porting requirements; for systems that may not have been
(B) Review the laboratory results to correctly specified on the initial plan.
ensure reliability; and This initial State Monitoring Plan will
(C) Report the results as specified in also indicate the year and day, plus or
§ 141.35. minus two (2) weeks from the day, that
(ii) Large systems. If your system each system must monitor for the con-
serves over 10,000 persons, you must taminants in List 1 of Table 1 of this
collect and arrange for testing of the section, Unregulated Contaminant
contaminants in List 2 and List 3 of Monitoring Regulation (1999) List. EPA
Table 1, Unregulated Contaminant will provide you with the initial moni-
Monitoring Regulation (1999) List, in toring plan for your State or Tribe, in-
paragraph (a)(3) of this section, in ac- cluding systems to be Index systems
cordance with the requirements set out and those systems to be part of the
in paragraphs (a)(4) and (5) of this sec- Screening Surveys. Within sixty (60)
tion, with one exception: you must days of receiving your State’s initial
sample only at sampling locations plan, you may notify EPA that you ei-
specified in Table 1. You must send the ther accept it as your State Monitoring
samples to one of the laboratories ap- Plan or request to modify the initial
proved under paragraph (G), this sec- plan by removing systems that have
tion. You are also responsible for re- closed, merged or are purchasing water
porting these results as required in from another system and replacing
§ 141.35. them with other systems. Any pur-
(iii) Small systems. If your system chased water system associated with a
serves 10,000 or fewer persons, you must non-purchased water system must be
collect samples in accordance with the added to the State Monitoring Plan if
instructions sent to you by the EPA or the State determines that its distribu-
State, or, if informed by the EPA or tion system is the location of the max-
State that the EPA or State will col- imum residence time or lowest dis-
lect the sample, you must assist the infectant residual of the combined dis-
State or EPA in identifying the appro- tribution system. In this case, the pur-
priate sampling locations and in taking chased water system must monitor for
the samples. EPA will report the re- the contaminants for which the ‘‘dis-
sults to you and the State. tribution system’’ is identified as the
(8) What is a violation of this Rule? (i) point of ‘‘maximum residence time’’ or
Any failure to monitor in accordance ‘‘lowest disinfectant residual,’’ depend-
with § 141.40(a)(3) through (7) and Ap- ing on the contaminant, and not the
pendix A is a monitoring violation. (ii) community water system selling water
Any failure to report in accordance to it. You must replace any systems
with § 141.35 is a reporting violation. you removed from the initial plan with
(b) Requirements for State and Tribal systems from the replacement list in
Participation. (1) How can I, as the di- the order they are listed. Your request

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Environmental Protection Agency § 141.40

to modify the initial plan must include listed. This monitoring may be coordi-
the modified plan and the reasons for nated with regulated contaminant
the removal and replacement of sys- compliance monitoring at your discre-
tems. If you believe that there are rea- tion. You must send the modified plan
sons other than those previously listed to EPA.
for removing and replacing one or more (iv) Identify alternate sampling points
other systems from the initial plan, for small systems in the State Monitoring
you may include those systems and Plan. All systems are required to mon-
their replacement systems in your re- itor for the contaminants at the sam-
quest to modify the initial plan. EPA pling locations specified in column 5,
will review your request to modify List 1 of Table 1, Unregulated Contami-
your State’s initial plan. Please note nant Monitoring Regulation (1999) List,
that information about the actual or in paragraph (a)(3) of this section, un-
potential occurrence or non-occurrence less the State specifies an alternate
of contaminants at a system or a sys- compliance sampling point as the sam-
tem’s vulnerability to contamination pling location. If the compliance sam-
is not a basis for removal from or addi- pling points for the small systems in
tion to the plan. the State Monitoring Plan are different
(ii) Determine an alternate vulnerable than those specified in paragraph (a)(3)
time. Within 60 days of receiving the of this section, then you must indicate
initial State Monitoring Plan, you may these sampling points in the plan.
also determine that the most vulner- These alternative sampling points
able time of the year for any or all of must allow proper sampling and test-
the systems in the plan, and for any of ing for the unregulated contaminants.
the large systems that must monitor, (v) Notify small and large systems of
is some period other than May 1 their monitoring responsibilities. You
through July 31. If you make this de- must provide notification to systems in
termination, you must modify the ini- the plan and, where appropriate, the
tial plan to indicate the alternate vul- large systems, at least ninety (90) days
nerable time and to which systems the before sampling must occur.
alternate vulnerable time applies. EPA (vi) Provide instructions to systems that
will review these determinations when are part of the final State Monitoring
you submit your request to modify Plan. You must send a monitoring
your State’s initial monitoring plan to schedule to each system listed in the
the EPA. You must notify the small State Monitoring Plan and instruc-
system(s) in your final State Moni- tions on location, frequency, timing of
toring Plan and the large system(s) of sampling, use of sampling equipment,
the most vulnerable time(s) of the year and handling and shipment of samples
that you have specified for them to based on these regulations. EPA will
sample for one of their sampling provide you with guidance for these in-
events. You must notify them at least structions. If you perform the sampling
90 days before their first unregulated or make alternative arrangements for
contaminant sampling is to occur. You the sampling at the systems in the
may need to consider the timing of plan, you must inform EPA at least six
monitoring in paragraph (b)(1)(iii) of (6) months before the first monitoring
this section. is to occur and address the alternative
(iii) Modify the timing of monitoring. monitoring arrangements in the MOA.
Within sixty (60) days of receiving the (vii) Participate in monitoring for the
initial plan, you may also modify the Screening Surveys for small and large sys-
plan by selecting an alternative year tems. Within 120 days prior to sampling,
and day, plus or minus two (2) weeks, EPA will notify you which systems
within the years specified in column 6, have been selected to participate in the
List 1 of Table 1, Unregulated Contami- Screening Surveys, the sampling dates,
nant Monitoring Regulation (1999) List, the designated laboratory for testing,
in paragraph (a)(3) of this section, for and instructions for sampling. You
monitoring for each system in the ini- must review the small systems that
tial plan as long as approximately one- EPA selected for the State Monitoring
third of the systems in the State Plan Plan to ensure that the systems are
monitor in each of the three (3) years not closed, merged or purchasing water

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§ 141.40 40 CFR Ch. I (7–1–03 Edition)

from another system (unless the sys- (ix) Revise system’s treatment plant lo-
tem is to conduct monitoring for a con- cation(s) to include latitude and lon-
taminant with the sampling location gitude. For reporting to the Safe Drink-
specified as ‘‘distribution system’’), ing Water Information System, EPA
and then make any replacements in the already requires reporting of either the
plan, as described in paragraph (b)(1)(i) latitude and longitude or the street ad-
of this section. You must notify the se- dress for the treatment plant location.
lected systems in your State of these If the State enters into an MOA, the
Screening Surveys requirements. You State must report each system’s treat-
must provide the necessary Screening ment plant location(s) as latitude and
Surveys information to the selected longitude (in addition to street ad-
systems at least ninety (90) days prior dress, if previously reported) by the
to the sampling date. time of the system’s reporting of As-
(viii) Participate in monitoring for Pre- sessment Monitoring results to the Na-
Screen Testing for small and large sys- tional Drinking Water Contaminant
tems. You can participate in Pre-Screen Occurrence Database. The State may
Testing in two ways. use the latitude and longitude of facili-
(A) First, within ninety (90) days of ties related to the public water system
EPA’s letter to you concerning initi- on the same site, or closely adjacent to
ation of Pre-Screen Testing for specific the same site as the treatment plant,
contaminants, you can identify from such as the latitude and longitude of
five (5) up to twenty-five (25) systems the intake or wellhead/field or the
in your State that you determine to be entry point to the distribution system,
representative of the most vulnerable if such measurements are available.
systems to these contaminants, modify (2) What if I decide not to participate
your State Monitoring Plan to include in an MOA? If you decide not to enter
these most vulnerable systems if any into an MOA with EPA to develop the
serve 10,000 or fewer persons, and notify State Monitoring Plan for small sys-
EPA of the addition of these systems tems, the initial monitoring plan that
to the State Plan. These systems must EPA sent you will become the final
be selected from all community and State Monitoring Plan for your State
non-transient noncommunity water or Tribe. In that case, you may still
systems. EPA will use the State-identi- notify each public water system of its
fied vulnerable systems to select up to selection for the plan and instructions
200 systems nationally to be monitored for monitoring as long as you notify
considering the characteristics of the EPA that you will be undertaking this
contaminants, precipitation, system responsibility at least six (6) months
operation, and environmental condi- prior to the first unregulated contami-
tions. nant monitoring.
(B) Second, within 120 days prior to (3) Can I add contaminants to the Un-
sampling, EPA will notify you which regulated Contaminant Monitoring
systems have been selected, sampling List? Yes, the SDWA allows Governors
dates, the designated laboratory for of seven (7) or more States to petition
testing of samples for systems serving the EPA Administrator to add one or
10,000 or fewer persons and approved more contaminants to the Unregulated
laboratories for systems serving more Contaminant Monitoring Regulation
than 10,000 persons, and instructions (1999) List, in paragraph (a)(3) of this
for sampling. You must notify the own- section. The petition must clearly
ers or operators of the selected systems identify the reason(s) for adding the
in your State of these Pre-Screen Test- contaminant(s) to the monitoring list
ing requirements. At least ninety (90) in paragraph (a)(3) of this section, in-
days prior to the sampling date, you cluding the potential risk to public
must provide the necessary Pre-Screen health, particularly any information
Testing information to the owners or that might be available regarding dis-
operators of the selected systems and proportional risks to the health and
then inform EPA that you took this safety of children, the expected occur-
action to allow sufficient time for EPA rence documented by any available
to ensure laboratory readiness. data, any analytical methods known or

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Environmental Protection Agency § 141.40

proposed to be used to test for the con- (a)(3) of this section using the appropriate
taminant(s), and any other information procedure in the specified method with the
that could assist the Administrator in exception that the contaminant concentra-
tion used to fortify reagent water must be
determining which contaminants less than or equal to the minimum reporting
present the greatest public health con- level (MRL) for the contaminants as speci-
cern and should, therefore, be included fied in column 4, Table 1, UCMR (1999) List,
on the Unregulated Contaminant Moni- in paragraph (a)(3) of this section. The cal-
toring Regulation (1999) List, in para- culated detection limit is equal to the stand-
graph (a)(3) of this section. ard deviation times the Student’s t value for
(4) Can I waive monitoring require- 99% confidence level with n-1 degrees of free-
ments? Only with EPA approval and dom. (The detection limit must be less than
or equal to one-half of the MRL.)
under very limited conditions. Condi- (3) Calibration. Follow the initial calibra-
tions and procedures for obtaining the tion requirements as specified in the method
only type of waiver available under utilized. Calibration must be verified ini-
these regulations are as follows: tially with a low-level standard at a con-
(i) Application. You may apply to centration at or below the MRL for each con-
EPA for a State-wide waiver from the taminant. Perform a continuing calibration
unregulated contaminant monitoring verification following every 10th sample. The
requirements for public water systems calibration verification must be performed
by alternating low-level and mid-level cali-
serving more than 10,000 persons. To bration standards. The low-level standard is
apply for such a waiver, you must sub- defined as a concentration at or below the
mit an application to EPA that in- MRL with an acceptance range of ±40%. The
cludes the following information: mid-level standard is in the middle of the
(A) the list of contaminants on the calibration range with an acceptance range
Unregulated Contaminant Monitoring of ±20%.
List for which you request a waiver, (4) Reagent Blank Analysis. Analyze one
and laboratory reagent (method) blank per sam-
ple set/batch that is treated exactly as a
(B) documentation for each contami- sample. The maximum allowable background
nant in your request demonstrating concentration is one-half of the MRL for all
that the contaminants have not been contaminants. A field reagent blank is re-
used, applied, stored, disposed of, re- quired only for EPA Method 524.2 (or equiva-
leased, naturally present or detected in lent listed methods, D5790.95, SM6210D, and
the source waters or distribution sys- SM6200B).
tems in your State during the past 15 (5) Quality Control Sample. Obtain a qual-
ity control sample from an external source
years, and that it does not occur natu- to check laboratory performance at least
rally in your State. once each quarter.
(ii) Approval. EPA will notify you if (6) Matrix Spike and Duplicate. Prepare
EPA agrees to waive monitoring re- and analyze the sample matrix spike (SMS)
quirements. for accuracy and matrix spike duplicate
(MSD) samples for precision to determine
APPENDIX A TO § 141.40—QUALITY CON- method accuracy and precision for all con-
TROL REQUIREMENTS FOR TESTING taminants in Table 1, Unregulated Contami-
ALL SAMPLES COLLECTED nant Monitoring Regulation (1999) List, in
paragraph (a)(3) of this section. SMS/MSD
Your system must ensure that the quality samples must be prepared and analyzed at a
control requirements listed below for testing frequency of 5% (or one SMS/MSD set per
of samples collected and submitted under every 20 samples) or with each sample batch
§ 141.40 are followed: whichever is more frequent. In addition, the
(1) Sample Collection/Preservation. Follow SMS/MSD spike concentrations must be al-
the sample collection and preservation re- ternated between a low-level spike and mid-
quirements for the specified method for each level spike approximately 50% of the time.
of the contaminants in Table 1, UCMR (1999) (For example: a set of 40 samples will require
List, in paragraph (a)(3) of this section. preparation and analysis of two SMS/MSD
These requirements specify sample con- sets. The first set must be spiked at either
tainers, collection, dechlorination, preserva- the low-level or mid level, and the second set
tion, storage, sample holding time, and ex- must be spiked with the other standard, ei-
tract storage and/or holding time that the ther the low-level or mid-level, whichever
laboratory must follow. was not used for the initial SMS/MSD set).
(2) Detection Limit. Calculate the labora- The low-level SMS/MSD spike concentration
tory detection limit for each contaminant in must be within ±20% of the MRL for each
Table 1, Unregulated Contaminant Moni- contaminant. The mid-level SMS/MSD spike
toring Regulation (1999) List, of paragraph concentration must be within ±20% of the

431

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§ 141.41 40 CFR Ch. I (7–1–03 Edition)
mid-level calibration standard for each con- specifies acceptance criteria for these qual-
taminant, and should represent, where pos- ity control checks.
sible, an approximate average concentration
observed in previous analyses of that [64 FR 50612, Sept. 17, 1999, as amended at 65
analyte. The spiking concentrations must be FR 11382, Mar. 2, 2000; 66 FR 2302, Jan. 11,
reported in the same units of measure as the 2001; 66 FR 27215, May 16, 2001; 66 FR 46225,
analytical results. Sept. 4, 2002; 67 FR 65900, Oct. 29, 2002]
(7) Internal Standard Calibration. As ap-
propriate to a method’s requirements to be § 141.41 Special monitoring for so-
used, test and obtain an internal standard dium.
for the methods for each chemical contami- (a) Suppliers of water for community
nant in Table 1, Unregulated Contaminant public water systems shall collect and
Monitoring Regulation (1999) List, in para-
graph (a)(3) of this section, a pure contami- analyze one sample per plant at the
nant of known concentration, for calibration entry point of the distribution system
and quantitation purposes. The methods for the determination of sodium con-
specify the percent recovery or response that centration levels; samples must be col-
you must obtain for acceptance. lected and analyzed annually for sys-
(8) Method Performance Test. As appro- tems utilizing surface water sources in
priate to a method’s requirements, test for whole or in part, and at least every
surrogate compounds, a pure contaminant
unlikely to be found in any sample, to be
three years for systems utilizing solely
used to monitor method performance. The ground water sources. The minimum
methods specify the percent recovery that number of samples required to be taken
you must obtain for acceptance. by the system shall be based on the
(9) Detection Confirmation. Confirm any number of treatment plants used by
chemical contaminant analyzed using a gas the system, except that multiple wells
chromatographic method and detected above drawing raw water from a single aqui-
the MRL, by gas chromatographic/mass spec-
trometric (GC/MS) methods. If testing re-
fer may, with the State approval, be
sulted in first analyzing the sample extracts considered one treatment plant for de-
via specified gas chromatographic methods, termining the minimum number of
an initial confirmation by a second column samples. The supplier of water may be
dissimilar to the primary column may be required by the State to collect and
performed. If the contaminant detection is analyze water samples for sodium more
confirmed by the secondary column, then the frequently in locations where the so-
contaminant must be reconfirmed by GC/MS
using three (3) specified ion peaks for con-
dium content is variable.
taminant identification. Use one of the fol- (b) The supplier of water shall report
lowing confirming techniques: perform sin- to EPA and/or the State the results of
gle point calibration of the GC/MS system the analyses for sodium within the
for confirmation purposes only as long as the first 10 days of the month following the
calibration standard is at a concentration month in which the sample results
within ± 50% of the concentration deter- were received or within the first 10
mined by the initial analysis; or perform a
three (3) point calibration with single point
days following the end of the required
daily calibration verification of the GC/MS monitoring period as stipulated by the
system regardless of whether that State, whichever of these is first. If
verification standard concentration is within more than annual sampling is required
± 50% of sample response. If GC/MS analysis the supplier shall report the average
confirms the initial contaminant detection, sodium concentration within 10 days of
report results determined from the initial the month following the month in
analysis. which the analytical results of the last
(10) Reporting. Report the analytical re-
sults and other data, with the required data
sample used for the annual average was
listed in 40 CFR 141.35, Table 1. Report this received. The supplier of water shall
data electronically to EPA, unless EPA not be required to report the results to
specifies otherwise, and provide a copy to the EPA where the State has adopted this
State. Systems must coordinate with their regulation and results are reported to
laboratories for electronic reporting to EPA the State. The supplier shall report the
to ensure proper formatting and timely data results to EPA where the State has not
submission. adopted this regulation.
(11) Method Defined Quality Control. As
appropriate to the method’s requirements, (c) The supplier of water shall notify
perform analysis of Laboratory Fortified appropriate local and State public
Blanks and Laboratory Performance Checks health officials of the sodium levels by
as specified in the method. Each method written notice by direct mail within

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Environmental Protection Agency § 141.50

three months. A copy of each notice re- (2) [Reserved]


quired to be provided by this paragraph (b) State enforcement—(1) Enforcement
shall be sent to EPA and/or the State of prohibition. The requirements of
within 10 days of its issuance. The sup- paragraph (a)(1) of this section shall be
plier of water is not required to notify enforced in all States effective June 19,
appropriate local and State public 1988. States shall enforce such require-
health officials of the sodium levels ments through State or local plumbing
where the State provides such notices codes, or such other means of enforce-
in lieu of the supplier. ment as the State may determine to be
(d) Analyses for sodium shall be con- appropriate.
ducted as directed in § 141.23(k)(1). (2) [Reserved]
[45 FR 57345, Aug. 27, 1980, as amended at 59 (c) Penalties. If the Administrator de-
FR 62470, Dec. 5, 1994] termines that a State is not enforcing
the requirements of paragraph (a) of
§ 141.42 Special monitoring for this section, as required pursuant to
corrosivity characteristics. paragraph (b) of this section, the Ad-
(a)–(c) [Reserved] ministrator may withhold up to 5 per-
(d) Community water supply systems cent of Federal funds available to that
shall identify whether the following State for State program grants under
construction materials are present in section 1443(a) of the Act.
their distribution system and report to (d) Definition of lead free. For pur-
the State: poses of this section, the term lead
free:
Lead from piping, solder, caulking, interior
lining of distribution mains, alloys and
(1) When used with respect to solders
home plumbing. and flux refers to solders and flux con-
Copper from piping and alloys, service lines, taining not more than 0.2 percent lead;
and home plumbing. (2) When used with respect to pipes
Galvanized piping, service lines, and home and pipe fittings refers to pipes and
plumbing. pipe fittings containing not more than
Ferrous piping materials such as cast iron 8.0 percent lead; and
and steel.
Asbestos cement pipe.
(3) When used with respect to plumb-
ing fittings and fixtures intended by
In addition, States may require identi- the manufacturer to dispense water for
fication and reporting of other mate- human ingestion refers to fittings and
rials of construction present in dis- fixtures that are in compliance with
tribution systems that may contribute standards established in accordance
contaminants to the drinking water, with 42 U.S.C. 300g–6(e).
such as: [52 FR 20674, June 2, 1987, as amended at 65
Vinyl lined asbestos cement pipe. FR 2003, Jan. 12, 2000]
Coal tar lined pipes and tanks.
[45 FR 57346, Aug. 27, 1980; 47 FR 10999, Mar. Subpart F—Maximum Contami-
12, 1982, as amended at 59 FR 62470, Dec. 5, nant Level Goals and Max-
1994]
imum Residual Disinfectant
§ 141.43 Prohibition on use of lead Level Goals
pipes, solder, and flux.
§ 141.50 Maximum contaminant level
(a) In general—(1) Prohibition. Any goals for organic contaminants.
pipe, solder, or flux, which is used after
June 19, 1986, in the installation or re- (a) MCLGs are zero for the following
pair of— contaminants:
(i) Any public water system, or (1) Benzene
(ii) Any plumbing in a residential or (2) Vinyl chloride
nonresidential facility providing water (3) Carbon tetrachloride
for human consumption which is con- (4) 1,2-dichloroethane
nected to a public water system shall (5) Trichloroethylene
be lead free as defined by paragraph (d) (6) Acrylamide
of this section. This paragraph (a)(1) (7) Alachlor
shall not apply to leaded joints nec- (8) Chlordane
essary for the repair of cast iron pipes. (9) Dibromochloropropane

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§ 141.51 40 CFR Ch. I (7–1–03 Edition)

(10) 1,2-Dichloropropane Contaminant MCLG (mg/l)


(11) Epichlorohydrin
Antimony ...................................... 0.006
(12) Ethylene dibromide Arsenic ......................................... zero 1
(13) Heptachlor Asbestos ...................................... 7 Million fibers/liter
(14) Heptachlor epoxide (longer than 10 µm).
(15) Pentachlorophenol Barium ......................................... 2
Beryllium ...................................... .004
(16) Polychlorinated biphenyls
Cadmium ..................................... 0.005
(PCBs) Chromium .................................... 0.1
(17) Tetrachloroethylene Copper ......................................... 1.3
(18) Toxaphene Cyanide (as free Cyanide) .......... .2
(19) Benzo[a]pyrene Fluoride ........................................ 4.0
(20) Dichloromethane (methylene Lead ............................................. zero
Mercury ........................................ 0.002
chloride) Nitrate .......................................... 10 (as Nitrogen).
(21) Di(2-ethylhexyl)phthalate Nitrite ........................................... 1 (as Nitrogen).
(22) Hexachlorobenzene Total Nitrate+Nitrite ..................... 10 (as Nitrogen).
(23) 2,3,7,8-TCDD (Dioxin) Selenium ...................................... 0.05
(b) MCLGs for the following contami- Thallium ....................................... .0005
nants are as indicated: 1 This value for arsenic is effective January 23, 2006. Until
then, there is no MCLG.
MCLG in
Contaminant mg/l
[50 FR 47155, Nov. 14, 1985, as amended at 52
(1) 1,1-Dichloroethylene ........................................ 0.007 FR 20674, June 2, 1987; 56 FR 3593, Jan. 30,
(2) 1,1,1-Trichloroethane ....................................... 0.20 1991; 56 FR 26548, June 7, 1991; 56 FR 30280,
(3) para-Dichlorobenzene ...................................... 0.075 July 1, 1991; 57 FR 31846, July 17, 1992; 60 FR
(4) Aldicarb ............................................................ 0.001 33932, June 29, 1995; 66 FR 7063, Jan. 22, 2001]
(5) Aldicarb sulfoxide ............................................. 0.001
(6) Aldicarb sulfone ............................................... 0.001 § 141.52 Maximum contaminant level
(7) Atrazine ............................................................ 0.003 goals for microbiological contami-
(8) Carbofuran ....................................................... 0.04
nants.
(9) o-Dichlorobenzene ........................................... 0.6
(10) cis-1,2-Dichloroethylene ................................. 0.07 MCLGs for the following contami-
(11) trans-1,2-Dichloroethylene ............................. 0.1
nants are as indicated:
(12) 2,4-D .............................................................. 0.07
(13) Ethylbenzene ................................................. 0.7
Contaminant MCLG
(14) Lindane .......................................................... 0.0002
(15) Methoxychlor .................................................. 0.04
(1) Giardia lamblia ........................................ zero
(16) Monochlorobenzene ....................................... 0.1
(2) Viruses .................................................... zero
(17) Styrene ........................................................... 0.1
(18) Toluene .......................................................... 1 (3) Legionella ................................................ zero
(19) 2,4,5-TP ......................................................... 0.05 (4) Total coliforms (including fecal coliforms zero.
(20) Xylenes (total) ................................................ 10 and Escherichia coli).
(21) Dalapon .......................................................... 0.2 (5) Cryptosporidium ...................................... zero.
(22) Di(2-ethylhexyl)adipate .................................. .4
(23) Dinoseb .......................................................... .007
(24) Diquat ............................................................. .02 [54 FR 27527, 27566, June 29, 1989; 55 FR 25064,
(25) Endothall ........................................................ .1 June 19, 1990; 63 FR 69515, Dec. 16, 1998]
(26) Endrin ............................................................. .002
(27) Glyphosate ..................................................... .7 § 141.53 Maximum contaminant level
(28) Hexachlorocyclopentadiene ........................... .05 goals for disinfection byproducts.
(29) Oxamyl (Vydate) ............................................ .2
(30) Picloram ......................................................... .5 MCLGs for the following disinfection
(31) Simazine ........................................................ .004 byproducts are as indicated:
(32) 1,2,4-Trichlorobenzene .................................. .07
(33) 1,1,2-Trichloroethane ..................................... .003 MCLG
Disinfection byproduct (mg/L)

[50 FR 46901, Nov. 13, 1985, as amended at 52 Bromodichloromethane ............................................ Zero


FR 20674, June 2, 1987; 52 FR 25716, July 8, Bromoform ............................................................... Zero
1987; 56 FR 3592, Jan. 30, 1991; 56 FR 30280, Bromate ................................................................... Zero
July 1, 1991; 57 FR 31846, July 17, 1992] Dichloroacetic acid .................................................. Zero
Trichloroacetic acid .................................................. 0.3
§ 141.51 Maximum contaminant level Chlorite .................................................................... 0.8
goals for inorganic contaminants. Dibromochloromethane ........................................... 0.06
(a) [Reserved]
(b) MCLGs for the following contami- [63 FR 69465, Dec. 16, 1998, as amended at 65
nants are as indicated: FR 34405, May 30, 2000]

434

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Environmental Protection Agency § 141.61

§ 141.54 Maximum residual disinfect- and Maximum Residual Disinfectant Lev-


ant level goals for disinfectants. els’’, effective Dec. 8, 2003.
MRDLGs for disinfectants are as fol- § 141.60 Effective dates.
lows:
(a) The effective dates for § 141.61 are
Disinfectant residual MRDLG(mg/L) as follows:
(1) The effective date for paragraphs
Chlorine ................................................ 4 (as Cl 2).
Chloramines ......................................... 4 (as Cl 2). (a)(1) through (a)(8) of § 141.61 is Janu-
Chlorine dioxide ................................... 0.8 (as ClO2) ary 9, 1989.
(2) The effective date for paragraphs
[63 FR 69465, Dec. 16, 1998] (a)(9) through (a)(18) and (c)(1) through
(c)(18) of § 141.61 is July 30, 1992.
§ 141.55 Maximum contaminant level (3) The effective date for paragraphs
goals for radionuclides. (a)(19) through (a)(21), (c)(19) through
MCLGs for radionuclides are as indi- (c)(25), and (c)(27) through (c)(33) of
cated in the following table: § 141.61 is January 17, 1994. The effective
date of § 141.61(c)(26) is August 17, 1992.
Contaminant MCLG
(b) The effective dates for § 141.62 are
1. Combined radium-226 and radium-228 .............. Zero. as follows:
2. Gross alpha particle activity (excluding radon Zero. (1) The effective date of paragraph
and uranium). (b)(1) of § 141.62 is October 2, 1987.
3. Beta particle and photon radioactivity ................ Zero.
4. Uranium ............................................................... Zero. (2) The effective date for paragraphs
(b)(2) and (b)(4) through (b)(10) of
§ 141.62 is July 30, 1992.
[65 FR 76748, Dec. 7, 2000]
(3) The effective date for paragraphs
EFFECTIVE DATE NOTE: At 65 FR 76748, Dec. (b)(11) through (b)(15) of § 141.62 is Janu-
7, 2000, § 141.55 was added, effective Dec. 8, ary 17, 1994.
2003.
(4) The effective date for § 141.62(b)(16)
is January 23, 2006.
Subpart G—National Revised Pri-
[56 FR 3593, Jan. 30, 1991, as amended at 57
mary Drinking Water Regula- FR 31846, July 17, 1992; 59 FR 34324, July 1,
tions: Maximum Contaminant 1994; 66FR 7063, Jan. 22, 2001]
Levels and Maximum Residual
Disinfectant Levels § 141.61 Maximum contaminant levels
for organic contaminants.
EFFECTIVE DATE NOTE: At 65 FR 76748, Dec. (a) The following maximum contami-
7, 2000, the heading of subpart G was revised nant levels for organic contaminants
to read ‘‘National Primary Drinking Water apply to community and non-transient,
Regulations: Maximum Contaminant Levels non-community water systems.
CAS No. Contaminant MCL (mg/l)

(1) 75–01–4 ............................................................ Vinyl chloride ............................................................. 0.002


(2) 71–43–2 ............................................................ Benzene .................................................................... 0.005
(3) 56–23–5 ............................................................ Carbon tetrachloride .................................................. 0.005
(4) 107–06–2 .......................................................... 1,2-Dichloroethane .................................................... 0.005
(5) 79–01–6 ............................................................ Trichloroethylene ....................................................... 0.005
(6) 106–46–7 .......................................................... para-Dichlorobenzene ............................................... 0.075
(7) 75–35–4 ............................................................ 1,1-Dichloroethylene .................................................. 0.007
(8) 71–55–6 ............................................................ 1,1,1-Trichloroethane ................................................ 0.2
(9) 156–59–2 .......................................................... cis-1,2-Dichloroethylene ............................................ 0.07
(10) 78–87–5 .......................................................... 1,2-Dichloropropane .................................................. 0.005
(11) 100–41–4 ........................................................ Ethylbenzene ............................................................. 0.7
(12) 108–90–7 ........................................................ Monochlorobenzene .................................................. 0.1
(13) 95–50–1 .......................................................... o-Dichlorobenzene .................................................... 0.6
(14) 100–42–5 ........................................................ Styrene ...................................................................... 0.1
(15) 127–18–4 ........................................................ Tetrachloroethylene ................................................... 0.005
(16) 108–88–3 ........................................................ Toluene ...................................................................... 1
(17) 156–60–5 ........................................................ trans-1,2-Dichloroethylene ........................................ 0.1
(18) 1330–20–7 ...................................................... Xylenes (total) ........................................................... 10
(19) 75–09–2 .......................................................... Dichloromethane ....................................................... 0.005
(20) 120–82–1 ........................................................ 1,2,4-Trichloro- benzene ........................................... .07
(21) 79–00–5 .......................................................... 1,1,2-Trichloro- ethane .............................................. .005

435

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§ 141.61 40 CFR Ch. I (7–1–03 Edition)

(b) The Administrator, pursuant to ment technique, or other means avail-


section 1412 of the Act, hereby identi- able for achieving compliance with the
fies as indicated in the Table below maximum contaminant level for or-
granular activated carbon (GAC), ganic contaminants identified in para-
packed tower aeration (PTA), or oxida- graphs (a) and (c) of this section:
tion (OX) as the best technology treat-
BAT FOR ORGANIC CONTAMINANTS LISTED IN § 141.61 (a) AND (c)
CAS No. Contaminant GAC PTA OX

15972–60–8 .................................... Alachlor .............................................................................. X .............. ..............


116–06–3 ........................................ Aldicarb .............................................................................. X .............. ..............
1646–88–4 ...................................... Aldicarb sulfone ................................................................. X .............. ..............
1646–87–3 ...................................... Aldicarb sulfoxide .............................................................. X .............. ..............
1912–24–9 ...................................... Atrazine ............................................................................. X .............. ..............
71–43–2 .......................................... Benzene ............................................................................ X X ..............
50–32–8 .......................................... Benzo[a]pyrene ................................................................. X .............. ..............
1563–66–2 ...................................... Carbofuran ......................................................................... X .............. ..............
56–23–5 .......................................... Carbon tetrachloride .......................................................... X X ..............
57–74–9 .......................................... Chlordane .......................................................................... X .............. ..............
75–99–0 .......................................... Dalapon ............................................................................. X .............. ..............
94–75–7 .......................................... 2,4-D .................................................................................. X .............. ..............
103–23–1 ........................................ Di (2-ethylhexyl) adipate ................................................... X X ..............
117–81–7 ........................................ Di (2-ethylhexyl) phthalate ................................................ X .............. ..............
96–12–8 .......................................... Dibromochloropropane (DBCP) ........................................ X X ..............
95–50–1 .......................................... o-Dichlorobenzene ............................................................ X X ..............
106–46–7 ........................................ para-Dichlorobenzene ....................................................... X X ..............
107–06–2 ........................................ 1,2-Dichloroethane ............................................................ X X ..............
75–35–4 .......................................... 1,1-Dichloroethylene .......................................................... X X ..............
156–59–2 ........................................ cis-1,2-Dichloroethylene .................................................... X X ..............
156–60–5 ........................................ trans-1,2-Dichloroethylene ................................................ X X ..............
75–09–2 .......................................... Dichloromethane ............................................................... .............. X ..............
78–87–5 .......................................... 1,2-Dichloropropane .......................................................... X X ..............
88–85–7 .......................................... Dinoseb ............................................................................. X .............. ..............
85–00–7 .......................................... Diquat ................................................................................ X .............. ..............
145–73–3 ........................................ Endothall ............................................................................ X .............. ..............
72–20–8 .......................................... Endrin ................................................................................ X .............. ..............
100–41–4 ........................................ Ethylbenzene ..................................................................... X X ..............
106–93–4 ........................................ Ethylene Dibromide (EDB) ................................................ X X ..............
1071–83–6 ...................................... Gylphosate ........................................................................ .............. .............. X
76–44–8 .......................................... Heptachlor ......................................................................... X .............. ..............
1024–57–3 ...................................... Heptachlor epoxide ........................................................... X .............. ..............
118–74–1 ........................................ Hexachlorobenzene ........................................................... X .............. ..............
77–47–3 .......................................... Hexachlorocyclopentadiene .............................................. X X ..............
58–89–9 .......................................... Lindane .............................................................................. X .............. ..............
72–43–5 .......................................... Methoxychlor ..................................................................... X .............. ..............
108–90–7 ........................................ Monochlorobenzene .......................................................... X X ..............
23135–22–0 .................................... Oxamyl (Vydate) ................................................................ X .............. ..............
87–86–5 .......................................... Pentachlorophenol ............................................................. X .............. ..............
1918–02–1 ...................................... Picloram ............................................................................. X .............. ..............
1336–36–3 ...................................... Polychlorinated biphenyls (PCB) ....................................... X .............. ..............
122–34–9 ........................................ Simazine ............................................................................ X .............. ..............
100–42–5 ........................................ Styrene .............................................................................. X X ..............
1746–01–6 ...................................... 2,3,7,8-TCDD (Dioxin) ....................................................... X .............. ..............
127–18–4 ........................................ Tetrachloroethylene ........................................................... X X ..............
108–88–3 ........................................ Toluene .............................................................................. X X ..............
8001–35–2 ...................................... Toxaphene ......................................................................... X .............. ..............
93–72–1 .......................................... 2,4,5-TP (Silvex) ................................................................ X .............. ..............
120–82–1 ........................................ 1,2,4-Trichlorobenzene ...................................................... X X ..............
71–55–6 .......................................... 1,1,1-Trichloroethane ........................................................ X X ..............
79–00–5 .......................................... 1,1,2-Trichloroethane ........................................................ X X ..............
79–01–6 .......................................... Trichloroethylene ............................................................... X X ..............
75–01–4 .......................................... Vinyl chloride ..................................................................... .............. X ..............
1330–20–7 ...................................... Xylene ................................................................................ X X ..............

(c) The following maximum contami- systems and non-transient, non-com-


nant levels for synthetic organic con- munity water systems:
taminants apply to community water

436

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Environmental Protection Agency § 141.62

CAS No. Contaminant MCL (mg/l)

(1) 15972–60–8 ...................................................... Alachlor ...................................................................... 0.002


(2) 116–06–3 ........................................................... Aldicarb ...................................................................... 0.003
(3) 1646–87–3 ......................................................... Aldicarb sulfoxide ...................................................... 0.004
(4) 1646–87–4 ......................................................... Aldicarb sulfone ......................................................... 0.002
(5) 1912–24–9 ........................................................ Atrazine ..................................................................... 0.003
(6) 1563–66–2 ........................................................ Carbofuran ................................................................. 0.04
(7) 57–74–9 ............................................................ Chlordane .................................................................. 0.002
(8) 96–12–8 ............................................................ Dibromochloropropane .............................................. 0.0002
(9) 94–75–7 ............................................................ 2,4-D .......................................................................... 0.07
(10) 106–93–4 .......................................................... Ethylene dibromide .................................................... 0.00005
(11) 76–44–8 ............................................................ Heptachlor ................................................................. 0.0004
(12) 1024–57–3 ........................................................ Heptachlor epoxide ................................................... 0.0002
(13) 58–89–9 ............................................................ Lindane ...................................................................... 0.0002
(14) 72–43–5 ............................................................ Methoxychlor ............................................................. 0.04
(15) 1336–36–3 ........................................................ Polychlorinated biphenyls .......................................... 0.0005
(16) 87–86–5 ............................................................ Pentachlorophenol ..................................................... 0.001
(17) 8001–35–2 ........................................................ Toxaphene ................................................................. 0.003
(18) 93–72–1 ............................................................ 2,4,5-TP ..................................................................... 0.05
(19) 50–32–8 ............................................................ Benzo[a]pyrene ......................................................... 0.0002
(20) 75–99–0 ............................................................ Dalapon ..................................................................... 0.2
(21) 103–23–1 .......................................................... Di(2-ethylhexyl) adipate ............................................. 0.4
(22) 117–81–7 .......................................................... Di(2-ethylhexyl) phthalate .......................................... 0.006
(23) 88–85–7 ............................................................ Dinoseb ..................................................................... 0.007
(24) 85–00–7 ............................................................ Diquat ........................................................................ 0.02
(25) 145–73–3 .......................................................... Endothall .................................................................... 0.1
(26) 72–20–8 ............................................................ Endrin ........................................................................ 0.002
(27) 1071–53–6 ........................................................ Glyphosate ................................................................ 0.7
(28) 118–74–1 .......................................................... Hexacholorbenzene ................................................... 0.001
(29) 77–47–4 ............................................................ Hexachlorocyclopentadiene ...................................... 0.05
(30) 23135–22–0 ...................................................... Oxamyl (Vydate) ........................................................ 0.2
(31) 1918–02–1 ........................................................ Picloram ..................................................................... 0.5
(32) 122–34–9 .......................................................... Simazine .................................................................... 0.004
(33) 1746–01–6 ........................................................ 2,3,7,8-TCDD (Dioxin) ............................................... 3×10¥8

[56 FR 3593, Jan. 30, 1991, as amended at 56 FR 30280, July 1, 1991; 57 FR 31846, July 17, 1992;
59 FR 34324, July 1, 1994]

§ 141.62 Maximum contaminant levels Contaminant MCL (mg/l)


for inorganic contaminants.
(8) Nitrite ................................ 1 (as Nitrogen)
(a) [Reserved] (9) Total Nitrate and Nitrite .... 10 (as Nitrogen)
(b) The maximum contaminant levels (10) Selenium ........................ 0.05
(11) Antimony ........................ 0.006
for inorganic contaminants specified in (12) Beryllium ........................ 0.004
paragraphs (b) (2)–(6), (b)(10), and (b) (13) Cyanide (as free Cya- 0.2
(11)–(16) of this section apply to com- nide).
(14) [Reserved] ......................
munity water systems and non-tran- (15) Thallium .......................... 0.002
sient, non-community water systems. (16) Arsenic ........................... 0.010
The maximum contaminant level spec-
ified in paragraph (b)(1) of this section (c) The Administrator, pursuant to
only applies to community water sys- section 1412 of the Act, hereby identi-
tems. The maximum contaminant lev- fies the following as the best tech-
els specified in (b)(7), (b)(8), and (b)(9) nology, treatment technique, or other
of this section apply to community means available for achieving compli-
water systems; non-transient, non- ance with the maximum contaminant
community water systems; and tran- levels for inorganic contaminants iden-
sient non-community water systems. tified in paragraph (b) of this section,
except fluoride:
Contaminant MCL (mg/l)

(1) Fluoride ............................ 4.0 BAT FOR INORGANIC COMPOUNDS


(2) Asbestos .......................... 7 Million Fibers/liter (longer LISTED IN SECTION 141.62(B)
than 10 µm).
(3) Barium .............................. 2 Chemical Name BAT(s)
(4) Cadmium .......................... 0.005
(5) Chromium ......................... 0.1 Antimony ........................................................ 2,7
(6) Mercury ............................ 0.002 Arsenic 4 ......................................................... 1, 2, 5, 6, 7, 9,
(7) Nitrate ............................... 10 (as Nitrogen) 12 5

437

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§ 141.63 40 CFR Ch. I (7–1–03 Edition)

BAT FOR INORGANIC COMPOUNDS SMALL SYSTEM COMPLIANCE TECHNOLOGIES


LISTED IN SECTION 141.62(B) (SSCTS) 1 FOR ARSENIC 2—Continued
Chemical Name BAT(s) Small system compliance Affordable for listed small
technology system categories 3
Asbestos ........................................................ 2,3,8
Barium ........................................................... 5,6,7,9 Oxidation/Filtration 7 ............... All size categories.
Beryllium ........................................................ 1,2,5,6,7 Reverse Osmosis (central- 501–3,300, 3,301–10,000.
Cadmium ....................................................... 2,5,6,7 ized) 6.
Chromium ...................................................... 2,5,6 2,7 Reverse Osmosis (Point-of- All size categories.
Cyanide .......................................................... 5,7,10 Use) 4.
Mercury .......................................................... 2 1,4,6 1,7 1 1 Section 1412(b)(4)(E)(ii) of SDWA specifies that SSCTs
Nickel ............................................................. 5,6,7 must be affordable and technically feasible for small systems.
Nitrate ............................................................ 5,7,9 2 SSCTs for Arsenic V. Pre-oxidation may be required to
Nitrite ............................................................. 5,7 convert Arsenic III to Arsenic V.
3 3 The Act (ibid.) specifies three categories of small systems:
Selenium ........................................................ 1,2 ,6,7,9
Thallium ......................................................... 1,5 (i) those serving 25 or more, but fewer than 501, (ii) those
serving more than 500, but fewer than 3,301, and (iii) those
1 BAT only if influent Hg concentrations ≤10µg/1. serving more than 3,300, but fewer than 10,001.
2 BAT 4 When POU or POE devices are used for compliance, pro-
for Chromium III only.
3 BAT for Selenium IV only. grams to ensure proper long-term operation, maintenance,
4 BATs for Arsenic V. Pre-oxidation may be required to con- and monitoring must be provided by the water system to en-
vert Arsenic III to Arsenic V. sure adequate performance.
5 To obtain high removals, iron to arsenic ratio must be at 5 Unlikely to be installed solely for arsenic removal. May re-

least 20:1. quire pH adjustment to optimal range if high removals are


needed.
6 Technologies reject a large volume of water—may not be
Key to BATS in Table appropriate for areas where water quantity may be an issue.
7 To obtain high removals, iron to arsenic ratio must be at

1=Activated Alumina least 20:1.


2 = Coagulation/Filtration (not BAT for sys-
tems < 500 service connections) [56 FR 3594, Jan. 30, 1991, as amended at 56
2=Coagulation/Filtration FR 30280, July 1, 1991; 57 FR 31847, July 17,
3=Direct and Diatomite Filtration 1992; 59 FR 34325, July 1, 1994; 60 FR 33932,
4=Granular Activated Carbon June 29, 1995; 66 FR 7063, Jan. 22, 2001; 68 FR
5=Ion Exchange 14506, Mar. 25, 2003]
6 = Lime Softening (not BAT for systems <
500 service connections) § 141.63 Maximum contaminant levels
7=Reverse Osmosis (MCLs) for microbiological contami-
8=Corrosion Control nants.
9=Electrodialysis (a) The MCL is based on the presence
10=Chlorine
11=Ultraviolet
or absence of total coliforms in a sam-
12 = Oxid