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PIPENET VISION

TRAINING MANUAL
TRANSIENT MODULE

CHAPTER 2

TANKER LOADING SYSTEM

Revision 2.3, February 2016


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1. INTRODUCTION....................................................................................................................................... 2
2. DESIGN TIPS AND TECHNIQUES .......................................................................................................... 2
2.1 PROBLEMS WITH THE W ATER HAMMER .................................................................................................... 2
2.2 GRE PIPES ............................................................................................................................................ 2
2.3 EXAMPLE ................................................................................................................................................ 3
3. HOW TO MODEL LOADING SYSTEMS ................................................................................................. 5
3.1 SURGE ANALYSIS OBJECTIVE .................................................................................................................. 5
3.2 TYPICAL SCREEN SHOTS ......................................................................................................................... 6
3.3 W HY THESE SIMULATIONS ARE IMPORTANT .............................................................................................. 7
3.4 W HY FORCES ARE IMPORTANT ................................................................................................................ 8
4. THE SIMULATIONS IN DETAIL .............................................................................................................. 8
4.2 VALVE DATA ......................................................................................................................................... 15
4.3 PUMP PERFORMANCE CURVE ................................................................................................................ 17
4.4 THE NETWORK...................................................................................................................................... 18
4.5 FORCE CALCULATION ............................................................................................................................ 23
4.6 TABULAR RESULTS FOR THE NON-RETURN VALVE .................................................................................. 27
5. CALCULATIONS BASED ON VARIOUS SCENARIOS........................................................................ 28
5.1 SCENARIO 1: THE BASE CASE – THE SYSTEM WITH NO PROTECTION ....................................................... 29
3
5.2 SCENARIO 2.1: SURGE RELIEF VALVE W ITH 𝑪𝒗 = 200 (M /HR, BAR) ....................................................... 30
3
5.3 SCENARIO 2.2: SURGE RELIEF VALVE W ITH 𝑪𝒗 = 100 (M /HR, BAR) ........................................................ 32
3
5.4 SCENARIO 2.3: SURGE RELIEF VALVE W ITH 𝑪𝒗 = 50 (M /HR, BAR) ......................................................... 33
3
5.5 SCENARIO 2.4: SURGE RELIEF VALVE W ITH 𝑪𝒗 = 10 (M /HR, BAR) .......................................................... 35
5.6 SCENARIO 2.5: SURGE RELIEF VALVE W ITH 𝑪𝒗 = 200 (M3/HR, BAR) POSITIONED AT INLET ...................... 36
5.7 SCENARIO 3.1: ACCUMULATOR W ITH DIAMETER = 1 M, LENGTH = 20 M ................................................... 38
5.8 SCENARIO 3.2: ACCUMULATOR W ITH DIAMETER = 0.5 M, LENGTH = 10 M ................................................ 39
5.9 SCENARIO 4.1: TWO-STAGE VALVE CLOSURE TYPE 1 ............................................................................. 41
5.10 SCENARIO 4.2: TWO-STAGE VALVE CLOSURE TYPE 2 ........................................................................ 43
6. CONCLUSIONS ON THE SIMULATIONS ............................................................................................. 44
7. PIPENET VISION TRANSIENT MODULE AND PIPE STRESS ANALYSIS ........................................ 45
8. THE SCENARIOS................................................................................................................................... 45
8.1 PLANNED SHUTDOWN ........................................................................................................................... 45
8.2 EMERGENCY SHUTDOWN ...................................................................................................................... 46
9. THE DATA .............................................................................................................................................. 46
9.1 VALVE CLOSURE ................................................................................................................................... 46
9.2 UNITS ................................................................................................................................................... 47
9.3 PIPE DATA ............................................................................................................................................ 47
9.4 FLUID PROPERTIES ............................................................................................................................... 48
9.5 VALVE CHARACTERISTICS ..................................................................................................................... 49
9.6 PUMP DATA .......................................................................................................................................... 49
9.7 SPECIFICATIONS ................................................................................................................................... 49
10. FORCE CALCULATIONS ...................................................................................................................... 51
10.1 UNBALANCED DYNAMIC FORCES ON SECTIONS OF STRAIGHT PIPE ..................................................... 51
10.2 TWO STAGES PLANNED SHUTDOWN: UNBALANCED FORCES ON A PIPE SEGMENT ............................... 56
10.3 EMERGENCY SHUTDOWN: UNBALANCED FORCES ON A PIPE SEGMENT ............................................... 59
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1. Introduction

The modelling of loading systems is a major application for PIPENET VISION Transient
Module. Loading systems are often susceptible to suffer from pressure-surge problems.
Furthermore, as such systems are usually located near the sea, a leak of hydrocarbon
material could potentially lead to an environmental disaster.

Loading systems normally have two valves, which can be the source of problems. The
normal shut-off valve (NSV) operates on a daily basis, as tankers need to be loaded or
unloaded. Another valve, namely the Emergency Relief Coupling (ERC) valve, is also of
interest. This valve operates when the system needs to be shut down in an emergency,
such as a storm. This valve (which is usually located at the end of the jetty) is designed to
close quickly and disconnect the hose that leads to the ship.

The closure of both the NSV and the ERC valve need to be considered when designing a
network. The operation of the NSV is important because it operates on a daily basis. So,
even if the maximum pressure is acceptable, the valve could progressively weaken the
connections, and so the system could begin to leak.

The operation of the ERC valve needs to be considered as it is a fast acting valve, and it is
not possible to exercise any control over its closure time. Although this valve might never
operate, it can potentially generate a greater pressure surge than an NSV.

2. Design Tips and Techniques

2.1 Problems with the Water Hammer

If the hydraulic forces due to the water hammer are large enough, the following problems
may arise:

 Pipe rupture.
 Pipe movement.
 Pipe support damage.
 Leakage.

Another reason for studying hydraulic forces is the increasing popularity of using a glass
reinforced epoxy pipe (or GRE pipe).

2.2 GRE Pipes

The advantages of a GRE pipe are as follows:

 It is highly resistant to corrosion.


 It has excellent flow characteristics.
 It has 25 years of service life.
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 It requires lower maintenance and has a lower replacement cost.

However, the GRE pipe has the following disadvantages:

 Its modulus of elasticity about 10% of that for steel.


 It has a shorter support span.
 It is joined to other GRE pipes using an adhesive, and the adhesive joint is weak.

Another aspect of the GRP (or Glassfiber Reinforced Plastic) material, which is of crucial
importance under water-hammer conditions, is the following. The water hammer is usually
manifested in the form of oscillations in the pressure. Let us consider a flange joined to a
pipe by an adhesive joint. If the pipe experiences oscillations in the pressure, there will be
a tendency for relative movement between the pipe and the flange. The reason is
because the pipe is made of a thinner material, and so is more flexible. If oscillations
occur over a period of time, it is likely that the joint will weaken, and, in extreme cases, the
pipe and flange may even come apart.

This point should not be interpreted as a criticism of the GRP material, as the
opposite is true. The beneficial aspects of GRP can be harnessed if we perform a
surge analysis, and eliminate the potential problems associated with GRP.

2.3 Example

There was a relevant case in which PIPENET VISION Transient Module was used
recently. The deciding factor, in this case, was the degree of pressure oscillations that the
system was experiencing, rather than the maximum pressure. The engineers wanted to
keep the pressure swings below 1 bar. From the graphs below, it can be seen that the
pressure swing was well below 1 bar when the valve-closure time was 240 seconds.
However, with a closure time of 60 seconds, the swing was around 3.5 bar, which is very
high, particularly as the normal working pressure is around 4.6. bar. Therefore, the valve
needed to close in 240 seconds.

Please note that the following graphs were not obtained using the most recent version of
the PIPENET VISION Graph Viewer.
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Thus, it is important to understand and predict pressure surges, and determine how to
minimize them effectively. Several factors can contribute to water hammer such as:

 Improperly sized piping in relation to water flow velocity.


 High water pressure with no pressure-reducing valve.
 Straight runs that are too long (and so require bends).
 There is no dampening system in place to reduce or absorb shockwaves.
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3. How to Model Loading Systems

Figure 1: A picture of a tanker being loaded.

In this example, we shall study the design of a product export pipeline, from Product
Storage Tanks in a petrochemical plant to a Jetty into loading tankers. The environmental
implications were of major concern in the design, as leakage of the product into the sea
could have serious consequences. An important aspect of the design was to ensure that
pressure surges arising from the closure of valves would not cause damage to the pipe
work (resulting in product spillage).

The basic network is shown below.

The main pipeline is about 6 km long, and consists of 10 inch steel pipe. The shut off valve
(SOV) closes when the tanker is full. In the system, there is also an emergency relieve
coupling (ERC) valve at the end of the jetty. In an emergency, such as a storm, the ERC
valve will close very quickly, and the coupling to the tanker will be disconnected.

3.1 Surge Analysis Objective

The objectives of the study are as follows:

 To establish whether the pressure surges experienced by the existing valves (due
to valve closures) are below the allowable limit.
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 To study alternative strategies for reducing the pressure surge:


1. The effect of the accumulator size in reducing the surge pressure.
2. The optimal selection of a surge relief valve.
3. Alternative valve-closure strategies.

The ability of the PIPENET VISION Transient Module to effectively model alternative
strategies is one of the main reasons why it is used for this installation.

3.2 Typical Screen Shots

We shall look at the simulation techniques in detail later in this document. In this section,
we look at some sample screen shots and graphical output.

3.2.1 Pump – user defined


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3.2.2 NSV [Normal Shut-off valve] – user defined

The ERC valve is closed during an emergency, such as a storm, during which the ship will
move up and down. If the connection between the jetty and the ship is not closed, the
hydrocarbon will almost certainly spill into the sea. During this time, the ERC valve will
close very quickly, and the coupling to the ship will be disconnected.

In the scenarios considered in this chapter, only the closure of the normal shutoff valve is
considered.

3.3 Why These Simulations are Important

This is an every day occurrence affected by the closure of the shutdown valve by a local
manual switch or from the control room.

As the NSV operates every day, a pressure surge would progressively weaken the piping
system, which could begin to leak at weak points. It is very important, therefore, to ensure
that the pressure surge in the pipeline of the jetty loading system is below the operating
range.
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An ERC valve, which cannot be controlled, may rarely operate, or indeed may never
operate. However, if it does operate, it is capable of producing a greater pressure surge
than the NSV.

3.4 Why Forces are Important

Unbalanced forces of the type normally created by pressure-surge phenomena are


particularly dangerous. Indeed, pipes generally become damaged due to unbalanced
hydraulic forces, rather than large pressures on their own. For example, in an elbow pair,
as the pressure takes a finite time to travel between each elbow, there can be large
unbalanced forces between the elbows. Furthermore, as the pressure wave travels
between the elbow pair, the unbalanced force can exhibit cyclical variation in both direction
and magnitude. This is the main reason why it is dangerous.

The interface between the PIPENET VISION Transient Module and pipe stress analysis
programs is particularly important. Owing to the rapid variation in the force, the force-time
history needs to be represented using a large number of points in time. It may also be
necessary to consider more than one elbow pair in the pipe stress analysis. It would be
prohibitively time consuming to input the force-time history into a pipe stress analysis
program. The interface between the Transient Module and pipe stress analysis programs
is, therefore particularly, important.

4. The Simulations in Detail

The initial network that will be used is depicted in the diagram below.

For illustrative purposes only, the table below contains the piping data. Later, we shall
input this data. At this point, we just note that the length of the piping system is around 6
km.

Pipe label Nominal size, mm Length, m Elevation, m Fittings, K-factor


1 250 5697.33 1.45 197
2 250 150 0 0
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4.1 Initialization Stage

Enter the following options (via Options | Module options).


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The following units are to be used in the model.

Variable Unit
Length metres
Diameter mm
Velocity m/sec
Temperature Celsius
Density kg/m3
Viscosity cP
Time seconds
Mass kg
Mass rate kg/s
Torque Nm
Inertia kg m2
Force N
Volume litres
Surface Tension N/m
Thermal Conductivity W/(m K)
Heat Capacity J/kg K
Young’s Modulus G Pa
Pressure Bar Gauge
Flow type Volumetric
Flow rate m3/hr

Input these units into the Transient Module using the following dialog box (which is
obtained from Options | Units, with “User defined” selected). Note that, to see the flow-
rate units, double-click on “Flow type”.
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The lube oil that is being pumped has the following properties.

Density = 867 kg/m3

Viscosity = 33.8 Cp

Bulk modulus = 1.230025 GPa


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Enter these properties (via the Fluid Tab).

The vapour pressure is used only in the modelling of cavity separation. Since it is
expected that the scenarios to be studied will not exhibit cavitation, the value for the
vapour pressure has not been input accurately.
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The pipe schedule to be used is ANSI B3610_S. The dialog box below illustrates how to
select it.
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Choose the following display options (from the Display Tab).


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4.2 Valve Data

In PIPENET VISION, there are two aspects to the way that valves are modelled; namely,
the characteristic and the operation.

4.2.1 Valve Characteristic

The valve characteristic represents the inherent properties of the valve. It defines the
manner in which the coefficient Cv of the valve changes with its position. For example, the
valve characteristic for a ball valve is quite different from that for a gate valve. The valve
characteristic is not usually under the control of the user, and so is an ideal candidate for
storing in a library.

4.2.2 Valve Operation

This aspect defines the actual valve operation, which is often one of the parameters that
the user is interested in studying. The valve operation, which is input as a specification, is
considered later in this document.

4.2.3 Valve Data Used in the Model

In this section, we define the valve characteristic according to the following table. Note
that, if the units for the known 𝐶𝑣 values are not the same as the model units (as specified
in Options | Units), the user can temporarily change the appropriate model units to be the
required 𝐶𝑣 units (in Options | Units), enter the known 𝐶𝑣 values in the valve library, then
change the model units back again (in Options | Units).

Valve position (s) 𝑪𝒗 (m3/hr, Bar1/2)


0 0
0.1 4.619708
0.2 29.932931
0.3 70.939274
0.4 124.576158
0.5 192.920061
0.7 383.244525
1 780.332237

From Libraries | Valves, enter the above data in the dialog box, but leave the d𝐶𝑣 /d𝑠
column blank.
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After all of the data has been entered, click on the Linear Button to generate the gradients
(i.e., d𝐶𝑣 /d𝑠 values).
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4.3 Pump Performance Curve


The data for the pump that is to be used in the model is shown in the following table.

Flowrate, m3/hr Head, Kg/cm2


0 12.39
100 11.706
240 11.023
320 9.371

The minimum and maximum flow rates are 0 m 3/hr and 320 m3/hr respectively. All of this
data can be entered into a library as follows.

After the data has been entered, a performance curve is displayed.


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4.4 The Network


Enter the following network into the PIPENET VISION Transient Module.

Note that, when a network is entered in PIPENET VISION, the numbers of the individual
elements (pipes, valves, pumps, etc.) are generated automatically. Therefore, in order to
obtain the numbering shown in this example, it might be necessary to change the labels
manually (by selecting each element in turn, and editing the label field in the Properties
Window).

4.4.1 Pipe Data


Use the following data for the two pipes in the network.
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Pipe Nominal Diameter, Length, Elevation, Additional


label mm m m K-factor
3 250 5697.33 1.45 197
5 250 150 0 0

Once the pipe data has been entered, it can be viewed in a data window (View | Data
window). Note that the data for other components can be viewed using the pull-down
menu next to “Browse”.

In the above table, the additional K-factor for Pipe 3 is used to represent the bends in the
pipe, together with additional effects of the valves. As Pipe 5 has no bends and is
relatively short, there is no additional K-factor for this pipe.

4.4.2 Valve Data

For each of the two valves, select the valve type to be “HV-5002 – Cv”, which was created
earlier. The Properties Page for the ERC valve is as follows.

The corresponding page for the shut-off valve is similar (as the two valves are of the same
type).

4.4.3 Specifications

In PIPENET VISION, specifications are the operating conditions or boundary conditions


that are supplied by the user.

In the Transient Module, specifications are functions of time. PIPENET VISION offers a
choice of functions that are available for specifications, and these functions are shown in
the diagram below. The most commonly used of these functions are Constant, Power
Ramp and Linear Profile.
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In the Transient Module, every terminal node must have exactly one specification. This
rule applies to information nodes as well as flow nodes. If an information node is
connected to a control loop, the node must not have a specification; however, if it is not
connected to anything other than the item to which it belongs, it must have a specification.

In order to enter a specification, select the node (by clicking on it) and enter the required
information. A sample dialog box is shown below.

The network representing the loading system under consideration has five terminal nodes
(namely, three information nodes and two flow nodes), so it is necessary to supply five
specifications.

Three information specifications are given to the three information nodes. The meaning of
the information specification depends on the particular item. For a pump, the information
represents the pump speed; for a valve, the information represents the valve position.

Care must be taken when giving specifications to flow nodes. It is very unusual to have
flow-rate specifications in the Transient Module. By definition, the flow rate changes
during a transient phenomenon. Usually, it is not known how the flowrate changes, and
we want PIPENET to calculate this change. The general exception to specifying flow rates
is that of a zero flow rate, which is placed at dead ends in the system. Pressure, on the
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other hand, is usually known, and is often a fixed value. Therefore, caution must be
exercised before entering a flow specification.

In the network, specify a constant pressure of 1.71 Bar G at the inlet to the pump (Node 1),
and a pressure of 0 Bar G at Node 9.

At the information nodes for the pump (Node i/1) and ERC valve (Node i/3), set a constant
value of one; at the information node for the shut-off valve (Node i/2), choose a power
ramp. These specifications are illustrated below.
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4.5 Force Calculation

The most common force that is calculated in PIPENET VISION is the simple force, and
this force can be imported directly into a pipe stress analysis program in order to perform
spectrum analysis.

In order for PIPENET VISION to calculate a force, it is necessary to define the control
volume over which the force applies. Forces are calculated by taking into account the
pressure, friction, momentum change and the momentum held within the control volume.

We shall now illustrate how to set up and calculate simple forces along Pipe 3. Three
control volumes will be used along this pipe; namely, (a) from 2000 m to 2010 m, (b) from
2010 m to 2110 m, and (c) from 2110 m to 2120 m.

For illustrative purposes only, the diagram below is used to highlight the locations of the
three control volumes. Note that it is not necessary to modify the PIPNET VISION model
(but a similar network will be considered later, when transient forces are calculated).

Firstly, click on the Forces Tab in the Data Window (which can be obtained from View |
Data window).

Forces Tab

Next, click on the ellipsis (i.e., “…”) to open to forces dialog box.

Click on “…” to
open the dialog box

Note that the distances that define positions for a force are always measured from the
input node of the pipe. Type in the label (“F/1”), click on “Pipe 3”, and select “Interior” in the
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two pull-down menus in the column headed “Position”. Next, type in the distances of
2000 m and 2010 m in the appropriate column (as these are the distances that define the
control volume for the first force).
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In a similar manner, define the second force (called “F/2”) on Pipe 3.


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Finally, define the third force (“F/3”).


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The calculations options (obtained from Calculation | Options… | Output) are shown
below.

4.6 Tabular Results for the Non-return Valve

Tabular results, which are written to the output file for the simulation, can be set up as
follows. In a Data Window (from View | Data window), click on the Tables Tab, and then
the Add Button (to create a new table). Next, enter a title for the table (for example,
“Results for the Non-return Valve”) and press the Return Key. Click on the ellipsis (i.e.,
“…”) in the first column, and choose the component type to be “Non-return valve”. The
component label should be “2”, as that is label of the only non-return valve in the network.
Next, tick the boxes of all of the results that are required. Note that there can be at most
eight columns in a table, and the number of the next available column appears below the
entered data. Data for other components can be added by clicking on the ellipsis. After
the data for the non-return valve has been entered, the table should appear as follows.
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5. Calculations Based on Various Scenarios

The following calculations are to be performed.

Scenario 1: The base case – the system with no protection

Scenario 2: The system with protection – surge relief valves

Surge relief valve with 𝐶𝑣 = 200 (m3/hr, bar)

Surge relief valve with 𝐶𝑣 = 100 (m3/hr, bar)

Surge relief valve with 𝐶𝑣 = 50 (m3/hr, bar)

Surge relief valve with 𝐶𝑣 = 10 (m3/hr, bar)

Surge relief valve with 𝐶𝑣 = 200 (m3/hr, bar), with the surge relief valve
positioned near input node of the line.

Scenario 3: The system with protection – accumulators

Accumulator: diameter = 1 m, length = 20 m

Accumulator: diameter = 0.5 m, length = 10 m

Scenario 4: The system with protection – Two-stage valve closure

Two-stage valve-closure pattern 1

Two-stage valve-closure pattern 2


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5.1 Scenario 1: The Base Case – the System with no Protection

To select results for the shut-off valve, right-click on Valve 4 and choose “Select Results”
and then “All”. Note that the colour of the valve in the Schematic Window changes to
green (indicating that results have been selected for this component).

Run the calculation, by either (a) clicking on the red Calculate Button or (b) selecting
Calculation | Go… then clicking on the OK Button).

Open the graph viewer, using either the Graph Command (i.e., Output | Graphs…) or the
Graph Button.

Next, plot the valve position against time, using the following procedure.

 Ensure that the Time Graphs Tab is selected.


 Click on the triangle next to the directory name (to see the directory tree).
 Click on the triangle next to “All variables of valve 4”.
 Tick the box for ”Setting of valve 4”.

Other graphs can be viewed using a similar procedure.

Superimpose a graph of the pressure upstream of the valve by ticking the box entitled
“Inlet pressure of valve 4” as well.

Next, add a title to the graph (by adding text in the Title Box), and then change the labels
on the Y Axis (firstly, by clicking on the text that follows a ticked box, then clicking on the Y
Axis Tab below, and editing the Axis Title Field).

Add labels and arrows to the graphs (using Annotations | Labels | Create and
Annotations | Arrows | Create).
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The resulting graph is as follows.

The maximum pressure at the valve inlet is approximately 20.9 bar G (which can be seen
in PIPENET VISION by clicking on the valve, and then looking in the Properties Window).

This pressure is unacceptably high, as it lies above the design pressure of 15 bar G.

5.2 Scenario 2.1: Surge Relief Valve With 𝑪𝒗 = 200 (m3/hr, bar)

The network for this scenario contains a surge relief valve. Add such a valve using the
Liquid Surge Tool on the toolbar, and then select all results for the valve (by right-clicking
on it and choosing “Select results” and then “All”). The new network is shown below.
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Set the 𝐶𝑣 value of the valve to be 200 m3/hr, Bar1/2.

Set the node at the end of the valve to be an input/output node, and specify a constant
pressure of 0 Bar G. Then, run the calculation and create the following graph.
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In this case, the maximum pressure at valve inlet is approximately 14.1 bar G.

This valve opens only around 15% of its fully open position, and so it is bigger than
necessary. There is, therefore, scope for reducing the valve size and saving money.

5.3 Scenario 2.2: Surge Relief Valve With 𝑪𝒗 = 100 (m3/hr, bar)
In this scenario, the network is unchanged, but the coefficient of the surge relief valve is
reduced to 100 m3/hr, Bar1/2.

The following graph is obtained.


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In this case, the maximum pressure at valve inlet is about14.3 bar G.

This valve could be a good choice for the network, depending on the design philosophy. It
opens to around 28% of its capacity, and so it is a little on the large side for this purpose.

5.4 Scenario 2.3: Surge Relief Valve With 𝑪𝒗 = 50 (m3/hr, bar)


The coefficient of the surge relief valve is further reduced, to 50 m3/hr, Bar1/2.
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The corresponding graph is as follows.

The maximum pressure at valve inlet is approximately 14.5 bar G.

This is probably a good choice for the size of the valve because the valve opens to around
54% of its fully open position.
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5.5 Scenario 2.4: Surge Relief Valve With 𝑪𝒗 = 10 (m3/hr, bar)

The valve coefficient is further reduced to 10 m3/hr, Bar1/2.

The following graph is obtained.


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The maximum pressure at valve inlet is now 18.3 bar G.

Although the valve attains its fully open position, it is not able to maintain the pressure to
below 15 bar G. This valve is, therefore, too small.

5.6 Scenario 2.5: Surge Relief Valve With 𝑪𝒗 = 200 (m3/hr, bar)
Positioned at Inlet

In this scenario, the surge relief valve is moved to the outlet of the non-return valve.

Also, the coefficient of the valve is changed to 200 (m 3/hr, bar1/2), which is the same value
that was used in the first scenario.
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In this case, the following graph is obtained. Note that the pressure graph relates to the
inlet of the shut-off valve (Valve 1).

The maximum pressure at the inlet to Valve 1 is approximately 20.9 bar G, and the
maximum pressure at the pipeline inlet (Pipe 1) is around 14.1 bar G. Note that these
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pressures can be seen in PIPENET VISION by selecting the appropriate entity, and then
looking in the Properties Window.

It is clear that this surge relief valve is positioned in the wrong place. Although it does
maintain the pressure at the inlet of the pipeline to 14.1 bar G, it has almost no impact on
the initial pressure peak at the valve inlet. The reason is because the pipeline is around
6 km long, and the pressure at the valve inlet already reaches its peak before the pressure
wave has even reached the surge relief valve.

5.7 Scenario 3.1: Accumulator With Diameter = 1 m, Length = 20 m

In this scenario, an accumulator is added to the network, and all results are selected for
the accumulator. The following network is then obtained.

The data for the accumulator is as follows.

Graphs can be plotted of (a) the height of fluid in the accumulator (in metres) against time
and (b) the pressure at the inlet of the shut-off valve against time. In this case, the
following graph is obtained.
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The maximum pressure at the inlet to the shut-off valve is around 13.2 bar G.

5.8 Scenario 3.2: Accumulator With Diameter = 0.5 m, Length = 10 m

The size of the accumulator is decreased as follows.


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In this case, the following graph is obtained.

The maximum pressure at the inlet to the shut-off valve is now approximately 20.7 bar G.
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5.9 Scenario 4.1: Two-stage Valve Closure Type 1

The network for this scenario is the same as the network for the base case.

The only difference lies in the operation of the shut-off valve, which is a beautiful idea
developed by the engineer who designed this system.

The time function for the valve operation is a linear profile, for which the dialog box is
shown below. Note that this dialog box can be displayed by double-clicking on the linear-
profile graph.
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A graph of the pressure at the inlet of the valve against time is shown below, together with
a graph of the valve position against time.

The maximum pressure at the valve inlet is around 14.9 bar G.


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5.10 Scenario 4.2: Two-stage Valve Closure Type 2

This network for this scenario is the same as the network in the previous scenario, but the
operation of the valve (at Node i/2) is changed to the following linear profile.

The following graph is obtained.


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In this final scenario, the maximum pressure at the inlet to the valve is now around
19.7 bar G.

The main problem with the approach of Scenarios 4.1 and 4.2 is that the system is not
protected in the event of the ERC valve closing. The reason is that the closure of the ERC
valve can still produce a large pressure surge. As there is no surge-protection device, this
pressure surge can propagate through the whole system. On the other hand, with the
surge-relief-valve and accumulator approaches, the system is protected irrespective of
whether the NSV or the ERC valve closes.

6. Conclusions on the Simulations

It can be concluded that, in petrochemical industries, pressure-surge analysis is crucial in


preventing damage to equipment (e.g., pumps, valves and pipes) and avoiding
environmental disasters (such as when leaks or ruptures occur). In this project, the
PIPENET VISION Transient Module has been used to optimize the surge relieve valve. It
was discovered that the optimal value for the valve coefficient, 𝐶𝑣 , was 50 (m3/hr, bar), and
that it was better to position this valve at the inlet of the shut-off valve, rather than at the
outlet of the non-return valve.
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7. PIPENET VISION Transient Module and Pipe Stress Analysis

In this section, we use the tanker-loading example that was described earlier, and illustrate
how to calculate hydraulic transient forces. The main objective is to calculate the force-
time history in a form that can be read by pipe stress analysis programs.

It is important to emphasize that the example is used merely to illustrate how to calculate
the loads using PIPENET VISION Transient Module; it has not been chosen for exhibiting
spectacularly high forces. As the system has been well designed, the forces are relatively
modest.

The network is shown below.

In the above diagram, FP/100, FP/101 and FP/102 are the unbalanced forces in the three
straight sections forming the expansion loop. The lengths of the six pipe sections are
shown in red. It is assumed that the piping system lies completely in the horizontal plane.

This network is essentially the same as the one created at the start of the tanker loading
exercise earlier in this chapter. Therefore, if you have been following these exercises, you
do not need to re-create it. Note that this network is in isometric view (see the grid style in
Options | Display options).

8. The Scenarios

The following two basic scenarios are considered.

8.1 Planned Shutdown


This scenario is an everyday occurrence, in which the normal shutdown valve is closed by
a local manual switch or from within the control room. Two cases are considered:
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 Two-stage valve closure.

 Single-stage valve closure.

8.2 Emergency Shutdown


This scenario is an infrequent occurrence that takes place if the normal shutdown valve
fails to close, or if there is an emergency situation, such as a storm, when the hydraulically
operated ERC (Emergency Release Connection) comes into effect.

In this scenario, in which the valve-closure pattern is not within our control, there is only a
single-stage closure of ERC valve (and not a two-stage one, as in the case of a planned
shutdown).

9. The Data

Three cases arise from the above scenarios, two from the planned shutdown and one form
the emergency shutdown.

9.1 Valve Closure


The valve operation in each of the three cases is illustrated below.

In each diagram, the X Axis corresponds to the time (in seconds), and the Y Axis
corresponds to the valve position (with a value of zero indicating a fully closed valve, and a
value of one corresponding to a fully open valve).

9.1.1 Case 1
In this case, there is a two-stage closure of the normal shutdown valve.

9.1.2 Case 2
Here, the normal shutdown valve is closed in a single stage.
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9.1.3 Case 3
In this case, there is a single-stage closure of the ERC valve.

9.2 Units
The following table contains the units chosen for this example (which are the same as
those used in the previous network). These units can be located via Options | Units.

Variable Unit
Length metres
Diameter mm
Velocity m/sec
Temperature Celsius
Density kg/m3
Viscosity cP
Time seconds
Mass kg
Mass rate kg/s
Torque Nm
Inertia kg m2
Force N
Volume litres
Surface Tension N/m
Thermal Conductivity W/(m K)
Heat Capacity J/kg K
Young’s Modulus G Pa
Pressure Bar Gauge
Flow type Volumetric
Flow rate m3/hr

9.3 Pipe Data


The data for the pipes in the network is shown in the table below. Note that, before a pipe
type can be used, a pipe schedule must first be created (using Libraries | Schedules).
This procedure is described in detail in the PIPENET VISION Transient Manual. Note that
the inner bores and outer diameters of the pipes must be specified when the new pipe
schedules are defined. The data that needs to be entered for the 10"/3" Schedule 20 pipe
is:
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Nominal Bore Internal Bore External Diameter


50 52 55.5
80 84.68 88.9
200 200 234
250 260.35 273.05

In this example, the pipe type is 10"/3" Schedule 20 (which is different to the name of the
pipe schedule in the previous model).

Pipe Label Diameter Inner External Length Elevation Additional


(mm) Bore Diameter (m) (m) K-factor
(mm) (mm)
3 250 260.35 273.05 5697.33 1.45 197
5 250 260.35 273.05 150 0 0

Other relevant parameter values are as follows.

Pipe roughness = 0.0457mm

Poisson’s ratio = 0.292

Young’s modulus = 204.0848 GPa

9.4 Fluid Properties

The fluid being transported by the pipeline is lube oil, whose properties (see Options |
Fluid) are shown below.

Density = 867 kg/m3

Viscosity = 33.8 Cp

Bulk modulus = 1.230025 GPa

The temperature and vapour pressure are not used in this problem, so their values are
irrelevant and are left at default values.
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9.5 Valve Characteristics


The characteristics for the normal shutdown valve are assumed to be identical to those for
the ERC valve, and are tabulated below. These values correspond to valves of type
“HV-5002 – Cv” (in Libraries | Valves).

Valve Position Cv (m3/ s, Pa)


0 0
0.1 4.058 x 10-6
0.2 2.629 x 10-5
0.3 6.231 x 10-5
0.4 1.094 x 10-4
0.5 1.694 x 10-4
0.7 3.366 x 10-4
1.0 6.854 x 10-4

As mentioned earlier, if the units for the known C v values are not the same as the model
units (as specified in Options | Units), the user can temporarily change the appropriate
model units to be the required Cv units, enter the known Cv values in the valve library, then
change the model units back again.

9.6 Pump Data

The data for the pump is shown in the following table. This pump is of type “Pump
61P046”, and its data can be viewed using Libraries | Pumps – Coeffs. Unknown.

Flow Rate (m3/ h) Pressure (bar)


0 12.15
100 11.48
240 10.81
320 9.19

9.7 Specifications

There are two types of specification in this problem; namely pressure specifications and
information specifications.

9.7.1 Pressure Specifications

The pressures at the inlet and outlet nodes are 1.71 bar G and 0 bar G respectively.

9.7.2 Information Specifications

The pump is assumed to run at a constant speed, and so has a constant specification (of
1).

The other information specification corresponds to the operation of the valve (whose
position lies between 0 and 1 inclusive). The three different cases are considered below.
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Case 1: Two-stage closure of the normal shutoff valve

In this case, the time function is a linear profile, and the relevant points for the profile are
tabulated below.

Time (seconds) Valve Position


0 1
2 1
22 0.2
42 0.2
47 0
120 0

Case 2: Single-stage closure of the normal shutoff valve

The time function is again a linear profile, and the relevant points are as given below.

Time (seconds) Valve Position


0 1
2 1
22 0
120 0

Case 3: Single-stage closure of ERC valve

In this case, the time function is a power ramp, with a start time of 2, a start value of 1, a
stop time of 7, a stop value of 0, and an exponent of 1.
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10. Force Calculations

Pipe stress analysis programs require unbalanced forces in pipe sections. In the
simulations below, we shall calculate the unbalanced forces that arise along the three
straight sections that form the expansion loop. These forces are called FR/100, FR/101
and FR/102.

10.1 Unbalanced Dynamic Forces on Sections of Straight Pipe

In the diagram below, the three locations of the unbalanced forces (FP/100, FP/101 and
FP/102) are shown.

10.1.1 Definition of Force FP/100


This force can be defined as follows. Firstly, click on the Forces Tab of a Data Window
(which can be opened using View | Data window). Next, choose the force label to be
“FP/100”, and click on Pipe 3 below. There are now two lines for the control area of this
pipe. In the first line, choose “Interior” in the pull-down menu in the column headed
“Position”, and set the distance from the inlet to be 2500 m. This distance corresponds to
the distance along the pipe at which the control volume for the force begins. On the
second line, choose the position to be “Interior”, but with a distance of 2520 m. This
distance represents the end of the control volume. Finally, click on the OK Button.
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10.1.2 Definition of Force FP/101


This force can be specified in a similar manner. Note that the two distances that are
required are 2520 m and 2620 m.
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10.1.3 Definition of Force FP/102


Force FP/102 can be defined in a similar manner.
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After the three forces have been defined, the Data Window appears as follows. The
definition of each force can be displayed by clicking on the ellipsis to the left of the force
label.

The forces that have been specified essentially represent the unbalanced forces along
Pipe 3. The forces do not require x, y, and z components, as the direction of each force is
the same as the direction of the pipe (and so the force has effectively only one
component). The direction of the pipe is known to the pipe stress analysis program.

10.1.4 Selecting Graphical Output for the Forces

Firstly, the forces are shown in graphical form, and, subsequently, they are shown in a
form that can be read by pipe stress analysis programs (namely, the .frc format).
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Graphs of the forces can be generated using a Data Window (which can be obtained using
View | Data window), as follows. Firstly, click on the tab named “Results Graphs”. Next,
click on the “…” in the first column, below the line containing “Variable against time”.

In the pull-down menu in the component-type column, select “Transient Force”, and, in the
component-label column, select “FP/100”, for the first force. Ensure that all variables are
selected in the next column. Repeat this process for Forces FP/101 and FP/102, and data
window should appear as follows.
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10.2 Two Stages Planned Shutdown: Unbalanced Forces on a Pipe


Segment
10.2.1 Graphical Output

Run the simulation, and then plot the graph of the Force FP/101 against time (by ticking
the box labeled “Simple/Directed pipe force: FP/101”), to obtain the following graph.

10.2.2 .frc format (Time-history file from PIPENET VISION)

Part of the time-history file is as follows.

Time Force
(seconds) (Newtons)

.490280E+2 -15.7000
.490960E+2 -17.2280
.491640E+2 -18.7858
.492320E+2 -20.4178
.493000E+2 -22.1349
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.493680E+2 -23.9734
.494360E+2 -25.9555
.495040E+2 -28.0735
.495720E+2 -30.3693
.496400E+2 -32.8416
.497080E+2 -35.5246
.497760E+2 -38.4109
.498440E+2 -41.5263
.499120E+2 -44.8717
.499800E+2 -48.5026
.500480E+2 -52.4109
.501160E+2 -56.6363
.501840E+2 -61.2092
.502520E+2 -66.1732
.503200E+2 -71.5879
.503880E+2 -77.5577
.504560E+2 -84.0642
.505240E+2 -91.4326
.505920E+2 -99.5192
.506600E+2 -108.768
.507280E+2 -119.081
.507960E+2 -130.950
.508640E+2 -144.292
.509320E+2 -159.546
.510000E+2 -176.411
.510680E+2 -195.173
.511360E+2 -215.373
.512040E+2 -237.228
.512720E+2 -260.867
.513400E+2 -286.800
.514080E+2 -315.743
.514760E+2 -348.522
.515440E+2 -385.840
.516120E+2 -428.159
.516800E+2 -475.788
.517480E+2 -529.057
.518160E+2 -588.397
.518840E+2 -654.351
.519520E+2 -727.540
.520200E+2 -808.532
.520880E+2 -897.614
.521560E+2 -994.525
.522240E+2 -1098.14
.522920E+2 -1206.19
.523600E+2 -1314.96
.524280E+2 -1418.81
.524960E+2 -1509.88
.525640E+2 -1576.51
.526320E+2 -1599.27
.527000E+2 -1549.39
.527680E+2 -1397.78
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.528360E+2 -1133.84
.529040E+2 -779.017
.529720E+2 -383.420
.530400E+2 -7.77816
.531080E+2 295.692
.531760E+2 495.608
.532440E+2 587.349
.533120E+2 589.989
.533800E+2 535.072
.534480E+2 453.520
.535160E+2 367.186
.535840E+2 287.417
.536520E+2 218.275
.537200E+2 160.591
.537880E+2 114.342
.538560E+2 79.2058
.539240E+2 54.3350
.539920E+2 38.2208
.540600E+2 28.8971
.541280E+2 24.3895
.541960E+2 23.0157
.542640E+2 23.5143
.543320E+2 25.0901
.544000E+2 27.2521
.544680E+2 29.7766
.545360E+2 32.5325
.546040E+2 35.4944
.546720E+2 38.6511
.547400E+2 42.0388
.548080E+2 45.6742
.548760E+2 49.5829
.549440E+2 53.7984
.550120E+2 58.3594
.550800E+2 63.3151
.551480E+2 68.7458
.552160E+2 74.6877
.552840E+2 81.2936
.553520E+2 88.6196
.554200E+2 96.8379
.554880E+2 106.068
.555560E+2 116.521
.556240E+2 128.360
.556920E+2 141.768
.557600E+2 156.803
.558280E+2 173.488
.558960E+2 191.734
.559640E+2 211.520
.560320E+2 232.947
.561000E+2 256.317
.561680E+2 282.154
.562360E+2 311.139
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.563040E+2 343.962
.563720E+2 381.183
.564400E+2 423.207
.565080E+2 470.374
.565760E+2 523.052
.566440E+2 581.694
.567120E+2 646.839
.567800E+2 719.038
.568480E+2 798.696
.569160E+2 885.861
.569840E+2 979.983
.570520E+2 1079.65
.571200E+2 1182.22
.571880E+2 1283.35
.572560E+2 1376.88
.573240E+2 1454.06
.573920E+2 1500.91
.574600E+2 1495.63
.575280E+2 1411.55
.575960E+2 1229.56
.576640E+2 952.105
.577320E+2 608.898
.578000E+2 248.402
.578680E+2 -76.0698

10.3 Emergency Shutdown: Unbalanced Forces on a Pipe Segment


10.3.1 Graphical Output

In this case, the corresponding graph of the Force FP/101 against time is as follows.
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10.3.2 .frc format (Time-history file from PIPENET VISION)


Part of the time-history file is as follows.

Time Force
(seconds) (Newtons)

.490280E+2 -15.7016
.490960E+2 -17.2540
.491640E+2 -18.8069
.492320E+2 -20.4377
.493000E+2 -22.1900
.493680E+2 -24.0011
.494360E+2 -25.9529
.495040E+2 -28.0848
.495720E+2 -30.3961
.496400E+2 -32.8947
.497080E+2 -35.6016
.497760E+2 -38.5418
.498440E+2 -41.7807
.499120E+2 -45.2026
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.499800E+2 -48.8390
.500480E+2 -52.5725
.501160E+2 -56.5428
.501840E+2 -60.8302
.502520E+2 -65.5651
.503200E+2 -70.8031
.503880E+2 -76.6955
.504560E+2 -83.2048
.505240E+2 -90.6156
.505920E+2 -98.8367
.506600E+2 -108.180
.507280E+2 -118.675
.507960E+2 -130.673
.508640E+2 -144.223
.509320E+2 -159.677
.510000E+2 -176.809
.510680E+2 -195.819
.511360E+2 -216.142
.512040E+2 -237.983
.512720E+2 -261.275
.513400E+2 -286.724
.514080E+2 -315.152
.514760E+2 -347.708
.515440E+2 -384.957
.516120E+2 -427.232
.516800E+2 -474.781
.517480E+2 -527.906
.518160E+2 -587.151
.518840E+2 -652.948
.519520E+2 -725.984
.520200E+2 -806.763
.520880E+2 -895.544
.521560E+2 -992.366
.522240E+2 -1096.00
.522920E+2 -1203.79
.523600E+2 -1312.58
.524280E+2 -1416.54
.524960E+2 -1508.17
.525640E+2 -1575.57
.526320E+2 -1599.36
.527000E+2 -1550.81
.527680E+2 -1400.60
.528360E+2 -1138.07
.529040E+2 -784.329
.529720E+2 -389.341
.530400E+2 -13.5858
.531080E+2 290.412
.531760E+2 491.149
.532440E+2 584.106
.533120E+2 587.953
.533800E+2 534.295
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.534480E+2 453.764
.535160E+2 368.029
.535840E+2 288.765
.536520E+2 219.877
.537200E+2 162.211
.537880E+2 115.830
.538560E+2 80.4272
.539240E+2 55.3362
.539920E+2 38.9892
.540600E+2 29.5311
.541280E+2 24.8874
.541960E+2 23.3671
.542640E+2 23.7722
.543320E+2 25.3001
.544000E+2 27.4476
.544680E+2 29.9534
.545360E+2 32.7209
.546040E+2 35.7393
.546720E+2 39.0207
.547400E+2 42.3507
.548080E+2 45.8701
.548760E+2 49.5438
.549440E+2 53.4922
.550120E+2 57.7994
.550800E+2 62.5679
.551480E+2 67.8717
.552160E+2 73.7605
.552840E+2 80.3742
.553520E+2 87.7702
.554200E+2 96.1050
.554880E+2 105.450
.555560E+2 116.083
.556240E+2 128.124
.556920E+2 141.779
.557600E+2 157.072
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.568480E+2 796.872
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