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ero QTR (H ra Selita 4 = Shape of Relay Luyben [1] pointed out that the shapes of the response curves of a relay feedback test contain useful information. A simple characterization factor was proposed to quantify the curve shape and later used to determine the three parameters for FOPDT processes. This concept offers an attractive alternative to improve the relay feedback autotuning, because qualitative information of model structure is avail- able. Here, we intend to utilize the shape information from the relay feedback test to identify the correct model structure of the process and to find appropriate PID controller settings. The additional shape information is also useful to devise dead time compensation and high-order compensation, when necessary. Hieroglyphic writing can often be seen in ancient cultures. Figure 4.1 shows that much of Chi- nese is written in pictorial characters. The “shapes” of the characters tell us some- thing about their meaning. We intend to extract some useful information from the “shape” of the relay response. 4.1 Shapes of Relay Response The Astrém and Hagglund [2] relay feedback test is a useful tool in identification because it identifies two important parameters, ultimate gain and ultimate fre- quency, for controller tuning. Typically, the Ziegler-Nichols type of tuning rule is applied because K, and P, are the information required to set PID controller parameters. Unfortunately, satisfactory performance is not always guaranteed be- cause no single tuning rule works well for the entire dead time D to time con- stant r ratio D/r even for an FOPDT process. Luyben demonstrates that, for FOPDT processes, a different D/t ratio gives different shapes in relay feedback tests (Figure 4,2) and this shape factor can be utilized to find the D/+ value and different tuning rules can be applied accordingly. This presents a significant pro- gress in relay feedback identification, and much reliable autotuning has resulted, as shown by Luyben. Figure 4.2 shows the transition from a triangle to an almost rec- tangular curve as D/t changes from 0.1 to 10. Similar figures were also given by 47 48 Autotuning of PID Controllers aicakesUp JT +¥ Down " oy “An iL: Mountain DZD A Moon Figure 4.1. Hieroglyphic writing of Chinese characters i} 20J¢ Water Friman and Waller [3]. In Luyben’s work, time to the mid-point of the amplitude a is used to characterize D/t. 4.1.1 Shapes To characterize model structure and parameter value (e.g. D/t), processes with different order (first, second, third, eighth, fifteenth and twentieth order) and dead time to time constant ratio (ie. D/t =0.01, 1 and 10) are studied. In this work. only overdamped processes are studied (underdamped processes and systems with inverse response are not included). Figure 4.3 shows the relay feedback re- sponses for those higher order processes. Note that all process gains are assumed to be one and a relay height /=1 is used to generate sustained oscillations. From the curve shapes, Figures 4.2 and 4.3, several observations can be made immediately. 1. FOPDT process. If the response curves show a sharp edge (discontinuity) at the peak ampli- tudes (Le. y =+a), then the process can be considered as an FOPDT system, as shown in Figure 4.2, 2. Effect of Dlx for FOPDT process. Ifthe relay feedback gives a triangular wave, a time-constant-dominant process (i the time to reach the peak amplitude shown later. If the dead time to time cor ture begins to appear (e.g, Figure 4.2), then the process can be treated as small D/t for FOPDT). Specifically, is equal to the dead time, as will be stant ratio becomes larger, then curva- and this implies a gradually developin Step response. As D/ approaches infinity, the oe oe a cae rical rectangular wave, Actually, | r FOPDT processes represe1 we clas in terms of relay feedback responses, SPTESEME S veny un