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Mizan B. FUADY 1 and Heru RAMANDA2
The aim of this research was to investigate the impact of several land use and structural design development for creating better coastal community resilience in Pangandaran Tourism Area. Research framework mainly taken from How Resilient is Your Coastal Community ± A Guide For Evaluating Coastal Community Resilience to Tsunamis and Other Hazards´ (US Indian Ocean Tsunami Warning System Program, 2007), especially for measuring the capacity of land use and structural design aspect. Land use and structural design capacity benchmark then divided into four capacities which are policy and planning, physical and natural, social, and also technical and financial. Several in-depth interviews have been conducted to key actors which involved in those activities to gather broaden knowledge about how the plan and the structural design were built. Field observation also been conducted so that researcher can precisely judge whether the structural construction has benefits the effort for disaster and climate change mitigation. The progress of this research shows that there are lack of coordination among the process and results between plans or policy from one actor to another. As for the structural aspect, several constructions have been developed properly like the retaining wall in the east coast, evacuation building, and so on. However several structural construction are also have not optimum yet, like the trees in the coastal forest seldom destroyed during high tourism season, con struction of houses or buildings that not anticipated the sea level rise risk, and so on. Therefore, this research will produce several recommendations to enhance the quality of land use plan and the structural design impact for better community resilience in Pangandaran Tourism Area.
KEYWORDS: Resilience, Land Use, Stuctural Design, Pangandaran Tourism Area 1. INTRODUCTION
1.1 Preface Land use and structural design was one of the most important aspect for creating better coastal s communities resilience (IOTWSP, 2007). Pangandaran tsunami in 2006 and the raising awareness to the climate change issue was a trigger for stakeholder in Pangandaran to build a more resilience communities as well as the area itself for the upcoming disaster risk or climate change effects. This commitment is important; since Pangandaran is not a just place for the people but also as one of the popular international tourism destination in West Java.
Research Assistant, Regional and Rural Research Group, Institut Teknologi Bandung, Indonesia Undergraduate student, Civil Engineering, Institut Teknologi Bandung, Indonesia
The Pangandaran Tourism Area covers four villages in southern part of Ciamis Regency.2 Objective The aim of this research was to investigate the impact of several land use planning and structural design to the leverage of Pangandaran Tourism Area¶s resiliency. revised and creating a new spatial planning including Pangandaran Tourism Area. evacuation route. and also construct several structural design alike retaining wall in the east Pangandaran coast. and Cikembulan Village. people from Pangandaran assisted by DMC-Pangandaran are also create document what they called the Pangandaran Community Settlement Plan. creating working group. UNWTO appointed Pangandaran as the role model for sustainable tourism development by gathering stakeholder. 1. Figure 1. For example The Ministry of Public Works has assisted the establishment of spatial plan guidance for Pangandaran Tourism Area including the zoning regulations to make the area resilience to the disaster risk. The Ciamis Regency itself has establish the Disaster Management Agency. which are Pangandaran Village. Regency. Indonesia.3 Study Area The study area which being covered in this paper was the Pangandaran Tourism Area Ciamis .Several activities have been conducted by different actors for that purpose. a post tsunami rehabilitation plan that incorporated mitigation substance for future disaster and c limate change risk funded by the Java Recovery Fund. Study Area 2 . open space allocation. and developed master plan. West Java. Wonoharjo Village. After the tsunami. and so on for that occasion. Pananjung Village. 1. coastal forest in the west coast.
Land Use and Structural Design Benchmark Analysis and Summary Findings / Related Key Strength Weakness Data Rating Points to Community Gaps Resilience Land Use and Structural Benchmark : Effective land use and structural design that complement environmental. several activities has been conducted. physical and natural. social and cultural. and so on. as well as technical and financial capacity. The document stated that there are eight aspects in defining whether a community have high resilience to such disaster risks. retaining walls. The main argument from the concept is because the land use and structural design may equipt the society or community to absorb the disaster pressure in a better ways as well as give more capacity to bounce back after the disaster. Land use policies and building standards that incorporate measures to reduce risks from hazards and protect sensitive habitats are established. the land use and structural design was one of the elements of resilience according to the US-IOTWSP (2007). houses. and also defining the gap for each benchmark. risk knowledge. Thus. escape building. Those were in-depth interview with local authorities. Benchmark 3. On this occasion the framework table like it¶s show on the figure below : Table 1. 2007 In order to gain reliable information for determining the resiliency level. emergency response. ARGUMENTS FOR LAND USE AND STRUCTURAL DESIG N As mentioned before. social and economy. vital infrastructure. findings which may appear relatively to each questions can be arranged and valuated from 1 ± 5. Education. land use and structural design. Those eight are governance. economic. Optimum land use allocation 3 . as well as builders and developers. and community goals and reduce risks from hazards. determine it as a strong or weakness. coastal management resourece. We also observe several main structural design such as roads. all the eight then being evaluated by four core capacities which are the policy and planning. coastal forest. related NGOs and CBOs. The framework suggesting some descriptive benchmark with several potential assessment question in addition. drainage. METHODOLOGY For this research. and recovery. Source : IOTWSP.2. Critical infrastructure are located outside high risk areas and constructed to address risks from priority hazards. 2007). sign system. and enforced. Developers and communities incorporate risk reduction into the location and design of structures. basically we adapt the framework from ³How Resilient is Your Coastal Community ± A Guide For Evaluating Coastal Community Resilience to Tsunamis and Other Hazards (US Indian Ocean Tsunami Warning System Program. warning and evacuations. and training programs are established to improve compliance with land use polices and building standards. Therefore. outreach. monitored.
and zone assignment. For Pangandaran Tourism Area. retain certain basic functions during distratous event. and bounce back after the disaster. it was assign the land use availability for each part of villages which then being detailed into block and zone. Ciamis Regency Planning Agency) 4 . Therefore. such as the law enforcement. the biggest problem lies in term of coordination among governmental agencies in the manner so that this output may be followed up at the local level. and they may contribute to the future resilience of the community through good design. However. Twigg later on define the importance of existence of supportive environment to this aspects. both of them were took part at the role of ³risk management and vulnerability reduction´ theme at the Twigg¶s concept of resilience. As the second was The Pangandaran Area Land Use Plan. Pelling (2003) then added a note that policy and planning institutions were oriented towards disaster response rather than preparation or mitigation. Johnston then mentioning the need of better structural design for lifelines which to the extent that lifelines supports community¶s day to day activities and included the mechanisms used to respond to emergencies.Thus. protection to environment. The first was the Community Settlement Plan (CSP) which being developed and implemented at each of the villages.This should then incorporated the CSP. also highlight and incorporated the land use and structural design. and infrastructure maintenance. it was actually gave such base principal for a detail spatial arrangement in the Pangandaran Tourism Area. and the provision of appropriate services and facilities.may minimize the victims due to disaster. Those micro-part basically dedicated as an example so that other regions apart of Ciamis Regency may conducted similar activity. which all and all embeded at the Ciamis Regency Spatial Plan (RTRW). there were already two type of plans which may become the fundamental baseline. such strengthening in land use plan and structural design were needed. Thus. creation of a sense of space. The internal source from the Local Govenrment of Ciamis Regency also backs this.´ (Actor 1. have slightly different view that planners can not plan resilience. they found that policy-makers were ill-prepared to study or plan at the interface between the built and natural environemtanl components to the city. as follows : ³The next thing to do is synchronisation and the enactment of spatial plan law through perda. Pangandaran Area Land Use Plan from the Ministry of Public Works. Johnston (2006) noted that as a part of developing community resilience. and being law enforced.1 Policy and Planning Capacity in Land Use and Structural Design The policy and planning capacity in term of land use and structural design appliances for strenghening the resilience measured by the existence of land use policy as well as building code which relevant due to the risk. FINDINGS 4. characteristic. it is neccessary to consider and account for the robustness of community¶s infrastructure. the map of this plan can be viewd at the Figure 2 below. As for the powerful structure or built environment may gives such capacity to undertake pressure resulted by the disastrous event. the plan have already calculate the area. The Pangandaran Area Land Use Plan developed as a micro-part of Land Use Plan in Southern Part of Java Island. Despite the fact that several findings shows that there were unmatch land use. They make plans that reduce vulnerability and enhance mitigation. However. Twigg was emphasizing for the protection of basic infrastructure through safer placement and the implementation of various construction standard. 4. Twigg (2007) whom define resiliency as a manner of community to absorb stress. implemented. For each zones. As an example. Other scholar whom highlight this importance were Timmerman and White (1997). King (2006). which being planned by the Ministry of Public Works as a pilot or example for other regions in Indonesia for developing similar type of planning. linkages to education and scientific matters.
and river bank. community based disaster management approach. Government as policy makers must have the courage to be assertive in any regulations that have been compiled. Executors building owners whom change the function of the building when the planning and execution is a form of ethical violations of building planning. Government disaster prone areas need to reform the policy and institutional framework for disaster management that encourages the emergence of safety culture as a shared responsibility of all stakeholders in regional development.2 Physical and Natural Capacity in Land Use and Structural Design Public infrastructure that has been available has to be integrated with buildings and roads that are available. A safe building must be designed and constructed in accordance with the rules that are used in Indonesia. business area. Buildings must meet the standards that must be owned by a public building. As the result. Indonesian people easier to identify disasters that will occur with the natural phenomenon previously shown by legends and myths such as the local culture. The conservation area covers the Pananjung Natural Park. It was indeed not a detailed yet scientific as the previous one.Figure 2. but it was adequate enough to educate the people in general about where the location approriate enough to be used by the people. and partic ipatory risk appraissal. Central Java. Infrastructure like Pangandaran Sub District Office. mangrove forests to prevent abrasion caused by sea water. On the other hand. The Donor as well as the NGO which assist the community to enact the CSP aims to empower them in the manner so that they may determine which type of infrastructure they need in order to help them bounce back and prepared for future disater risk. Bappenas. (Plan of Action for the Rehabilitation and Reconstruction of Earthquake disaster in Prov. 4. To support the optimization of functions of its existence should be reviewed with other infrastructure. and settlements. The role of the government not only limited to giving permission but rather to control the time of execution. The CSP contains division of the land by the community between an utilized area and conservation area. as coastal areas. 74) The positive practice in terms of natural and physical capacity in land use and structural design elementes were the allocation of basic yet critical infrastructure which already at the safe zone. Any society that wants to construct buildings must have an official permit issued by local governments. Ilustration of Pangandaran Area Land Use Plan Source : Ministry of Public Works As for the enactment of CSP basically started as a part of rehabilitation due to the Tsunami in 2006. Existence of natural vegetation is still very necessary for example. tourism area. Village Offices. utilized area divided to agriculture area. local health center (Puskesmas). West Java and Cilacap District Prov. the presence of sea water overflow anticipation building such as building a breakwater is needed to minimize the impact of disasters that would arise. The information of the importance for identifying and understanding the disasters factor and the preparednes to face it is using the local wisdom. Any construction must comply with the design that has also been known to and approved by the supervisor. page. 5 . It is a combination between spatial planning approach. coastal bank.
Radio transmission. It was being known that the total road constructed by the community at the whole four villages may reach the number of 100 local roads. the application of appropriate design and use of better equipment is done by developing the design and development of research results. whether the volume is reduced or specifications used inferior by reason of the inadequacy of the cost.Police office. Other positive practice for this capacity was the construction of the local road by the community as part of the CSP implementation. rehabilitation and reconstruction of houses and other buildings have introduced a system of earthquake resistant buildings. the construction in the field must be the same as what it was stated at the plan and design. local terminal. Figure 3. Main electrical station. local wisdom and adjust the level of vulnerability to disasters in the area. Learned from the earthquake and tsunami in Aceh. Fire fighter.2002 and SNI . Standard planning and house building earthquake resistant buildings must comply with the rules of SNI 03-2847 .Settlements improvement should follow the technical standards of earthquake resistance in accordance with regulations and legislation. It often happens is the incompatibility of materials used. Construction procedures similar to procedures commonly done before. One of the positive social and cultural practice in Pangandaran Tourism Area was the process of local roads construction.3 Social and Cultural Capacity in Land Use and Structural Design Construction of earthquake resistant houses have already started accustomed force in society. and local airfield basically placed more than 1 km from the beach. Example of Physical and Natural Capacity Source : Observation. it's just that there is a difference in the connection detail. In this manner. Therefore. At some places it also equiped by direction board to give information about the direction for evacuation route. To build earthquake-resistant homes are not as difficult as one might imagine. 2009 4.1726-2002. both calculation of the structure and the quality and quantity of materials used. The material being used by the construction was concrete which being installed together by the people.Given the frequent earthquakes Pangandaran area and will possibly larger earthquake and tsunami potential. There was a reason for that action which by using the concrete then the 6 . Pattern of development with community involvement will provide a sense of ownership of a high impact on the house. Rebuilding the infrastructure and settlements must based on the guidlines of technical planning with attention to input from other agencies / institutions and community aspirations. This devided into imporvement of the road construction and also the installation of lightning for night time evacuation. considering the damage.03 .
construction seminars can be conducted in academic circles. Figure 4. each party which responsible for the project must meet the applicable requirements. What should be taken account is providing education. This also may elevate the exsistence potential where eventhough nowadays builder didn¶t have adequate ac ademical knowledge in constrution. purchasing process. Owners of buildings should be more concerned with the planning and execution. As for the financial capacity. the public may have 3 dimensional example rather than only an image through a guideline poster which already existed. At the larger scale buildings. and resource usage being done under supervision of all the community member. 2009 7 . It was also strengthening the social capital within the community.4 Technical and Financial Capacity in Land Use and Structural Design If many houses destroyed by earthquake and tsunami. Therefore the design process. Forms of socialization can be exercised when making building license.Trained bulilders and carpenters founded at the study area able to build simple earthquake-resistant building construction. Example of Stuctural Design Construction in Pangandaran Source : Observation. Community building owners will get the standard guidelines and procedures to establish an earthquake-resistant building. Several NGOs which existed and also past Ministry of Public Work¶s project didn¶t maximise the transfer of knowledge about the better ways of construction. It is what should be provided by the local government in term of their social capacity. but they were already have basic knowledge about the construction. At the larger scale. The only financial support exist were for large scale hotels or economic activities which have access to insurance and the aid for fishermen settlement respectively to the 2006¶s Tsunami. it must be held socialization o how to build f earthquake resistant houses. Therefore. Preparation of technical design guidelines for earthquake resistant construction of simple houses and then socialized.construction process may undertake by the community together. Capacity imporvement due to the technical and financial also limited because there was no local academic institutions which provide education to the builder in a academically manner. 4. The demanding necessity from the community due to this capacity was the existence of an example for constructing stronger house. there were no support or incentive which may endorse capacity imporevement. counseling and training in the conventional development planning and modern.
That mark basically placed Land Use and Structural Design at the 7th place of resilience element among the all eight elements (Fuady. Full coverage of benchmark fulfillment provided at Table 2 below. Critical Lessons S y Basic and crtitical infrastructure are learned and infrastructure located outside high guideline for placed at the safe risk areas and community zone constructed to to undertake y Construction of address risks from practice in structural priority hazards. we may see that Land Use and Structural Design gain average point at 2 out of 5 as top point for maximum resilience. maintaning S 3 mitigation critical appliances infrastructure y Absent of incentive W mechanism to promote disaster based construction D3. 2010). economic. Effective land use and structural design that complement environmental. From the indexed findings. D1. CONCLUSION In general we may see that there are positive and negative elements in praticing land use and structural design elements in Pangandaran Toursim Area. Table 2.5. even though a lot of homework need to be improve in order to leverage the point of resiliency. Findings for Land Use and Structural Design Elements in Pangandaran Tourism Area BENCHMARK FINDINGS STRENGTH WEAKNESS GAP RATING D. actions y Spatial plan started S to be a consideration in day to day matters D2. Spatial planning as land use assignment tool relatively more advance in terms of the preparation of its product. and and practical W enforcement enforced. As for structural design. practice in necessitu spatial W y Spatial control and socialization and 137 8 . and community goals and reduce risks from hazards. Developers and y CSP gave guidance The need of S 2 communities education for development incorporate risk and social y Construction reduction into the network to W principle haven¶t location and design enhance considered as of structures. there was still an imbalance practice between those construction under government or big company with public settlement or which in kind. This is quite good. enforcement supported by law monitored. Land use Spatial S y Spatial Plan : CSP policies and building planning in and Pangandaran standards that public Area Spatial Plan incorporate measures y Absent of building domain need to reduce risks from to be W code and its hazards and protect supported by enfrocement sensitive habitats are y Spatial plan didn¶t law 2 established.
2006 . 2007 . Paton. Characteristics of A Disaster ± Resilient Community : A Guidance Note . London : Earth Scan 6. Mark . ---------. Education. Disaster Resilience : An Integrated Approach . Pangandaran : DMC Pangandaran 4. 2003 . 2008 . Twigg. Arahan Pemanfaatan Ruang Pantai Selatan Jawa Bagian Barat . y outreach. ---------. Douglas . 2007 . Illinois : Charles C. Jakarta : Kementrian Pekerjaan Umum 2. Pelling. y building code still unsufficient The raising of awareness about disaster based construction There is no training or education for local developer There is no academic institutions which leverage community capacity in construction Community egar to gain technical and financial support building code S W W Development and education practices 1 S 6.. and training programs are established to improve compliance y with land use polices and building standards. David . John . Rencana Pembangunan Permukiman Desa Pangandaran . REFERENCES 1. Thomas Publisher 5.y D4. DFID Disaster Risk Reduction Interagency Coordination Group 9 .. The Vulnerability of Cities . How Resilient is Your Coastal Community ± A Guide For Evaluating Coastal Community Resilience to Tsunamis and Other Hazards´ Bangkok : US Indian Ocean Tsunami Warning System Program 3. Johnston. ---------.. 2007 .
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