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10/2/2016

Rocks and minerals


Earth Materials A rock can be defined
simply as an aggregate
Minerals of one or more
minerals

Introduction Rocks and minerals


Earth’s crust is the
source for a wide varietyy A rock can be defined
of useful essential simply as an aggregate
minerals of one or more
minerals
Copper for electrical
wiring Minerals are found
Gold for jewelry
j y g
together as a mixture in
Talc for cosmetics which the properties of
Quartz for glass the individual minerals
are retained
Geologic events also
involve minerals

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WHEN DO MINERALS WHEN DO MINERALS


FORM FORM
Lowering
L i off Heating
H i off
temperature of the solids to a level
liquid below its where atoms
freezing point
and ions
When magma cools become mobile
down minerals and rearrange
start to crystallize themselves

WHEN DO MINERALS
Minerals
FORM
Naturally occuring
Evaporation of
liquid from I
Inorganic
i solid
lid
solution
Definite chemical
• Salt water  NaCl composition
(halite)
• Sea water 
Orderly internal
CaSO4 crystals (crystal) structure
(gypsum)

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Silicate minerals
All silicates have the
same fundamental
building block, the
silicon-oxygen
tetrahedron
(SiO4)4- is an ion with a
charge of -4

Rock-forming minerals Major Silicate Groups


Ferromagnesian (dark)
~4,000 different
silicates are minerals in
minerals but only a few which ions of iron (iron =
are abundant ferro) and/or magnesium
join their silicate structures
Rock-forming minerals
make up most of the - olivine, amphibole,
rocks of Earth’s crust pyroxene, biotite

Nonferromagnesian (light)
Silicates are the most
silicates
common group
-feldspar, quartz,
muscovite

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Other rock-forming mineral


Properties…
groups
Luster is the appearance
Carbonates or quality of light reflected
Calcite, dolomite from the surface of a
Oxides of iron mineral
• Metallic
Sulfides
• Non-metallic
Phosphates
vitreous
Halides
resinous
Sulfates
pearly
Native elements greasy
Silver, carbon dull

Properties of minerals Properties…


y
Crystal form is Color is undoubtedly
the external expression the most obvious
of a mineral’s orderly characteristic of a mineral
internal arrangement of
atoms. BUT, color is not always
a useful diagnostic
property
p ope ty Beryl containing iron (Fe):
Aquamarine = Fe++, beryl is blue
Slight impurities may give Heliodor = Fe+++, yellow
Beryl containing Manganese(Mn):
a mineral a variety of Morganite : Mn++ is pink
colors Beryl containing Chromium(Cr):
Emerald = emerald green : Cr+++

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Properties…
Streak is the color of a mineral in its powdered
f rm and
form nd iis obtained
bt in d b
by rubbing a mineral
min r l across
r a
piece of unglazed porcelain called a streak plate

Properties… Hardness test


Hardness is a measure of the resistance of a mineral
to abrasion or scratching
1822 Friedrich Mohs – scratch test
Any mineral of unknown hardness can be compared to
other minerals or objects of known hardness

Finger nail (2.5) scratches Quartz (7) scratches calcite


talc (1) (3)

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Hardness test Properties…


Minerals that do not
hibi cleavage
exhibit l h
when
broken are said to
fracture
Fracture styles:
Unknown
U k mineral
i l X cannott be
b scratched
t h d by
b a Irregular
I l
copper penny (3.2) but can be scratched by an iron
Conchoidal
nail (4.5)
What is the hardness of mineral X? fibrous
3.2-4.5 (Dolomite 3.5)

Properties… Other properties


Cleavage is the Specific gravity is the number
tendency
t d off a mineral
i l tto representing the ratio of the weight of a
break along planes of mineral to the weight of an equal volume
weak bonding of water.
Don’t confuse cleavage Taste
with crystal form
F l
Feel
All minerals have crystal
form but some minerals Magnetism
lack cleavage
Reaction to acids

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Mineral identification
Basic mineral test kit GALENA
Metallic luster
streak plate, glass Hardness = 2.5
plate, hand lens, Cleavage
dropper bottle, Color = metallic silver
Characteristics = gray-
magnet, nail, penny, black streak, very dense
hardness scale, activity Uses = ore of lead
suggestions, plus
l nine
mineral specimens
representing various
characteristics

MAGNETITE
GRAPHITE Metallic luster
Metallic luster Hardness = 5.5 - 6.5
Hardness = 1-2 Fracture
Cleavage Color = black to silver
Characteristics = black
Color = silver to gray streak, attracted by
Characteristics = black magnet
streak,
k greasy feel
f l U = ore off iiron
Uses
Uses = pencil lead,
lubricants

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PYRITE TALC
Metallic luster Nonmetallic luster
Hardness = 6.5 Hardness = 1
Cleavage Cleavage
Color = brassy yellow Color = white to green
Characteristics = green- Characteristics = greasy
black streak, cubic feel
crystals Uses = talcum powder,
Uses
U = ore off sulfur
lf soap stone

HEMATITE SULFUR
Metallic luster Nonmetallic luster
Hardness = 1-6.5 Hardness = 2
Fracture Fracture
Color = metallic silver or Color = yellow to amber
earthy red Characteristics = easily
Characteristics = red- melted, may smell
brown streak Uses = vulcanize rubber,
U = ore off iiron
Uses sulfuric
lf i acid
id

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GYPSUM (selenite) HALITE


Nonmetallic luster Nonmetallic luster
Hardness = 2 Hardness = 2.5
Cleavage Cleavage
Color = white to pink or Color = colorless to white
gray Characteristics = cubic
Characteristics = easily cleavage, salty taste
scratched by fingernail Uses = food additive,
Uses
U = plaster
l off paris
i melts
l iice
and drywall

MUSCOVITE BIOTITE
Nonmetallic luster Nonmetallic luster
Hardness = 2-2.5 Hardness = 2.5 - 3
Cleavage Cleavage
Color = colorless to Color = black to dark
yellow brown
Characteristics = flexible Characteristics = flexible
in thin sheets in thin sheets
U = electrical
Uses l i l iinsulator
l U = electrical
Uses l i l iinsulator
l

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CALCITE FLOURITE
Nonmetallic luster Nonmetallic luster
Hardness = 3 Hardness = 4
Cleavage Cleavage
Color = colorless or Color = colorless or
variable variable
Characteristics = bubbles Characteristics = cleaves
with acid in four directions
Uses
U = cement, polarizing
l ii Uses
U = hydroflouric
h d fl i acid id
films

DOLOMITE PYROXENE
Nonmetallic luster Nonmetallic luster
Hardness = 3.5 Hardness = 5 - 6
Cleavage Cleavage
Color = colorless or Color = black to dark
variable green
Characteristics = bubbles Characteristics = cleaves
with acid when powdered in 2 directions at 90o
U = sources off
Uses U = mineral
Uses i l
magnesium collections

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AMPHIBOLE PLAGIOCLASE
Nonmetallic luster FELDSPAR
Hardness = 5.5 Nonmetallic luster
Cleavage Hardness = 6
Color = black to dark Cleavage
green Color = white to gray
Characteristics = cleaves Characteristics = cleaves
at 56o and 124o in 2 directions, striations
Uses
U = mineral
i l visible
i ibl
collections Uses = ceramics and glass

POTASSIUM OLIVINE
FELDSPAR Nonmetallic luster
Nonmetallic luster Hardness = 6.5
Hardness = 6 Fracture
Cleavage Color = green to gray or
Color = white to pink brown
Characteristics = cleaves Characteristics =
in 2 directions at 90o commonly light green
U = ceramics
Uses i and d glass
l and
d granular
l
Uses = furnace bricks and
jewelry

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QUARTZ
Nonmetallic luster
Hardness = 7
Fracture
Color = colorless or
variable
Characteristics = glassy
luster, may form
hexagonal
h l crystals
l
Uses = glass, jewelry, and
electronics

Bowen Reaction Series


Shows the sequence in which minerals crystallize
from magma

GARNET
Nonmetallic luster
Hardness = 7
Fracture
Color = dark red to green
Characteristics = glassy
luster, often seen as red
grains in metamorphic
rocks
k
Uses = mineral
collections

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