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IPA16-642-G

PROCEEDINGS, INDONESIAN PETROLEUM ASSOCIATION


Fortieth Annual Convention & Exhibition, May 2016

PALEOZOIC LACUSTRINE SEDIMENT AT WEST TIMOR AND TECTONIC IMPLICATION


FOR TIMOR ISLAND, NEW EXPLORATION CONCEPT OF HYDROCARBON

Eko Budi Lelono*


Panuju Bohemi*
Andang Bachtiar**
Purnama Suandhi***
Bayu Hary Utomo***
Hanif Ibadurrahman***
Muhammad Arifai***
Ari Yusliandi***
Zaka Lesmana***

ABSTRACT syn-rift sequence series in West Timor onshore


which have terrestrial syn-rift sediment. Other
Geographically, West Timor is located in Nusa significant implication for tectonic is basin
Tenggara Timur Province, Indonesia which is configuration which could be controlled by syn-rift
adjacent to the east and north with Republic fault series. These configurations provide different
Democratic Timor Leste. West Timor is part of tectonic style than the previous theories.
Timor Island which is geologically located in Banda
arc – Australian continental collision zone, the Discovery of Permian lacustrine sediment also
youngest tectonic collision product in the world giving us new concepts of Paleozoic petroleum
which created complexity of geology. system in West Timor. Permian black shale
lacustrine could be a good source rocks which has
Recently, Tectonic situation of west Timor has been opportunity to generate hydrocarbon and complete
explained by many researchers as over thrusted, the Paleozoic play or even younger.
rebound, imbricated, duplex, over-thrust margin,
and basement involved which developed wide INTRODUCTION
exposure zone of Paleozoic – Mesozoic and
Tertiary sequences. Major publication also West Timor is located in Nusa Tenggara Timur
explained Timor Island as distal part of Australian Province, Indonesia which is adjacent to the east
continental plate that consist of distal marine and north with Republic Democratic Timor Leste
sediment from Paleozoic (Permian) to Quaternary. (Figure 1). West Timor is part of Timor Island
All geological background above created which is geologically located in Banda arc –
psychology stigma that West Timor onshore was Australian continental collision zone, the youngest
not potential for hydrocarbon accumulation due to tectonic collision product in the world. Thus
“complexity of geology”. situation created complexity geology condition
especially structural and stratigraphy position. West
This paper will discuss a comprehensive research Timor also situated in the north east – south west
results around West Timor area which are trends of hydrocarbon accumulation which was
successfully discovered Paleozoic lacustrine discovered firstly by Portuguese at Timor Leste area
sediment, implication to tectonic concepts and since 1893 at southwest border of Indonesia –
petroleum system. The Paleozoic lacustrine Timor Leste. The hydrocarbon fields distribution
sediment of West Timor onshore are characterized are stopped in the country border although the
by intercalated black shale with papery structure geology background could be similar between East
and consist of algae layered with sulphur content. and West Timor.
Age and depositional environment information was
confirmed from pollen samples which show range Exploration of hydrocarbon in West Timor area
of Permian – Older than Permian and fresh water began in early 1980 with several good indications of
pollen species. The discovery of lacustrine petroleum system especially oil and gas seepages
environment in Permian age give us new insight of which proved the systems. Complexity and
* PPPTMGB “LEMIGAS”
** COUNCIL OF NATIONAL ENERGY
*** GEOSAIN DELTA ANDALAN
heterogeneity of tectonic - structural geology and Thrust sheets of Timor (Audley - Charles, 1968;
stratigraphy are the biggest challenge to find Audley - Charles & Carter, 1972; Carter et. al.,
economic hydrocarbon accumulations. 1976; Barber et. al.1977), they suggested
allochthonous beds were originally from Eurasia
Recently, tectonic situation of west Timor has been plate which collided with Australia along the
explained by many researchers as over thrusted, collision. Fold and erosion in a big scale in
rebound, imbricated, duplex, over-thrust margin, Australian margin occurred before the thrust sheet
and basement involved area which developed wide formed, which not affected by fold.
exposure zone of Paleozoic – Mesozoic and
Tertiary sequences. Major publication also Overthrust model is rock sheets with different type
explained Timor Island as distal part of Australian and origin, mostly from the same age (Bowin et.al,
continental plate which consist of distal marine 1980). This rock was deposited and then become
sediment from Paleozoic (Permian) to Quaternary. thrust sheet by compression and overthrusting when
All geological background above created collided (Barber et. al. 1977). But, Grady and Berry
psychology stigma that West Timor onshore was (1977), questioned the overthrust model due to less
not potential for hydrocarbon accumulation due to proof on the field to support the basal thrust planes;
“complexity of geology”. thrust fault which supposed to be low dipping fault,
but on the field they were high dipping fault. Grady
This paper will discuss about comprehensive and Berry (1977) also stated in some areas,
fieldwork research results around West Timor area allochthonous material and autochthonous were in a
which are succesfully discovered Paleozoic normal stratigraphic relation and experiencing the
lacustrine sediment, implication to tectonic concepts same deformation (Hamson, 2004).
and petroleum system of West Timor onshore.
Thrust sheets covered Australia basement which the
METHODS origin of allochthonous sheets and para-
autochthonous sheets and imbricated along the
Geologic field mapping, especially measuring forming (Fitch & Hamilton, 1974; Hamilton, 1979;
section in several selected traverses crossing from Charlton et. at., 1991; Charlton, 2000). There rocks
north to south of Timor Island had been done to have different source which uplifted as a series of
support this study. These traverses are connected to fragment and lined in Timor Island, resulting a
each other and tied to Banli-1 well. Biostratigraphy complex from rock imbrication and mélange.
such as small foram, palinology, and nanno fossil
analysis were conducted from selected outcrop Chamalaun and Grady (1978) disagree with this
samples. The result of connected and tied traverses model based on previous research which proof that
will be combined with magneto-telluric which not every unit is imbricated. Furthermore, they were
crossing northern range to southern range of West partially mixed between para-autochthonous
Timor. The outcome of this method will be material and allochthonous material just like
geological cross section and detailed stratigraphic illustrated in imbricated model. Incoherent chaotic
section. mélange is over simplified for a tectonic evolution
model of East Timor (Chamalaun, 1977). Bowin
TECTONIC FRAMEWORK et.al. (1980) also disagree with imbricated model;
they claimed that every Australian affinity rock in
There are many tectonic models explained Timor Timor was already in outer banda arc even before it
Island (Figure 2). There are Over-sthrust model by collided. But, they did not explain the reason why it
Audley-Charles (1986), Rebound model by is in its recent position: “in the way continental
Chamalun & Grady (1978), Imbricated model by block separated from Australia continent and went
Hamilton (1979), Duplex model by Harris (1991) under southern Banda fore arc were not explained
and Chalton et.al. (1991), Over-thrusted Margin by well”.
Sawyer et.al, (1993). The last one is Basement-
involved thrust/inversion by Charlton & Gandara Eurasia micro continent combined by a force could
(2012). form some crust material in a complex collision
zone (Carter et.al, 1976 Karig et.al, 1987. Whittam
Overthrust model were developed based on surface et.al., 1996; Richardson & Blundell, 1996; Linthout
mapping where Overthrust part of allochthonous et.al., 1997; dan Hall 2002). Micro continent
material exposed on the surface. It was also located in north part of Northwest shelf and
supported by almost every allochthonous material in included in a collided complex 8 Ma, causing
 
metamorphism of Aileu formasion in northern coast The development of tectonic evolution in Timor
of East Timor (Berry & Grady, 1981; Berry & Island caused the sedimentation succession of every
McDougall, 1986). But, its paleomagnetism showed period always changing. Syn-rift deposition started
the opposite, Timor is a part of Australian from Perm to Jurassic has deepening upward
allochthon material along Late Permian and Triassic sedimentation succession, it showed from lacustrine
(Chamalaun, 1977). sediment which found in early Perm and deep
marine sediment in Jurassic. Post-rift deposition
Autochthon model or Rebound model oppose both started from Cretaceous to early Miocene has
Overthrust model and Imbricated model. In shallowing upward sedimentation succession, which
Autochthon model, almost all of the sediment came indicated by the deposition of chert and calsilutite
from uplifted Australia continent sequence (Grady, from Nakfunu formation and overlying on top of it
1975; Grady & Berry, 1977; Chamalaun & Grady, by calcarenite from Ofu formation (Figure 3).
1978). Material transfer across continental margin
toward olisostrom mass transportation generates a DETAIL PERMIAN SEDIMENTOLOGY
unit called Bobonaro Scaly Clay (Chamalaun &
Grady, 1978; Harris et.al., 1998.). Autochthon The oldest sedimentary rock in this study area is
model has a weak proof on the field for Overthrust Permian. Sawyer (1991) stated the oldest
model and Imbricated model. It could be solve by a sedimentary rocks in Timor Island are Atahoc and
detail research for uplifted basalt. Cribas formation. Both of these formations were
deposited in shallow to deep marine environment. It
The approach of autochthon model is where oceanic explain that the basin forming in Timor Island
crust and continental crust of Indo-Australia started by a marine environment or terrestrial
separated in the collided zone. The drifting environment occured older than Permian.
continental crust was subducted, causing intense
subduction zone and uplift of north Timor. It also Based on field survey, Permian sedimentary rock
caused reactivasion of pre-existing faults when it could be found all over the study area with some
subducted deeper (Milsom, 2000). Along with the depositional facies environment; platform carbonate
uplift, Bobonaro Scaly Clay slide to the southern facies, (eq. Maubisse Formation), shoreface facies
continental margin due to gravitation. This model (eq. Bisane Formation), lacustrine facies (new
show a steep contact between oceanic crust of significant finding), dan volcanic facies (eq.
island arc and continental crust which supported by Maubisse Volcanic Formation).
gravitational gradient anomaly northward to north
Platform carbonate facies found dominantly in
coast of Timor.
Northern range and also found in central basin. This
facies characterized by red limestone, in some part
REGIONAL STRATIGRAPHY the carbonate rocks have experienced intense
diagenetic (dolomitization and fracturing), rich
Generaly, regional stratigraphy setting in West large foram (crinoids and ammonite). In some areas
Timor could be divided into three sequences; of Northern range coulbe be found its contact with
Kekneno Sequence, Kolbano Sequence, and Jurassic deep marine claystone. It showed thet this
Viqueque Sequence. Based on several previous rock is a mega fragment in a broken formation of
studies, Timor Island is the distal part of Australian Northern range. It also could be found in the border
continental crust; consist of sedimentary rocks between Central basin and Southern range. It could
which deposited in shallow-deep marine. be interpreted that there was paleohigh in shallow
The basin forming process started in Permian which marine which deposited the carbonate rock in
was syn-rift phase. In this period extensional force Permian.
was the main structural mechanism. The
sedimentary rocks were deposited in shallow-deep Shoreface facies could be found in Noil Bisane
marine. The break up of Australian continent and villageor close to Kekneno highs. This facies has
Gondwana occurred in Late Jura causing contact with younger facies which is Triassic deep
unconformity of deep marine volcanic. From marine facies. The characteristic of this facies is
Cretaceous to early Miocene was the post rift phase intercalated sandstone claystone. Sandstone with
identified by sedimentary rock in passive margin gray color, grain size fine-medium, sedimentary
environment. In late Miocene, collision of Banda structure cross bedding and hummocky, and some
island arc and Australia continent. In late Pliocene erosional contact with claystone, fining upward
the tectonic was relatively calm. succession, mica dominant, well sorted, internal
 
thickness 0.3-5 m, small amount of crinoids and By understanding the stratigraphic column in some
ammonite. Claystone, light grey-dark grey, regional references, the oldest sediment found in
carbonate cement, and internal thickness 10-50 cm. this study area is sedimentary rock deposited in
shallow marine environment (Maubisse Fromation)
Lacustrine facies founded in Ajobaki village (Figure and deep marine (Atahoq and Cribas Formation). In
6), or to be specific in Fatunausus high. The this study, lacustrine sediment is a new finding. It
characteristic of this facies is intercalated black very contradicts from regional references. The
shale and dark grey-black siltstone, rich organic implication of this finding could change tectonic
matter, smelled tar if it burned, grain size clay-silt, setting of the study area, because lacustrine
rich sulphur, non-carbonate (Figure 7, 8, 9). In sediment is a justification of terrestrial environment
Ajobaki village there are also found gas seepages, when the basin forming started.
one of it burned for a year. Based on pollen
analysis, the lacustrine sediment is Permian-late Basin forming started in early Permian nor even
Trias with some pollen index as; Plicatipollenites older, it was confirmed by the pollen analysis on the
malabarensis (Permian), Plicalipollensis janakii lacustrine sediment which show fresh water
(Permian) and Protohaploxypinus samoilovichi depositional environment in Permian-older that
(Triassic), Falcisporites australis (Triassic). Permian. It justify rifting started in terrestrial
environment. Based on configuration of lows and
Volcanic facies characterized by volcanic igneous highs from gravitation map, it showed at least 3
rock (lava basalt). It could be found in some areas Northwest-southeast half graben systems in this
such as Bakulis, Halulik, Kefamenanu and spot study area.
mapping in Niki-niki. The igneous rock in Halilulik
traverse and Niki-niki is pillow lava with vesicular, Extensional mechanism played a big role in basin
whilst in Bakulis and Kefamenanu traverse without forming of the study area from Permian to Jurassic.
vesicular. Based on the lava structure analysis this The sedimentary rock which was deposited at the
lava basalt formed under water or near surface. same time with the basin forming has different
depositional environment, it is caused by the very
Based on petrography, it is interpreted a Meta- active tectonic and causing fast depositional
mafic/ultra mafic rock with Crystalloblastic texture environment changing. The depositional
and non-foliated structure. Main composition of this environment at the early stage of basin forming
rock is tremolit-aktinolit associated with some started in terrestrial environment (Permian) and
secondary minerals such as clay, serisit, chlorite, change basinward to deep marine (Jurassic) along
and zeolite. Intense fracturing and filled with with the subsidence.
calcite. Opaque mineral also could be found here
with minimum proportion. Porosity in this sample Depositional environment model (Figure 4) showed
are from fracture zone which not filled by calcite. on land basin forming will generate sedimentary
The porosity value is 1, 25%. rock in lacustrine environment. It proved by the
lacustrine sediment finding. The characteristic of
TECTONIC IMPLICATION this sediment is intercalated black claystone and
siltstone and rich sulphur. The lacustrine sediment
exposed could be due to intense structural geology
Significant sedimentology finding in this study will
or inversion. This finding could be used as analogue
make some differences compared to regional
model of Central basin which on MT-1 traverse
references of West Timor. It caused a new theory on
showed half-graben structure. This lacustrine
tectonic setting of Timor Island. The differences
sediment is also potential for source rock with good
between regional references and our significant
quality to produce hydrocarbon.
finding also will make different interpretation in
hydrocarbon of the study area, especially source
PETROLEUM SYSTEM
rock and reservoir.
The late Permian lacustrine sediment is the oldest
In some published regional references (Sawyer sedimentary rock in this study area. This source
1993, Charlton 2001, and Harris 2011) stated the rock material was deposited in the early stage of
deposition of early basin forming filled by deep syn-rift. Overlying on top of it is sedimentary rock
marine sediments, it was interpreted by looking with shoreface to platform-shoreface facies. It is
Timor Island by distal part of Australia continent. possible to generate Paleozoic petroleum system.

 
The lacustrine sediment is good in producing 2. Lacustrine sediment facies is the oldest
hydrocarbon, with high maturity index (Ro>0.9) it sedimentary rock in this study area, deposited in
will produce gas. Based on source rock early stage of basin forming (early syn-rift).
geochemistry analysis, lacustrine sediment in this
study area has 0.7-24.45% TOC. Sedimentary rock 3. Lacustrine sediment facies is the main source
of intraformational Bisane formation with soreface rock with 0.7-24.45% TOC (good-very good,
depositional environment, black shale characteristic whilst shoreface facies source rock is 0.51-
and internal thickness 0.5-1.5 m is also potential. It 0.54% TOC (fair-good) and Kerogen type III.
has petroleum potential from fair to good with 0.51-
0.54% TOC. It is type III kerogen which can 4. Permian shoreface facies sediment is the main
produce gas (Figure 5). This sedimentary rock could reservoir rock with 1.18-33.46% porosity and
be found on the surface in eastern and western part 142 mD permeability.
of West Timor. In the central and southern part the
distribution of this formation is still in sub surface, 5. Trap in this Palaeozoic play concept is
which make it potential. It explained that Bisane basement inverted/involved fold-related fault
formation distributed almost all over the study area. system.

The main reservoir rock in the Plaozoic play 6. The cap rock of Plaeozoic play concept is thick
concept is Bisane formation sandstone which has 1- claystone in late Jura bathyal facies of Wailuli
3 m thickness, deposited in shoreface environment. formation
Bisane formation sandstone which exposed on the
surface has good porosity and permeability, with ACKNOWLEDGEMENTS
1.18-33.46% porosity and 142 mD permeability.
This sedimentary rock exposed and distributed in Authors would like to say thank you to PPPTMGB
western and eastern part of West Timor, it means “Lemigas”and GDA Consulting as full support in
there is a good chance it has not been exposed in study and presentation.
central and southern part which is potential as
reservoir rock. REFERENCES

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inverted/ involved fold-related fault system. In Portuguese Timor. Geological Society of London
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Figure 1 - Tectonic regional configuration of West Timor.

Figure 2 - Tectonic model in Timor Island (modified from Read, et.al, 1996).

 
Figure 3 - Stratigraphic Column of Timor Island.

Figure 4 - Paleogeography model of Permian sediment (early syn-rift).

 
Figure 5 - Cross plot diagram TOC vs HI.

 
Figure 6 - Traverse and sample (lacustrine outcrop) location map of Ajoebaki Area, Kapan, Soe, West
Timor.

Figure 7 - Selected photo lacustrine deposits (interbedded carbonaceous shale) founded at Ajobaki Area,
Kapan, Soe, West Timor.

 
Figure 8 - Detail outcrop AJB-SM4-ZLT of lacustrine deposits at Ajobaki Area.

 
Figure 9 - Detail outcrop AJB-SM3-ZLT of lacustrine deposits at Ajobaki Area.