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Low Carbon Technology Roadmap for the Indian

Cement Industry
Innovations Leading the Way Forward

S K Chaturvedi
Joint Director
National Council for Cement and Building Materials, India

10th CSI Annual Forum Meeting


Madrid, Spain
13 & 14 December 2016
Cement Production in India

62 100 131 172 221 269


100
25 28 27
80 42
70 63
Percent

60

40 67 65 66
50
20 19 26

11 11 8 8 7 7
0
1995 2000 2005 2008 2012 2015

PSC ppc OPC


Low Carbon Growth for Indian cement industry

Low Demand Case

CO2 emission reduction potential from 488 Mt CO2 to 275 Mt


CO2 ( 2010-2050)

Key Levers identified are:


1. Co-processing of AFR
2. Thermal & Electrical Energy Efficiency
3. Clinker Substitution
4. Waste Heat Recovery systems
5. Newer Technologies
Energy reduction potential between 377 PJ to 485 PJ
( 2010-2050)
MAJOR ISSUES BEFORE INDIAN CEMENT INDUSTRY

• UTILISATION OF LOW AND MARGINAL GRADE LIMESTONE

• DEVELOPMENT OF CEMENTS WITH LOWER CLINKER FACTORS AND


IMPROVED PERFORMANCE

• USE OF ALTERNATE FUELS AND RAW MATERIALS

• FURTHER REDUCTION IN CO2 EMISSION FROM CEMENT


MANUFACTURE

• ASSURED AVAILABILITY OF GOOD QUALITY DRY FLYASH AND


GRANULATED BLAST-FURNACE SLAG FOR PRODUCTION OF
BLENDED CEMENTS

• RECOVERY OF WASTE HEAT FROM KILN AND COOLER EXHAUST GAS


FOR SETTING-UP COST EFFECTIVE CO-GENERATION POWER UNITS

• ACHIEVING HIGHER ENERGY EFFICIENCY AND PRODUCTIVITY


LEVELS

• HARNESSING SOLAR AND WIND POWER


Research Plan of NCB by 2021 & Beyond
• Low Carbon & Multi Component Blended Cements
– Leading to reduced CO2 Emission Low Energy Consumption & Resource
Conservation
• Alternative Binders & Cementitious Materials
– Resulting in Broadening of Material Base, Environmental Protection
• Alternate Fuels and Raw Materials
– To Achieve Higher TSR and Resource Conservation
• Productivity & Environment Improvement in Cement Industry
– To Achieve Cost Optimization & Environment Protection
• Stable and Durable Construction Systems
– Resulting in Longer Lifetimes and Needing Lesser Maintenance
• High Performance Concrete Systems
– Leading to Stronger Construction with Lesser Materials, Resource
Conservation
HIGHLIGHTS OF NCCBM’s WASTE UTILIZATION STUDIES

Waste Materials Research Outcome


Fly ash from Thermal National average of Fly ash utilization up to 28% in
Power Plants PPC Manufacture
Lead-Zinc Slag from Zinc Utilization up to 6% as Cement Raw Mix
Smelters
5% as Performance Improver

Copper Slag from Copper Utilization up to 2.5% as Cement Raw Mix


industry
5% as Performance Improver
Steel Slag from Steel Utilization up to 2.0% as Cement Raw Mix
Industry
5% as Performance Improver
SPL from Aluminum Utilization up to 1.5% as Mineralizer
manufacturing units
E-cat from Oil Refineries Utilization up to 10-15% in the Manufacture of
Blended Cement
Marble Dust from Marble Utilization up to 5-15% as replacement of
Processing Industries Limestone in Cement
Manufacture
INDIAN STANDARDS

New standards Revised standards

RECENTLY FORMULATED RECENTLY REVISED

COMPOSITE CEMENT IS 269, OPC – EXTENDED LIST OF


PERFORMANCE
WORK IN PROGRESS IMPROVERS
HIGH VOLUME FLY ASH PPC, PSC – INCREASED LIMIT OF SO3
CEMENT WORK IN PROGRESS
PORTLAND LIMESTONE
PERFORMANCE IMPROVERS IN PPC &
CEMENT PSC
GEOPOLYMER BINDER & ‘COMPOSITE CEMENT USING FLY ASH
CONCRETE – LIMESTONE’
MULTICOMPONENT BLENDED
CEMENT, CALCINED CLY-LST IS 4031 – MECHANICAL MIXER AND
FIXED W/C
Performance Improvers in OPC
S. Material Specification
No.
1 Fly ash Conforming to IS 3812 (Part 1)

2 Granulated slag Conforming to IS 12089

3 Silica fume Conforming to IS 15388

4 Limestone CaCO3 not less than 75%

5 Rice husk ash Reactive silica not less than 80%,


Pozzolanic activity index not less than 90 %,
LOI not more than 5%

6 Metakaolin Conforming to IS 16354

7 Copper slag Conforming to IS 269

8 Steel slag Conforming to IS 269

9 Lead zinc slag Conforming to IS 269

10 Spent fluidized catalytic Conforming to IS 1344


cracking equilibrium catalyst
Revision of Cement Standards – 2015
Some Salient Points
IS 269 -2015, OPC IS 1489 Part 1, PPC IS 455, PSC
4 more Raised limit of Raised limit of
performance maximum SO3 maximum SO3
improvers included content – 3.5% content – 3.5%
Uniform 5% IR in Clinker conforming Clinker conforming
all the 3 grades of to IS 16353 to IS 16353
OPC
Minimum limit of IR
included (0.6X)
Marking - % of fly Marking - % of slag
ash addition addition
Composite Cement
Composition Maximum
Slag
Minimum

IS 16415 : 2015 Fly


ash
Maximum

Minimum
Constituent Content , %
Clinker/ 35 - 65 Clin
Maximum
ker /
OPC OPC Minimum
Fly ash 15 -35
0 20 40 60 80
GBFS 20 - 50
Future Cementing Materials
• Broadening the range of additives for use in composite cement
• Use of combination of fly ash and limestone as the mineral
additives
• Use of blending additives such as rice husk ash, metakaolin,
silica fume, microfine slag/ fly ash, various types of slags

• Geopolymeric Binders
• Performance Improvers in PPC and PSC
• High volume Fly ash Cement
• Portland Limestone Cement
• Multi Component Blended Cement
• Calcined Clay-Limestone Cement
SEM image of alkali activated Bottom ash with
30% GBFS cured for 28 days
Physical Characteristics of Laboratory Prepared Tiles
Sl Dimensions
Warpage Flexural Strength Water Absorption
Period No LxWxH
(mm) (mm) (MPa) (%)

At 28d I 150 x 75 x 25 ≤ 0.03 5.4 19.62


dry
curing

II 150 x 75 x 25 ≤ 0.03 5.4 18.94


Physical Characteristics of Lab Prepared Bricks
Sl Dimensions
Compressive Water Absorption
Period No LxWxH
(mm) Strength (MPa) (%)

At 28d dry I 191 x 90 x 41 15.5 13.88


curing
Laboratory Prepared Bricks and Tiles
Waste Heat Recovery Systems for Indian cement industry
 Waste heat recovery is now emerging as an excellent
addition/supplement to existing captive power generation.
 Other than reducing energy (power) cost significantly, it can
also be a reliable source of power.
 Reduced fuel consumption, which in turn reduces fuel cost
significantly (considered in the context of overall thermal
power plants of the country)
 To mitigate the emission of Green house gases which are
affecting the environment adversely.
 To bring down the overall gate-to-gate specific energy
consumption of the plant significantly
 To bring about best energy efficient practice in the plant
 To provide economic competitive advantage in the market

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Source of waste heat in context of Cement Plant
PREHEATER EXIT GAS COOLER EXIT GAS
300 - 400oC, 180 - 250 200 - 300oC, 80 -
KCAL/KG 130 KCAL/KG

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Outcome of PAT Scheme
 Government of India enacted Energy Conservation
Act in 2001. Under this Act, an innovative scheme
of Perform, Achieve and Trade (PAT) was launched.
 During PAT cycle-1 (Apr’14 to Mar’15), which is now
completed, Indian cement industry has shown
commendable performance in surpassing the set
energy targets and achieved 1.480 million tones of
oil equivalent (MTOE), 82% higher than the target.
 Waste Heat Recovery system implementation
during PAT Cycle-1 was to the tune of 159 MW
which generated 841.3 Million Units @ 61% Plant
Load Factor.
 Despite the progress that has been made in waste
heat recovery in the cement industry, it is important
to keep in mind that the overall efficiency of waste
heat recovery and the economic situation is very
plant-specific. 17
Outcome of Energy Audit Studies Carried Out by NCB

• 185 Energy Audit studies in 95 cement


plants (1984-2016)
• During last 20 years, 85 Energy Audit
studies in cement plants, indicated annual
potential savings of about 260 million units
of power and 0.50 million tonnes of coal
(savings of Rs 140 crores equi. to 20 million
Euro)

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Availability of Alternate Fuels in India
Total Availability for
availability co-processing % TSR
Alternate Fuel
(million (million potential
tonnes/year) tonnes/year)
Surplus 150 15 30-32
Biomass

RDF from 6.88 1.37 2-3


MSW
Used tyres 0.83 0.40 2
Incinerable 0.54 0.40 1.5-1.7
Hazardous
waste
Industrial 0.20 0.10 0.3-0.5
Plastic waste
TOTAL 158.5 17.3 36-38
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Availability of Alternate Raw materials in India
Industrial Waste Generating Industry Generation per
annum
(Million tonnes )
1. Flyash Power 200.0

2. Blast furnace Slag Steel 20.0

3. Steel slag Steel 6.0

4. Phospho-Gypsum Fertilizers 6.5

5. Phospho-Chalk Fertilizers / Chemicals 5.5

6. Red mud Aluminium 5.0

7. Lime Sludge Paper 6.5

8. Marble Slurry Marble Industry 1.5

9. SPL Waste Aluminium Industry 0.3

10. Equilibrium-Cat Waste Oil Refinery 0.02

11. Lead-zinc slag Non-Ferrous metals 1.2

12. Kimberlite NMDC 1.0


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Outcome of Co-Processing of AF Studies
Spent Wash
No kiln operational and quality problems observed during trials at 1000 LPH feed of
spent wash (3.5%)
Chloride content in hot meal increased to 0.6% with spent wash from 0.3% with coal.
Volatile matter increased to 3% from 2.0-2.5%
Chloride content in spent wash be restricted to 1.5% and below 0.35% in hot meal at
kiln inlet.

ETP Sludge
The ETP sludge consumption was found to be varying from 4% to 6.5% (on dry basis)
of total fuel used during the period of trials.
With proper handling and feeding higher quantity of ETP sludge can be used up to
10%.
The laboratory results for chemical analysis and heavy metals in the clinker indicate
that ETP sludge has negligible impact on the quality of clinker.
The results of leachability tests from all the clinker samples are also found within
narrow variation indicating no adverse impact on use of ETP sludge. 21
Renewable Energy
Presently, 8 plants have gone for installation of wind
power with rated capacity of around 256 MW.
Replication potential exists for other plants for around
30% renewable energy substitutions.

Cement plants have installed solar plants with an


overall generation potential of around 16.5 MW.

All these will contribute to achieve the national targets


of 175 GW of energy through Renewable Energy route.

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