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Geoinformatics

Geoinformatics is a science which develops and uses


information science infrastructure to address the problems
of geosciences and related branches of engineering.

Geoinformatic technologies include G


eographic information systems (GIS), G
lobal positioning systems (GPS), and Remote sensing.
WHAT IS G I S ?
GEOGRAPHIC Geography (from the Greek word Geo (γη)
means "Earth", and graphein (γραφειν) meaning "to
describe" or "to write“ or "to map") is the study of the earth
and its features, inhabitants, and phenomena. A literal
translation would be "to describe or write about the Earth".
Features can be calculated, in terms of Geographic
coordinates (Latitude, Longitude)

INFORMATION implies that the data in a GIS are organized to


yield useful knowledge, often as colored maps and images,
but also as statistical graphics, tables, and various on-
screen responses to interactive queries.

SYSTEM implies that a GIS is made up from several inter-


related and linked components with different functions.
Thus, GIS have functional capabilities for data capture,
input, query, analysis, modeling, manipulation,
transformation, visualization, combinations and output.
A SET OF TOOLS FOR
COLLECTING
STORING,
RETRIEVING ,
TRANSFORMING AND
DISPLAY
OF SPATIAL DATA FROM THE REAL WORLD
Simply said:

Geographic » maps
Information » data
System » digital

A GIS links information to geographic location


(connects the what to the where).
• An integration of five basic components

Procedures
GIS functions
Capture
Capture
Customers
Store
Store
Buildings
Query
Query
Analyze
Analyze Streets

Display
Display
Reality
Output
Output
Maps and Plans

Digital data Paper files

Data

Data
Data collection
Data

Photogrammetry

GIS

Data

Remote Sensing Field survey

GIS Data Sources


Data Capture Sources
• Digitizing from paper maps
• Scanning
• GPS
DATA STRUCTURE
GIS

GRAPHIC ALPHA NUMERIC

VECTOR RASTER

IMAGE

AREAL REMOTE SENSED


PHOTOGRAPH SCANNED IMMAGES
Storing Data
• Vector formats
– Discrete representations of reality

X,Y X,Y X,Y

X,Y

• Raster formats
– Use square cells to model reality
Reality
Rows (A highway)

X,Y Columns
Concept of
Vector and Raster Real World

Raster Representation Vector Representation


0 1 2 3 4 5 6 7 8 9
0 R T
1 R T
2 H R point
3 R line
4 R R
5 R
6 R T T H
7 R T T polygon
8 R
9 R
SPATIAL DATA Raster

Vector

DATA MODEL AND STRUCTURE

RASTER MODEL VECTOR MODEL


• Rows and columns of equal-sized cells
– Each cell stores a value
– Detail depends on cell size
• GRID (the ESRI native raster format)

• Images (TIFF, BMP, SID, JPEG, ERDAS)


MAPS AND MAP ELEMENTS
Maps are graphic representation of our perception
of the world around us. They represent cartographic
interpretation and simplification of reality.

Maps contains features such as

POINT
LINE SURFACE
AREA
MAPS AND MAP ELEMENTS
Maps provide two types of information:
Location information is graphically represented as points,
lines and areas.
Spatial relationships are derived through interpretation by the
map user.
Maps contain POINT features, LINE features and AREA features
-wells -roads -urban areas
-control points -hydro lines -water bodies
-sample sites -rivers -soil/rock units
-fire stations -contour lines -forest areas
SPATIAL RELATIONSHIPS AMONG MAP FEATURES ARE
DISPLAYED ON A MAP. THEIR SIGNIFICANCE MUST BE
INTERPRETED BY THE MAP USER
Point Features
Spatially distributed entities, activities or
events
• Points have a single geographic
coordinate such as:
– Tree
– Traffic accident
– Lamp post
Line Features
Spatially distributed entities, activities or
events
• Lines (Arcs) are a series of geographic
coordinates joined to form a line such
as:
– Road
– Stream
– Railway
Area Features
Spatially distributed entities, activities or
events
• Areas (Polygons) are a series of
geographic coordinates joined together
to form a boundary such as:
– Lake
– Soil types
Thematic layers contain features
# # # #

Points
#
#
#

#
#
# #
# # #

Lines
#
#
#
#
#
#
#

Areas

Text
ATTRIBUTE DATA
Attributes can be numeric or
alfanumeric data that is assigned to a
point, line or area spatial features
Example Attributes…
Stand ID, Compartment
no,Vegetation type, Name of the
Forest Block,Type of Road,VSS code
etc.,
Geographic Data
Descriptive Data

Chris Buhi 1757 Millbrook Ln 28226 Y 2


Christian Carlson 1761 Millbrook Ln 28226 Y 1
Chris McGuire 1765 Millbrook Ln 28226 Y 2
Dale Loberger 1776 Millbrook Ln 28226 N 6
Donna Buccini 1780 Millbrook Ln 28226 Y 2
Doug Ruppel 1537 Sandberry Dr 28226 Y 1
Gary Waters 1541 Sandberry Dr 28226 Y 3
Holly Williams 1200 Yamasee Dr 28210 Y 4
Jim Wojcik 980 Harrowfield Rd 28226 N 1
Jo-Ann Brown 1812 Millbrook Ln 28226 N 2
Joe Rubisch 1090 Overhill Dr 28112 Y 4
Larry Young 1108 Kings Canyon Dr 28226 Y 3
Lee Ross 1605 Bosham Ln 28226 Y 2
Marcia Austin 1429 Quail Wood Dr 28226 Y 2
Mary Jo Fraley 1432 Quail Wood Dr 28226 Y 1
Mike Dyer 1430 Quail Wood Dr 28226 Y 3
Mike Rhoades 1332 Cameron Forest Dr 28173 Y 3
Mike Sweeney 1327 Red Hickory Ln 28173 Y 2
Paul Gallimore 1429 Buckeye Ct 28173 Y 2
Geographic Information

N Donna Buccini
er

6
t
as

1780 Millbrook Ln
nc

Y
.a

Mi Jo-Ann Bro
llb 2
ro 1812 Millbr
ok
La Y
ne 2
Christian Carlson
1761 Millbrook Ln
Y Chris McGuire
1 1765 Millbrook Ln
Y
LandCapability

Soil
Spatial Roads

Data
Layers
VillagesBnd
Location

Landuse
Relationships Among Data
Build Once, Use Many Times

Base Data Other Thematic Data

Land Ownership

Transportation Flood Zones


Demographics
Surface Waters
Power Grid
Boundaries
Water Lines
Geodetic Control
Sewer Lines
Elevation
Gas Lines
Imagery
The GIS sandwich
Integration of Multilayer Data

Fusion Concept
Measuring and Integrating the Parts...

Social Factors
Biodiversity
Engineering
Land Use
Environmental
Considerations

…Means Seeing the Whole


Query
• Identifying specific features

• Identifying features based


on conditions
Florida
Floridacounties
countieswith
withaa
population
populationgreater
greaterthan
than300,000
300,000
Analysis
Which
Whichparcels
parcelsare
are
within
within50
50feet
feetof
ofthe
theroad?
road?

Proximity
Proximity

Well
Welltype
type Drilled
Drilled
Building
Buildingowner
owner Smith
Smith
Soil
Soiltype
type Sandy
Sandy
Overlay
Overlay

Network
Network
RS & GIS FOR DRINKING WATER
Base Map STRUCTURE

Irrigation
Water -Body
Inselberg Gneiss
Inselberg - Gneiss
Basalt/Metabasalt
Poor/ Foliation
Schistocity to- Schist
Inselberg Nil -
Moderate
Drainage Inselberg
Gneiss
Tank
Fault Linear
Poor to -Nil
Schist
Irrigation
Ridge-Phyllite
(Confirmed) - Major
Poor to Moderate
GLinear
Pediment -- Gneiss
Phyllite
W Irrigation
Fracture/Linament(Confirmed)-
Minor
Structure Poor to Moderate
Pediment - Schist
Pediment - Gneiss
Fracture/Linament(Inferred)-
Poor to Nil
MinorPIC - Gneiss

Farm
Line Points
Pediment
TrendPoor to Nil- Schist
PIC - Schist
Lithology
PIC
Reef- Gneiss
Recharge
Pedipleain Pits -Gneiss
Moderate
Good
Quartz

Pedipleain Moderate - Schist


BasicPIC
Dyke - Schist
Good
Geomorphology Moderate to Good
Pedipleain Moderate
Pedipleain Shallow - Gneiss
-Gneiss
Moderate to Good
Pedipleain Shallow
Pedipleain Moderate- Schist
-
Residual to
Poor
Schist Hill Nil
- Schist

Pedipleain Shallow -
Poor toHill
Structural
Gneiss
Nil- Schist

Pedipleain Shallow -
Schist
Residual Hill - Schist

Structural Hill - Schist

Integrated
Map
Display
Maps
Maps

Graphs
Graphs

Reports
Reports
Output
Paper
Paper map
map Internet
Internet

GIS
Data
Image
Image Document
Document
Florida.jpg Florida.mxd
A GIS ANSWERS THE FOLLOWING QUESTIONS

LOCATION : WHERE IS THE FEATURE


LOCATED ?

CONDITIONAL : WHERE IS THE FEATURE


WHICH SATISFIES ?

TRENDS : WHAT HAS CHANGED SINCE?

MODELLING : WHAT IF ?
GIS APPLICATIONS
• ENVIRONMENTAL IMPACT ASSESSMENTS
• LAND INFORMATION SYSTEM
• LAND USE AND THEMATIC MAPPING
• FACILITY MANAGEMENT
• HEALTH CARE, DISEASE PROFILE
• FORESTRY AND WILD LIFE TRACKING
• WASTE LAND DEVELOPMENT
• GROUND WATER RESOURCES MANAGEMENT
• URBAN AND TOWN PLANNING
• BUSINESS AND RETAILS
• DEFENCE
k Yo u
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