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INTRODUCTION

Water is essential for life on Earth and of crucial importance for society. Water also plays a
major role in affecting climate. Its natural cycle, from ocean to atmosphere by evaporation, then by
precipitation back to land returning via rivers and aquifers to the oceans, has a decisive impact on
regional and global climate patterns.

Water is essential for drinking and food cultivations for human being and for other living beings
including plants .clean and pure supply of water is essential for the survival of the life present on earth.
water is the only substance the exists naturally on earth in 3 physical states of matter-gas, liquid and
solid .pure water is colorless, odorless, tasteless .water has a simple molecule structure ,composed of
one oxygen atom and two hydrogen atoms. Each hydrogen atoms covalently bonded to the oxygen via a
shared pair of electrons. Therefore the water is known to a polar molecule .All the unique properties of
water make it as a universal solvent .All most all life on earth depends on water for their growth,
development, and survival. Thus predominantly water exists in 2 major forms- surface water and
Ground water.

Ground water is water located beneath the ground surface in soil pore spaces and in
the fractures of rock formations .A unit of rock or an unconsolidated deposit is called an aquifer when it
can yield a usable quantity of water. Ground water is a source of water for wells and springs.

The distinct advantage of ground water storage is that there is no evaporation losses from the
groundwater. Groundwater recharge systems are sustainable, economical and do not have
environmental problems like water stored in open reservoir. Groundwater formation acts like natural
filter, recharge Systems also can be used to clean water of impaired quality.

Water quality refers to the chemical, physical, biological and radiological characteristics of
water. The quality of ground water accumulated by vertical infiltration in sub surface is affected by the
aquifer through which the water percolates. Hence, it is inevitable to study the composition and
behavior of the Aquifer rocks in terms basic functions of porosity and permeability .The mineral
contents of the sub surface play a significant role in impacting the groundwater quality .Also
overexploitation of groundwater from the deeper aquifers can cause quality problems in these zones
due to encroachments of saline ingredients, especially near the coastline .man-made issues such as
leachate formation due to ill landfill practices ,leakages in the sewage networks, pollution of the base
flows and nonscientific design of bore wells –casing and drilling are the major factors affecting the
quality of ground water.

Ground water in shallow aquifers is generally suitable for use for different purposes and is
mainly of Calcium bicarbonate and mixed type. However, other types of water are also available
including Sodium-Chloride water. The quality in deeper aquifers also varies from place to place is
generally found suitable for common uses. Only in some cases, ground water has been found unsuitable
for specific use due to various contaminations mainly because of geogenic reasons .
SCOPE AND OBJECTIVES
SCOPE OF THE STUDY

Ground water is considerd as one of the most precious fresh water resource available in earth .Due to
rise in population the ground water is being exploited. Decrease in the water table arise a new threat for
ground water .This research is meant to analyse the suitability of ground water in that particular area

OBJECTIVES OF THE STUDY

 To assess the quality of water in particular areas by physio – chemical parameters


 To compare the result with international and national water quality standards
 To check the suitability of water of domestic purposes .

MATERIALS & METHODS

ANALYSIS OF WATER QUALITY PARAMETERS


The analysis for the various physio-chemical parameters are done by the following procedure is
described in CPCB 2016 & APHA 2012 .

Estimation of pH

pH is an quantitative measure of the acidity or basicity of water. A solution with a pH less than 7
is considered acidic ; a solution with a PH greater than 7 is considered basic .it is a number that
represents it is a number that represents the number of hydrogen ions(H+)& hydroxyl ions(OH-)that
are present in the water. Accurate pH measurements are determining the state of water sample .PH of
the water samples are estimated using water analyzer kit( Elico PE138) .The pH is measured by dipping
the indicator paper into solution and comparing the resulting colour with the manufacturer ‘s standards
.The pH of ground water will vary depending on the composition of the rocks and sediments that
surround the travel pathway of the recharge water infiltrating to the ground water. Ground water
chemistry will also vary depending on how long the existing ground water is in contact with a particular
rock. The chemical composition of the bedrock tends to stabilize (buffer) the pH of the ground water .
Estimation of temperature

Water temperature was measured using temperature probe of water analyzer kit (Elico PE 138).wait for
sometime .until the constant value get. Readings were noted and results are recorded in degree Celsius .