You are on page 1of 59

SMART SOLAR GRASS CUTTER WITH LAWN COVERAGE

Submitted by:

Callos, Norbien C.
BSEEC/151-0304

Chico, Gerwin J.
BSEEC/141-0392

Lopez, Daryl Angelo D.


BSEEC/151-0233

Legaspi, Ronniel Aeron R.


BSEEC/151-0444

Mapoy, Ralph Lorenz D.


BSEEC/151-0758

March 29, 2019


Chapter 1

Introduction

Over the past few decades, technologies made great contributions to the

environmental protection. In the time where technology is merging with environmental

awareness, consumers are looking for ways to contribute to the relief of their own carbon

footprints. Nowadays, energy crisis deals with limited supply of energy resources to

economy. It usually refers to the shortage of oil and additionally to electricity or other

natural resources. An energy crisis may also pertain to as an oil or petroleum crisis and

energy or electricity shortage.

Pollution is one of the major issues in the world nowadays. Pollution is man-made

and can be seen in our own daily lives, more specifically in our homes.

According to Paytas (1991), present day power mowers can be powered either by

a four-cycle gasoline engine or a two-cycle gasoline engine for providing power to drive a

cutting blade of either the rotary or reel type. Electric motor powered mowers have the

power supply provided to the motor through an extensible cord which connects to a

standard domestic power supply. The use of gasoline engine constitutes a substantial source

of air pollution which in time could become regulated by the Environmental Protection

Agency (E.P.A.) as are larger engines for powering automobiles and other motor vehicles.

The alternative to such gasoline engines is a cord type electric motor driven mower. Such

mowers, however, are not as mobile as gasoline engine mowers in a way that they must be

connected to a power supply by a cord during their operation.

1|Page
In this regard, traditional design of lawn mowers creates noise pollution due to the

loud engine and air pollution due to the combustion in the engine. It is a motor powered

engine that requires periodic maintenance such as changing the engine oil and greasing.

Also, the cost of fuel is increasing hence it is not efficient. Based on research published on

the website of U.K. Essays, each year, approximately 80,000 people with injuries caused

by power mowers were treated in emergency departments. More than 9,000 of the people

hurt were younger than 18 years. Lawn mower injuries include deep cuts, loss of fingers

and toes, broken and dislocated bones, burns, and eye and other injuries. Some injuries are

very serious and both users of mowers and those who are nearby can be hurt.

In order to enhance the beauty of home-lawns and gardens, grass cutting machines

are the best option available in the market. Mowers were originally manually operated,

relying on the user to push them along. Nowadays, the cutters are commonly powered by

electrical or petrol engines, but the user must still exert a considerable force to push the

mower forwards. The majority of mowers nonetheless still rely on a user to guide and

operate them. This makes lawn mowing moderately difficult and time-consuming task. For

larger lawns, powered mowers may take the form of small vehicles on which the user sits.

Such vehicles are expensive and only suitable for large-scale applications.

Therefore, the need arises to design a lawn mower that was able to cut grass

automatically and make the whole landscaping process much convenient and easier for the

user. This includes detecting and avoiding collisions in obstacles, navigating within a

coverage mainly powered by solar energy.

2|Page
Herein, the researchers propose a model of the automatic grass cutting machine

powered through solar energy. It is going to perform the grass cutting operation on its own

and the design is meant to be an alternate green option to the popular and environmentally

hazardous fuel powered lawn mower. There’s no oil, and no pollution. Just clean air, less

noise, and green grass.

As the world keeps on developing, technology will change, what is working today

might not work tomorrow. So it is better to stay up-to-date with new technologies and learn

how to embrace and use them in our daily life.

3|Page
Statement of the Problem

This research attempts to build and design a “Smart Grass Cutting Machine” by the

use of Solar Energy. More specifically, it seeks to find the answers to the following

questions:

1. What are the electronic components and equipment required in the development

and testing automation of Smart Solar Grass Cutter with Lawn Coverage to work

effectively and efficiently?

2. What are the differences in terms of structure and performance of the Smart Solar

Grass Cutter compared to the existing lawn mowing practices and conditions?

3. How many hours will it take to cut the grasses and to be recharge again?

4. What type of places with grasses the device can be applicable to trim grasses and

perform properly?

5. What will be the contribution of the Smart Solar Grass Cutter to the environment

and users of it?

4|Page
Objectives of the Study

This study generally aims to fabricate a solar grass cutter as a fully automated

machine powered by renewable energy that also avoids obstacles and beautify the

environment without the need of any human interaction.

Following research objectives would facilitate the achievement of this aim:

1. To specify the appropriate electronics components and equipment required in fully

automated device that is versatile in programming powered by solar energy and

avoids obstacles without the need of any human interaction.

2. To study various developments and performance in grass cutting machines and add

modifications to the traditional lawn mower.

3. To calculate the operating time of the machine and know well then it can be fully

charged or discharged.

4. To identify possible places with grasses where the device can give efficient output

for the work.

5. To be provide safeness from number of issues, reduction of maintenance and usage

of electricity and minimize human effort.

5|Page
Significance of the Study

The results of this study hope to provide the basis for developing better grass cutting

machine. Furthermore, the study could be of importance to the following:

Consumers. An automatic lawn cutter will relieve the consumer from mowing their own

lawns for reducing human effort and can beautify the environment without the interaction.

Researchers. Due to demand improvements and modernization, this study will set as a

guide in their future study. Hence, allowing them to enhance and develop this project.

To the environment. The solar powered grass cutter mower will meet the challenge of

environmental production and low cost of operation since there is no cost for fueling.

Residences and establishments. The solar grass cutting machine is much easier to use in

home-lawns, schools, sports tracks, grass fields, industries, hotels, and public center.

To the economy. Solar grass cutting machine is a better option in the market for it is more

advantageous because of its renewable energy source and easy to work.

6|Page
Scope and Limitations

The focus in the study of Smart Solar Grass Cutter with Lawn Coverage will

provide an enhanced mowering programmed to function automatically and to basically

eradicate hazardous gas and noise produced by regular lawn mowers. It uses blade to cut a

lawn at an even length. The Smart Solar Grass Cutter with Lawn Coverage primarily is a

solar based energy source, which is easier to use, more advantageous compared to other

energy sources, especially for gas based power source because this energy is of renewable

type of source. It is applicable to rectangular shaped lawns with defined dimensions.

Sensors will be used to avoid obstacles and possibilities of fall. It stops and charges if it

happened to have low battery life. It will be also compact in size and portable with a simple

operating principle.

However, it limits the study to be difficult to operate in rainy seasons for it needs

light source or sunlight that will directly affect the functioning of the solar grass cutter. The

primary source of energy of the device will come from solar energy and secondary sources

are rechargeable battery and electricity. Lastly, there are specific types and sizes of grasses

the machine can mow depending on the conditions.

7|Page
Chapter 2

Review of Related Literature and Studies

This chapter presents the related literature, theories, and studies from books,

journals, magazines, internet, and unpublished materials after the thorough and in-depth

search done by the researchers. This will also present the conceptual framework to fully

understand the research to be done and the definition of terms for better comprehension of

the study.

Relevant Laws and Theories

The following laws and theories are significant in understanding the principles of

electronics as well as in the construction and operation of the Smart Solar Grass Cutting

Machine.

Hertz effect or Photoelectric Effect. German physicist Heinrich Hertz first

observed the photoelectric effect, where light is used to free electrons from a solid surface,

usually metal, to create power. Contrary to expected results, Hertz found this process

produced more power when exposed to ultraviolet light, rather than more intense visible

light.

The phenomenon was fundamentally significant to the current study by

understanding the concept of how the nature of ultraviolet light affects the formation of

electrons.

8|Page
Kerr effect or Quadratic Electro-Optic Effect (QEO effect). This effect was

discovered in the latter part of the 19th century by a Scottish physicist, John Kerr. The Kerr

effect is a nonlinear optical effect occurring when intense light propagates in crystals and

glasses, but also in other media such as gases. The refractive index of a material changes

because of an applied electrical field, and the change in the refractive index is proportional

to the square of the applied electric field.

As stated by Alciatore and Histand (2013), applying a voltage across a substance

can cause optical polarization. The effect took considerable importance in the present

research as it is applicable to Liquid Crystal Displays (LCDs) which will be part of the

Solar Grass Cutter Machine and it function as a result of this principle.

Ohm’s Law. Georg Ohm found that, at a constant temperature, the electrical

current flowing through a fixed linear resistance is directly proportional to the voltage

applied across it, and also inversely proportional to the resistance. This relationship

between the Voltage, Current and Resistance forms the basis of Ohm’s Law.

The relevance of this study plays an important role in the construction of the Solar

Grass Cutter Machine because it is used to calculate electrical values so that the researchers

can design circuits and use electricity in a useful manner.

Photovoltaic Principles. The photovoltaic effect can be observed in nature in a

variety of materials that have shown that the best performance in sunlight are the

semiconductors. When photons from the sun are absorbed in a semiconductor, that create

free electrons with higher energies than the created there must be an electric field to induce

these higher energy electrons to flow out of the semi-conductor to do useful work. A

9|Page
junction of materials, which have different electrical properties, provides the electric field

in most solar cells for the photon interaction in a semiconductor. A solar cell consists of

semiconductor in which electron hole pairs are created by the absorption of incident solar

radiation, the region containing a drift field for charge separation and a charge collecting

front and back electrodes.

This is related to the present research as the operation of a solar cell is based on

this effect. In addition, solar panels generate free electricity by converting sunlight into

electricity and generate the energy to provide benefits to systems.

Kirchhoff’s Law. Kirchhoff's Current Law, the 1st law, states that current flowing

into a node or a junction must be equal to current flowing out of it. This is a consequence

of charge conservation. Kirchhoff's Voltage Law, the 2nd law, states that the sum of all

voltages around any closed loop in a circuit must equal zero. This is a consequence of

charge conservation and also conservation of energy.

The significance of this data to the current study is that the laws are fundamental to

circuit theory which helps to analyze how current and voltage work within a circuit. They

quantify how current flows through a circuit and how voltage varies around a loop in a

circuit.

Law of Conservation of Energy. The law states that energy cannot be created or

destroyed. However, it can be converted from one form to another form or transferred from

one object to another object. It is also defined as, the total energy in the universe will never

change.

10 | P a g e
The law is closely related to the present study for it directly mentions that energy

can be converted or transferred from one form to another. It illustrates solar photovoltaic

cells that radiant energy from the sun can be change into electrical energy. Hence, energy

changes form, but the total amount of energy in the universe stays the same.

Ultrasonic Principle. When an electrical pulse of high voltage is applied to the

ultrasonic transducer it vibrates across a specific spectrum of frequencies and generates a

burst of sound waves. Whenever any obstacle comes ahead of the ultrasonic sensor the

sound waves will reflect back in the form of echo and generates an electric pulse.

This principle justify the development of research by placing an ultrasonic obstacle

sensor to the project as it helps to improve the navigation by detecting the presence of

targets and to measure the distance.

Coriolis Effect Theory. The gyroscope comprises a mechanical sensor structure

and two electronic subsystems. One subsystem establishes a vibration in a resonator

structure that creates the necessary velocity, or momentum, that, with imposed rotation, is

the source of the Coriolis force. The other subsystem detects this Coriolis force-induced

movement with an accelerometer using capacitive detection.

Electronically, when a gyro structure experiences a displacement, the Coriolis

Effect movement is at right angles to it and the inter-digitated electrodes function as

capacitor plates, reminiscent of the variable capacitors in old tube radios.

11 | P a g e
The topic is connected to the study by applying the principle of gyro sensor device

to the Solar Grass Cutter Machine. The gyroscope maintains its level of effectiveness by

being able to measure the rate of rotation around a particular axis. Moreover, using the key

principles of angular momentum, the gyroscope helps indicate orientation for the object.

Related Literature

In this part, the researchers attempt to review facts and information of various

articles, books, professional journals and other publications with an aim of listing the

relevant variables for the present study and finding out the existing gap in the knowledge

on aptitude, intelligence and learning ability of the researchers.

Energy Storage Technologies. Based on the book of Yogi and Frank (2006),

energy can be stored in many forms: as mechanical energy in rotating, compressed, or

elevated substances; as thermal or electrical energy waiting to be released from chemical

bonds; or as electrical charge ready to travel from positive to negative poles on demand.

Storage media that can take and release energy in the form of electricity have the

most universal value, because electricity can efficiently be converted either to mechanical

or heat energy, whereas other energy conversion processes are less efficient. Electricity is

also the output of three of the most promising renewable energy technologies: wind

turbines, solar thermal, and photovoltaics. Storing this electricity in a medium that naturally

accepts electricity is favored, because converting the energy to another type usually has a

substantial efficiency penalty.

12 | P a g e
The information on the book is related to the present study because energy storage

plays an important role in the balancing act and helps to create a more flexible and reliable

system. Installing energy storage batteries into the system of the project means it can store

the renewable energy and when it’s needed, then can quickly release the energy in the form

of electricity.

Solar Cells. According to Althouse et al. (1992), solar energy can be converted

directly from radiant energy to electricity. The most common device used for this

conversion is the solar cell or also called a photovoltaic device. Solar cells, although

expensive, are a preferred electrical energy source at remote locations and where the power

requirements are relatively small. The power to run remote weather stations and

communications stations is often supplied by solar cells rather than fuelled engines. They

are maintenance-free and do not require fuel to supply power. Other applications include

situations where a small amount of power is required.

The relevance of this in the current study is that the application of solar cells from

solar panels can harness the energy from the sun and transform this into usable electricity.

More importantly, it is a safe alternative which can replace current fossil fuels like coal

and gas for the generation of electricity that produce air, water, and land pollution. It will

eliminate these unsafe, unclean consequences from using conventional fossil fuels.

Rechargeable Batteries. Monk (1976) mentioned that “rechargeable batteries can

provide both cost and green benefits over single-use batteries. They are available in

different types and in different capacities. Some, such as rechargeable AA or AAA

batteries, are designed as replacements for single-use batteries, and you remove them to

13 | P a g e
charge in a separate charger. Other batteries are intended to be built into your project so all

you have to do is plug a power adapter into your project to charge the batteries without

removing them. The advent of cheap, high-capacity, low-weight lithium polymer (LiPo)

batteries has made this a common approach for many items of consumer electronics.”

This literature supports the present study as the researchers use rechargeable

batteries to produce less waste and because they can be recharged with a simple battery

charger and reused numerous times. They also use less energy because recharging batteries

with a battery charger is more energy efficient than the cost and energy of making new

batteries.

Relationship of Microcontroller and Arduino. Ganguly et al. (2012) revealed in the

book that a microcontroller is a highly integrated chip that contains a CPU, ROM/EPROM,

RAM and I/O ports. A microcontroller is designed for a very specific task to control a

particular system. As a result, the parts can be simplified and reduced, which cuts down on

production cost. Microcontrollers are sometimes called embedded microcontrollers, which

mean that they are part of an embedded system, that is, one part of a larger device or system.

Similarly, Monk (1976) also indicated the book that the Arduino is a simple-to-use,

low-cost, readymade board that lets you use a microcontroller in your projects with a

minimum of fuss. The Arduino sells in vast quantities and has become the platform of

choice for makers and hackers in need of microcontrollers.

The popularity of Arduino is due to many factors, including the: low cost, open-

source hardware design, easy-to-use integrated development environment (IDE) to

14 | P a g e
program it with and plug-in shields that add features like displays and motor drivers that

clip onto the top of the Arduino.

This topic coincides to the research study as it helps dealing the operation of a

microcontroller. The researchers tend to use a microcontroller to the project because it

functions to store data and program to control the features and actions of the Solar Grass

Cutter. Furthermore, the researchers use the hardware and software programming

environment of the low-powered Arduino device, which is a type of microcontroller. The

Arduino is an open-source prototyping platform giving flexible usage in building the

electronic device.

DC Motor Interfacing. Mazidi et al. (2007) analyzed that a direct current or DC

motor is another widely used device that translates electrical pulses into mechanical

movement. In the DC motor we have only positive and negative leads. Connecting them to

a DC voltage source moves the motor in one direction. By reversing the polarity, the DC

motor will move in the opposite direction. The maximum speed of a DC motor is indicated

in rpm or revolutions per minute. The DC motor has two rpms: no-load and loaded. The

no-load rpm can be from a few thousand to tens of thousands. The rpm is reduced when

moving a load and it decreases as the load is increased. DC motors also have voltage and

current ratings. The nominal voltage is the voltage for that motor under normal conditions,

and can be from 1 to 150 V, depending on the motor. As we increase the voltage, the rpm

goes up. The current rating is the current consumption when the nominal voltage is applied

with no load, and can be from 25 mA to a few amps. As the load increases, the rpm is

decreased, unless the current or voltage provided to the motor is increased, which in turn

increases the torque. With a fixed voltage, as the load increases, the current power

15 | P a g e
consumption of a DC motor is increased. If we overload the motor it will stall, and that can

damage the motor due to the heat generated by high current consumption.

It is very essential to the current study because it teaches the researchers to apply

the principles on actual planning of the project. The DC motors have a significant impact

on the study because it can be controlled over a wide range and it have the advantages of

higher starting torque, quick starting and stopping, reversing, variable speeds with voltage

input and they are easier and cheaper to control. The DC motors will be attached to some

parts of the Solar Grass Cutter like for the working if cutter blade and wheels.

Pulse Width Modulation (PWM). In addition, Mazidi et al. (20070 also stated

that the speed of the motor depends on three factors: (a) load, (b) voltage, and (c) current.

For a given fixed load we can maintain a steady speed by using a method called pulse width

modulation (PWM). By changing or modulating the width of the pulse applied to the DC

motor we can increase or decrease the amount of power provided to the motor, thereby

increasing or decreasing the motor speed. Notice that, although the voltage has a fixed

amplitude, it has a variable duty cycle. That means the wider the pulse, the higher the speed.

PWM is so widely used in DC motor control that some microcontrollers come with the

PWM circuitry embedded in the chip. In such microcontrollers all we have to do is load

the proper registers with the values of the high and low portions of the desired pulse, and

the rest is taken care of by the microcontroller. This allows the microcontroller to do other

things. For microcontrollers without PWM circuitry, we must create the various duty cycle

pulses using software, which prevents the microcontroller from doing other things. The

ability to control the speed of the DC motor using PWM is one reason that DC motors are

preferable over AC motors. AC motor speed is dictated by the AC frequency of the voltage

16 | P a g e
applied to the motor and the frequency is generally fixed. As a result, we cannot control

the speed of the AC motor when the load is increased.

The writing about pulse width modulation gives significant matter with the present

study as it will be included in control system of the circuitry. It offers great efficiency

output for generally controlling DC power to the electrical device. As well as that PWM

can be used to adjust the total amount of power delivered to a load without losses normally

incurred when a power transfer is limited by resistive means.

Solar Energy and Society. In fact, Priest (1984) concluded that solar energy

streams to us continually and without it and the food-producing plants it supports, we could

not survive. For sundry other functions we rely on the fossil fuels (coal, petroleum, and

natural gas) and uranium. None of these sources stream to us like the rays of the sun. They

are buried in the earth’s crust and, whatever their abundances, they are limited and will

eventually be depleted. In fact, as we begin to see the end of some energy resources, we

scurry to develop alternatives. The development of alternatives is exciting but uneasy with

decisions involving the best judgment of us all. Whatever energy technology emerges,

whether it be a refurbishing of an old one like coal or a new one like nuclear fusion, there

will be unwanted by-products to deal with and social, political, scientific, and economic

factors to consider.

The relevance of this in the current study is it encourages the researchers to get

involved in energy planning and development, and helps to arrive at acceptable alternative.

Solar energy is a good alternative to replace fossil fuel as the major energy source because

solar power is renewable at absolutely no cost to supply energy infinitely and reduces

17 | P a g e
reliance on fueled-powered mowers that produce harmful gas emissions and produces no

pollution.

Robotic Sensors. Malcolm Jr. (1985) revealed in the book that for a robot to

perform tasks that are now done by humans, the robot must have a sensing ability. The

robot employs the sensor as a measuring device, that is, it computes the sensor information

and acts upon that information. The basic sensors used in the robotics area are devices

called transducers. The transducer converts a mechanical force to an electric signal. This

electric signal is processed by the robot controller, and the robot then performs a job.

The bearing of this information to the study is that sensors will be attached to the

Solar Grass Cutter to estimate the robot's condition and environment. The sensors are based

on the functions of human sensory organs and enable to pass appropriate behavior in order

to function effectively.

Mechatronic. Based on the published book of Alciatore et al. (2012), the term

mechatronics is used to denote a rapidly developing, interdisciplinary field of engineering

dealing with the design of products whose function relies on the integration of mechanical

and electronic components coordinated by a control architecture. The word mechatronics

was coined in Japan in the late 1960s, spread through Europe, and is now commonly used

in the United States. The primary disciplines important in the design of mechatronics

systems include mechanics, electronics, controls, and computer engineering.

This topic is related to the research study as mechatronic systems combines the

mechanical and electronic elements that will make the project to function and do so

18 | P a g e
efficiently. Therefore knowing the facts behind how mechatronics works helps the

researchers to build better machine.

Mechanical mowing. Based on the article published on website of Robomow,

mechanical mowing became possible early in the 19th century by an English engineer

named Edwin Budding. Budding obtained the idea of the lawn mower after seeing a

machine in a local cloth mill which used a cutting cylinder mounted on a bench to trim

cloth to make a smooth finish after weaving. Budding realized that a similar concept would

enable the cutting of grass if the mechanism could be mounted in a wheeled frame to make

the blades rotate close to the lawn's surface.

This study is important to the research study so the researchers will know the

development in the production of mechanical mowers and to further improve the operation

of it.

Related Studies

The following data below were gathered from different related studies made by

other researchers that provide guidance in the conduction of the researchers study. The

researchers have to inquire up-to-date information about what has been already

investigated to have better familiarization and serves as a guide in development of Smart

Solar Grass Cutter.

According to research conducted by Goswami and Kreith (2008), global energy

consumption in the last half-century has increased very rapidly and is expected to continue

to grow over the next 50 years. However, we expect to see significant differences between

19 | P a g e
the last 50 years and the next. The past increase was stimulated by relatively “cheap” fossil

fuels and increased rates of industrialization in North America, Europe, and Japan, yet

while energy consumption in these countries continues to increase, additional factors have

entered the equation making the picture for the next 50 years more complex. These

additional complicating factors include the very rapid increase in energy intensity of China

and India (countries representing about a third of the world’s population); the expected

depletion of oil resources in the not-too-distant future; and, the global climate change. On

the positive side, the renewable energy (RE) technologies of wind, biofuels, solar thermal,

and photovoltaics (PV) are finally showing maturity and the ultimate promise of cost

competitiveness.

Solar energy technology has been developed to a point where it can replace most

of the fossil fuels or fossil fuel-derived energy. In many applications it is already

economical, and it is a matter of time before it becomes economical for other applications

as well.

The relevance of this study to current study is that the researchers serve this as the

basis to design a Solar Grass Cutter that will help not only the humans but also the issue

affecting the energy consumption of fossil fuels even in a little way.

As studied by Mazidi (2007), many technical processes and products in the area of

mechanical and electrical engineering show an increasing integration of mechanics with

electronics and information processing. This integration is between the components of

hardware and the information-driven function of software, resulting in integrated systems

called mechatronic systems.

20 | P a g e
The development of mechatronic systems involves finding an optimal balance

between the basic mechanical structure, sensor and actuator implementation, automatic

digital information processing and overall control, and this synergy results in innovative

solutions. The practice of mechatronics requires multidisciplinary expertise across a range

of disciplines, such as mechanical engineering, electronics, information technology, and

decision making theories.

This study is related to the current research as the developing status of mechatronics

in the field of engineering guides the researchers to implement different tools and

equipment for the improvement of a lawn mower.

Based on the study of Malcolm Jr. (1985), scientists are constantly looking for new

ways to generate electricity. One reason is that more electricity must be generated to supply

the needs of the increasing number of people in the world. Another reason is that the

world’s supply of coal and oil will not last long if we keep on burning fuel as fast as we

burn it now. Scientists hope that new and better ways of producing electricity will save our

disappearing fuel supplies.

Not only the emission of different elements that cause pollution by the fossil fuels

but also its cost to produce fuel and electricity, hence, the supply is decreasing while the

demand for it is increasing. That’s why it is related to the study as the researchers attempt

to find an alternative source for the energy crisis that will work for the device.

One study found that lawn mowers with two-stroke engines emit hydrocarbons at

an average rate in excess of seven times the rate of emission from lawn mowers with four-

stroke engines (Priest et al., 2000). Evaporative fuel emissions from lawn mowers are

21 | P a g e
estimated to be 5.8 grams/day (Wong, 2001). Lawn mowers can be more polluting than

driving a car. One half-hour of lawn mowing with a typical walk-behind mower produces

as much hydrocarbon emissions as driving a 1995 automobile for about 100 miles or 160

kilometres (California Air Resources Board, 2000). A Swedish study found that the

emissions produced from a lawn mower engine during one hour of operation were around

4000 g/h; this is comparable to driving more than 150 km in a car with a three-way catalytic

converter (Christensen & Westerholm, 2001).

The research conducted gives significance to the study as the proposed automatic

lawn mower will contribute to minimize noise, exhaust and evaporative emissions from

lawn or grass area equipment and protect public health thus, can adversely affect human

health and the environment if the original lawn mower is still used.

As studied by Chaudhari et al. (2018), it is explained that solar plate which is placed

above the grass cutter generates solar energy and use this energy for working the grass

cutter. Solar panels, batteries, DC motor, solar charger, circuitry, and blades are the

components used for preparing grass cutter. For preventing the battery from overcharging

and the over-discharging, regulator is placed into the system and it should be placed in

series. They have provided LCD display unit which displays voltage generated during solar

rays trapping. Due to seasonal conditions if the battery is not charged they can provide the

power bank to charge the battery instantly.

This study relates to the current research because it gives the researchers ideas that

can give assistance for the development of Solar Grass Cutter.

22 | P a g e
Based on the study published as a journal by Elk Asia Pacific Journal of Mechanical

Engineering Research (2016), there are primarily two types of mowers, namely the reel

mowers and the rotary mowers (Bhaskar et al., 2015). Today, the recent innovation is the

rotary mower. Research have showed that the rotary lawn mowers are more effective than

the reel mowers because of its clean mowing and provision for collecting grass (Gbasouzor

et al., 2016). The most important part of the rotary mower is the cutting blade. Rotary

mowers generally have opening by the side of the housing through which cut grasses are

expelled. Some are attached with a grass collector at the exit point. The blade is seldom

sharp enough to give a neat cut.

Because of the research conducted, it is significant to the present study as the

researchers will use the type of rotary blade for the better cutting mechanism on grasses.

The next following studies conducted by different researchers are given below with

brief summaries to understand the innovations in the Traditional Lawn Mower.

Based on the experimental study of Chaudhari et al. (2016), he found various

studies and the most recent patent found was by Nelson which this automated, self-

propelled lawn mower uses a rotating directional loop antenna to determine its position

within the cutting area by measuring the angle between transmitters placed in a known

configuration beyond the cutting area, and by calculating the solution of simultaneous

circle equations defined by that configuration. Next is a remote controlled guidance system

invented by Zondle which is a remote control method of guidance for a work vehicle

including a handheld control unit, an antenna placed on the periphery of the worksite, a

controlling unit on the work vehicle.

23 | P a g e
According to the journal published by Dutta et al. (2016) entitled “A Technical

Review of Lawn Mower Technology” all these studies made improvements in lawn mower.

Dipin and Chandrasekhar studied the design of a microcontroller and sensor bases robotic

lawn mower mechanism. Ultrasonic, humidity and passive infrared sensor were used in the

operation. The design is built on a mobile robot which communicates with a computer

through a zigbee module and a Graphical User Interface has been created in MATLAB for

the selection of capturing images of the lawn as per requirement. Satwik et al., performed

design and fabrication of lever operated solar lawn mower and contact stress analysis of

spur gears. They tried to develop a height adjustable mechanism for the cutting blade.

Newstadt et al. studied on a Global Positioning System (GPS) aided autonomous

lawnmower. They tried to develop an efficient hybrid lawn mower. It consisted of a

modified DGPS (Differential global positioning receiver system), a modified chassis, new

wheel encoders, a more advanced control system, digital compass and a safety system. Patil

et al. studied on design and implementation of automatic lawn cutter. They developed a

cordless automatic lawn mower so that the user could specify the area to be mowed and

also the height of the grass as per their requirement by using the keypad. The design

contains a microcontroller like Atmega 16, multiple sensors, Liquid Crystal Display (LCD)

and keyboard. Chandler et al. reported on the next generation autonomous lawn mower.

The developed autonomous lawnmower robot was capable of learning its environment

through training. This allows the mower to recognize objects in the mowing area like flower

beds, sidewalks, trees, driveways, and others using computer vision. The mower would

need training by a human operator in order to learn what objects to avoid and where and

how to mow. Singh and Singh Mehta performed a design and analysis of wireless remote

24 | P a g e
controlled lawn mower. They tried to make a smaller, lighter, efficient, environment

friendly and direct current powered lawn mower for better handling and endurance.

With the literature reviews presented above, an effort has been directed to design a

Smart Solar Grass Cutter. For development of the lawn mower, locally available standard

parts and materials will be utilized considering the low cost and development simplicity

factors. The researchers aim is to design and construct an automated lawn mower model of

simple mechanism and low cost.

Conceptual Framework

A conceptual framework represents the researcher’s synthesis of literature on how

to explain a phenomenon. It maps out the actions required in the course of the study given

his previous knowledge of other researchers’ point of view and his observations on the

subject of research.

The IPO model will provide the general structure and guide for the researchers

understanding of how the particular variables in the studies connect with each other.

25 | P a g e
Input Process Output
Knowledge Communication
Requirements Planning
 Electronics Hardware Development
devices and
 Modeling (analysis,
simulations
designs)
(Electronics 1 and
2)  Determine the
 Related literature purpose of existing
and theories lawn mower
 Knowledge on  Design and assemble
programming of the components for
languages, the Solar Grass Cutter
electronic
Software Development Smart Solar Grass
components, and
internet  Coding and testing of Cutter with Lawn
Software Requirements programs Coverage

 Windows OS (8 Deployment (delivery,


or 10) feedback)
 C/C++
Programming Testing and evaluation
Language for of the device
Arduino IDE
System
 Microsoft Word
Hardware Requirements
(Main Components)

 Arduino
 Sensor Modules
 DC Motors
 Solar Panel
 Solar Charger
 Rechargeable
battery
 Grass Cutter
Blade
 Parts for the
robotic housing

Figure 1. The IPO model of Smart Solar Grass Cutter with Lawn Coverage

26 | P a g e
The study will use the conceptual paradigm presented in Figure 1 in designing and

evaluating the acceptability of Smart Solar Grass Cutter. This research will adopt the IPO

model, which stands for Input, Process and Output. The inputs necessary for the

development of the propose study are being knowledgeable with some of the electric

components, programming languages, studying electronics simulations and reviewing the

related literature.

The process by which the software is to be develop consists of defined procedures

such as planning, hardware modeling, software construction and deployment. The output

referred to this study is the proposed Smart Solar Grass Cutter with Lawn Coverage.

The study will characterize the propose system and site the possible problems

which may encounter in the development of the project. Working plan should be carefully

follow and this will lead to the development of the project. Testing and evaluation should

be done to determine whether the specify goals and objectives are meet by the system and

doing necessary modifications if needed.

27 | P a g e
Definition of Variables

Accelerometer – an electromechanical device used to measure acceleration forces. Such

forces may be static, like the continuous force of gravity or, as is the case with many mobile

devices, dynamic to sense movement or vibrations.

Breadboard – a board for making an experimental model of an electric circuit.

Differential Global Positioning Receiver System (DGPS) – An advanced form of GPS

navigation which provides greater positioning accuracy than the standard GPS.

Direct Current (DC) – an electric current flowing in one direction only.

Global Positioning System (GPS) – is a radio navigation system that allows land, sea, and

airborne users to determine their exact location, velocity, and time 24 hours a day, in all

weather conditions, anywhere in the world.

Gyroscope sensor – is a device that uses Earth's gravity to help determine orientation. Its

design consists of a freely-rotating disk called a rotor, mounted onto a spinning axis in the

center of a larger and more stable wheel.

Integrated Development Environment (IDE) – is a software application that provides

comprehensive facilities to computer programmers for software development.

Lithium-ion polymer battery – a rechargeable battery of lithium-ion technology using a

polymer electrolyte instead of a liquid electrolyte.

MATLAB – a multi-paradigm numerical computing environment and proprietary

programming language

28 | P a g e
Motor Driver – is a device or group of devices that serves to govern in some predetermined

manner the performance of an electric motor.

Potentiometer – a three-terminal resistor with a sliding or rotating contact that forms an

adjustable voltage divider.

Resistors – electrical components that are used to reduce the available voltage or current

present in a circuit.

Solar cell – is an electrical device that converts the energy of light directly into electricity

by the photovoltaic effect, which is a physical and chemical phenomenon.

Transducer – is any device used to convert energy from one form to another, typically when

converting input energy into output energy.

Ultrasonic sensor – it works on the principle of reflected sound waves and are used to

measure distance.

29 | P a g e
Chapter 3

Research Methodology

This chapter presents the research principles in accomplishing the propose study

and includes how the process of this project will be done accordance to the methodical

procedure and processes. This chapter also includes components used, system design,

flowchart and approximate of cost analysis.

Research Design Method

The researchers used the combination of descriptive research and developmental

design as the basis for the construction of the project. The method of research which

concerns itself with the present phenomena in terms of conditions, proper analyses,

processes, relationships or identification of trends invariably is termed as descriptive

research. To define the descriptive type of research, Creswell (1994) stated that the

descriptive method of research is to gather information about the present existing condition.

The aim of descriptive research is to verify formulated hypotheses that refer to the present

situation in order to elucidate it. The descriptive research approach is quick and practical

in terms of the financial aspect. Moreover, this method allows a flexible approach, thus,

when important new issues and questions arise during the duration of the study, further

investigation may be conducted. The developmental design as stated by Richey (1994), has

been defined as the systematic study of designing, developing, and evaluating instructional

programs, processes, and products that must meet criteria of internal consistency and

effectiveness. It often serves as a vehicle for dissemination of model techniques and

processes, especially as new technologies, new procedural changes, and new programmatic

30 | P a g e
trends emerge. Moreover, developmental research can provide a basis for both model

construction and theorizing, one which is rooted in the experiences of practitioners as well

as researchers.

This blend of two research methods involves the production of knowledge with the

ultimate aim of improving the processes of instructional design, development, and

evaluation of the project. Through a process of data collection in several related literature

and studies, journals, researches and internet, the researchers enable to analyze and

interpret the source materials to describe and come up with the idea of Smart Solar Grass

Cutter with Lawn Coverage.

Research Design Procedure

Data collection plan is a crucial key in developing a sound study. The plan indicates

how to access and gather information from different sources. A clear data collection plan

will help to ensure that the researchers obtain the information needed to answer the research

questions.

The researchers had allotted vigorous time, effort and cooperation in developing

Smart Solar Grass Cutter with Lawn Coverage. The researchers used the procedure of data

mining to easily find many resource materials which includes the data gathered from

journals, books, articles, websites, studies and certain videos from the internet. Another

way is by interviewing which the researchers got benefit from the process by actually

gathering raw and reliable data direct from the subjects to have a credible result.

31 | P a g e
Design Components

The Smart Solar Grass Cutter with Lawn Coverage is compose of different

components and devices in the design. This part will display the functions and

specifications of each of the electronics components and equipment.

 Solar Panel

A panel designed to absorb the sun's rays as a source of energy for generating

electricity or heating.

Figure 2: Solar Panel

Specifications:

 Dimensions: 335mm x 280mm x 25mm

 Weight: 1.3kg

 Open Circuit Voltage: 21.6V

 Short Circuit Current: 0.66A

 Power Allowance Range: 5%

32 | P a g e
 Max Power Voltage: 16.96V

 Max System Current: 0.5A

 Max System Voltage: 300VDC

 Number of Cells: 36

 Solar Charge Controller

The main function of the solar charger controller or charge regulator is to increase

the current from the panels while batteries are charging, it also disconnects the solar

panels from the batteries when they are fully charged and also connects to the panels

when the charging in batteries is low.It basically regulates the voltage and current

coming from the solar panels going to the battery and keeps from overcharging.

Figure 3: Solar Charge Controller

Specifications:
 Material: plastic

 Size: about 120*66.5*21mm

 Rated voltage: 12V 24V Auto

 Application: solar system controller

33 | P a g e
 Current: 10A

 USB output: 5V/2.5A

 Standby current: < 10mA

 Working temp: -35~+60 ℃

 Floating charge voltage: 13.7V(adjustable)

 Discharge up to voltage: 10.7V(adjustable)

 Discharge recovery voltage: 12.6V(adjustable)

 Arduino UNO

The Arduino Uno board is a microcontroller based on the ATmega328. It has 14

digital input/output pins in which 6 can be used as PWM outputs, a 16 MHz ceramic

resonator, an ICSP header, a USB connection, 6 analog inputs, a power jack and

a reset button. It consists of both a physical programmable circuit board (often referred

to as a microcontroller) and a piece of software, or IDE (Integrated Development

Environment) that runs on the computer, used to write and upload computer code to

the physical board.

Figure 4: Arduino UNO

34 | P a g e
Specifications:

 Microcontroller: ATmega328P

 Operating Voltage: 5V

 Input Voltage (recommended): 7-12V

 Input Voltage (limit): 6-20V

 Digital I/O Pins: 14 (of which 6 provide PWM output)

 PWM Digital I/O Pins: 6

 Analog Input Pins: 6

 DC Current per I/O Pin: 20 mA

 DC Current for 3.3V Pin: 50 mA

 Flash Memory: 32 KB (ATmega328P) of which 0.5 KB used by

bootloader

 SRAM: 2 KB (ATmega328P)

 EEPROM: 1 KB (ATmega328P)

 Clock Speed: 16 MHz

 LED_BUILTIN: 13

 Length: 68.6 mm

 Width: 53.4 mm

 Weight: 25 g

 L298N Motor Driver

The L298N is a dual H-Bridge motor driver which allows speed and direction

control of two DC motors at the same time. The module can drive DC motors that

have voltages between 5 and 35V, with a peak current up to 2A.

35 | P a g e
Figure 5: L298N Motor Driver

Specifications:

 Driver: L298 Dual H Bridge DC Motor Driver IC

 Operating Voltage: 7 to 35V

 Peak current: 2A

 Maximum power consumption: 20W (when the temperature T = 75 °C)

 Driver Board Size: 55mm * 49mm * 33mm (with fixed copper pillar and

the heat sink height)

 Driver Board Weight: 33g

36 | P a g e
 Direct Current Motor (DC Motor)

A DC motor is any of a class of rotary electrical machines that converts direct

current electrical energy into mechanical energy. The most common types rely on the

forces produced by magnetic fields.

Figure 6: DC Motor

Specifications:

 Current Rating: 0.16 A

 Rated Speed: 3500~9000RPM

 Weight: 382g

 Voltage:12V~36V

 Shaft Diameter: Approx. 5 mm

 Shaft length: Approx. 17 mm

 HC-SR04 Ultrasonic Sensor

Ultrasonic sensor measures distances based on transmitting and receiving

ultrasonic signals. It can stably detect transparent or complex-shaped targets and resistant

to mist and dirt.

37 | P a g e
Figure 7: HC-SR04 Ultrasonic Sensor

Specifications:

 Voltage: DC5V

 Static current: less than 2mA

 Level output: high-5V

 Level output: the end of 0V

 Sensor angle: not more than 15 degrees

 Detection distance: 2cm-450cm

 High precision: up to 0.3cm

 Connection: VCC, trig (control side), echo (receiving end), GND

 GY-521 (MPU6050) Gyroscope Sensor and Accelerometer

Gyro sensors also known as angular rate sensor or angular velocity sensor, is a

device that sense angular velocity and measure or maintain rotational motion. The GY-

521 module is a breakout board for the MPU-6050 MEMS (Microelectromechanical

38 | P a g e
systems) that features a 3-axis gyroscope, a 3-axis accelerometer, a digital motion

processor (DMP), and a temperature sensor.

Figure 8: GY-521 (MPU6050) Gyroscope Sensor and Accelerometer

Specifications:

 I2C Digital-output of 6 or 9-axis MotionFusion data in rotation matrix,

quaternion, Euler Angle, or raw data format

 Input Voltage: 2.3 – 3.4V

 Tri-Axis angular rate sensor (gyro) with a sensitivity up to 131 LSBs/dps

and a full-scale range of ±250, ±500, ±1000, and ±2000dps

 Tri-Axis accelerometer with a programmable full scale range of ±2g, ±4g,

±8g and ±16g

 Digital Motion Processing™ (DMP™) engine offloads complex

MotionFusion, sensor timing synchronization and gesture detection

 Embedded algorithms for run-time bias and compass calibration. No user

intervention required

39 | P a g e
 Lithium Ion Battery

A lithium-ion battery or Li-ion battery is a type of rechargeable battery in which

lithium ions move from the negative electrode to the positive electrode during

discharge and back when charging.

Figure 9: Lithium Ion Battery

Specifications:

 Voltage: 12 Volts

 Capacity : 7 Ampere

 Sealed Lead-Acid Battery

 LWH – 151 x 64.5 x 94 mm

 LWH – 5.94 x 2.56 x 3.74 inches

 Rotary Cutter Blade

A blade is that portion of a tool, which is used to cut the grass. The blade are

mounted according to the need.

40 | P a g e
Figure 10: Rotary Cutter Blade

Specifications:

 Rotary blade cutting device speed rotary is on the horizontal.

 Rotary blade speed is 3000-4000r/min.

 Material: Steel

 Weight: 0.8g

 Size: L445x H3.0

 LCD (Liquid Crystal Display)

A liquid-crystal display is a flat-panel display or other electronically modulated

optical device that uses the light-modulating properties of liquid crystals. Liquid

crystals do not emit light directly, instead using a backlight or reflector to produce

images in color or monochrome.

41 | P a g e
Figure 11: LCD (Liquid Crystal Display)

Specifications:

 LCD display module with blue backlight

 Wide viewing angle and high contrast.

 Built-in industry standard HD44780 equivalent LCD controller.

 LCM type: Characters

 Can display 2-lines X 16-characters.

 Voltage: 5V DC.

 Module dimension: 80mm x 35mm x 11mm.

 Viewing area size: 64.5mm x 16mm

 Features IIC/I2C :

- Arduino 1602 I2C interface 4-wire 1602 screen

- IO port of Arduino control board is only 20, so IO ports is not

enough for many sensor, SD card, relay modules.

42 | P a g e
- The original 1602 screen need 7 IO ports to drive up, and this

module can save 5 IO ports

 Potentiometer

A potentiometer is a simple knob that provides a variable resistance, which can be

read into the Arduino board as an analog value.

Figure 12: Potentiometer

 Breadboard

A breadboard is a construction base for prototyping of electronics. It is a solderless

device used to build and test circuits quickly before finalizing any circuit design.

43 | P a g e
Figure 13: Breadboard

 Resistors
A resistor is an electrical component that limits or regulates the flow of electrical

current in an electronic circuit.

Figure 14: Resistors

44 | P a g e
 Jump Wires

A jump wire is an electrical wire, or group of them in a cable, with a connector or

pin at each end, which is normally used to interconnect the components of a breadboard

or other prototype or test circuit, internally or with other equipment or components,

without soldering.

Figure 15: Jump Wires

 Stranded Wires

Stranded wires consist of multiple strands of wires wrapped around each other in

each conductor. It is much more flexible and consequently suited to applications

which demand flexibility and reshaping.

Figure 16: Stranded Wires

45 | P a g e
 Switch

A switch is an electronic component or device that can switch an electrical circuit,

interrupting the current or diverting it from one conductor to another.

Figure 17:Rocker Switch

 Light Emitting Diode (LED)

A light-emitting diode is a semiconductor light source that emits light when

current flows through it.

Figure 18: LED

46 | P a g e
 Robot Wheels

A wheel is a circular block of a hard and durable material at whose center has been

bored a circular hole through which is placed an axle bearing about which the wheel

rotates when a moment is applied by gravity or torque to the wheel about its axis.

Figure 19: Robot Wheels

 Fiberglass

Fiberglass is a common type of fiber-reinforced plastic using glass fiber. This will

be used as the hardware case of the Solar Grass Cutter.

Figure 20: Fiberglass

47 | P a g e
System Design

The purpose of the System Design process is to provide sufficient detailed data and

information about the system. A block diagram is a chart or diagram using labeled blocks

connected by lines or arrows to represent the relationship of parts or phases, as the steps in

a data-processing application.

Solar Panel Battery

Motor Drivers
Connected to the
Wheels

Blade with DC
LED Display Arduino UNO
Motor

Sensors Performance
Evaluation

Figure 21: Block Diagram for Smart Solar Grass Cutter with Lawn Coverage

48 | P a g e
The figure 21 shows the block representation of the project for the system design.

It contains several blocks such as Micro Controller, Battery, Solar Panel, Ultrasonic Sensor

and Motor Driver. The source is driven from the solar energy using photovoltaic panel

which charges the battery and is utilized for powering operation of the system. The

system’s control is done by the Arduino UNO. The grass cutter and device motors are

interfaced to Arduino that controls the working of all the motors. It is also with ultrasonic

sensor for object detection. The Arduino controller moves the vehicle motors in forward

direction in case no obstacle is detected. If obstacle detection monitors it and the controller

thus stops by the use of gyro sensor to rotate and so as to avoid any damage to the object,

human, or animal. The battery recharges through the solar charging controller and

performance evaluation of the developed machine was carried out.

49 | P a g e
Activity Flowchart

Start

Get energy
source from
the Sun

The energy will be


converted by the
Solar Panel

Energy will be
utilized by Solar
Charge Controller

Stored in
rechargeable
battery

Convert light
energy to
electricity

Do the NO
battery has
charge?

YES

End

Figure 22: Activity Flowchart of the Solar Panel for Smart Solar Grass Cutter with Lawn
Coverage

50 | P a g e
Start

Device is
turn on? NO Check the device
if turned on

YES

Press the button to


move the grass
cutter

Wander

NO
Lawn
found

YES

Start cutting grass

Obstacle NO
Detection

YES
1

Figure 23: Activity Flowchart for Smart Solar Grass Cutter with Lawn Coverage - Part 1

51 | P a g e
1

Avoid the object


and rotate then
move forward

Is the area NO
complete?

YES

Move forward

Grass have been


cut

End

Figure 24: Activity Flowchart for Smart Solar Grass Cutter with Lawn Coverage - Part 2

The flowchart is used primarily to organize the researcher’s thoughts about various

movements and events in the project. The working of solar powered grass cutter has panel

mounted in a particular arrangement in such a way that it can receive solar radiation with

high intensity easily from the sun. These solar panels convert solar energy into electrical

energy and the power will transmit to the mechanism. Now, this electrical energy is stored

in batteries by using a solar charger controller. By switching on the grass cutter, it will start

52 | P a g e
to operate and wander around to see if there is available lawn to mown. The motor is

connected to the batteries through connecting wires and between the two motors is a driver

provided. The motor driver will starts and stops the working of the motor. Once the device

already cutting the grass and there’s an object in front of it, it will automatically stops and

rotate then move forward to another place until it completes its mowing. Turning off the

Smart Solar Grass Cutter will be the last step in the process.

53 | P a g e
Cost Analysis
Table 1. Estimated cost of Smart Solar Grass Cutter with Lawn Coverage

Item Quantity Amount Total


Solar Panel 1 PHP 600.00 PHP 600.00
Solar Charge Controller 1 PHP 350.00 PHP 350.00
Arduino UNO Kit 1 PHP 1,500.00 PHP 1,500.00
L298N Motor Driver 1 PHP 600.00 PHP 600.00
DC Motors 3 PHP 600.00 PHP 1,800.00
Ultrasonic Sensor HC-SR04 1 PHP 80.00 PHP 80.00
GY-521 (MPU6050)
Gyroscope Sensor and 1 PHP 150.00 PHP 150.00
Accelerometer
Rechargeable battery (Lithium
1 PHP 800.00 PHP 800.00
Ion Battery)
Rotary Cutter Blade 1 PHP 500.00 PHP 500.00
Wheels 2 PHP 300.00 PHP 600.00
#18 Stranded Wires 10m PHP 10.00 PHP 100.00
Rocker Switch 2 PHP 200.00 PHP 400.00
Fiberglass 1 PHP 1500.00 PHP 1500.00

Total: PHP 8, 980.00

54 | P a g e
Table 2: Gantt Chart

Gantt Chart January 2019 February 2019 March 2019 April 2019
4TH 5TH 1ST 2ND 3RD 4TH 1ST 2ND 3RD 4TH 1ST 2ND 3RD
Activity
WEEK WEEK WEEK WEEK WEEK WEEK WEEK WEEK WEEK WEEK WEEK WEEK WEEK

Planning &
Brainstorming
Initial Collection of
Data

Chapter 1

Chapter 2

Chapter 3

Instructor’s Final
Recommendation
Researchers’ Final
Documentation

Defense

55 | P a g e
References:

Alciatore, David G. & Histand, Michael B. (2012). Introduction to Mechatronics and

Measurement Systems Fourth Edition. New York: The McGraw-Hill Companies,

Inc.

Althouse, Andrew D., Turnquist, Carl H., & Bracciano, Alfred F. (1992). Modern

Refrigeration and Air Conditioning. South Holland, Illinois: The Goodheart-

Willcox Company, Inc.

Agarwal, Tarun. (2019). Ultrasonic Detection- Basics and Applications. Retrieved from

https://www.elprocus.com/ultrasonic-detection-basics-application/

Baker, Alyssa. (2019). A History of Solar Cells: How Technology Has Evolved. Retrieved

from https://www.solarpowerauthority.com/a-history-of-solar-cells/

Block Diagram: Definition, Application and Benefits. (2019). Retrieved from

https://www.edrawsoft.com/block-diagrams-introduction.php

Chaudhari A. K. et al., (2016). Experimental Study of Solar Power Grass Cutter Robot.

International Journal of Advance Research and Innovative Ideas in Education,

2(2), 68-73.

Data Gathering Procedure. (2016, Aug 31). Retrieved from https://studymoose.com/data-

gathering-procedure-essay

Dutta P. P. et al., (2016). A Technical Review of Lawn Mower Technology. Assam Don

Bosco University-Journal of Engineering Technology, 4(1), 179-182.

56 | P a g e
Essays, UK. (November 2018). Designing an Automated Lawn Mower. Retrieved from

https://www.ukessays.com/essays/engineering/design-and-analysis-automatic-

lawn-mower-engineering-essay.php?vref=1

Ganguly, Amar K. & Ganguly, Anuva. (2012). Microprocessors and Microcontrollers

8085, 8086 and 8051. Oxford, United Kingdom: Alpha Science International Ltd.

Goswami, D. Yogi & Kreith, Frank. (2008). Energy Conversion. United States of America:

CRC Press.

Kerr Effect. (2019). Retrieved from https://www.techopedia.com/definition/27299/kerr-

effect

Kirchhoff’s Laws. Retrieved from https://isaacphysics.org/concepts/cp_kirchhoffs_laws

Law of Conservation of Energy. (2015). Retrieved from https://www.physics-and-radio-

electronics.com/physics/energy/law-of-conservation-of-energy.html

Malcolm Jr., Douglas R. (1985). Robotics: An Introduction. Belmont, California: Breton

Publishers.

Mazidi, Muhammad Ali, Mckinlay, Rolin D., Causey, Danny. (February 2007). PIC

Microcontroller and Embedded Systems Using Assembly and C for PIC18. Upper

Sadle River, New Jersey: Pearson Education Inc.

Monk, Simon. (1976). Hacking Electronics: An Illustrated DIY Guide for Makers and

Hobbyists. United States of America: The McGraw-Hill Companies.

Ogiemudia, O. G. et al., (2016). Design and Improvement of a Solar Powered Lawn Mower

from Locally Sourced Material in Benin City, Edo State, Nigeria. Elk Asia Pacific

57 | P a g e
Journal of Mechanical Engineering Research, 2(1). Retrieved from

www.elkjournals.com

Ohm’s Law and Power. (2019). Retrieved from https://www.electronics-

tutorials.ws/dccircuits/dcp_2.html

Paytas, A. R. (1991). U.S. Patent No. 4,987,729. Washington, DC: U.S. Patent and

Trademark Office.

Pease, Bob. (July 7, 2011). Electronic Design. This Year’s Best Analog Design Will Find

You In the Dark, 59(9-16), 27-28.

Priest, Joseph. (1984). Energy: Principles, Problems, and Alternatives. Canada: Addison-

Wesley Publishing Company, Inc.

Richey, Rita C. (February 1994). Developmental Research: The Definition and Scope.

Retrieved from https://files.eric.ed.gov/fulltext/ED373753.pdf

Structure: Patil, B. R., & Patil, S. S. (2017). Solar Based Grass Cutter: A Review.

International Journal of Electrical and Electronics Engineers, 9(1), 134-138

The History of Lawn Mowers. (September 2015). Retrieved from

https://www.robomow.com/en-GB/history-lawn-mowers/

58 | P a g e