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Attribution Non-Commercial (BY-NC)

- http://dc253.4shared.com/download/n8hBZBAM/Principles_and_Applications_of.pdf?tsid=20130120-063913-3a3d748f&dsid=1adisa.f4b760b83526da5f79b1b3171e879388
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For the circuits in the figure, it is given that V + = 10 V, V − = −10 V, Rs = 5 kΩ, R1 = 100 kΩ,

R2 = 120 kΩ, RE1 = 2 kΩ, R3 = 51 Ω, RC = 2.4 kΩ, RE2 = 2 kΩ, RL = 1 kΩ, VBE = 0.65 V,

VT = 0.025 V, α = 0.99, β = 99, rx = 20 Ω, and r0 = 50 kΩ. The capacitors are ac short circuits

and dc open circuits.

DC Solution

The dc solution for Q1 is the same as for the CE amplifier and is repeated. To solve for IE1 ,

replace the capacitors with open circuits. Look out the base and form a Thévenin equivalent circuit.

We have

V + R2 + V − R1 120 kΩ 100 kΩ 10

VBB1 = = 10 − 10 =

R1 + R2 100 kΩ + 120 kΩ 100 kΩ + 120 kΩ 11

RBB1 = R1 kR2 = 100 kΩk120 kΩ = 54.55 kΩ

VEE1 = V − = −10

REE1 = RE = 2 kΩ

IE1 = = = 4.031 mA

RBB1 / (1 + β) + REE1 54.55 kΩ/ (1 + 99) + 2 kΩ

VT 25 mV

re1 = = = 6.202 Ω

IE1 4.031 mA

Look out of the base and emitter of Q2 and form Thévenin equivalent circuits. We have

RBB2 = 2.4 kΩ

VEE2 = V − = −10 V

REE2 = RE2 = 2 kΩ

IE2 = = = 4.828 mA

RBB2 / (1 + β) + REE2 2.4 kΩ/ (1 + 99) + 2 kΩ

1

The ac emitter intrinsic resistance of Q2 is

VT 25 mV

re2 = = = 5.178 Ω

IE2 4.828 mA

AC Solution - Method 1

Zero the dc supplies and short the capacitors. Look out the base of Q1 and make a Thévenin

equivalent circuit. We have

R1 kR2 100 kΩk120 kΩ vs

vtb1 = vs = vs = = 0.9160vs

Rs + R1 kR2 5 kΩ + 100 kΩk120 kΩ 1.092

Rtb1 = Rs kR1 kR2 = 5 kΩk100 kΩk120 kΩ = 4.580 kΩ

The Thévenin equivalent circuit looking into the i0e1 branch is vtb1 in series with re1

0 , where

re1 = + re1 = + 6.202 = 52.20 Ω

1 + β1 1 + 99

The resistance looking out of the emitter of Q1 is

0 kR

r01 + re1 50 kΩ + 52.20k49.73

te1

ric1 = 0 = = 97.76 kΩ

1 − α1 Rte1 / (re1 + Rte1 ) 1 − 0.99 × 49.73/ (49.73 + 52.20)

The short circuit collector output current from Q1 is

α1 r01 − Rte1 /β 1

ic1(sc) = Gmb1 vtb1 = 0 0 kR vtb1

re1

+ Rte1 r01 + re1 te1

0.99 50 kΩ − 49.73/99 vtb1 vs

= vtb1 = =

52.20 + 49.73 50 kΩ + 52.20k49.73 103.0 112.4

Look out of the base of Q2 and make a Thévenin equivalent circuit. We have

−vs

vtb2 = −ic(sc) RC kric1 = × 2.4 kΩk97.76 kΩ = −20.84vs

112.4

Rtb2 = RC kric1 = 2.4 kΩk97.76 kΩ = 2.342 kΩ

0 branch, we see v

Replace Q2 with its simplified T model. Looking into the re2 0

tb2 in series with re2

given by

0 Rtb2 + rx2 2.342 kΩ + 20

re2 = + re2 = + 5.178 = 28.80

1 + β2 1 + 99

The resistance seen looking out of the emitter of Q2 is

r02 kRte2 50 kΩk666.7

vo = vtb2 0 = −20.84vs = −19.97vs

re2 + r02 kRte2 28.80 + 50 kΩk666.7

Thus the voltage gain is

vo

= −19.97

vs

2

The output resistance is

0

rout = RE2 kr02 kre2 = 2 kΩk50 kΩk28.80 = 28.38 Ω

To solve for the input resistance, we need rib1 . To calculate this, we need Rtc1 , which requires us

to know rib2 . For the latter, we have

(1 + β 2 ) r02 + Rtc2

rib2 = rx2 + (1 + β 2 ) re2 + Rte2

r02 + Rte2 + Rtc2

(1 + 99) 50 kΩ

= 20 + (1 + 99) 5.178 + 666.7

50 kΩ + 666.7

= 66.33 kΩ

(1 + β 1 ) r01 + Rtc1

rib1 = rx1 + (1 + β 1 ) re1 + Rte1

r01 + Rte1 + Rtc1

= 5.391 kΩ

If Q2 and RE2 are omitted from the circuit and the left node of C2 is connected to the collector

of Q1 , we have a common-emitter amplifier. In this case, the output voltage is

−vs

vo = −ic1(sc) RC kric1 kRL = × 2.4 kΩk97.76 kΩk1 kΩ = −6.235vo

112.4

Thus the voltage gain drops to

vo

= −6.235

vs

This is lower than with the CC stage by a factor of 3.25 or by 10.2 dB. This illustrates how a stage

that has a gain less than unity can increase the gain of a circuit when it is used to drive the load

resistor.

AC Solution - Method 2

For this solution, we use the r0 approximations for Q1 . That is, we neglect the current through

r01 in calculating ic1(sc) but not in calculating ric1 . The short circuit collector output current of Q1

is

α 0.99vtb1 vtb1 vs1

ic1(sc) = Gm1 vtb1 = 0 vtb1 = = =

re1 + Rte1 52.20 + 49.73 103.0 111.3

Look out of the base of Q2 and make a Thévenin equivalent circuit. We have

−vs

vtb2 = −ic1(sc) RC kric1 = × 2.4 kΩk97.76 kΩ = −21.05vs

111.3

Rtb2 = RC kric1 = 2.4 kΩk97.76 kΩ = 2.342 kΩ

0 branch, we see v

Replace Q2 with its simplified T model. Looking into the re2 0

tb2 in series with re2

given by

0 Rtb2 + rx2 2.342 kΩ + 20

re2 = + re2 = + 5.178 = 28.80

1 + β2 1 + 99

3

By voltage division, vo is given by

vo = vtb2 0 = −21.05vs = −20.17vs

re2 + r02 kRte2 28.80 + 50 kΩk666.7

vo

= −20.17

vs

This diﬀers from the answer by Method 1 by 0.99%.

The solutions for rout and rin are the same as for Method 1.

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