Ship Stability
Ch. 1 Introduction to Ship Stability
Spring 2018
MyungIl Roh
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Naval Architectural Calculation, Spring 2018, MyungIl Roh
Contents
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1. Generals
2. Static Equilibrium
3. Restoring Moment and Restoring Arm
4. Ship Stability
5. Examples for Ship Stability
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1. Generals
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Ship
Ship
Water tank
Water
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Ship
Ship
Water
What is “Stability”?
D = L × B × T × CB × r
Stability = Stable + Ability
= W = LWT + DWT
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T: Draft
CB: Block coefficient
r: Density of sea water
Inclining LWT: Lightweight
DWT: Deadweight
(Heeling)
B B
Restoring
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FG
FB
FG FG
B1
FB
FB
G
W1 L1
W L
B1
℄
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þ Hull form
n Outer shape of the hull that is streamlined in order to satisfy requirements of a
ship owner such as a deadweight, ship speed, and so on
n Like a skin of human
þ Hull form design
n Design task that designs the hull form
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What is a “Compartment”?
þ Compartment
n Space to load cargos in the ship
n It is divided by a bulkhead which is a diaphragm or peritoneum of human.
þ Compartment design (General arrangement design)
n Compartment modeling + Ship calculation
þ Compartment modeling
n Design task that divides the interior parts of a hull form into a number of
compartments
þ Ship calculation (Naval architecture calculation)
n Design task that evaluates whether the ship satisfies the required cargo
capacity by a ship owner and, at the same time, the international regulations
related to stability, such as MARPOL and SOLAS, or not
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þ Hull structure
n Frame of a ship comprising of a number of hull structural parts such as plates,
stiffeners, brackets, and so on
n Like a skeleton of human
þ Hull structural design
n Design task that determines the specifications of the hull structural parts such
as the size, material, and so on
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W.L. W.L.
B.L. B.L.
þ Rule Length (Scantling Length) [m]: Basis of structural design and equipment selection
n Intermediate one among (0.96 Lwl at Ts, 0.97 Lwl at Ts, Lbp at Ts)
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Structures above
main deck
Main deck
(Main) Hull
Length on waterline(LWL)
Stem tstem
Design waterline
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performance
Draft
B.L. B.L.
Breadth
¡ Air Draft [m]: Distance (height above waterline only or including operating draft) restricted by the port
facilities, navigating route, etc.
 Air draft from baseline to the top of the mast
 Air draft from waterline to the top of the mast
 Air draft from waterline to the top of hatch cover
 …
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Camber
Deck beam
Freeboard
Scantling waterline
Molded depth(D,mld)
Scantling draft
Centerline
Depth
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z Translational motions
Rotational motions
Heave
Roll Sway
Yaw
Pitch x
Surge
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2. Static Equilibrium
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Center Plane
Before defining the coordinate system of a ship, we first introduce three planes,
which are all standing perpendicular to each other.
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Base Plane
The second plane is the horizontal plane, containing the bottom of the ship,
which is called base plane.
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The third plane is the vertical transverse plane through the midship, which is
called midship section plane.
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Centerline in
(a) Elevation view, (b) Plan view, and (c) Section view
Centerline:
Intersection curve between
center plane and hull form
Centerline
Elevation view
Plan view
(a) ℄
(c)
Section view
℄
℄: Centerline
(b)
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Baseline in
(a) Elevation view, (b) Plan view, and (c) Section view
Baseline:
Intersection curve between
base plane and hull form
Elevation view
Baseline
(b)
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zn
zb
yn
xn
yb
xb
AP: aft perpendicular : midship
FP: fore perpendicular
LBP: length between perpendiculars.
BL: baseline
SLWL: summer load waterline (b)
zb
Stem, Bow
System of Coordinates
yb xb
Stern
zb
(a)
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yb
O
nframe: Inertial frame xn yn zn or x y z
E yn xb Point E: Origin of the inertial frame(nframe)
bframe: Body fixed frame xb yb zb or x’ y’ z’
Point O: Origin of the body fixed frame(bframe)
xn 1) Body fixed coordinate system
The right handed coordinate system with the axis called xb(or x’), yb(or y’), and zb(or z’) is fixed
to the object. This coordinate system is called body fixed coordinate system or body fixed
reference frame (bframe).
In general, a change in the position and orientation of the object is described with respect to
the inertial frame. Moreover Newton’s 2nd law is only valid for the inertial frame.
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AP LBP FP
SLWL
BL
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Static
Equilibrium (1/3)
Static Equilibrium
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K
Center of Buoyancy (B) LCB : keel
LCG
VCB VCG
and Center of Mass (G) : longitudinal center of buoyancy : longitudinal center of gravity
TCB TCG
: vertical center of buoyancy : vertical center of gravity
Section view
y
Plan view
y x x
G LCG VCG B G
B LCB VCB
K
y L
C
z
TCG
B G z x G
TCB
LCB LCG
B
K
L
C
FG
ma = åF
=  FG
G
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Static Equilibrium
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Static Equilibrium
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0 = åF , (Q a = 0)
for the ship to be in static equilibrium
FB
B: Center of buoyancy at upright
position(center of volume of
the submerged volume of the
ship)
FB: Buoyant force acting on ship
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FG
ma = åF
=  FG + FB
G
0 = åF , (Q a = 0)
I w& = åt
FB for the ship to be in static equilibrium
0 = åt , (Q w& = 0)
② Euler equation
Static Equilibrium
t: Moment
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Capsizing
℄
Inclining
(Heeling)
① Newton’s 2nd law
B B
Restoring
Stability
Rotate
of a Floating Object
l You have a torque on this object
What is “Stability”? FG
relative to any point that you choose. It
does not matter where you pick a point.
for the ship to be in static equilibrium ℄
l The torque will only be zero when the
buoyant force and the gravitational When the buoyant force (FB) lies on the same
force are on one line. Then the torque line of action as the gravitational force (FG),
total summation of the moment becomes 0.
becomes zero.
B1
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FB
FG FG
G
W1 L1
W L
FB
B1
℄
FB
Stability = Stable + Ability
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G
ma = åF
=  FG + FB
0 = åF , (Q a = 0)
\ FG = FB
I w& = åt
for the ship to be in static equilibrium
0 = åt , (Q w& = 0)
② Euler equation
Static Equilibrium
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① Newton’s 2nd law
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Stability of a Ship
Interaction of Weight and Buoyancy of
a Floating Body (1/2)
becomes zero. 0 = åF , (Q a = 0)
for the ship to be in static equilibrium
B
B
\ FG = FB
℄ ℄
FG FG
I w& = åt
0 = åt , (Q w& = 0)
Static Equilibrium
Rotate
② Euler equation
FB FB Static Equilibrium
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G
G
tr
te FG FG
FB FB
Torque
(Heeling
Moment)
I w& = åt w& ¹ 0
W L W1 L1
B1 Restoring
Moment
Euler equation: Æ
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Static Equilibrium
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Heeling
Moment
℄
℄
Interaction of Weight and Buoyancy of
B
Restoring Moment
Inclined
te
B
G
FG FG
W L W1 L1
FB B1
FB
(a) (b)
I w& = åt w& = 0
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Æ
FB FG
FG FB
(a) (b) 17
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Overturning Moment
Inclined
FG FG
G
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FB B
FB
(a) (b)
G
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z Fz
k P F
y z
i j
Fy
x
Fx
rP ( xP , yP , z P )
O
y
M = rP ´ F x
éi j kù
ê ú
= ê xP yP z P ú = i ( yP × Fz  z P × Fy ) + j( xP × Fz + z P × Fx ) + k ( xP × Fy  yP × Fx )
ê Fx Fy Fz úû Mx My Mz
ë
The xcomponent of the moment, i.e., the bracket term of unit vector i,
indicates the transverse moment, which is the moment caused by the force F
acting on the point P about x axis. Whereas the ycomponent, the term of unit
vector j, indicates the longitudinal moment about y axis, and the zcomponent,
the last term k, represents the yaw moment about z axis.
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åF = F G,z + FB , z = 0
, where
FG.z and FB.z are the z component of the gravitational force vector and the buoyant force vector,
respectively, and all other components of the vectors are zero.
Also the moment equilibrium must be satisfied, this means, the resultant moment should
be also zero.
åτ = M G + MB = 0
where MG is the moment due to the gravitational force and MB is the moment due to the buoyant
force.
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åτ = M G + MB = 0
M G = rG ´ FG
é i j k ù
ê ú
= ê xG yG zG ú
ê FG , x FG , y FG , z ú
ë û
= i ( yG × FG , z  zG × FG , y ) + j( xG × FG , z + zG × FG , x ) + k ( xG × FG , y  yG × FG , x )
where MG is the moment due to the gravitational force and MB is the moment due to the buoyant
force.
From the calculation of a moment we know that MG and MB can be written as follows:
M B = rB ´ FB
é i j k ù
ê ú
= ê xB yB zB ú
ê FB , x FB , y FB , z ú
ë û
= i ( yB × FB , z  z B × FB , y ) + j( xB × FB , z + z B × FB , x ) + k ( xB × FB , y  yB × FB , x )
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åτ = M G + MB = 0
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where MG is the moment due to the gravitational force and MB is the moment due to the buoyant
force.
åτ = M G + M B = i ( yG × FG , z + yB × FB , z ) + j( xG × FG , z  xB × FB , z ) = 0
yG × FG , z + yB × FB , z = 0 and  xG × FG , z  xB × FB , z = 0
FG , z =  FB , z
yG  yB = 0 Substituting
xG  xB = 0
\ yG = yB \ xG = xB (force equilibrium)
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W1 L1
tr
te FG
FG
G Z Heeling
G Restoring
Moment
Moment
W L
B B B1
FB FB
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te tr
FG
G Z
B B1
• The value of the restoring moment
Restoring is found by multiplying the
Moment
buoyant force of the ship
(displacement), , by the
perpendicular distance from G to
the line of action of .
FB
• It is customary to label as Z
the point of intersection of the line Heeling
of action of and the parallel line Moment
to the waterline through G to it.
• This distance GZ is known as the
‘restoring arm’ or ‘righting arm’.
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te
Z: The intersection point of a vertical line through the new position of
the center of buoyancy(B1) with the transversely parallel line to a
waterline through the center of mass(G)
G
intersection point the vertical
because its Greek meaning implies
line through themovement. The
center of buoyancy
Z metacenter therefore
at isprevious
a moving center.(B) with the
position
vertical line through the center of
buoyancy at new position (B1) after
inclination
• GM Æ Metacentric height
B B1
FB
Z: The intersection point of the line of buoyant force through
B1 with the transverse line through G
tr
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M
GZ » GM × sin f
te
FG
G Z
B B1
FB //
//
tr
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f=35°
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GZ ¹ GM 35 × sin f35
FB ,35
through the center of buoyancy at present position (Bi) after
inclination
FB ,30
C30
L35
L30
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C35
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The ship is in static equilibrium state. Because of the limit of the breadth, “B” can not
move further. the ship will capsize.
As the ship is inclined, the position of the center of buoyancy “B” is changed.
Also the position of the center of mass “G” relative to inertial frame is changed.
Relative Position between “G”, “B”, and “M” at Small Angle of Inclination
• Righting (Restoring) Moment: Moment to return the ship to the upright floating position
• Stable / Neutral / Unstable Condition: Relative height of G with respect to M is
one measure of stability.
FG
• Stable Condition ( G < M ) • Neutral Condition ( G = M ) • Unstable Condition ( G > M )
FG Z
G
FG M G, Z, M M
G Z
B B1 B B1 FG B B1
FG
FG M G M
K K K G
G Z M
FB B
FB B
FB B
FB FB FB
G: Center of mass K: Keel
B: Center of buoyancy at upright position B1: Changed center of buoyancy
FG: Weight of ship FB: Buoyant force acting on ship
Z: The intersection of the line of buoyant force through B1 with the transverse line through G
M: The intersection of the line of buoyant force through B1 with the centerline of the ship
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FG FGFG FG FG F
G
G G
te te
B
B1 B2 B B1
FB0 F FF
B1 FB BF
0BB
12
2
The ship is inclined further from it. The ship is inclined further from it.
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4. Ship Stability
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te
FG1 FG1
G G1
FB
Summary of Static Stability of a Ship (1/3)
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FG F
FGG11
GG G1G
1
BB B1
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te
FG
G Z
G1
B B1
FB
tr
l The moment arm of the buoyant force
and gravitational force about G is
expressed by GZ, where Z is defined as the
intersection point of the line of buoyant
force(FB) through the new position of the
center of buoyancy(B1) with the
transversely parallel line to the waterline
t righting = FB × GZ
through the center of mass of the ship (G).
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Evaluation of Stability
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Righting arm D = const. Area A: Area under the righting arm curve
(GZ) (D: displacement)
between the heel angle of 0° and 30°
Area B: Area under the righting arm curve
between the heel angle of 30° and min(40°, ff )
※ ff : Heel angle at which openings in the hull
GM fm: Heel angle of maximum righting arm
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5m
0.3m
5m
Solution)
(1) Static Equilibrium (1/3)
3m
0.4m
Assumption)
(1) Gravitational acceleration = 10 [m/s2], Density of sea water = 1.025 [ton/m3]
(2) When the ship will be in the static equilibrium finally, the deck will not be immersed and the
bottom will not emerge.
FG = 205 kN
Given: Length (L): 10m, Breadth (B): 5m, Depth (D): 3m, Weight (W): 205kN,
Location of the Center of Gravity: 0.3m to the left side of the center of the deck
Find: Angle of Heel(ϕ)
3m
0.4m
Baseline
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10m
AP FP
FG = 205 kN
Baseline
0.3m
10m
A FP
P
n
å F = n FG , z + n FB , z = 0
n
å τ = n MG + n M B = 0
, where
nF
G.z : zncoordinate of the gravitational force
nF
B.z : zncoordinate of the buoyant force
, where
nM
G : the moment due to the gravitational force
nM
B : the moment due to the buoyant force.
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5m
G
z z'
x,x' O,E
y
B y'
K
Solution)
(1) Static Equilibrium (3/3)
G
3m
0.4m
FG = 205 kN
Solution) 0.3m
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z z'
10m
AP FP
x,x' O,E
y
B y'
K
FG
yG
yB
yG = yB
FB The first step is to satisfy the Newton
Euler equation which requires that the
sum of total forces and moments acting
on the ship is zero.
ф˚
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FG = 205 kN
yG = yB Baseline
0.3m
10m
AP FP
By representing
we can get
and with , and ,
FB
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z z'
G
x,x' O,E
y
1
B y'
A
K
2a
Solution)
(22) Center of Buoyancy and
R Center of Gravity with Respect to the Body Fixed Frame (1/2)
2b
S0 A2
ф˚
1) CenterA of buoyancy,
3
B1, with respect to the body
fixed t frame
S A
A 1
Q
To describe theP values of A1, A2, and A3 using the geometrical parameters (a, t,
and f), y’ and z’ coordinate of the points P, Q, R, R0, S, S0 with respect to
the body fixed frame is used, which are given as follows.
yG = yB
A1 A2 A3
FG
yG
æM M ö
( yC¢ _ A , zC¢ _ A ) = ç AA, z¢ , AA, y¢ ÷
è A A ø
, where
AA : the area of A
yB
MA,z’ : 1st moment of area of A about z’ axis
MA,y’ : 1st moment of area of A about y’ axis.
FB
ф˚
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yG = yB
æM ¢ M ¢ö
( y¢
C_A , zC¢ _ A ) = ç A, z , A, y ÷
è AA AA ø
= + 
R0
30
A1 A2 A3
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Area:
2a
R
2b
S0 A2
ф˚
A3 R0
t
S A
A1
Q
P
Solution)
(23) Center of Buoyancy and Center of Gravity with Respect to the Body Fixed Frame (1/2)
1) Center of buoyancy, B1, with respect to the body The centroid of A with respect
fixed frame to the body fixed frame:
A1 A2 A3
Area
yG = yB
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Solution)
(22) Center of Buoyancy and Center of Gravity with Respect to the Body Fixed Frame (2/2)
2a
R
2b
S0 A2
A3
ф˚
R0
= + 
t
S A
A1
Q
P 1 A
a × a × tan f
2
z¢ 2 1
a × tan f ( yC¢ , zC¢ ) = a, a tan f
C ( yC¢ , zC¢ ) 3 3 Centroid:
1/ 3 × a × tan f
a y¢
2 / 3× a 1 2 1
Area ´ yC¢ = a × a × tan f ´ a = a 3 tan f Moment of area about z’ axis:
2 3 3
1 1 1
Area ´ zC¢ = a × a × tan f ´ a × tan f = a 3 tan 2 f
2 3 6 61
Naval Architectural Calculation, Spring 2018, MyungIl Roh Moment of area about y’ axis:
A2
yG = yB
æM ¢ M ¢ö
= +  ( y¢ C_A , zC¢ _ A ) = ç A, z , A, y ÷
è AA AA ø
( AA ) Centroid
( yC¢ , zC¢ ) Moment of area about z'axis
The table blow summarizes the results of the area, centroid with
respect to the body fixed frame and 1st moment of area with
2a × t æ tö 0 a × t 2
ç 0,  ÷
A2
The center of buoyancy, B1, with respect to the body fixed frame is
è 2ø
3 2
1 æ 2a a × tan f ö A
a × tan f 3
a × ( tan f )
× a × a × tan f ç ,
A3
÷
2 è 3 3 ø 3 6
3 2
1 æ 2a a × tan f ö a × tan f a 3 × ( tan f )
× a × a × tan f ç , ÷  
è 3 3 ø A (=A1+A2A3)
2 3 6
2
2a × t 2a 3 × tan f a 3 × ( tan f )
a × t 2 +

3 3
2
æ M A, z¢ M A, y ' ö æ a 2 × tan f t a 2 × ( tan f ) ö
( yB¢ , z¢B ) = ç , ÷ = çç , + ÷
÷
è AA AA ø
è
3t 2 6t
ø
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z
z’
2a
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y
O,E ф˚
y’
2b d
Solution)
(3) Comparison between the Figure Describing the Ship Inclined
and the Figure Describing the Water Plane Inclined (1/2)
(b)
yG = yB
Solution)
(23) Center of Buoyancy and Center of Gravity with Respect to the Body Fixed Frame (2/2)
zn zb
2a
yn
O,E ф˚
yb
2
B
æ a 2 × tan f t a × ( tan f ) ö
2
, + ÷
3t 2 6t ÷
è ø
fixed frame
FG
64
The center of gravity, G, with respect to
the body fixed frame is given by
Naval Architectural Calculation, Spring 2018, MyungIl Roh
( y 'G , z 'G ) = ( d , 2b  t )
FB
xn, xb
63 B1
FG
2
æ a 2 × tan f t a × ( tan f ) ö
2
( yB¢ , z¢B ) = çç , + ÷
÷ FB
3t 2 6t
è ø
( y 'G , z 'G ) = ( d , 2b  t )
xn,xb
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Starboard
Port
5m
Solution)
[Example] Equilibrium Position and Orientation of a Boxshaped Ship
Question 2) The center of mass is moved to 2 [m] in the direction of the forward perpendicular.
(3) Comparison between the Figure Describing the Ship Inclined
A boxshaped ship of 10 meter length, 5 meter breadth and 3
meter height weighs 205 [kN].
The center of mass is moved to 2 [m] in the direction of the forward
and the Figure Describing the Water Plane Inclined (2/2)
perpendicular. When the ship is in static equilibrium state, determine
the equilibrium position and orientation of the ship.
Assumption)
(1) Gravitational acceleration = 10 [m/s2], Density of sea water = 1.025 [ton/m3]
(2) When the ship will be in the static equilibrium finally, the deck will not be immersed
and the bottom will emerge.
3m
0.4m
yG¢ × cos f + zG¢ × sin f = yB¢ × cos f + z B¢ × sin f
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2
æ a 2 × tan f t a × ( tan f ) ö
2
( yB¢ , z¢B ) = çç , + ÷
÷
3t 2 6t
è ø
( y 'G , z 'G ) = ( d , 2b  t )
æ 15.025 15.625
( tan f ) ö÷
2
2.6 × sin f + 0.3 × cos f = sin f ç +
è 3 6 ø
tan f = 0.159 [rad]
Substituting a=2.5m, b=1.5m, t=0.4m, d=0.3m into this equation
and rearranging
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FG = 205 kN
Baseline
2m
10m
AP FP
33
Starboard
Port
5m
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Solution)
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Naval Architectural Calculation, Spring 2018, MyungIl Roh
FG = 205 kN
2m
zn
Force Equilibrium
3m
0.4m
Baseline
AP
10m
FP
åF = F G + FB = 0
FG = 250
FG = 205 kN
FB =  r × g × V
zb æ1 ö
= 1.025 ×10 × ç × a × b × 5 ÷
è2 ø
= 25.625 × a × b
xb
a
åF = F G + FB
= 250 + 25.625 × a × b
b =0
a yn , yb
xn
FB O \a ×b = 8
Solution)
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Naval Architectural Calculation, Spring 2018, MyungIl Roh
FG z
z z¢
z¢
x¢
x x¢
O, E
y, y¢
q
b
x a y, y¢
FB O, E
Side view
(Profile view)
z
FG z¢
x¢ q FB O, E
y, y¢
a
34
Starboard
Port
5m
3m
0.4m
20180807
Moment Equilibrium
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Naval Architectural Calculation, Spring 2018, MyungIl Roh
FG = 205 kN
2m
Moment Equilibrium
zn
Baseline åM = M G + MB = 0
10m
AP FP
xG = xB
zb
xG = 3cos a  3sin a
n
xG
xb 3cos a 3sin a
Solution)
a
n
xB b
a yn , yb
xn
FB O
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Naval Architectural Calculation, Spring 2018, MyungIl Roh
zn
FG
zb
n
xG
xb 3cos a 3sin a
xn
a
a
n
xB
yn , yb
b åM = M G + MB = 0
FB O
zn zb
n
xG = n xB
n
xG = 3cos a  3sin a
n a b
xB = cos a  sin a
3 3
The centers of buoyancy B and gravity G
a n
xB a b
should be in the same vertical line.
FB O
Solution)
35
20180807
a b
Naval Architectural Calculation, Spring 2018, MyungIl Roh
72
9 ( a  b ) = ( a + b )( a  b )
if a = b a=b=2 2
a ×b = 8
if a ¹ b a =8
9 ( a  b ) = ( a + b )( a  b ) b =1 Solution)
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Naval Architectural Calculation, Spring 2018, MyungIl Roh
Unstable
Stable
a=b=2 2
zn
d xG
3 2 sin Da
3 2 Da
FG 3 2 » 4.242Da
xb
zb
3 2
a
Da
FB
a=2 2 yn , yb b=2 2
xn
O
d xB Ñ wedge
Da = 1 = d xB =
Ñ wedge
d xb
d xb Ñtotal Ñtotal
1
Ñ wedge = 2 × 2 × × tan(Dq ) = 2 tan(Dq )
2 2 tan(Dq ) 4
Ñtotal =
2 2 ×2 2 2
= 4, d xb = 2( ) =
4
d xB =
4
×
3 d xB » 0.66Da
2 3 3
Solution)
36
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Naval Architectural Calculation, Spring 2018, MyungIl Roh
Nonlinear equation
about f ?
a=b=2 2
zn
Horizontal displacement of center of mass
d xG
3 2 sin Da
3 2 Da
3 2 » 4.242Da
xb FG
zb
a
Da
a=2 2 yn , yb b=2 2
FB
xn
O
d xB Ñ wedge
Da = 1 = d xB =
Ñ wedge
d xb
d xb Ñtotal Ñtotal
1
Ñ wedge = 2 × 2 × × tan(Dq ) = 2 tan(Dq )
2 2 tan(Dq ) 4
Ñtotal =
2 2 ×2 2 2
= 4, d xb = 2( ) =
4
d xB =
4
×
3 d xB » 0.66Da
2 3 3 73
Naval Architectural Calculation, Spring 2018, MyungIl Roh
Solution)
Why is the ship unstable, when ?
Unstable
æ 1 ö
GZ = ç GM + BM tan 2 f ÷ sin f
è 2 ø
æ 1 ö
D ç GM + BM tan 2 f ÷ sin f 8ton × m
è 2 ø
GM = KB + BM  KG
= 0.6 + 2  2.4 = 0.2 m =
① Calculation of BM
8
( 0.2 + tan f ) sin f = 102.5
2
② Calculation of GM
예제5.2
37
[Example] Heel Angle Caused by Movement
of Passengers in Ferry (2/2)
Righting moment in wall sided ship (Mr) = Heeling moment (Mh) 20180807
Righting
arm
d=20.0 m
17˚ 0.0858 0.0780
200 ton
h=10.0 m
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Naval Architectural Calculation, Spring 2018, MyungIl Roh
æ 1 ö
GZ = ç GM + BM tan 2 f ÷ sin f
è 2 ø
Question) Emergency circumstance happens in Ferry with displacement (mass) 102.5 ton.
Heeling moment of 8 ton·m occurs due to passengers moving to the right of the ship.
5.0m
What will be an angle of heel?
Assume that wall sided ship with KB=0.6m, KG=2.4m, IT=200m4.
æ 1 ö
D ç GM + BM tan 2 f ÷ sin f 8ton × m
è 2 ø
• Given: KB, KG, IT, Heeling moment Mh
• Find: Angle of heel φ
• GZ of wall sided ship
0.0858
Because of nonlinear equation, solve
it by numerical method.
Result of calculation is about f=16.0˚.
0.0778
0.0703
Heeling
arm
15o 17o
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Naval Architectural Calculation, Spring 2018, MyungIl Roh
y
t
G
B
Base [Example] Heel Angle Caused by Movement of Cargo
Line
L
C
예제5.3
38
4.0m
b
20180807
h
G1 G G1
예제5.5
Question)
A barge is 40m length, 10m breadth,
5m depth, and is floating at 1 m draft.
The vertical center of mass of the ship
is located in 2 m from the baseline.
A cargo is supposed to be loaded in
center of the deck. Find the maximum
loadable weight that keeps the
stability of ship. r=1.0ton/m3
5m
Problem to calculate the maximum load for the
stability.
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Naval Architectural Calculation, Spring 2018, MyungIl Roh
Question) As below cases partial weight w of the ship is shifted. What is the
shift distance of center of mass of the ship?
Base Base
Line Line
L
C L
C
Case 1) Vertical shift of the partial weight Case 2) Horizontal shift of the partial weight
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Naval Architectural Calculation, Spring 2018, MyungIl Roh
Base
Line
L
C
5m
39
20180807
Section view S z
z,z‘ 20
S R z‘
20 20
20 R
O O
y,y‘ 30˚ y
B 10
B
P B1
y‘
K
P K Q
Q
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Naval Architectural Calculation, Spring 2018, MyungIl Roh
16.0 m
Question)
A cargo carrier of 18,000 ton displacement
is afloat and has GM = 1.5m. And we want
to transfer the cargo of 200 ton weight
from bottom of the ship to land. 200
27.0 m
A lifting height of cargo is 27.0 m from ton
the original position.
After lifting the cargo, turn the cargo to
the right through a distance of 16.0 m
from the centerline.
Base
What will be the angle of heel of the ship? Line
[Example] Calculation of Position of Ship
when Cargo is Moved by Crane L
C
Hint) Use the Moment to Heel One Degree
and the heeling moment caused by the
movement of the cargo.
Moment to heel one degree = FB × GM × sin1°
Problem to calculate the equilibrium angle of the
ship when external force are applied.
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Naval Architectural Calculation, Spring 2018, MyungIl Roh
40
20180807
z,z'
O,O' y,y' 20
20 20
x,x' 1
1 10
0 0
20
20 20 20
10
20
20
10
CL 81
Naval Architectural Calculation, Spring 2018, MyungIl Roh
Reference Slides
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Naval Architectural Calculation, Spring 2018, MyungIl Roh
41
20180807
84
Naval Architectural Calculation, Spring 2018, MyungIl Roh
n
Qx = å Ai × xi
n =1 1) Gere, Mechanics of Materials, 6th ,Ch.12.3, 2006
n
y
Qx : 1st Moment
Ai : Each Area
A : Total Area
A × x = å Ai × xi
: Coordinate of
Centroid
(+)
y j
x
n =1
x
i
t
Area a
j
g i G1 g1 [Reference] Movement of Centroid
x 1
Caused by Movement of Area (1/3) gG × Area A = gg × Area ( A a ) + gg1 × Area a
…①
gG1 Area a
=
G1 : Centroid of total area,
g : Centroid of the large circle,
AreaA : Total area
AreaAa : Area of the large circle
g1 : Centroid of the small circle, Areaa : Area of the small circle
gg1 Area A
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Naval Architectural Calculation, Spring 2018, MyungIl Roh
n
Qx = å Ai × xi
n =1
n
y
(+) A × x = å Ai × xi
y Area a j
x
n =1
x
i
t
g2
1) Gere, Mechanics of Materials, 6th ,Ch.12.3, 2006
, ( gg = 0)
Area ( A a )
gG2 × Area A = gg 2 × Area a
gG2 Area a
=
gg 2 Area A
…②
42
20180807
y
(+)
y Area a j
x ÐG1 gG2 = Ðg1 gg 2 … ③
i [Reference] Movement of Centroid
g2
Naval Architectural Calculation, Spring 2018, MyungIl Roh
86
From ①, ②, ③,
…①
g i G1 g1 x G1G2 / / g1 g 2
G1G2 Area a Area a
Area ( A a ) = G1G2 = ´ g1 g 2
g1 g 2 Area A Area A
gG1 Area a gG2 Area a The line G1G2 is parallel to the line g1g2.
= =
gg1 Area A gg 2 Area A
G1 : Centroid of total area, AreaA : Total area
g : Centroid of the large circle, AreaAa : Area of the large circle
g1 : Centroid of the small circle, Areaa : Area of the small circle 85
Naval Architectural Calculation, Spring 2018, MyungIl Roh
…②
z¢
M
f
KN = KG sin f + GZ
GZ = KN  KG sin f
Z y
G
f
x, x¢ O, O¢ y¢
B1
B d yB¢
d z ¢B
N
P
K
d yB, d z B,
B1
B d yB¢
d z ¢B
N KN = KB sin f + d yB, cos f + d z B, sin f
d z ¢B sin f
K d yB¢ cos f
KB sin f
G d yG¢
G1
Load
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Naval Architectural Calculation, Spring 2018, MyungIl Roh
z z¢
M
d yG¢ cos f f
G f G1
d yG¢ G1 y
G d yG¢
f
x, x¢ O, O¢ y¢
B1
B d yB¢
d z ¢B
N
P
K
M G = W × ( KP + PN )
= W × ( KG cos f + d yG¢ cos f )
44
20180807
B1 G d yG¢
G1 y
B d yB¢
d z ¢B
x, x¢ O, O¢
f
y¢
N B1
B d yB¢
d z ¢B
d z ¢B sin f
N
K d yB¢ cos f K
P
KB sin f
89
Naval Architectural Calculation, Spring 2018, MyungIl Roh
z z¢
M
d yG¢ cos f f
G f G1
d yG¢
G1 y
G d yG¢
f
x, x¢ O, O¢ y¢
B1
B d yB¢
d z ¢B
MG + M B = 0 N
P
K
d yG¢ , d yB¢ d z ¢B
45
In this equation, KG and KB are given. , and are functions of f.
Load
20180807
G 1
d zG¢
G d yG¢
Load
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Naval Architectural Calculation, Spring 2018, MyungIl Roh
z z¢
M
f
d zG¢ sin f
d yG¢ cos f G 1
G1 G d yG¢
d zG¢
f
y
d zG¢ x, x¢ E, O y¢
G ¢
d yG
f
B d yB¢
B1
d z ¢B
N
P
K
M G = W × ( KP + PN )
= W × ( KG cos f + d yG¢ cos f + d zG¢ sin f )
46
20180807
f
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Naval Architectural Calculation, Spring 2018, MyungIl Roh
93
Naval Architectural Calculation, Spring 2018, MyungIl Roh
z z¢
M
d zG¢ sin f
d yG¢ cos f
G1 f
d zG¢
G f G 1
d yG¢ d zG¢ y
G d yG¢
f
x, x¢ E, O y¢
B1 B1
B d z ¢B B d yB¢
d z ¢B
d yB¢
N N
d z ¢B sin f P
d yB¢ cos f K
MG + M B = 0 K
KB sin f
47
In this equation, KG and KB are given. , and are functions of
20180807
95
Naval Architectural Calculation, Spring 2018, MyungIl Roh
z, z¢ ( yP¢ , z ¢P )
y¢P
P
The position vector of the point P
decomposed in the body fixed frame
Invariant with respect to the body fixed frame
z¢P
O, O¢
y, y¢
O¢x¢y¢z ¢ :
Oxyz :
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Naval Architectural Calculation, Spring 2018, MyungIl Roh
48
20180807
( yP , z P )
Invariant with respect to the body fixed frame
yP
The position vector of the point P
y¢
decomposed in the initial frame
Variant with respect to the inertial frame
yP¢ z ¢P P
Naval Architectural Calculation, Spring 2018, MyungIl Roh
98
zP
O, O¢ f
y
O¢x¢y¢z ¢ :
Oxyz :
97
Naval Architectural Calculation, Spring 2018, MyungIl Roh
z ( yP¢ , z ¢P )
z¢
z ¢P sin f ( yP , z P )
yP P
y¢
yP¢ z ¢P
yP = yP¢ cos f  z ¢P sin f
zP The position vector of the point P
decomposed in the body fixed frame
Invariant with respect to the body fixed frame
y¢P
O, O¢ f
The position vector of the point P
y
decomposed in the initial frame
Variant with respect to the inertial frame
yP¢ cos f
O¢x¢y¢z ¢ :
Oxyz :
49
20180807
( yP , z P )
Invariant with respect to the body fixed frame
yP P
The position vector of the point P
z ¢P cosyf
¢ decomposed in the initial frame
Variant with respect to the inertial frame
yP¢ z ¢P
yP = yP¢ cos f  z ¢P sin f
zP
z P = yP¢ sin f + z P¢ cos f
y¢P yP¢ sin f
O, O¢ f
y
O¢x¢y¢z ¢ :
Oxyz :
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Naval Architectural Calculation, Spring 2018, MyungIl Roh
z ( yP¢ , z ¢P )
z¢
( yP , z P )
yP P
y¢
yP¢ z ¢P
yP = yP¢ cos f  z ¢P sin f
zP The position vector of the point P
O, O¢ f
The position vector of the point P
y
decomposed in the initial frame
Variant with respect to the inertial frame
Matrix Form
50
20180807
y¢P
P
z¢P
O, O¢
y, y¢
O¢x¢y¢z ¢ :
Oxyz :
101
Naval Architectural Calculation, Spring 2018, MyungIl Roh
P
é yP ù écos ( f )  sin ( f ) ù é yP¢ ù
y¢P ê z ú = ê sin f úê ú
The position vector of the point P
decomposed in the body fixed frame
ë P û ë ( ) cos ( f ) û ë z ¢P û
Invariant with respect to the body fixed frame
yP
O, O¢ zP
f y The position vector of the point P
decomposed in the initial frame
Variant with respect to the inertial frame
z ¢P
y¢
O¢x¢y¢z ¢ :
Oxyz :
51
20180807
z, z¢ ( yG¢ 1 , zG¢ 1 )
“Change of
the center of mass” The position vector of the changed total center
of mass G1 decomposed in the body fixed frame
g d g1
yG¢ = d yG¢
w
d yG¢ = d
W
yG¢ 1 G1
G w
= d yG¢
zG¢ zG¢ 1
W , where
y, y¢
is the weight of the
moving load
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Naval Architectural Calculation, Spring 2018, MyungIl Roh
w ( yG¢ 1 , zG¢ 1 )
yG¢ = d z
W
z¢
( yG1 , zG1 )
yG¢ 1 1
yG1 é yG1 ù écos ( f )  sin ( f ) ù é yG¢ 1 ù
zG1 ê ú=ê úê ú
êë zG1 úû ë sin ( f ) cos ( f ) û êë zG¢ 1 úû
f zG¢ 1 y Invariant with respect to the body fixed frame
=ê úê ú
ë  sin (f ) cos (f ) û êë zG¢ 1 úû
52
20180807
(1) Calculate the initial centroid “B” of the rectangle for z’<0 with respect to the body fixed frame.
(2) Then calculate new centroid “B1” caused by moving a partial triangular area with respect to the
body fixed frame.
( yB1 , z B1 )
ë P û ë ( ) cos ( f ) û ë z ¢P û
decomposed in the initial frame
Variant with respect to the inertial frame
O, O¢
f y
z B1
y¢B1
z ¢B1
B yB1 B1
d z ¢B y¢
d yB¢ “Change of
the center of buoyancy”
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Naval Architectural Calculation, Spring 2018, MyungIl Roh
z, z¢ ( yB¢ 1 , z B¢ 1 )
O, O¢
z ¢B1 y, y¢
yB¢ 1 B1
d z ¢B
B
d yB¢
O¢x¢y¢z ¢ :
Oxyz :
B is centroid of “ abcd”
B1 is centroid of “ ebcf”
53
e
20180807
(3) Rotate the new centroid “B1” with an angle of “f”(clockwise direction).
(4) Then calculate the position vector of the point “B1” with respect to the inertial frame.
equilibrium position.
z ( yB¢ 1 , z B¢ 1 )
( yB1 , z B1 )
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Naval Architectural Calculation, Spring 2018, MyungIl Roh
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Naval Architectural Calculation, Spring 2018, MyungIl Roh
z , z¢
z¢
th
G
FG Stability of a Ship
 Stable Condition (1/3)
O, O¢
f y, y¢
FB
B
B1 Heeling
moment
y¢
54
moment.
③ Test whether it returns to its initial
20180807
z
τe
z¢
τ e = rG ´FG +rB1 ´FB
= i ( yG × FG , z  zG × FG , y )
th Resultant moment about
xaxis through point O ( ) :
+ j( xG × FG , z + zG × FG , x )
+ k ( xG × FG , y  yG × FG , x )
G ê
é FG , x ù
ú ê
é 0 ù Heeling
moment
+ i ( yB1 × FB , z  z B1 × FB , y )
ú
rG FG = ê FG , y ú = ê 0 ú + j( xB1 × FB , z + z B1 × FB , x )
O, O¢ êë FG , z úû êë W úû +k ( xB1 × FB , y  yB1 × FB , x )
f y
= i ( yG × FG , z  zG × FG , y )
é FB , x ù é 0 ù
rB1 ê ú + i ( yB1 × FB , z  z B1 × FB , y )
FB = ê FB , y ú = êê 0 úú
B B êë FB, z úû êë D úû = i ( yG × ( W ) + yB1 × D)
1
y¢ W =D
= i ( yG × (  D ) + yB1 × D)
= i × D( yB1  yG )
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Naval Architectural Calculation, Spring 2018, MyungIl Roh
If
z , z¢
τe
z¢
τ e = rG ´FG +rB1 ´FB
= i × D( yB1  yG )
= i × D × GZ
G t r = D × GZ
yG r Z
G FG
O, O¢
f y, y¢
yB1
Resultant moment about
xaxis through point O ( ) :
rB1
FB
B B1
y¢
tr
Stability of a Ship
 Stable Condition (3/3)
• Transverse Righting Moment
Stable!!
55
20180807
Stability of a Ship
 Neutral Condition (2/3)
FG
th
Heeling
moment
O, O¢
f y, y¢
FB
B
B1
Suppose G is higher than that of
the stable condition. y¢
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Naval Architectural Calculation, Spring 2018, MyungIl Roh
z
τe
z¢
τ e = rG ´FG +rB1 ´FB
G é FG , x ù é 0 ù
ê ú = i ( yG × FG , z  zG × FG , y )
FG = ê FG , y út=h êê 0 úú
+ j( xG × FG , z + zG × FG , x )
êë FG , z úû ëê W ûú
+ k ( xG × FG , y  yG × FG , x )
+ i ( yB1 × FB , z  z B1 × FB , y )
rG + j( xB1 × FB , z + z B1 × FB , x )
O, O¢ +k ( xB1 × FB , y  yB1 × FB , x )
f y Resultant moment about
xaxis through point O ( ) :
= i ( yG × FG , z  zG × FG , y )
é FB , x ù é 0 ù
rB1 ê ú ê ú + i ( yB1 × FB , z  z B1 × FB , y )
FB = ê FB , y ú = ê 0 ú
B B1 êë FB, z úû êë D úû = i ( yG × ( W ) + yB1 × D)
Heeling
moment
y¢ W =D
= i ( yG × (  D ) + yB1 × D)
= i × D( yB1  yG )
56
If
20180807
0
rG
O, O¢ yG
f yB y
1
rB1
FB Neutral!!
B B1
y¢
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Naval Architectural Calculation, Spring 2018, MyungIl Roh
G z , z¢
FG z¢
th
Stability of a Ship
 Unstable Condition (1/3)
O, O¢
f y, y¢
FB
B B
B1 Heeling
moment
y¢
57
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Stability of a Ship
 Unstable Condition (3/3)
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Naval Architectural Calculation, Spring 2018, MyungIl Roh
z
G τe
z¢
FG τ e = rG ´FG +rB1 ´FB
é FG , x ù é 0 ù
ê ú ê ú = i ( yG × FG , z  zG × FG , y )
= ê FG t
,y h ú=ê 0 ú Resultant moment about
xaxis through point O ( ) :
êë FG , z úû ëê W ûú + j( xG × FG , z + zG × FG , x )
rG + k ( xG × FG , y  yG × FG , x )
Heeling
moment
+ i ( yB1 × FB , z  z B1 × FB , y )
+ j( xB1 × FB , z + z B1 × FB , x )
O, O¢ +k ( xB1 × FB , y  yB1 × FB , x )
f y
= i ( yG × FG , z  zG × FG , y )
é FB , x ù é 0 ù
rB1 ê ú + i ( yB1 × FB , z  z B1 × FB , y )
FB = ê FB , y ú = êê 0 úú
B B1 êë FB, z úû êë D úû = i ( yG × ( W ) + yB1 × D)
y¢ W =D
= i ( yG × (  D ) + yB1 × D)
= i × D( yB1  yG )
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Naval Architectural Calculation, Spring 2018, MyungIl Roh
If
z
G z¢
FG τe
τ e= rG ´FG +rB1 ´FB
= i × D( yB1  yG )
yB1  yG < 0
O, O¢ yG
f yB y
1
B B1
FB y¢
Unstable!!
58
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Space(Water plane) fixed reference frame Body fixed reference frame
Alternatively, we can calculate the center of buoyancy with respect to the body fixed
reference frame (noninertial reference frame).
G
y
f
Water plane fixed reference frame Body fixed reference frame
B
Method 1. Calculate center of buoyancy B1 directly Method 2. Calculate center of buoyancy B1 with
with respect to the water B
plane reference fixed frame. respect to the body fixed reference frame, then
1
z'
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Naval Architectural Calculation, Spring 2018, MyungIl Roh G
x,x’
O,O’ f
y'
B
K
B1
Reference Frame
z z¢
z
FG
z¢ FG y
G
G W f
y O, O¢
y¢
O W
L
f
B1 (a) (b)
B1 y¢
FB
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Naval Architectural Calculation, Spring 2018, MyungIl Roh
zn
k (+)
yn
j
t
z ¢B1 / O¢
z B1 / O
[Reference] Water Plane Fixed Reference Frame vs.
Body Fixed Reference Frame
We can calculate the center of buoyancy with respect to the water plane fixed
reference frame (inertial reference frame).
yB¢ 1 / O '
yB1 / O
O,O’
O : Origin of the water plane fixed reference frame O : Origin of the water plane fixed reference frame
O’ : Origin of the body fixed reference frame O’ : Origin of the body fixed reference frame
59
Method 1. Calculate center of buoyancy B1 directly Method 2. Calculate center of buoyancy B1 with
with respect to the water plane fixed reference frame. respect to the body fixed reference frame, then
transform B1 to the water plane fixed reference frame.
G
z'
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x,x’ f
O,O’ y'
B B1
z K
G
y
f
B
B1
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Naval Architectural Calculation, Spring 2018, MyungIl Roh
Method 1. Calculate center of buoyancy B1 directly Method 2. Calculate center of buoyancy B1 with
with respect to the water plane fixed reference frame. respect to the body fixed reference frame, then
transform B1 to the water plane fixed reference frame.
z'
f
y'
B B1
K
é n yP / O ù é cos f sin f ù é b yP / O ù
ên ú=ê ê ú
Same
ë z P / O û ë  sin f cos f úû ë b z P / O û
zn
k (+)
z yn
j
t
G
y
f z ¢B1 / O¢
z B1 / O
B
yB¢ 1 / O '
Question: How to calculate center of the buoyancy(B1) with respect to water plane fixed frame?
üComparison between Method 1 and Method 2 (1/2)
yB1 / O B1 z
O,O’
O : Origin of the water plane fixed frame (nframe) O : Origin of the water plane fixed frame (nframe)
O’ : Origin of the body fixed reference frame (bframe) O’ : Origin of the body fixed reference frame (bframe)
A, M z , M y A, M A, z ' , M A, y '
M A, z = ò ydA M A, y = ò zdA
æM M A, y ' ö
( yB¢ 1 / O ' , z B¢ 1 / O ' ) = ç A, z ' , ÷
è A A ø
æM M ö
( yB1 / O , z B1 / O ) = ç A, z , A, y ÷
è A A ø é yB1 / O ù é cos f sin f ù é yB¢ 1 / O ' ù
ü with respect to the water plane
fixed frame
ê ú= ê ê ú
cos f úû ëê z B¢ 1 / O ' ûú
M A, z M A, y ü with respect to the body fixed
ëê z B1 / O ûú ë  sin f
frame
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ü Center of buoyancy with respect to the body
fixed frame
é n yP / O ù é cos f sin f ù é b yP / O ù
ên ú=ê ê ú
ë z P / O û ë  sin f cos f úû ë b z P / O û
zn
k (+)
yn
j
t
[Reference]
z B1 / O '
z ¢B1 / O¢
z B1 / O Convenient
yB¢ 1 / O '
yB1 / O yB1 / O '
A, M z , M y A, M A, z ' , M A, y '
æM M ö x,x’
ëê z B1 / O ûú ë  sin f
üComparison between Method 1 and Method 2 (2/2)
O : Origin of the water plane fixed frame (nframe) O : Origin of the water plane fixed frame (nframe)
O’ : Origin of the body fixed reference frame (bframe) O’ : Origin of the body fixed reference frame (bframe)
O,O’
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ü Rotational transformation
fixed reference frame
Rotation of a ship with respect to the body fixed
reference frame
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Same!!
[Reference]
Orientation of a Ship with Respect to the Different Reference Frame
Inclination of a ship can be represented either with respect to the water plane fixed
frame(“inertial reference frame”) or the body fixed reference frame.
Are these two phenomena with respect to the different reference frames the same?
te z' z te z' z
FG
FG
y'
Z G Z G
f
Rotation of a ship with respect to the water plane
y y'
f
B1 B1
y
B B
FB
FB
tr
Submerged volume and emerged volume do not change with respect to the frame, that means
tr volume is invariant with respect to the reference frame. Also is the pressure acting on the ship
invariant with respect to the reference frame.
In addition, the magnitude of the moment arm “GZ” also does not change. However, the position
vectors of the center of mass “G” and the center of buoyancy “B1” are variant with respect to the water
plane fixed reference frame.
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