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# 2018-08-07

## Lecture Note of Naval Architectural Calculation

Ship Stability
Ch. 1 Introduction to Ship Stability

Spring 2018

Myung-Il Roh

## Department of Naval Architecture and Ocean Engineering

Seoul National University

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Contents

## þ Ch. 1 Introduction to Ship Stability

þ Ch. 2 Review of Fluid Mechanics
þ Ch. 3 Transverse Stability Due to Cargo Movement
þ Ch. 4 Initial Transverse Stability
þ Ch. 5 Initial Longitudinal Stability
þ Ch. 6 Free Surface Effect
þ Ch. 7 Inclining Test
þ Ch. 8 Curves of Stability and Stability Criteria
þ Ch. 9 Numerical Integration Method in Naval Architecture
þ Ch. 10 Hydrostatic Values and Curves
þ Ch. 11 Static Equilibrium State after Flooding Due to Damage
þ Ch. 12 Deterministic Damage Stability
þ Ch. 13 Probabilistic Damage Stability

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## Ch. 1 Introduction to Ship Stability

1. Generals
2. Static Equilibrium
3. Restoring Moment and Restoring Arm
4. Ship Stability
5. Examples for Ship Stability

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1. Generals

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## þ The force that enables a ship to float Æ “Buoyant Force”

n It is directed upward.
n It has a magnitude equal to the weight of the fluid which is displaced
by the ship.

Ship

Ship
Water tank
Water

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## How does a ship float? (2/3)

þ Archimedes’ Principle
n The magnitude of the buoyant force acting on a floating body in the
fluid is equal to the weight of the fluid which is displaced by the
floating body.
n The direction of the buoyant force is opposite to the gravitational
force.
Buoyant force of a floating body
= the weight of the fluid which is displaced by the floating body (“Displacement”)
Æ Archimedes’ Principle
þ Equilibrium State (“Floating Condition”)
n Buoyant force of the floating body W D = -W = -rgV
= Weight of the floating body
G
\Displacement = Weight
G: Center of gravity
B: Center of buoyancy B
W: Weight, D: Displacement
r: Density of fluid
V: Submerged volume of the floating body
(Displacement volume, Ñ) D
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Ship

Ship
Water

## How does a ship float? (3/3)

B
Capsizing

What is “Stability”?

## þ Displacement(D) = Buoyant Force = Weight(W)

D = L × B × T × CB × r
Stability = Stable + Ability
= W = LWT + DWT
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T: Draft
CB: Block coefficient
r: Density of sea water
Inclining LWT: Lightweight
DWT: Deadweight
(Heeling)

B B
Restoring

## þ Weight = Ship weight (Lightweight) + Cargo weight(Deadweight)

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FG

FB
FG FG

B1

FB
FB
G

W1 L1

W L
B1

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## What is a “Hull form”?

þ Hull form
n Outer shape of the hull that is streamlined in order to satisfy requirements of a
ship owner such as a deadweight, ship speed, and so on
n Like a skin of human
þ Hull form design
n Design task that designs the hull form

## Wireframe model Surface model

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What is a “Compartment”?

þ Compartment
n Space to load cargos in the ship
n It is divided by a bulkhead which is a diaphragm or peritoneum of human.
þ Compartment design (General arrangement design)
n Compartment modeling + Ship calculation
þ Compartment modeling
n Design task that divides the interior parts of a hull form into a number of
compartments
þ Ship calculation (Naval architecture calculation)
n Design task that evaluates whether the ship satisfies the required cargo
capacity by a ship owner and, at the same time, the international regulations
related to stability, such as MARPOL and SOLAS, or not

## Compartment of the VLCC 10

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## What is a “Hull structure”?

þ Hull structure
n Frame of a ship comprising of a number of hull structural parts such as plates,
stiffeners, brackets, and so on
n Like a skeleton of human
þ Hull structural design
n Design task that determines the specifications of the hull structural parts such
as the size, material, and so on

## Hull structure of the VLCC

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Loa

W.L. W.L.

B.L. B.L.

## A.P. Lbp F.P.

Lwl
þ LOA (Length Over All) [m]: Maximum Length of Ship

## þ LBP (Length Between Perpendiculars (A.P. ~ F.P.)) [m]

n A.P.: After perpendicular (normally, center line of the rudder stock)
n F.P.: Inter-section line between designed draft and fore side of the stem, which is
perpendicular to the baseline

## þ Lf (Freeboard Length) [m]: Basis of freeboard assignment, damage stability calculation

n 96% of Lwl at 0.85D or Lbp at 0.85D, whichever is greater

þ Rule Length (Scantling Length) [m]: Basis of structural design and equipment selection
n Intermediate one among (0.96 Lwl at Ts, 0.97 Lwl at Ts, Lbp at Ts)
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Structures above
main deck
Main deck

(Main) Hull

## Wetted line Molded line

Length overall(LOA)

Length on waterline(LWL)

Stem tstem
Design waterline

## Length between perpendiculars(LBP)

AP FP

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## ¡ B (Breadth) [m]: Maximum breadth of the ship, measured

amidships
- Bmolded: excluding shell plate thickness
- Bextreme: including shell plate thickness
Air Draft

## ¡ D (Depth) [m]: Distance from the baseline to the deck side

line
- Dmolded: excluding keel plate thickness
- Dextreme: including keel plate thickness

## ¡ Td (Designed Draft) [m]: Main operating draft

- In general, basis of ship’s deadweight and speed/power
Depth

performance
Draft

## ¡ Ts (Scantling Draft) [m]: Basis of structural design

B.L. B.L.
Breadth

¡ Air Draft [m]: Distance (height above waterline only or including operating draft) restricted by the port
facilities, navigating route, etc.
- Air draft from baseline to the top of the mast
- Air draft from waterline to the top of the mast
- Air draft from waterline to the top of hatch cover
- …

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## Definitions for the Breadth and Depth of a Ship

1/2 Molded breadth(B,mld)
Deck plating

Camber
Deck beam

Freeboard

Scantling waterline
Molded depth(D,mld)

Scantling draft
Centerline

## Baseline Dead rise

L
C
Keel
Sheer after Sheer forward

Depth

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## 6 DOF Motions of a Ship

z Translational motions
Rotational motions
Heave

Roll Sway

Yaw
Pitch x
Surge

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2. Static Equilibrium

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Center Plane
Before defining the coordinate system of a ship, we first introduce three planes,
which are all standing perpendicular to each other.

## Generally, a ship is symmetrical about starboard and port.

The first plane is the vertical longitudinal plane of symmetry, or center plane.

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Base Plane

The second plane is the horizontal plane, containing the bottom of the ship,
which is called base plane.

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## Midship Section Plane

The third plane is the vertical transverse plane through the midship, which is
called midship section plane.

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Centerline in
(a) Elevation view, (b) Plan view, and (c) Section view
Centerline:
Intersection curve between
center plane and hull form

Centerline
Elevation view

Plan view
(a) ℄
(c)
Section view

℄: Centerline
(b)

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Baseline in
(a) Elevation view, (b) Plan view, and (c) Section view
Baseline:
Intersection curve between
base plane and hull form

Elevation view

## Plan view (a) BL ℄ BL

(c)
Section view

Baseline
(b)

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## Body fixed coordinate system (b-frame): Body fixed frame xb yb zb or x’ y’ z’

Space fixed coordinate system (n-frame): Inertial frame xn yn zn or x y z

zn
zb
yn
xn
yb
xb
AP: aft perpendicular : midship
FP: fore perpendicular
LBP: length between perpendiculars.
BL: baseline
SLWL: summer load waterline (b)

## System of Coordinates for a Ship

zb
Stem, Bow
System of Coordinates
yb xb

Stern
zb
(a)

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yb
O
n-frame: Inertial frame xn yn zn or x y z
E yn xb Point E: Origin of the inertial frame(n-frame)
b-frame: Body fixed frame xb yb zb or x’ y’ z’
Point O: Origin of the body fixed frame(b-frame)
xn 1) Body fixed coordinate system
The right handed coordinate system with the axis called xb(or x’), yb(or y’), and zb(or z’) is fixed
to the object. This coordinate system is called body fixed coordinate system or body fixed
reference frame (b-frame).

## 2) Space fixed coordinate system

The right handed coordinate system with the axis called xn(or x), yn(or y) and zn(or z) is fixed to
the space. This coordinate system is called space fixed coordinate system or space fixed
reference frame or inertial frame (n-frame).

In general, a change in the position and orientation of the object is described with respect to
the inertial frame. Moreover Newton’s 2nd law is only valid for the inertial frame.

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AP LBP FP

SLWL

BL

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Static
Equilibrium (1/3)
Static Equilibrium

## ① Newton’s 2nd law

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K
Center of Buoyancy (B) LCB : keel
LCG
VCB VCG
and Center of Mass (G) : longitudinal center of buoyancy : longitudinal center of gravity

TCB TCG
: vertical center of buoyancy : vertical center of gravity

## z : transverse center of buoyancy z

Elevation view
: transverse center of gravity

Section view

y
Plan view

y x x

G LCG VCG B G
B LCB VCB
K
y L
C
z
TCG
B G z x G
TCB
LCB LCG
B
K
L
C

## ※ In the case that the shape of a ship is asymmetrical

with respect to the centerline.
Center of buoyancy (B)
It is the point at which all the vertically upward forces of support (buoyant force) can be considered to act.
It is equal to the center of volume of the submerged volume of the ship. Also, It is equal to the first moment
of the submerged volume of the ship about particular axis divided by the total buoyant force (displacement).
Center of mass or Center of gravity (G)
It is the point at which all the vertically downward forces of weight of the ship (gravitational force) can be
considered to act.
It is equal to the first moment of the weight of the ship about particular axis divided by the total weight of
the ship.
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FG
ma = åF
= - FG
G

## m: mass of ship G: Center of mass

a: acceleration of ship FG: Gravitational force of ship

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Static Equilibrium
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## ① Newton’s 2nd law

Static Equilibrium (3/3)

Static Equilibrium

## When the buoyant force (FB) lies on the same

I: Mass moment of inertia
line of action as the gravitational force (FG),
w: Angular velocity total summation of the moment becomes 0.

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## ① Newton’s 2nd law

FG
ma = åF
= - FG + FB
G Static Equilibrium (2/3)

0 = åF , (Q a = 0)
for the ship to be in static equilibrium

FB
B: Center of buoyancy at upright
position(center of volume of
the submerged volume of the
ship)
FB: Buoyant force acting on ship

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FG
ma = åF
= - FG + FB
G
0 = åF , (Q a = 0)

I w& = åt
FB for the ship to be in static equilibrium

0 = åt , (Q w& = 0)

② Euler equation

Static Equilibrium

t: Moment

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B
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Capsizing

Inclining
(Heeling)
① Newton’s 2nd law

B B
Restoring
Stability
Rotate
of a Floating Object
l You have a torque on this object

What is “Stability”? FG
relative to any point that you choose. It
does not matter where you pick a point.
for the ship to be in static equilibrium ℄
l The torque will only be zero when the
buoyant force and the gravitational When the buoyant force (FB) lies on the same
force are on one line. Then the torque line of action as the gravitational force (FG),
total summation of the moment becomes 0.
becomes zero.

B1

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FB
FG FG
G

W1 L1

W L

FB
B1

FB
Stability = Stable + Ability

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G

ma = åF
= - FG + FB

0 = åF , (Q a = 0)
\ FG = FB

I w& = åt
for the ship to be in static equilibrium

0 = åt , (Q w& = 0)

② Euler equation

Static Equilibrium

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① Newton’s 2nd law
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## When the buoyant force (FB) lies on the same

line of action as the gravitational force (FG),
(a) (b) total summation of the moment becomes 0.

Stability of a Ship
Interaction of Weight and Buoyancy of
a Floating Body (1/2)

## l You have a torque on this object

relative to any point that you choose. It
does not matter where you pick a point.
ma = åF
(a) (b)
l The torque will only be zero when the
buoyant force and the gravitational = - FG + FB
force are on one line. Then the torque
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becomes zero. 0 = åF , (Q a = 0)
for the ship to be in static equilibrium

B
B
\ FG = FB
℄ ℄
FG FG
I w& = åt

0 = åt , (Q w& = 0)
Static Equilibrium

Rotate
② Euler equation

FB FB Static Equilibrium

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G
G

tr
te FG FG

FB FB
Torque
(Heeling
Moment)

I w& = åt w& ¹ 0

W L W1 L1

B1 Restoring
Moment

Euler equation: Æ

## Interaction of weight and buoyancy resulting in intermediate state

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Heeling
Moment

## Stability of a Floating Body (1/2)

B B

Interaction of Weight and Buoyancy of
B

## Naval Architectural Calculation, Spring 2018, Myung-Il Roh

state
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a Floating Body (2/2)
Interaction of weight and buoyancy resulting in static equilibrium

Restoring Moment
Inclined

te
B

G
FG FG

W L W1 L1

FB B1

FB
(a) (b)
I w& = åt w& = 0

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Æ

FB FG
FG FB

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## Stability of a Floating Body (2/2)

Transverse, Longitudinal, and Yaw Moment
Question) If the force F is applied on the point of rectangle object, what is the moment?

Overturning Moment
Inclined

FG FG
G

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FB B

FB

(a) (b)
G

## Floating body in unstable state

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z Fz
k P F
y z
i j
Fy
x
Fx
rP ( xP , yP , z P )
O
y

M = rP ´ F x

éi j kù
ê ú
= ê xP yP z P ú = i ( yP × Fz - z P × Fy ) + j(- xP × Fz + z P × Fx ) + k ( xP × Fy - yP × Fx )
ê Fx Fy Fz úû Mx My Mz
ë

## Transverse moment Longitudinal moment Yaw moment

The x-component of the moment, i.e., the bracket term of unit vector i,
indicates the transverse moment, which is the moment caused by the force F
acting on the point P about x axis. Whereas the y-component, the term of unit
vector j, indicates the longitudinal moment about y axis, and the z-component,
the last term k, represents the yaw moment about z axis.

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## Equations for Static Equilibrium (1/3)

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Suppose there is a floating ship. The force equilibrium states that the sum of total forces is
zero.

åF = F G,z + FB , z = 0
, where
FG.z and FB.z are the z component of the gravitational force vector and the buoyant force vector,
respectively, and all other components of the vectors are zero.

Also the moment equilibrium must be satisfied, this means, the resultant moment should
be also zero.

åτ = M G + MB = 0

where MG is the moment due to the gravitational force and MB is the moment due to the buoyant
force.

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åτ = M G + MB = 0

M G = rG ´ FG
é i j k ù
ê ú
= ê xG yG zG ú
ê FG , x FG , y FG , z ú
ë û
= i ( yG × FG , z - zG × FG , y ) + j(- xG × FG , z + zG × FG , x ) + k ( xG × FG , y - yG × FG , x )
where MG is the moment due to the gravitational force and MB is the moment due to the buoyant
force.

From the calculation of a moment we know that MG and MB can be written as follows:

M B = rB ´ FB
é i j k ù
ê ú
= ê xB yB zB ú
ê FB , x FB , y FB , z ú
ë û
= i ( yB × FB , z - z B × FB , y ) + j(- xB × FB , z + z B × FB , x ) + k ( xB × FB , y - yB × FB , x )

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## 3. Restoring Moment and Restoring

Equations for Static Equilibrium (3/3)
Arm

åτ = M G + MB = 0
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where MG is the moment due to the gravitational force and MB is the moment due to the buoyant
force.

## M G = i ( yG × FG , z ) + j(- xG × FG , z ) and M B = i ( yB × FB , z ) + j(- xB × FB , z )

åτ = M G + M B = i ( yG × FG , z + yB × FB , z ) + j(- xG × FG , z - xB × FB , z ) = 0

yG × FG , z + yB × FB , z = 0 and - xG × FG , z - xB × FB , z = 0

FG , z = - FB , z

yG - yB = 0 Substituting
xG - xB = 0
\ yG = yB \ xG = xB (force equilibrium)

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W1 L1

## Restoring Arm (GZ, Righting Arm)

Restoring Moment Acting on an Inclined Ship

## G: Center of mass K: Keel

B: Center of buoyancy at upright position
B1: Changed center of buoyancy
FG: Weight of ship FB: Buoyant force acting on ship
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tr
te FG
FG
G Z Heeling

G Restoring
Moment
Moment

W L

B B B1

FB FB

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te tr

FG
G Z

B B1
• The value of the restoring moment
Restoring is found by multiplying the
Moment
buoyant force of the ship
(displacement),  , by the
perpendicular distance from G to
the line of action of  .

FB
• It is customary to label as Z
the point of intersection of the line Heeling
of action of  and the parallel line Moment
to the waterline through G to it.
• This distance GZ is known as the
‘restoring arm’ or ‘righting arm’.

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## • From the figure, GZ can be obtained

with assumption that M does not
change within a small angle of
inclination (about 7° to 10°), as below.

## Metacenter (M) t restoring = FB × GZ

(about 7° to 10°)
• Restoring Moment

## • The use of metacentric height (GM)

as the restoring arm is not valid for
a ship at a large angle of inclination.
M
To determine the restoring
arm ”GZ”, it is necessary to know
the positions of the center of mass
G: Center of mass of a ship
FG: Gravitational force of a ship
(G) and the new position of the
B: Center of buoyancy in the previous state (before inclination) center of buoyancy (B1).
FB: Buoyant force acting on a ship
B1: New position of center of buoyancy after the ship has been inclined

te
Z: The intersection point of a vertical line through the new position of
the center of buoyancy(B1) with the transversely parallel line to a
waterline through the center of mass(G)

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FG
Definition of M (Metacenter)
• The term meta was• The
selected as a prefix forof
center

G
intersection point the vertical
because its Greek meaning implies
line through themovement. The
center of buoyancy

Z metacenter therefore
at isprevious
a moving center.(B) with the
position
vertical line through the center of
buoyancy at new position (B1) after
inclination

• GM Æ Metacentric height

B B1

FB
Z: The intersection point of the line of buoyant force through
B1 with the transverse line through G
tr

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M
GZ » GM × sin f
te
FG

G Z

B B1

FB //
//

tr

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f=35°

Z

## M: The intersection point of the vertical line through the center

of buoyancy at previous position (Bi-1) with the vertical line
through the center of buoyancy at present position (Bi) after
inclination

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## Restoring Moment at Large Angle of Inclination (3/3)

GZ ¹ GM 35 × sin f35

## M: The intersection point of the vertical line through the center

of buoyancy at previous position (Bi-1) with the vertical line

FB ,35
through the center of buoyancy at present position (Bi) after
inclination

FB ,30
C30

L35
L30
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C35

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## Importance of Transverse Stability

The ship is in static equilibrium state. Because of the limit of the breadth, “B” can not
move further. the ship will capsize.
As the ship is inclined, the position of the center of buoyancy “B” is changed.
Also the position of the center of mass “G” relative to inertial frame is changed.

## Stability of a Ship According to

One of the most important factors of stability is the breadth.
So, we usually consider that transverse stability is more important than longitudinal
stability. - Overview of Ship Stability

Relative Position between “G”, “B”, and “M” at Small Angle of Inclination

• Righting (Restoring) Moment: Moment to return the ship to the upright floating position
• Stable / Neutral / Unstable Condition: Relative height of G with respect to M is
one measure of stability.

FG
• Stable Condition ( G < M ) • Neutral Condition ( G = M ) • Unstable Condition ( G > M )
FG Z
G
FG M G, Z, M M

G Z

B B1 B B1 FG B B1
FG
FG M G M
K K K G
G Z M
FB B
FB B
FB B

FB FB FB
G: Center of mass K: Keel
B: Center of buoyancy at upright position B1: Changed center of buoyancy
FG: Weight of ship FB: Buoyant force acting on ship
Z: The intersection of the line of buoyant force through B1 with the transverse line through G
M: The intersection of the line of buoyant force through B1 with the centerline of the ship

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FG FGFG FG FG F
G
G G

te te

B
B1 B2 B B1

FB0 F FF
B1 FB BF
0BB
12
2

The ship is inclined further from it. The ship is inclined further from it.

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## * We have a moment on this object

mass
relative to anyofpoint
the ship
that moves to the point G1, off
we choose.
the matter
It does not centerline.
where we pick a
point.

4. Ship Stability

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te

FG1 FG1
G G1

## B l Because the buoyant force and the

gravitational force are not on one line, the

FB
Summary of Static Stability of a Ship (1/3)

## l When an object on the deck moves to

the right side of a ship, the total center of

## G: Center of mass of a ship

G1: New position of center of mass after the object on the deck moves
to the right side
FG: Gravitational force of a ship
B: Center of buoyancy at initial position
FB: Buoyant force acting on a ship
B1: New position of center of buoyancy after the ship has been inclined
Z: The intersection of a line of buoyant force(FB) through the new position
of the center of buoyancy (B1) with the transversely parallel line to the
waterline through the center of mass of a ship(G)

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## G: Center of mass of a ship

G1: New position of center of mass after the object on the deck moves
to the right side
FG: Gravitational force of a ship
B: Center of buoyancy at initial position
FB: Buoyant force acting on a ship
B1: New position of center of buoyancy after the ship has been inclined
Z: The intersection of a line of buoyant force(FB) through the new position
of the center of buoyancy (B1) with the transversely parallel line to the
waterline through the center of mass of a ship(G)

## Summary of Static Stability of a Ship (3/3)

l When the object on the deck returns to the
initial position in the centerline, the center of
mass of the ship returns to the initial point G.

## Summary of Static Stability of a Ship (2/3)

※ Naval architects refer to the restoring
moment as “righting moment”.

## G: Center of mass of a ship

52
te
G1: New position of center of mass after the object on the deck moves
to the right side
FG: Gravitational force of a ship
B: Center of buoyancy at initial position
FB: Buoyant force acting on a ship
B1: New position of center of buoyancy after the ship has been inclined
Z: The intersection of a line of buoyant force(FB) through the new position
of the center of buoyancy (B1) with the transversely parallel line to the
waterline through the center of mass of a ship(G)

FG F
FGG11
GG G1G
1

BB B1

## l The total moment will only be zero

FB FF when the buoyant force and the
BB
gravitational force are on one line. If the
moment becomes zero, the ship is in static
equilibrium state.
tr

51
Naval Architectural Calculation, Spring 2018, Myung-Il Roh

te

FG
G Z
G1

B B1

FB

tr
l The moment arm of the buoyant force
and gravitational force about G is
expressed by GZ, where Z is defined as the
intersection point of the line of buoyant
force(FB) through the new position of the
center of buoyancy(B1) with the
transversely parallel line to the waterline

t righting = FB × GZ
through the center of mass of the ship (G).

## l Then, because the buoyant force and the

gravitational force are not on one line, the
forces induces a restoring moment to
return the ship to the initial position.

## l By the restoring moment, the ship

returns to the initial position.

26
2018-08-07

## 5. Examples for Ship Stability

Evaluation of Stability
Naval Architectural Calculation, Spring 2018, Myung-Il Roh
54

## : Merchant Ship Stability Criteria – IMO Regulations for Intact Stability

(IMO Res.A-749(18) ch.3.1)
þ IMO recommendation on intact stability for passenger and cargo ships.

Righting arm D = const. Area A: Area under the righting arm curve
(GZ) (D: displacement)
between the heel angle of 0° and 30°
Area B: Area under the righting arm curve
between the heel angle of 30° and min(40°, ff )
※ ff : Heel angle at which openings in the hull
GM fm: Heel angle of maximum righting arm

## ※ After receiving approval of

A B calculation of IMO regulation
Angle of heel
57.3°

## from Owner and Classification

(f [°])
0 10 20 30 40 50 60 70 80 Society, ship construction can
fm ff proceed.
IMO Regulations for Intact Stability
(a) Area A ≥ 0.055 m-rad
(b) Area A + B ≥ 0.09 m-rad The work and energy
(c) Area B ≥ 0.030 m-rad considerations (dynamic stability)
(d) GZ ≥ 0.20 m at an angle of heel equal to or greater than 30°
(e) GZmax should occur at an angle of heel preferably exceeding
30° but not less than 25°. Static considerations
(f) The initial metacentric height GMo should not be less than 0.15 m.

53
Naval Architectural Calculation, Spring 2018, Myung-Il Roh

27
2018-08-07
5m

0.3m

5m

## : Location of the center of

gravity of the ship

Solution)
(1) Static Equilibrium (1/3)
3m
0.4m

## [Example] Equilibrium Position and Orientation of a Box-shaped Ship

Question 1) The center of mass is moved to 0.3 [m] in the direction of the starboard side.

## Naval Architectural Calculation, Spring 2018, Myung-Il Roh

56
A box-shaped ship of 10 meter length, 5 meter breadth and 3 meter height
weighs 205 [kN].
The center of mass is moved 0.3 [m] to the left side of the center of the deck.
When the ship is in static equilibrium state, determine the angle of heel (f)
of the ship.

Assumption)
(1) Gravitational acceleration = 10 [m/s2], Density of sea water = 1.025 [ton/m3]
(2) When the ship will be in the static equilibrium finally, the deck will not be immersed and the
bottom will not emerge.

FG = -205 kN

Given: Length (L): 10m, Breadth (B): 5m, Depth (D): 3m, Weight (W): 205kN,
Location of the Center of Gravity: 0.3m to the left side of the center of the deck
Find: Angle of Heel(ϕ)

3m
0.4m
Baseline

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Naval Architectural Calculation, Spring 2018, Myung-Il Roh

10m

AP FP

FG = -205 kN

Baseline
0.3m

## When the ship is floating in sea water, the requirement

for ship to be in static equilibrium state is derived from
Newton’s 2nd law and Euler equation as follows.
(1-1) Newton’s 2nd Law: Force Equilibrium
The resultant force should be zero to be in static equilibrium.

10m

A FP
P

n
å F = n FG , z + n FB , z = 0

n
å τ = n MG + n M B = 0

, where
nF
G.z : zn-coordinate of the gravitational force
nF
B.z : zn-coordinate of the buoyant force

## The resultant moment should be zero to be in static equilibrium.

, where
nM
G : the moment due to the gravitational force
nM
B : the moment due to the buoyant force.

28
5m

2018-08-07
5m

G
z z'

x,x' O,E
y
B y'
K

Solution)
(1) Static Equilibrium (3/3)
G
3m
0.4m

FG = -205 kN
Solution) 0.3m

## (1) Static Equilibrium (2/3)

3m
0.4m
Baseline

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Naval Architectural Calculation, Spring 2018, Myung-Il Roh
z z'
10m

AP FP

## : Location of the center of mass of the ship

x,x' O,E
y
B y'
K

FG

yG

yB

yG = yB
FB The first step is to satisfy the Newton-
Euler equation which requires that the
sum of total forces and moments acting
on the ship is zero.

## As described earlier, in order to satisfy a

stable equilibrium, the buoyant force and
gravitational force should act on the
same vertical line, therefore, the moment
arm of the buoyant force and
gravitational force must be same.

ф˚

57
Naval Architectural Calculation, Spring 2018, Myung-Il Roh

FG = -205 kN

yG = yB Baseline
0.3m

10m

AP FP

## é yG ù é cos f sin f ù é yG¢ ù é yB ù é cos f sin f ù é yB¢ ù FG

ê z ú = ê - sin f cos f ú ê z ¢ ú ê z ú = ê - sin f cos f ú ê z ¢ ú
ë Gû ë ûë Gû ë Bû ë ûë Bû
yG
yG yB yG¢ , zG¢ , yB¢ z¢B

By representing
we can get
and with , and ,
FB

## In this equation, we suppose that y'G

ф˚
and z'G are already given, and y'B and z'B
can be geometrically calculated.

## Body fixed coordinate system(b-frame): Body fixed frame x’ y’ z’

Space fixed coordinate system(n-frame): Inertial frame x y z

29
2018-08-07
z z'

G
x,x' O,E
y
1
B y'
A
K

## relations, we use the areas, A1, A2, and A3.

2a
Solution)
(2-2) Center of Buoyancy and
R Center of Gravity with Respect to the Body Fixed Frame (1/2)
2b
S0 A2
ф˚
1) CenterA of buoyancy,
3
B1, with respect to the body
fixed t frame
S A
A 1

Q
To describe theP values of A1, A2, and A3 using the geometrical parameters (a, t,
and f), y’ and z’ coordinate of the points P, Q, R, R0, S, S0 with respect to
the body fixed frame is used, which are given as follows.

yG = yB
A1 A2 A3

## Naval Architectural Calculation, Spring 2018, Myung-Il Roh

60
Solution)
(2-1) Changed Center of Buoyancy, B1, with Respect to the Body Fixed Frame
The centroid of A with respect to the
body fixed frame:

FG

yG
æM M ö
( yC¢ _ A , zC¢ _ A ) = ç AA, z¢ , AA, y¢ ÷
è A A ø

, where
AA : the area of A
yB
MA,z’ : 1st moment of area of A about z’ axis
MA,y’ : 1st moment of area of A about y’ axis.

## To obtain the centroid of A, the followings are required.

- The area of A
- 1st moment of area of A about z’ axis
- 1st moment of area of A about y’ axis

FB

ф˚

59
Naval Architectural Calculation, Spring 2018, Myung-Il Roh

yG = yB

æM ¢ M ¢ö
( y¢
C_A , zC¢ _ A ) = ç A, z , A, y ÷
è AA AA ø

## The centroid of A with respect

to the body fixed frame:

= + -

## P ( yP¢ , z ¢P ) = ( - a, - t ) , Q ( yQ¢ , zQ¢ ) = ( a, - t )

R ( yR¢ , z ¢R ) = (a, a × tan f ), R0 ( yR¢ 0 , z ¢R0 ) = (a, 0)
S ( yS¢ , zS¢ ) = (- a, - a × tan f ), S0 ( yS¢ 0 , zS¢ 0 ) = (- a, 0) A

R0

30
A1 A2 A3
2018-08-07
Area:

2a

R
2b

S0 A2
ф˚
A3 R0
t
S A
A1
Q
P

Solution)
(2-3) Center of Buoyancy and Center of Gravity with Respect to the Body Fixed Frame (1/2)

1) Center of buoyancy, B1, with respect to the body The centroid of A with respect
fixed frame to the body fixed frame:

A1 A2 A3

Area

yG = yB
Naval Architectural Calculation, Spring 2018, Myung-Il Roh
62
Solution)
(2-2) Center of Buoyancy and Center of Gravity with Respect to the Body Fixed Frame (2/2)

2a

R
2b
S0 A2
A3
ф˚
R0
= + -
t
S A
A1
Q
P 1 A

a × a × tan f
2
z¢ 2 1
a × tan f ( yC¢ , zC¢ ) = a, a tan f
C ( yC¢ , zC¢ ) 3 3 Centroid:

1/ 3 × a × tan f
a y¢
2 / 3× a 1 2 1
Area ´ yC¢ = a × a × tan f ´ a = a 3 tan f Moment of area about z’ axis:

2 3 3

1 1 1
Area ´ zC¢ = a × a × tan f ´ a × tan f = a 3 tan 2 f
2 3 6 61
Naval Architectural Calculation, Spring 2018, Myung-Il Roh Moment of area about y’ axis:

A2

yG = yB

æM ¢ M ¢ö
= + - ( y¢ C_A , zC¢ _ A ) = ç A, z , A, y ÷
è AA AA ø

( AA ) Centroid
( yC¢ , zC¢ ) Moment of area about z'-axis

The table blow summarizes the results of the area, centroid with
respect to the body fixed frame and 1st moment of area with

## ( yC¢ × A) Moment of area about y'-axis ( zC¢ × A) A1

respect to the body fixed frame of A1, A2, A3, and A.

2a × t æ tö 0 -a × t 2
ç 0, - ÷
A2
The center of buoyancy, B1, with respect to the body fixed frame is

è 2ø
3 2
1 æ 2a a × tan f ö A

a × tan f 3
a × ( tan f )
× a × a × tan f ç ,
A3

÷
2 è 3 3 ø 3 6
3 2
1 æ 2a a × tan f ö a × tan f a 3 × ( tan f )
× a × a × tan f ç- ,- ÷ - -
è 3 3 ø A (=A1+A2-A3)

2 3 6
2
2a × t 2a 3 × tan f a 3 × ( tan f )
-a × t 2 +
-

3 3

2
æ M A, z¢ M A, y ' ö æ a 2 × tan f t a 2 × ( tan f ) ö
( yB¢ , z¢B ) = ç , ÷ = çç ,- + ÷
÷
è AA AA ø
è
3t 2 6t
ø

31
z
z’
2a
2018-08-07
y

O,E ф˚
y’

2b d

Solution)
(3) Comparison between the Figure Describing the Ship Inclined
and the Figure Describing the Water Plane Inclined (1/2)

## Let us calculate the center of buoyancy, B1, and 2b d

the center of gravity, G, using the Fig. (b).
l The center of buoyancy, B1, and the center of gravity, G,
with respect to the body fixed frame t

(b)

yG = yB
Solution)
(2-3) Center of Buoyancy and Center of Gravity with Respect to the Body Fixed Frame (2/2)
zn zb
2a

yn

O,E ф˚
yb

2
B
æ a 2 × tan f t a × ( tan f ) ö
2

## 2) Center of gravity, G, with respect to the body ( yB¢ , z¢B ) = çç

K

,- + ÷
3t 2 6t ÷
è ø
fixed frame
FG
64
The center of gravity, G, with respect to
the body fixed frame is given by
Naval Architectural Calculation, Spring 2018, Myung-Il Roh

## geometrical relations as shown in the

figure, which is

( y 'G , z 'G ) = ( d , 2b - t )

FB

xn, xb

63 B1

## Naval Architectural Calculation, Spring 2018, Myung-Il Roh

FG

2
æ a 2 × tan f t a × ( tan f ) ö
2

( yB¢ , z¢B ) = çç ,- + ÷
÷ FB
3t 2 6t
è ø

( y 'G , z 'G ) = ( d , 2b - t )

xn,xb

B1

## Next, we use the condition that the moment arm of the

buoyant force and gravitational force must be same and
substitute the coordinates of the center of gravity and
buoyancy with respect to the body fixed frame into the
following equation.

32
2018-08-07

Starboard

Port
5m

## : Location of the center of

mass of the ship

Solution)
[Example] Equilibrium Position and Orientation of a Box-shaped Ship
Question 2) The center of mass is moved to 2 [m] in the direction of the forward perpendicular.
(3) Comparison between the Figure Describing the Ship Inclined
A box-shaped ship of 10 meter length, 5 meter breadth and 3
meter height weighs 205 [kN].
The center of mass is moved to 2 [m] in the direction of the forward
and the Figure Describing the Water Plane Inclined (2/2)
perpendicular. When the ship is in static equilibrium state, determine
the equilibrium position and orientation of the ship.
Assumption)
(1) Gravitational acceleration = 10 [m/s2], Density of sea water = 1.025 [ton/m3]
(2) When the ship will be in the static equilibrium finally, the deck will not be immersed
and the bottom will emerge.

3m
0.4m
yG¢ × cos f + zG¢ × sin f = yB¢ × cos f + z B¢ × sin f
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Naval Architectural Calculation, Spring 2018, Myung-Il Roh

2
æ a 2 × tan f t a × ( tan f ) ö
2

( yB¢ , z¢B ) = çç ,- + ÷
÷
3t 2 6t
è ø
( y 'G , z 'G ) = ( d , 2b - t )

## d × cos f + (2b - t ) × sin f =

{-3t 2 2
}
+ 2a 2 + a 2 × ( tan f ) × sin f
6t

æ 15.025 15.625
( tan f ) ö÷
2
2.6 × sin f + 0.3 × cos f = sin f ç +
è 3 6 ø
tan f = 0.159 [rad]
Substituting a=2.5m, b=1.5m, t=0.4m, d=0.3m into this equation
and rearranging

65
Naval Architectural Calculation, Spring 2018, Myung-Il Roh

FG = -205 kN

Baseline

2m

10m

AP FP

33
Starboard

Port
5m

mass of the ship

2018-08-07
Solution)

## Instead of rotating the ship, we can consider the

waterline rotated with an angle of  while keeping the
ship constant.

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Naval Architectural Calculation, Spring 2018, Myung-Il Roh

FG = -205 kN

2m

zn
Force Equilibrium

3m
0.4m
Baseline

AP
10m

FP

åF = F G + FB = 0

FG = -250
FG = -205 kN
FB = - r × g × V
zb æ1 ö
= 1.025 ×10 × ç × a × b × 5 ÷
è2 ø
= 25.625 × a × b
xb

a
åF = F G + FB
= -250 + 25.625 × a × b
b =0
a yn , yb
xn
FB O \a ×b = 8
Solution)

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Naval Architectural Calculation, Spring 2018, Myung-Il Roh

FG z
z z¢

x x¢
O, E
y, y¢
q
b
x a y, y¢

FB O, E
Side view
(Profile view)

z
FG z¢

x¢ q FB O, E
y, y¢
a

34
Starboard

Port
5m

## : Location of the center of

mass of the ship

3m
0.4m
2018-08-07

Moment Equilibrium

70
Naval Architectural Calculation, Spring 2018, Myung-Il Roh

FG = -205 kN

2m

Moment Equilibrium

zn
Baseline åM = M G + MB = 0
10m

AP FP

## FG The centers of buoyancy B and gravity G

should be in the same vertical line.

xG = xB
zb
xG = 3cos a - 3sin a
n
xG
xb 3cos a -3sin a
Solution)

a
n
xB b
a yn , yb
xn
FB O

69
Naval Architectural Calculation, Spring 2018, Myung-Il Roh

zn

FG

zb
n
xG
xb 3cos a -3sin a

xn
a
a
n
xB
yn , yb
b åM = M G + MB = 0
FB O

zn zb
n
xG = n xB
n
xG = 3cos a - 3sin a
n a b
xB = cos a - sin a
3 3
The centers of buoyancy B and gravity G

a n
xB a b
should be in the same vertical line.

a/3 3 3
b/3 b
a
a 3
cos a
b
- sin a
3

FB O

Solution)

35
2018-08-07

## Horizontal displacement of center of mass

a b
Naval Architectural Calculation, Spring 2018, Myung-Il Roh
72

## 3cos a - 3sin a = cos a - sin a

3 3 dividing the both side of equation by cos a
a b
3 - 3 tan a = a - tan a
3 3
b
b a b b tan a =
3-3 = - × a
a 3 3 a
multiplying 3a to the both side of equation
9a - 9b = a 2 - b 2

9 ( a - b ) = ( a + b )( a - b )

if a = b a=b=2 2
a ×b = 8
if a ¹ b a =8
9 ( a - b ) = ( a + b )( a - b ) b =1 Solution)

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Naval Architectural Calculation, Spring 2018, Myung-Il Roh

Unstable

Stable

## From the moment equilibrium

a=b=2 2
zn
d xG
3 2 sin Da
3 2 Da
FG 3 2 » 4.242Da
xb

zb
3 2
a
Da
FB
a=2 2 yn , yb b=2 2
xn
O

d xB Ñ wedge
Da = 1 = d xB =
Ñ wedge
d xb
d xb Ñtotal Ñtotal
1
Ñ wedge = 2 × 2 × × tan(Dq ) = 2 tan(Dq )
2 2 tan(Dq ) 4
Ñtotal =
2 2 ×2 2 2
= 4, d xb = 2( ) =
4
d xB =
4
×
3 d xB » 0.66Da
2 3 3

Solution)
36
2018-08-07

## • Given: KB, KG, IT, Heeling moment Mh

[Example] Heel Angle Caused by Movement • Find: Angle of heel φ
• GZ of wall sided ship

## of Passengers in Ferry (1/2)

Question) Emergency circumstance happens in Ferry with displacement (mass) 102.5 ton.
Heeling moment of 8 ton·m occurs due to passengers moving to the right of the ship.
What will be an angle of heel?
Assume that wall sided ship with KB=0.6m, KG=2.4m, IT=200m4.
Solution) If it is in static equilibrium at an angle of heel f

## Righting moment in wall sided ship (Mr) = Heeling moment (Mh)

74
Naval Architectural Calculation, Spring 2018, Myung-Il Roh
Nonlinear equation
about f ?

a=b=2 2
zn
Horizontal displacement of center of mass
d xG
3 2 sin Da
3 2 Da
3 2 » 4.242Da
xb FG

zb

a
Da
a=2 2 yn , yb b=2 2
FB
xn
O

d xB Ñ wedge
Da = 1 = d xB =
Ñ wedge
d xb
d xb Ñtotal Ñtotal
1
Ñ wedge = 2 × 2 × × tan(Dq ) = 2 tan(Dq )
2 2 tan(Dq ) 4
Ñtotal =
2 2 ×2 2 2
= 4, d xb = 2( ) =
4
d xB =
4
×
3 d xB » 0.66Da
2 3 3 73
Naval Architectural Calculation, Spring 2018, Myung-Il Roh
Solution)
Why is the ship unstable, when ?

Unstable

æ 1 ö
GZ = ç GM + BM tan 2 f ÷ sin f
è 2 ø

æ 1 ö
D ç GM + BM tan 2 f ÷ sin f 8ton × m
è 2 ø

## D = 102.5 ton Ñ = D /1.025 = 100 m3

IT 200
BM = = = 2m
Ñ 100

GM = KB + BM - KG
= 0.6 + 2 - 2.4 = 0.2 m =

① Calculation of BM

8
( 0.2 + tan f ) sin f = 102.5
2

② Calculation of GM

예제5.2

37
[Example] Heel Angle Caused by Movement
of Passengers in Ferry (2/2)

## Solution) If it is in static equilibrium at an angle of heel f

Righting moment in wall sided ship (Mr) = Heeling moment (Mh) 2018-08-07
Righting
arm

## Question) A cargo carrier of 10,000 ton displacement is floating. KB=4.0m,

BM=2.5m, KG=5.0m. Cargo in hold of cargo carrier is shifted in vertical
direction through a 10 meter, and shifted in transverse direction through a 20
LHS RHS
meters. Find an angle of heel. φ In static
(Righting arm) (Heeling arm) equilibrium
• Given : displacement (D), KB, BM, KG, weight of cargo(w) and moving distance
• Find : angle of heel φ 15˚ 0.0703 0.0780

## 16˚ 0.0778 0.0780

d=20.0 m
17˚ 0.0858 0.0780

200 ton
h=10.0 m

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Naval Architectural Calculation, Spring 2018, Myung-Il Roh

æ 1 ö
GZ = ç GM + BM tan 2 f ÷ sin f
è 2 ø

Question) Emergency circumstance happens in Ferry with displacement (mass) 102.5 ton.
Heeling moment of 8 ton·m occurs due to passengers moving to the right of the ship.
5.0m
What will be an angle of heel?
Assume that wall sided ship with KB=0.6m, KG=2.4m, IT=200m4.

æ 1 ö
D ç GM + BM tan 2 f ÷ sin f 8ton × m
è 2 ø
• Given: KB, KG, IT, Heeling moment Mh
• Find: Angle of heel φ
• GZ of wall sided ship

## ( 0.2 + tan f ) sin f = 0.078

2

0.0858
Because of nonlinear equation, solve
it by numerical method.
Result of calculation is about f=16.0˚.
0.0778

0.0703

Heeling
arm

15o 17o

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Naval Architectural Calculation, Spring 2018, Myung-Il Roh

y
t

G
B
Base [Example] Heel Angle Caused by Movement of Cargo

Line

L
C
예제5.3

38
4.0m
b
2018-08-07
h
G1 G G1

예제5.5

Question)
A barge is 40m length, 10m breadth,
5m depth, and is floating at 1 m draft.
The vertical center of mass of the ship
is located in 2 m from the baseline.
A cargo is supposed to be loaded in
center of the deck. Find the maximum
loadable weight that keeps the
stability of ship. r=1.0ton/m3

## Hint) GM should be positive and deck 20m

should not submerged. 40m

5m
Problem to calculate the maximum load for the
stability.

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Naval Architectural Calculation, Spring 2018, Myung-Il Roh

## [Example] Change of Center Caused by Movement of Cargo

Question) As below cases partial weight w of the ship is shifted. What is the
shift distance of center of mass of the ship?

Base Base
Line Line
L
C L
C
Case 1) Vertical shift of the partial weight Case 2) Horizontal shift of the partial weight

77
Naval Architectural Calculation, Spring 2018, Myung-Il Roh

Base
Line

L
C

5m

39
2018-08-07

## [Example] Calculation of Center of Buoyancy of Ship with

Constant Section
Example) A ship is inclined about x-axis through origin O with an angle of -30°.
Calculate center of buoyancy with respect to the water plane fixed frame.
• Given: Breadth(B) 20m, Depth(D) 20m, Draft(T) 10m, Angle of Heel(f) -30˚
• Find: Center of buoyancy(yB, zB)
G: Center of mass K:Keel
B: Center of buoyancy B1 : Changed center of buoyancy

Section view S z
z,z‘ 20
S R z‘
20 20

20 R
O O
y,y‘ -30˚ y
B 10
B
P B1
y‘
K
P K Q
Q

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Naval Architectural Calculation, Spring 2018, Myung-Il Roh

16.0 m
Question)
A cargo carrier of 18,000 ton displacement
is afloat and has GM = 1.5m. And we want
to transfer the cargo of 200 ton weight
from bottom of the ship to land. 200
27.0 m
A lifting height of cargo is 27.0 m from ton
the original position.
After lifting the cargo, turn the cargo to
the right through a distance of 16.0 m
from the centerline.
Base
What will be the angle of heel of the ship? Line
[Example] Calculation of Position of Ship
when Cargo is Moved by Crane L
C
Hint) Use the Moment to Heel One Degree
and the heeling moment caused by the
movement of the cargo.
Moment to heel one degree = FB × GM × sin1°
Problem to calculate the equilibrium angle of the
ship when external force are applied.
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2018-08-07

## [Example] Calculation of Center of Buoyancy of Ship with

Various Station Shapes
A ship with three varied section shape is given. When this ship is inclined about x
axis with an angle of -30°, calculate y and z coordinates of the center of buoyancy
(with respect to the water plane fixed frame).
• Given: Length(L) 50m, Breadth(B) 20m, Depth(D) 20m, Draft(T) 10m, Angle of Heel(f) -30˚
• Find: Center of buoyancy(y∇,c, z∇, c) after heeling
20

z,z'
O,O' y,y' 20
20 20
x,x' 1
1 10
0 0
20
20 20 20
10

20
20
10

CL 81
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Reference Slides

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2018-08-07

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n
Qx = å Ai × xi
n =1 1) Gere, Mechanics of Materials, 6th ,Ch.12.3, 2006

## First Moment of Composite Area(Qx)1)

n
y
Qx : 1st Moment
Ai : Each Area
A : Total Area

A × x = å Ai × xi
: Coordinate of
Centroid

(+)
y j
x
n =1
x
i
t

## Area ( A- a ) <1st moment of area>

Area a
j
g i G1 g1 [Reference] Movement of Centroid
x 1
Caused by Movement of Area (1/3) gG × Area A = gg × Area ( A- a ) + gg1 × Area a

## Let us consider 1st moment of area about z

, ( gg = 0)
axis through origin g.

## gG1 × Area A = gg1 × Area a

…①

gG1 Area a
=
G1 : Centroid of total area,
g : Centroid of the large circle,
AreaA : Total area
AreaA-a : Area of the large circle
g1 : Centroid of the small circle, Areaa : Area of the small circle
gg1 Area A

83
Naval Architectural Calculation, Spring 2018, Myung-Il Roh

n
Qx = å Ai × xi
n =1
n
y
(+) A × x = å Ai × xi
y Area a j
x
n =1
x
i
t
g2
1) Gere, Mechanics of Materials, 6th ,Ch.12.3, 2006

Qx : 1st Moment
Ai : Each Area
A : Total Area
: Coordinate of
Centroid

## G2 [Reference] Movement of Centroid

Caused by Movement of Area (2/3)

## j When the center of the small circle moves

from g1 to g2, the total moment of area
about z axis through origin g is

## g1 x gG2 × Area A = gg × Area ( A- a ) + gg 2 × Area a

g i G1 G1 : Centroid of total area,
g : Centroid of the large circle,
g1 : Centroid of the small circle,
AreaA : Total area
AreaA-a : Area of the large circle
Areaa : Area of the small circle

, ( gg = 0)
Area ( A- a )
gG2 × Area A = gg 2 × Area a

gG2 Area a
=
gg 2 Area A
…②

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2018-08-07

## Thus, the centroid of total area G2 moves

parallel to g1g2.

## Calculation of GZ when the Ship is Inclined with Angle of f

without Change of Center of Gravity

y
(+)
y Area a j
x ÐG1 gG2 = Ðg1 gg 2 … ③
i [Reference] Movement of Centroid

## t Caused by Movement of Area (3/3)

g2
Naval Architectural Calculation, Spring 2018, Myung-Il Roh
86
From ①, ②, ③,
…①

## Triangle △G1gG2 and △g1gg2 are similar.

(by SAS(Side-Angle-Side) similarity theorem)
G2 Area a
j Using the ratio of similitude

g i G1 g1 x G1G2 / / g1 g 2
G1G2 Area a Area a
Area ( A- a ) = G1G2 = ´ g1 g 2
g1 g 2 Area A Area A

gG1 Area a gG2 Area a The line G1G2 is parallel to the line g1g2.

= =
gg1 Area A gg 2 Area A
G1 : Centroid of total area, AreaA : Total area
g : Centroid of the large circle, AreaA-a : Area of the large circle
g1 : Centroid of the small circle, Areaa : Area of the small circle 85
Naval Architectural Calculation, Spring 2018, Myung-Il Roh
…②

M

f
KN = KG sin f + GZ
GZ = KN - KG sin f
Z y
G
f
x, x¢ O, O¢ y¢
B1
B d yB¢
d z ¢B

N
P
K
d yB, d z B,
B1
B d yB¢
d z ¢B
N KN = KB sin f + d yB, cos f + d z B, sin f
d z ¢B sin f
K d yB¢ cos f
KB sin f

## In this equation, KG can be measured

43
by inclining test, and KN can be
represented with the displacement of
center of buoyancy with respect to
the body fixed frame. If we define
the horizontal and vertical
displacement of the center of
buoyancy as and ,
respectively, then KN is given as
2018-08-07
Load

## Determination of Heeling Angle for the Case of Moving a

Cargo Only in Transverse Direction (2/4)

## Determination of Heeling Angle for the Case of Moving a

Cargo Only in Transverse Direction (1/4)
88
Naval Architectural Calculation, Spring 2018, Myung-Il Roh

G d yG¢
G1

Load

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Naval Architectural Calculation, Spring 2018, Myung-Il Roh

z z¢
M

d yG¢ cos f f

G f G1
d yG¢ G1 y
G d yG¢
f
x, x¢ O, O¢ y¢
B1
B d yB¢
d z ¢B

N
P
K

M G = -W × ( KP + PN )
= -W × ( KG cos f + d yG¢ cos f )

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## Determination of Heeling Angle for the Case of Moving a

Determination of Heeling Angle for the Case of Moving a
Cargo Only in Transverse Direction (4/4)

z z¢
M

## Naval Architectural Calculation, Spring 2018, Myung-Il Roh

90 f
Thus we can solve the equation and determine f.

B1 G d yG¢
G1 y

B d yB¢
d z ¢B
x, x¢ O, O¢
f

N B1
B d yB¢
d z ¢B
d z ¢B sin f
N
K d yB¢ cos f K
P
KB sin f

## M B = D × ( KB cos f + d yB¢ cos f + d z ¢B sin f )

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Naval Architectural Calculation, Spring 2018, Myung-Il Roh

z z¢
M

d yG¢ cos f f

G f G1
d yG¢
G1 y
G d yG¢
f
x, x¢ O, O¢ y¢
B1
B d yB¢
d z ¢B

MG + M B = 0 N
P
K

## - ( KG cos f + d yG¢ cos f ) + ( KB cos f + d yB¢ cos f + d z ¢B sin f ) = 0 QW = D

d yG¢ , d yB¢ d z ¢B

45
In this equation, KG and KB are given. , and are functions of f.
Load
2018-08-07

## Determination of the Heeling Angle Due to the Movement

of the Center of Gravity (2/4)

## Determination of the Heeling Angle Due to the Movement

of the Center of Gravity (1/4)
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G 1
d zG¢
G d yG¢

Load

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Naval Architectural Calculation, Spring 2018, Myung-Il Roh

z z¢
M

f
d zG¢ sin f
d yG¢ cos f G 1
G1 G d yG¢
d zG¢
f
y

d zG¢ x, x¢ E, O y¢

G ¢
d yG
f
B d yB¢
B1
d z ¢B

N
P
K

M G = -W × ( KP + PN )
= -W × ( KG cos f + d yG¢ cos f + d zG¢ sin f )

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## Determination of the Heeling Angle Due to the Movement

Determination of the Heeling Angle Due to the Movement
of the Center of Gravity (4/4)

## of the Center of Gravity (3/4)

z z¢
M

f
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G
B1 G d yG¢
d zG¢
1
y
f
B d yB¢
d z ¢B
x, x¢ E, O y¢
N B1
B d yB¢
d z ¢B
d z ¢B sin f N
d yB¢ cos f P
K K
KB sin f

## M B = D × ( KB cos f + d yB¢ cos f + d z ¢B sin f )

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Naval Architectural Calculation, Spring 2018, Myung-Il Roh

z z¢
M
d zG¢ sin f
d yG¢ cos f
G1 f
d zG¢
G f G 1
d yG¢ d zG¢ y
G d yG¢
f
x, x¢ E, O y¢
B1 B1
B d z ¢B B d yB¢
d z ¢B
d yB¢
N N
d z ¢B sin f P
d yB¢ cos f K
MG + M B = 0 K
KB sin f

## d yG¢ , d zG¢ , d yB¢ d z ¢B

47
In this equation, KG and KB are given. , and are functions of
2018-08-07

## [Appendix] Rotational Transformation

of a Position Vector to a Body in Fluid

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Naval Architectural Calculation, Spring 2018, Myung-Il Roh

## Representation of a Point “P” on the Object with Respect to the Body

Fixed Frame (Decomposed in the Body Fixed Frame)

z, z¢ ( yP¢ , z ¢P )

y¢P
P
The position vector of the point P
decomposed in the body fixed frame
Invariant with respect to the body fixed frame

z¢P

O, O¢
y, y¢

O¢x¢y¢z ¢ :
Oxyz :
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## Rotation of the Object with an Angle of ϕ and then Representation of

the Point “P” on the Object with Respect to the Inertial Frame

## Coordinate Transformation of a Position Vector z ( yP¢ , z ¢P )

The position vector of the point P
decomposed in the body fixed frame

( yP , z P )
Invariant with respect to the body fixed frame

yP
The position vector of the point P

decomposed in the initial frame
Variant with respect to the inertial frame

yP¢ z ¢P P
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98
zP

O, O¢ f
y

O¢x¢y¢z ¢ :
Oxyz :
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## The body fixed frame

The inertial frame

z ( yP¢ , z ¢P )

z ¢P sin f ( yP , z P )
yP P

yP¢ z ¢P
yP = yP¢ cos f - z ¢P sin f
zP The position vector of the point P
decomposed in the body fixed frame
Invariant with respect to the body fixed frame

y¢P
O, O¢ f
The position vector of the point P

y
decomposed in the initial frame
Variant with respect to the inertial frame

yP¢ cos f

O¢x¢y¢z ¢ :
Oxyz :

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2018-08-07

## Naval Architectural Calculation, Spring 2018, Myung-Il Roh

It cannot be too strongly emphasized that
the rotational transformation and the coordinate transformation are important.
100
Coordinate Transformation of a Position Vector
z ( yP¢ , z ¢P )

The position vector of the point P
decomposed in the body fixed frame

( yP , z P )
Invariant with respect to the body fixed frame

yP P
The position vector of the point P

z ¢P cosyf
¢ decomposed in the initial frame
Variant with respect to the inertial frame

yP¢ z ¢P
yP = yP¢ cos f - z ¢P sin f
zP
z P = yP¢ sin f + z P¢ cos f
y¢P yP¢ sin f
O, O¢ f
y

O¢x¢y¢z ¢ :
Oxyz :
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## The body fixed frame

The inertial frame

z ( yP¢ , z ¢P )

( yP , z P )
yP P

yP¢ z ¢P
yP = yP¢ cos f - z ¢P sin f
zP The position vector of the point P

## z P = yP¢ sin f + z P¢ cos f

decomposed in the body fixed frame
Invariant with respect to the body fixed frame

O, O¢ f
The position vector of the point P

y
decomposed in the initial frame
Variant with respect to the inertial frame

## é yP ù écos f - sin f ù é yP¢ ù

ê z ú = ê sin f cos f ú ê z ¢ ú
ë Pû ë ûë Pû
n n b
O¢x¢y¢z ¢ : r = R
P b P r
Oxyz :

Matrix Form

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## Representation of a Point “P” on the Object with Respect to the Body

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102
Fixed Frame (Decomposed in the Body Fixed Frame)
é yP ù écos f - sin f ù é yP¢ ù z, z¢
ê z ú = ê sin f ( yP¢ , z ¢P )
ë Pû ë cos f úû êë z P¢ úû
The position vector of the point P
decomposed in the body fixed frame
Invariant with respect to the body fixed frame

y¢P
P
z¢P

O, O¢
y, y¢

O¢x¢y¢z ¢ :
Oxyz :
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## The body fixed frame

The inertial frame

## é yP ù écos f - sin f ù é yP¢ ù z

ê z ú = ê sin f ( yP¢ , z ¢P )
ë Pû ë cos f úû êë z P¢ úû

( yP , z P )

P
é yP ù écos ( -f ) - sin ( -f ) ù é yP¢ ù
y¢P ê z ú = ê sin -f úê ú
The position vector of the point P
decomposed in the body fixed frame

ë P û ë ( ) cos ( -f ) û ë z ¢P û
Invariant with respect to the body fixed frame

yP
O, O¢ zP
-f y The position vector of the point P
decomposed in the initial frame
Variant with respect to the inertial frame

z ¢P

O¢x¢y¢z ¢ :
Oxyz :

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## Rotation of the Object with an Angle of “-ϕ” and then Representation of

the Total Center of Mass with Respect to the Inertial Frame

## Change of the Total Center of Mass Caused by Moving a Load of Weight

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104
“w” with Distance “d” from “g” to “g1”

z, z¢ ( yG¢ 1 , zG¢ 1 )

“Change of
the center of mass” The position vector of the changed total center
of mass G1 decomposed in the body fixed frame

g d g1
yG¢ = d yG¢
w
d yG¢ = d
W
yG¢ 1 G1
G w
= d yG¢
zG¢ zG¢ 1
W , where

y, y¢
is the weight of the
moving load

## is total weight of the

object.

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w ( yG¢ 1 , zG¢ 1 )
yG¢ = d z
W

( yG1 , zG1 )

## G G The position vector of the changed total center of

mass G1 decomposed in the body fixed frame

yG¢ 1 1
yG1 é yG1 ù écos ( -f ) - sin ( -f ) ù é yG¢ 1 ù
zG1 ê ú=ê úê ú
êë zG1 úû ë sin ( -f ) cos ( -f ) û êë zG¢ 1 úû
-f zG¢ 1 y Invariant with respect to the body fixed frame

## é cos (f ) sin (f ) ù é yG¢ 1 ù

The position vector of the changed total center
of mass G1 decomposed in the initial frame
Variant with respect to the inertial frame

=ê úê ú
ë - sin (f ) cos (f ) û êë zG¢ 1 úû

## yG1 = yG¢ 1 cos f + zG¢ 1 sin f

zG1 = - yG¢ 1 sin f + zG¢ 1 cos f

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(1) Calculate the initial centroid “B” of the rectangle for z’<0 with respect to the body fixed frame.
(2) Then calculate new centroid “B1” caused by moving a partial triangular area with respect to the
body fixed frame.

## Change of the Center of Buoyancy Caused by Changing

Naval Architectural Calculation, Spring 2018, Myung-Il Roh
106
the Shape of Immersed Volume
z ( yB¢ 1 , z B¢ 1 )

## z¢ The position vector of the point B1

decomposed in the body fixed frame
Invariant with respect to the body fixed frame

( yB1 , z B1 )

## é yP ù écos ( -f ) - sin ( -f ) ù é yP¢ ù

ê z ú = ê sin -f úê ú
The position vector of the point B1

ë P û ë ( ) cos ( -f ) û ë z ¢P û
decomposed in the initial frame
Variant with respect to the inertial frame

O, O¢
-f y
z B1
y¢B1
z ¢B1
B yB1 B1
d z ¢B y¢
d yB¢ “Change of
the center of buoyancy”

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Naval Architectural Calculation, Spring 2018, Myung-Il Roh

z, z¢ ( yB¢ 1 , z B¢ 1 )

## The position vector of the point B1

decomposed in the body fixed frame
Invariant with respect to the body fixed frame

O, O¢
z ¢B1 y, y¢
yB¢ 1 B1
d z ¢B
B
d yB¢

O¢x¢y¢z ¢ :
Oxyz :

B is centroid of “ abcd”
B1 is centroid of “ ebcf”

53
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(3) Rotate the new centroid “B1” with an angle of “-f”(clockwise direction).
(4) Then calculate the position vector of the point “B1” with respect to the inertial frame.

equilibrium position.
z ( yB¢ 1 , z B¢ 1 )

## z¢ The position vector of the point B1

decomposed in the body fixed frame
Invariant with respect to the body fixed frame

( yB1 , z B1 )
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## The position vector of the point B1

decomposed in the initial frame
Variant with respect to the inertial frame

## é yB1 ù écos ( -f ) - sin ( -f ) ù é yB¢ 1 ù

ê ú=ê úê ú
y ëê z B1 ûú ë sin ( -f ) cos ( -f ) û ëê z B¢ 1 ûú
-f
z B1 é cos (f ) sin (f ) ù é yB¢ 1 ù
B1 =ê úê ú
y¢B1 ë - sin (f ) cos (f ) û ëê z ¢B1 ûú
z ¢B1
B yB1 yB1 = yB¢ 1 cos f + z B¢ 1 sin f

z B1 = - yB¢ 1 sin f + z B¢ 1 cos f

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Naval Architectural Calculation, Spring 2018, Myung-Il Roh

## é yP ù écos ( -f ) - sin ( -f ) ù é yP¢ ù

ê z ú = ê sin -f úê ú
ë P û ë ( ) cos ( -f ) û ë z ¢P û

z , z¢

th

G
FG Stability of a Ship
- Stable Condition (1/3)

O, O¢
-f y, y¢

FB
B
B1 Heeling
moment

## ① Apply an external heeling moment to

the ship.
② Then release the external

54
moment.
③ Test whether it returns to its initial
2018-08-07

## i j k i ( yG × FG , z - zG × FG , y ) é yP ù écos ( -f ) - sin ( -f ) ù é yP¢ ù

Stability of a Ship r ´F = x yG zG = + j(- xG × FG , z + zG × FG , x ) ê z ú = ê sin -f úê ú
G G G ë P û ë ( ) cos ( -f ) û ë z ¢P û
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110

## - Stable Condition (2/3) F G,x FG , y FG , z + k ( xG × FG , y - yG × FG , x )

z
τe

τ e = rG ´FG +rB1 ´FB
= i ( yG × FG , z - zG × FG , y )
th Resultant moment about
x-axis through point O ( ) :

+ j(- xG × FG , z + zG × FG , x )
+ k ( xG × FG , y - yG × FG , x )
G ê
é FG , x ù
ú ê
é 0 ù Heeling
moment
+ i ( yB1 × FB , z - z B1 × FB , y )
ú
rG FG = ê FG , y ú = ê 0 ú + j(- xB1 × FB , z + z B1 × FB , x )
O, O¢ êë FG , z úû êë -W úû +k ( xB1 × FB , y - yB1 × FB , x )
-f y
= i ( yG × FG , z - zG × FG , y )
é FB , x ù é 0 ù
rB1 ê ú + i ( yB1 × FB , z - z B1 × FB , y )
FB = ê FB , y ú = êê 0 úú
B B êë FB, z úû êë D úû = i ( yG × ( -W ) + yB1 × D)
1
y¢ W =D
= i ( yG × ( - D ) + yB1 × D)
= i × D( yB1 - yG )
109
Naval Architectural Calculation, Spring 2018, Myung-Il Roh

If

## é yP ù écos ( -f ) - sin ( -f ) ù é yP¢ ù

ê z ú = ê sin -f úê ú
ë P û ë ( ) cos ( -f ) û ë z ¢P û

z , z¢
τe

τ e = rG ´FG +rB1 ´FB
= i × D( yB1 - yG )
= i × D × GZ

G t r = D × GZ
yG r Z
G FG
O, O¢
-f y, y¢
yB1
Resultant moment about
x-axis through point O ( ) :

rB1
FB
B B1

tr
Stability of a Ship
- Stable Condition (3/3)
• Transverse Righting Moment

## The moment arm induced by the

buoyant force and gravitational
force is expressed by GZ, where Z
is the intersection point of the
line of buoyant force(D) through
the new position of the center of
buoyancy(B1) with a transversely
parallel line to a waterline through
the center of the ship’s mass(G).

Stable!!

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Stability of a Ship
- Neutral Condition (2/3)

## é yP ù écos ( -f ) - sin ( -f ) ù é yP¢ ù

ê z ú = ê sin -f úê ú
ë P û ë ( ) cos ( -f ) û ë z ¢P û

## Naval Architectural Calculation, Spring 2018, Myung-Il Roh

112
z , z¢

G Stability of a Ship
- Neutral Condition (1/3)

FG
th

Heeling
moment

O, O¢
-f y, y¢

FB
B
B1
Suppose G is higher than that of
the stable condition. y¢

111
Naval Architectural Calculation, Spring 2018, Myung-Il Roh

## i j k i ( yG × FG , z - zG × FG , y ) é yP ù écos ( -f ) - sin ( -f ) ù é yP¢ ù

rG ´ FG = xG yG zG = + j(- xG × FG , z + zG × FG , x ) ê z ú = ê sin -f úê ú
ë P û ë ( ) cos ( -f ) û ë z ¢P û
FG , x FG , y FG , z + k ( xG × FG , y - yG × FG , x )

z
τe

τ e = rG ´FG +rB1 ´FB
G é FG , x ù é 0 ù
ê ú = i ( yG × FG , z - zG × FG , y )
FG = ê FG , y út=h êê 0 úú
+ j(- xG × FG , z + zG × FG , x )
êë FG , z úû ëê -W ûú
+ k ( xG × FG , y - yG × FG , x )
+ i ( yB1 × FB , z - z B1 × FB , y )
rG + j(- xB1 × FB , z + z B1 × FB , x )
O, O¢ +k ( xB1 × FB , y - yB1 × FB , x )
-f y Resultant moment about
x-axis through point O ( ) :

= i ( yG × FG , z - zG × FG , y )
é FB , x ù é 0 ù
rB1 ê ú ê ú + i ( yB1 × FB , z - z B1 × FB , y )
FB = ê FB , y ú = ê 0 ú
B B1 êë FB, z úû êë D úû = i ( yG × ( -W ) + yB1 × D)
Heeling
moment

y¢ W =D
= i ( yG × ( - D ) + yB1 × D)
= i × D( yB1 - yG )

56
If
2018-08-07

## é yP ù écos ( -f ) - sin ( -f ) ù é yP¢ ù

Stability of a Ship ê z ú = ê sin -f úê ú
ë P û ë ( ) cos ( -f ) û ë z ¢P û
- Neutral Condition (3/3)
z
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114

τe
G
τ e = rG ´FG +rB1 ´FB
FG
= i × D( yB1 - yG )
If G and B1 are on one line,
calculate resultant moment about
x-axis through point O ( ) :

0
rG
O, O¢ yG
-f yB y
1

rB1
FB Neutral!!

B B1

113
Naval Architectural Calculation, Spring 2018, Myung-Il Roh

## é yP ù écos ( -f ) - sin ( -f ) ù é yP¢ ù

ê z ú = ê sin -f úê ú
ë P û ë ( ) cos ( -f ) û ë z ¢P û

G z , z¢
FG z¢

th

Stability of a Ship
- Unstable Condition (1/3)

O, O¢
-f y, y¢

FB
B B
B1 Heeling
moment

## Suppose G is higher than that of the

neutral condition.

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Stability of a Ship
- Unstable Condition (3/3)

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## i j k i ( yG × FG , z - zG × FG , y ) é yP ù écos ( -f ) - sin ( -f ) ù é yP¢ ù

Stability of a Ship r ´F = x yG zG = + j(- xG × FG , z + zG × FG , x ) ê z ú = ê sin -f úê ú
G G G ë P û ë ( ) cos ( -f ) û ë z ¢P û
- Unstable Condition (2/3) F G,x FG , y FG , z + k ( xG × FG , y - yG × FG , x )

z
G τe

FG τ e = rG ´FG +rB1 ´FB
é FG , x ù é 0 ù
ê ú ê ú = i ( yG × FG , z - zG × FG , y )
= ê FG t
,y h ú=ê 0 ú Resultant moment about
x-axis through point O ( ) :

êë FG , z úû ëê -W ûú + j(- xG × FG , z + zG × FG , x )
rG + k ( xG × FG , y - yG × FG , x )
Heeling
moment
+ i ( yB1 × FB , z - z B1 × FB , y )
+ j(- xB1 × FB , z + z B1 × FB , x )
O, O¢ +k ( xB1 × FB , y - yB1 × FB , x )
-f y
= i ( yG × FG , z - zG × FG , y )
é FB , x ù é 0 ù
rB1 ê ú + i ( yB1 × FB , z - z B1 × FB , y )
FB = ê FB , y ú = êê 0 úú
B B1 êë FB, z úû êë D úû = i ( yG × ( -W ) + yB1 × D)
y¢ W =D
= i ( yG × ( - D ) + yB1 × D)
= i × D( yB1 - yG )
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If

## é yP ù écos ( -f ) - sin ( -f ) ù é yP¢ ù

ê z ú = ê sin -f úê ú
ë P û ë ( ) cos ( -f ) û ë z ¢P û

z
G z¢
FG τe
τ e= rG ´FG +rB1 ´FB
= i × D( yB1 - yG )
yB1 - yG < 0

O, O¢ yG
-f yB y
1

## If G is so high that G locates on

the right side of B1, calculate
resultant moment about x-axis
through point O ( ) :

B B1
FB y¢

Unstable!!

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Space(Water plane) fixed reference frame Body fixed reference frame

Alternatively, we can calculate the center of buoyancy with respect to the body fixed
reference frame (non-inertial reference frame).

## How can we calculate ship’s center of buoyancy(B1)?

z

G
y
f
Water plane fixed reference frame Body fixed reference frame
B
Method 1. Calculate center of buoyancy B1 directly Method 2. Calculate center of buoyancy B1 with
with respect to the water B
plane reference fixed frame. respect to the body fixed reference frame, then
1

## Orientation of a Ship with Respect to the Different

transform B1 to the water plane fixed reference frame.

z'
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Naval Architectural Calculation, Spring 2018, Myung-Il Roh G
x,x’
O,O’ f
y'
B

K
B1

Reference Frame

z z¢
z
FG
z¢ FG y

G
G W f 

y O, O¢

O  W
 L

f


B1 (a) (b)

B1 y¢

FB

## Body fixed coordinate system(b-frame): Body fixed reference frame x’ y’ z’

Space fixed coordinate system(n-frame): Inertial reference frame x y z

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zn
k (+)
yn
j
t

z ¢B1 / O¢
z B1 / O
[Reference] Water Plane Fixed Reference Frame vs.
Body Fixed Reference Frame

We can calculate the center of buoyancy with respect to the water plane fixed
reference frame (inertial reference frame).
yB¢ 1 / O '
yB1 / O

O,O’

O : Origin of the water plane fixed reference frame O : Origin of the water plane fixed reference frame
O’ : Origin of the body fixed reference frame O’ : Origin of the body fixed reference frame

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Method 1. Calculate center of buoyancy B1 directly Method 2. Calculate center of buoyancy B1 with
with respect to the water plane fixed reference frame. respect to the body fixed reference frame, then
transform B1 to the water plane fixed reference frame.

G
z'
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x,x’ f
O,O’ y'
B B1

z K
G
y
f
B
B1

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## ü with respect to the body fixed

frame

Method 1. Calculate center of buoyancy B1 directly Method 2. Calculate center of buoyancy B1 with
with respect to the water plane fixed reference frame. respect to the body fixed reference frame, then
transform B1 to the water plane fixed reference frame.

z'

f
y'
B B1

K
é n yP / O ù é cos f sin f ù é b yP / O ù
ên ú=ê ê ú
Same

ë z P / O û ë - sin f cos f úû ë b z P / O û

zn
k (+)
z yn
j
t

G
y
f z ¢B1 / O¢
z B1 / O
B
yB¢ 1 / O '
Question: How to calculate center of the buoyancy(B1) with respect to water plane fixed frame?
üComparison between Method 1 and Method 2 (1/2)

yB1 / O B1 z

O,O’

O : Origin of the water plane fixed frame (n-frame) O : Origin of the water plane fixed frame (n-frame)
O’ : Origin of the body fixed reference frame (b-frame) O’ : Origin of the body fixed reference frame (b-frame)

A, M z , M y A, M A, z ' , M A, y '

## dA = dydz A = ò dA dA ' = dy ' dz ' M A, z ' = ò y ' dA M A, y ' = ò z ' dA

M A, z = ò ydA M A, y = ò zdA
æM M A, y ' ö
( yB¢ 1 / O ' , z B¢ 1 / O ' ) = ç A, z ' , ÷
è A A ø
æM M ö
( yB1 / O , z B1 / O ) = ç A, z , A, y ÷
è A A ø é yB1 / O ù é cos f sin f ù é yB¢ 1 / O ' ù
ü with respect to the water plane
fixed frame

ê ú= ê ê ú
cos f úû ëê z B¢ 1 / O ' ûú
M A, z M A, y ü with respect to the body fixed

ëê z B1 / O ûú ë - sin f
frame

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ü Center of buoyancy with respect to the body
fixed frame

## ü Center of buoyancy with respect to the

water plane fixed frame

## : The moment of sectional area

under the water plane about y-axis
: The moment of sectional area
under the water plane about z-axis
ü Rotational transformation

é n yP / O ù é cos f sin f ù é b yP / O ù
ên ú=ê ê ú
ë z P / O û ë - sin f cos f úû ë b z P / O û

zn
k (+)
yn
j
t

[Reference]

z B1 / O '
z ¢B1 / O¢
z B1 / O Convenient

yB¢ 1 / O '
yB1 / O yB1 / O '

A, M z , M y A, M A, z ' , M A, y '

## dA ' = dy ' dz ' M A, z ' = ò y ' dA M A, y ' = ò z ' dA

dA = dydz A = ò dA
M A, z = ò ydA M A, y = ò zdA z
æM M A, y ' ö
y
( yB¢ 1 / O ' , z B¢ 1 / O ' ) = ç A, z ' , ÷
è A A ø
O,O’

æM M ö x,x’

## ( yB1 / O , z B1 / O ) = ç A, z , A, y ÷ é yB1 / O ù é cos f sin f ù é yB¢ 1 / O ' ù

è A A ø ê ú= ê ê ú
cos f úû ëê z B¢ 1 / O ' ûú
Question: How to calculate center of the buoyancy(B1) with respect to water plane fixed frame?

ëê z B1 / O ûú ë - sin f
üComparison between Method 1 and Method 2 (2/2)
O : Origin of the water plane fixed frame (n-frame) O : Origin of the water plane fixed frame (n-frame)
O’ : Origin of the body fixed reference frame (b-frame) O’ : Origin of the body fixed reference frame (b-frame)

O,O’

fixed frame

fixed frame

## ü Center of buoyancy with respect to the

water plane fixed frame

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ü Rotational transformation
fixed reference frame
Rotation of a ship with respect to the body fixed
reference frame

2018-08-07
Same!!

[Reference]
Orientation of a Ship with Respect to the Different Reference Frame
Inclination of a ship can be represented either with respect to the water plane fixed
frame(“inertial reference frame”) or the body fixed reference frame.
Are these two phenomena with respect to the different reference frames the same?

te z' z te z' z
FG
FG
y'
Z G Z G
f
Rotation of a ship with respect to the water plane
y y'
f
B1 B1
y
B B
FB
FB
tr
Submerged volume and emerged volume do not change with respect to the frame, that means

tr volume is invariant with respect to the reference frame. Also is the pressure acting on the ship
invariant with respect to the reference frame.
In addition, the magnitude of the moment arm “GZ” also does not change. However, the position
vectors of the center of mass “G” and the center of buoyancy “B1” are variant with respect to the water
plane fixed reference frame.

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