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01 Fall Term 2010

**Problem Set 8: Continuous Mass Transfer
**

Due: Tuesday Nov 2 at 9 pm Place your solutions in the appropriate section slot in the box outside 26-152. Write your name, section, table and group number on the upper right side of your first page. Website: http://web.mit.edu/8.01t/www/ Textbook: Young and Friedman, University Physics Twelfth Edition Oct 25/26 W08D1 Continuous Mass Flow Reading Assignment: Young and Freedman: 8.6, Class Notes: Continuous Mass Flow Oct 27/28 W08D2 Rockets Reading Assignment: Young and Freedman: 8.6; Experiment 3: Impulse, Class Notes: Continuous Mass Flow Oct 29 W08D3 Quiz 6 Integrals, Dot and Cross Products; Group Problem Solving: Falling Chain Nov 1/2 W09D1 Two-Dimensional Rotational Kinematics Reading Assignment: Young and Freedman: 9.1-9.6, 10.5 Nov 3/4 W09D2 Angular Momentum and Two-Dimensional Rotational Dynamics Reading Assignment: Young and Freedman: 10.1-10.2, 10.5-10.6; 11.1-11.3 Nov 5 W09D3 Quiz 7 Momentum; Group Problem Solving: Two Dimensional Rotational Dynamics

What is the reaction force on the hydrant? Problem 5: Rocket in a Constant Gravitational Field A rocket ascends from rest in a uniform gravitational field by ejecting exhaust with constant speed u relative to the rocket.0 = 2 ! 107 kg . dmr / dt = kmr vr .0 = 5 ! 107 kg . Assume that the raindrop gains mass from the cloud at a rate proportional to the momentum of the raindrop. where mr is the instantaneous mass of the raindrop. . what is the speed of the skater? Problem 3: Falling Raindrop A raindrop of initial mass m0 starts falling from rest under the influence of gravity. vr is the instantaneous speed of the raindrop. and initially carries fuel with mass m f .0 ! 103 m " s-1 relative to the rocket. Assume that the rate at which mass is expelled is given by dm f / dt = ! mr .Problem 1 A rocket has a dry mass (empty of fuel) mr . d) Challenge: determine the speed of the rocket as a function of time. c) Determine u( dm f / dt) . b) Based on your result from part a) (you do not need to integrate your differential equation). where mr is the instantaneous mass of the rocket and ! is a constant. What is the final speed of the rocket after all the fuel has burned? Problem 2: An ice skater of mass m is holding a bag of sand of mass ms that is leaking sand at a constant rate b . Problem 4: Fire Hydrant Water shoots out of a fire hydrant having nozzle diameter D with nozzle speed V0 . show that the speed of the drop eventually becomes effectively constant and give an expression for the terminal speed. a) Derive a differential equation for the speed of the raindrop. b) Using the fact that dm f / dt = !dmr / dt . called the thrust. The ice skater is pushed with a constant force of magnitude F on a frictionless ice surface. and k is a constant with units [m -1 ] . The rocket is retarded by air resistance with a force F = bmr vr proportional to the instantaneous momentum of the rocket where b is a constant and vr is the speed of the rocket. At the instant that all the sand has leaked out. You may neglect air resistance. determine an expression for the mass of the rocket as a function of time. a) Derive a differential equation for the speed of the rocket. The fuel is ejected at a speed u = 2.

c) Use your results from part b) in part a) to find a differential equation for the speed vs of the spacecraft. show that the rate that the dust mass hits the spacecraft. d) What do you expect is the terminal speed of the spacecraft? e) Challenge problem: Find the speed vs of the spacecraft as a function of time. the speed of the dust relative to the asteroid u . a) Derive an equation for the acceleration dvs / dt of the spacecraft at time t. What is the terminal velocity of the spacecraft? Hint: dmd / dt ! b . in terms of the rate that the dust mass hits the surface of the spacecraft dmd / dt . The beam of dust is ejected from the dust gun at a speed u with respect to the asteroid.Problem 6 A spacecraft is launched from an asteroid (which we take to be stationary) by bombarding the spacecraft by a beam of rock dust. Assume that dt the dust comes momentarily to rest at the spacecraft and then slips away sideways. (If you get an integral that you are not sure how to integrate. and the speed u of the dust relative to the asteroid. Show your momentum flow diagrams at time t and time t + !t . assuming vs (t = 0) = 0 by integrating your differential equation in part c). b) Using conservation of mass. and the velocity of the spacecraft vs . the rate that the dust mass is shot from the asteroid dme / dt = b . you can leave your answer in integral form. The dust is ejected at a constant rate dme b= = !u where ! " b / u is the mass per unit length in the dust beam. Clearly identify your system and label all the objects in your system. dmd b = (u ! vs ) dt u where vs is the speed of the spacecraft.) . the mass of the spacecraft ms . the effect is to keep the spacecraft’s mass ms constant.

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