You are on page 1of 102


―A study on Customer Satisfaction towards
Maruti Suzuki cars in Lucknow City‖
Towards partial fulfilment of
Master of Business Administration (MBA)
(Affiliated to Dr. A. P. J. Abdul Kalam Technical University,

Industry Guide: Faculty Guide:

Mr. Manoj Srivastava Ms. Meetu Pandey
(Associate Professor)
BBD NITM, Lucknow

Submitted by:
Kapil Pathak
Roll no: 1605470036
M.B.A. 3rd Semester

SESSION 2016-2018

Babu Banarasi Das

National Institute of Technology & Management
Sector 1, Akhilesh Das nagar, Faizabad Road, Lucknow (U. P.), India

This is to declare that I, Kapil Pathak student of MBA, have personally worked on

the project entitled “A study on Customer Satisfaction towards Maruti Suzuki

cars in Lucknow City“. The data mentioned in this report were obtained during

genuine work done and collected by me. The data obtained from other sources

have been duly acknowledged. The result embodied in this project has not been

submitted to any other University or Institute for the award of any degree.

Kapil Pathak

The present work is an effort to throw some light on “A Study on Customer

Satisfaction towards Maruti Suzuki cars in Lucknow City”. The work would

not have been possible to come to the present shape without the able guidance,

supervision and help to me by number of people.

With deep sense of gratitude I acknowledge the encouragement and guidance

received by my organizational guide Ms. Meetu Pandey and other staff members.

I convey my heart full affection to all those people who helped and supported me

during the course, for completion of my Project Report.

(Kapil Pathak)


The Summer Training program is the integral part of MBA curriculum

during the course of management; the research is expected to use and apply their

academic knowledge and gain a valuable insight into corporate culture with all its

environment operational complexities.

The research offers a valuable opportunity to the researcher to meet their academic

knowledge to the real world situation. I have undertaken commercial department to

study about the various activities done in this department in the details, as the

result of that I came out with the project title “A study on Customer Satisfaction

towards Maruti Suzuki cars in Lucknow City”.

In this report I have put my finest efforts to compile the data with utmost accuracy

and hope this report will give complete satisfaction regarding the various aspects

of marketing.


1. Certificate ii

2. Declaration iii

3. Acknowledgement iv

4. Preface v

5. Introduction 1

6. Literature Review 28

7. Company Profile 34

8. Research objectives 66

9. Research Methodology 68

10. Limitations 71

11. Data Analysis 73

12. Findings 86

13. Recommendations 88

14. Conclusion 90

15. Bibliography 92

16. Annexure 94



As organizations become increasingly customer focused and driven by demand, the

need to gain customer loyalty and retain their loyalty is critical. Customer

satisfaction is the most effective way to achieve customer loyalty. Customer

satisfaction and customer loyalty share many similar traits. Customer value is the

customer‘s perception of the ratio of benefits to what he or she gives to obtain

those benefits. The customer Value Triad is a framework used to understand what

it is that customers want. The framework consists of three parts: (1) perceived

product quality, (2) value-based pricing, and (3) perceived service quality.

Customers are satisfied, when value meets or exceeds expectations. If their

expectations of value are not met, there is no chance of satisfying them. Figuring

out what the customers want, however, is a difficult and complex process. To be

able to create and deliver customer value is important to understand its

components. On the most basic level, value from a customer‘s perspective is the

ratio of benefits to the risks being taken while buying the product.



According to Harold E Edmondson ― Customer Satisfaction‖ seems to appear in

print more frequently than any other catch phrase used to describe a new found

magic for industrial success. Before we proceed in to the study of the dynamics of

Customer Satisfaction it is important to know about, who a customer is and what

satisfaction really means.

Who really is a Customer?

The question of defining who your customers are seems fairly easy particularly if

you have segmented your market properly and understand who you are trying to

satisfy. However subtlety that frequently goes undetected by many firms is that is

that customer set can be divided into two parts, the apparent customer and the

user. The apparent customer is the person or group of people who decide what

product to buy and basically have control over the purse strings. The user is a

person or group who physically uses the product or is the direct recipient of a


What does satisfaction really mean?

As in defining customer above, defining satisfaction also appears simple. However

as with customer there is a subtlety that needs addressing. Satisfaction by most

definitions simply means meeting the customer‘s requirement.

Customer satisfaction is a concept that more and more companies are putting at the

heart of their strategy, but for this to be successful they‘re needs to be clarity about,

what customer satisfaction means and what needs to happen to drive improvement.

Without this, there is a risk that customer satisfaction becomes little more than a

good intention, with confused objectives failing to address the real issues for

customers, one helpful way to look at the problem is to rephrase the objectives: set

the sights on helping the customers meet their goals.

Customer satisfaction can be defined in many different ways. Finding the right way

for a company depends on understanding your customer and on having a clear

vision of the role that customer satisfaction is to play in the strategy. For example,

a focus on customer satisfaction can work alongside existing segmentations to

support revenue generation from high value customers or it can be a company-

wide objective rooted in the brand values. For the former, it may be sufficient to

focus on improving customer service, but for the latter a broader definition of

customer satisfaction is necessary, closer akin to corporate reputation.

Whatever the strategy for customer satisfaction, it must at least include getting the

basics right. Failing to achieve this can destroy the reputation as well as losing

valuable customers. Every customer, regardless of their economic worth to the

business, has the power to influence – positively or negatively – a company‘s

reputation. Once the objectives for the customer satisfaction strategy are defined

there are a number of steps we can take to make sure the focus on customer

satisfaction is effective.

Building a company around Customer Satisfaction -

With the increase in customer‘s demands and competition it has become a lot more

important to base the entire company on customer service. When doing this one

must first realize that every member of an organization plays an active role in

customer service. This includes both external customers and internal customers

within a company.

Customer focused organizations focus both on customer satisfaction and

profit. Achieving customer satisfaction generates the profit. In these organizations

top management has frequent contacts with external customers. The top

management uses consultative, participative, and supportive management styles to

get through to the customer. The staff focuses all of its attention on satisfying the

customer‘s needs. However, the management‘s job is to provide the staff with

support necessary to achieve these goals. The other department and staff in the

organization that do not have direct contact with the external customers deal

exclusively with internal customer satisfaction.

The Influence of the salesperson in Customer Satisfaction-

In an article titled, ―The influence of salesperson selling behavior on customer

satisfaction with products,‖ Brent G.Goff and James S. Boles examine the effects

of non-product related construct on customer satisfaction with major retail

purchases such as automobiles. The article states that salesperson‘s selling

orientation- customer orientation (SOCO) will affect not only consumer

satisfaction with the salesperson and dealer, but also indirectly, satisfaction with

the product or manufacturer.

In the perspectives of both the retailer and the manufacturer, customer satisfaction

represents an important issue because it relates to several desirable

outcomes. Customer satisfaction leads to future purchases, and repeated purchases

of the same product from the same source. In other words, it helps a firm retain its

present customers and build loyalty. By helping a buyer obtain product information

and providing guidelines about what should be expected during the buying process

and use of a product, a salesperson may influence customer expectations

concerning the product. Thereby this may reduce the likelihood of dissatisfaction

(Grewal and Sharma, 1991). A successful salesperson tailors to the needs of each

individual customer. By being customer-oriented, a salesperson is likely to identify

with needs of the customer, enabling the salesperson to match his or her

presentation to those requirements of the customer.

Internal Marketing – how it affects Customer Satisfaction –

Successful companies make every effort to ensure satisfaction to their customer by

focusing all organizational efforts of the company on providing superior customer

service. By doing this these companies hope to retain their existing customers and

attract new ones. Only angle of customer satisfaction commonly overlooked is the

internal aspect.

The internal customer or employee plays a vital role in achieving customer

satisfaction and loyalty. Some firm‘s do not understand that the treatment of

internal customers becomes the external customers‘ perception of the company. A

firm‘s employees or other departments within the organization make up its internal

customers. Their job performance affects the firm‘s ability to deliver superior

product and customer service (Boone and Kurtz, 1999). When a firm‘s employees

are happy at work, their overall attitude and performance towards the customer

enhances tremendously. Internal marketing helps members or employees of an

organization understand and fulfill their roles in implementing its marketing

strategy. Internal marketing not only keeps employees happy, it also shows them

how their actions affect the firm‘s ability to achieve customer satisfaction.

Customer Satisfaction as part of Service Profit Chain:

A Harvard Business Review article outlines the internal process required to drive

growth and increase profitability. The article describes the ways in which service

quality contributes to success, outlining the steps in the ―Service-profit chain‖:

In this world of competition any organization cannot avoid Customers. It

has become a necessity for an organization for its survival in any industry so that

customer satisfaction plays important role in each an every product life cycle.

Customer satisfaction survey for Maruti Suzuki is the project conducted for

Maruti Suzuki Automotive pvt. Ltd in city of Amravati. Today Companies are

facing toughest competition ever. The intense competition makes the companies

to take the necessary steps.

To retain their existing customer as well as attract new once. In the

environment of advancement of the technology the companies are trying hard to

keep the pace with latest development.

This survey will help the company to know the customers satisfaction level

and feedback of customers at the product in Amravati. It will also help company

to know about the competitors. This will help company to know about wants and

expectation of customers.

The company can also know if there are any problems faced by the

customers in that region. This survey has conducted a geographical are in



Your company remains steadfast in its quest for achieving higher operational

efficiencies. This includes efforts at reducing costs, increasing productivity and

maintaining delivery schedules.

An example of Maruti‘s strength in operations is its capability to roll out two

vehicles every minute from its shop floor. It is on the foundation of such strong

operations that MUL offers its customers a suite of 10 models in over 50 variants.

In times of unfavorable market conditions, our operational efficiencies have

helped us remain competitive. Today, as markets have turned upbeat, we have

leveraged this strength to seize opportunities and ensure that profits outpace top-

line growth.


Spread over 297 acres, Maruti has three fully integrated production facilities with

a combined capability of 500,000 units per annum. Chart D shows the category-

wise production of vehicles in 2003-04 and 2004-05. Production increased across all

categories of passenger cars — the A1 category grew by 20.4 per cent, A2 grew by

47.7 per cent and A3 grew by 33.8 per cent. Total vehicle production increased by

31.4 per cent from 359,960 units in 2003-04 to 472,908 units in 2004-05.

Two years ago, in the backdrop of fierce competition, your company had initiated a

program called ‗Challenge 50 — go fast, high quality‘ across its production


The principal philosophy behind this program is to raise our productivity levels by

50 per cent in three years through Kaizen and continuous performance

benchmarking. 2004-05 is the last year of this program. As shown in Chart E, this

program has already yielded impressive operational gains for the company. A

critical parameter that measures efficiency of production systems in the automobile

industry is man-hours spent in producing one vehicle. This has improved by around

54 per cent in the last three years. In addition, there has been a considerable

reduction in inventory holding period, which dropped from 30 days in 2003-04 to

19 days in 2004-05.


In an industry like automobiles, where large part of its components are outsourced,

vendor management becomes a critical operation. This has always been a key focus

area for your company. When MUL started its operations in India, auto-component

suppliers were almost non-existent. Thus, one of the immediate goals was to

develop and establish a competent vendor base. This involved providing capital,

transplanting technology, and developing production processes for suppliers.

Today, this situation has changed. The Indian auto-component industry is

increasingly finding global recognition for its production capabilities and low

costs. This has considerably eased pressure on the vendor development front.

Nevertheless, given the severe competitive pressures over the last few years,

vendor management has become critical to the business. Some of the operational

issues in this regard are discussed below.

220 at the end of 2004-05. This has helped us enhance supply chain efficiencies by low-

ering the time and costs involved in dealing with more vendors. It has also provided our

vendors with the requisite volumes to realise economies of scale. Going forward, we plan

to have technically and financially capable set of vendors, whose standards match up to

those of Maruti.

 improving quality and productivity of the vendors is a priority area for Maruti.

While the average standards have improved significantly over the years, there is

still high variability. Hence, improvement in this area is of considerable

importance to MUL.

 our company has been encouraging vendors to develop their own technology and

R&D capability. In the long run, Maruti expects its vendors to initiate and

develop specialised components on their own, while it focuses energies on its

core competency of making better cars.


R&D activities of Maruti have the twin objectives of reducing product costs by

developing capabilities of local vendors and becoming a regional R&D hub for all

Suzuki operations. The company has adopted a ‗focused model cost reduction‘


Maruti has been continuously engaging in Value Analysis/Value Engineering

(VA/VE) activities across its operations. This initiative has gathered greater

momentum this year with the introduction of ‗Junkai‘ (or ‗Focus‘) visits by our

engineers to our vendors‘ production facilities. Junkai visits facilitate

development of fresh VA/VE ideas for cost reduction and also reduce the cycle

time for idea evaluation.

In addition, Maruti has started conducting cost workshops with vendors supplying

high cost parts. In these workshops, current cost structures of vendors are analyzed

in detail and specific cost reduction targets suggested. To help vendors achieve

these targets, a team of engineers from Maruti and Suzuki visit their production

facilities and develop an action plan to meet these targets. The assistance of

vendors‘ collaborators, wherever applicable, is taken to accelerate implementation.

The action plan often includes VA ideas, localization of inner parts, and reduction

in cost of bought-out parts, yield improvement and process cost reductions. In the

year under review, 33 such visits were made.

In its early days, the Maruti R&D centre was primarily involved in providing

technical assistance to local component manufacturers. Over the years, this centre

has developed capabilities for face lifts and body changes of current models. These

include styling, clay modeling, computer aided design, prototype making and its

evaluation, and stamps / dies designing. All modifications done on the new Zen

model introduced by the company in 200304 were carried out in-house by the R&D

team. The dies for the new body panels were developed in- house die-shop for the

first time. All the changes required in the existing production facilities were also

developed in house, resulting in significant reduction in the investment required

for these modifications.


Maruti has raised the bar for quality checks by adopting the ‗Global Customer Audit

(GCA)‘ mechanism. The GCA methodology places a great deal of emphasis on

delivering products which meet the quality requirements of our customers. In this

process, a select number of cars are picked at random everyday and taken through

rigorous tests.

This includes examining the vehicle in ‗static condition‘ and then in ‗dynamic

condition‘ by test driving it under varied road conditions to check all functional

parts. The total cycle time for GCA is 95 minutes per vehicle. Based on the GCA

feedback, requisite remedial measures are undertaken to ensure that defects are not

carried in vehicles which are under production.

In the year under review, MUL introduced the concept of ‗Quality Gates‘ across its

manufacturing processes. These ‗Quality Gates‘ have been positioned at 110 key

locations throughout the manufacturing process, and provide real-time feedback

for continuous process improvement by following the concept of ―plan-do-


MUL‘s press shop and related functions received the TS 16949 quality certification

in 2004-05. While we are proud of this achievement, we believe it is imperative

that these high quality standards be shared by our vendors too. To this end, MUL is

actively involved in assisting its suppliers to improve their quality practices to TS


We are pleased to report that our initiatives on the quality front have yielded


 MUL was ranked No. 1 in the prestigious JD Power Customer Satisfaction Survey,

2003. This No.1 rank is for fourth time in a row — which is a world record for any

automobile leader in a country.

 In 2003, Maruti models topped ‗Initial Quality Study‘ conducted in India by JD

Power Asia Pacific. In the highly competitive A2 segment, Wagon R was rated

best in overall quality rating, followed by the Zen; while in A3 segment, Esteem

achieved top ranking in 2003.

In 2004-05, NFO, an international survey agency, ranked Maruti WagonR as no.1 in

the ‗Total Customer Satisfaction‘ for Premium Compact segment.


Maruti‘s most valuable asset has always been, and will continue to be, its people.

The successes and accomplishments of the company over the years have been

entirely due to the motivation, dedication and commitment of its employees.

It has been a constant endeavor of the management to share with its workforce the

opportunities and challenges faced in its business operations.

This initiative was given a major thrust with organizing a training program for the

union working committee members so that the message reached the workmen.

Through this training program, management shared its perception of the company‘s

future and familiarized the union members with the competitive pressures faced by

the company. Subsequently, a one-day training program, ‗Sankalp‘, was launched

to cover 100% of our workmen on the global business trends and the ever-increasing

competition. The objective was to highlight the need for a change in mindset and

approach to business. The Sankalp series will continue through the year to cover

the entire workmen population.

Encompasses a flexible perquisite basket based compensation package. Going

forward, we believe that this agreement would provide us the confidence and

strength to keep our costs competitive and bring in greater operational resilience.

Developing human resource capabilities across all levels and functional areas is

integral to the company‘s human resource philosophy. As a part of this, Maruti

Udyog sends its workers, supervisors and engineers to Suzuki factories in Japan for

on-the-job training programs. Varying from one month to two years, these

programs are not only aimed at enhancing technical skills but also inculcating the

Japanese way of working and facilitating cross-cultural exchange. Management

training programs focusing on leadership and change management were organized

by the Company for all departmental heads.

Apart from this the Company also has a well-structured, one yearlong training-

cum-orientation program for new campus recruits.

In light of mounting competitive pressures, a priority area for Maruti is to

rationalize and redesign its manpower needs to transform itself into a lean and

competitive organization. To this end, Maruti offered a Voluntary Retirement

Scheme (VRS) to its employees in the year under review. This offer was accepted by

1,251 employees, and followed an earlier VRS offer made in 2001-02, which was

accepted by 1,050 employees.

As on 31 March 2004, Maruti Udyog has 3,334 employees. Industrial relations

remained cordial throughout the year and not a single day‘s work was lost due to

strikes or disputes. During 2004-05, a five year wage settlement agreement was

signed by MUL with its workers‘ union. Apart from bringing in the concept of

cost to company in the remuneration scheme for workers, this agreement.


Since its inception 20 years ago, Maruti Udyog has made concerted efforts to

leverage innovative and cutting-edge Information Technology (IT) tools to enhance

operational efficiencies. The IT initiative of the company started in 1983 with the

implementation of a booking system for its vehicles. With growing business

complexities, IT tools have now found use across all areas of operation including

marketing and sales, finance, plant and production management, raw material and

spare parts management.

As mentioned earlier Maruti has the widest network of dealer comprises dealership

showrooms, workshops and authorized service stations spread across the country.

Currently transactions with these dealers are through a centralized ‗extranet‘, which

allows dealers to log in and transact business in an online mode. While this system

has proved to be effective, to further enhance operational efficiencies, the company is

in the process of launching a first-of-its-kind Dealer Management System (DMS).

This system — implemented in Application Service Providing (ASP) mode — will

provide real-time information on all transactions between dealers and the company.

It would bring in ‗downstream-visibility‘ into the distribution network, and

standardize service delivery at customer touch points.

The system is presently undergoing pilot-testing, and is expected to be operational

by November 2004.

Maruti has also introduced a Vehicle Tracking System (VTS) at two of its plants. This

acts as an interface between business and shop-floor systems. It enhances shop-floor

efficiencies by providing accurate and timely instructions to the shop-floor, along

with a feedback to the business systems. Going forward, this infrastructure should

provide additional strategic capability of introducing more products and variants on

the same production facilities. VTS along with existing Quality Gate System has

considerably enhanced our quality control systems and has given us an important

competitive advantage in today‘s scenario.

One of the key initiatives on the operations front has been the introduction of E-

Nagare— a system for material scheduling and ordering. This is one of the best

practices inherited from Suzuki, and has significantly smoothened our Just-In-Time

(JIT) operations on the shop-floor.

MUL has also taken up e-sourcing as one of the key focus areas for cost reduction and

improved procurement. The company has successfully used this to significantly

reduce costs of procurement, while bringing in greater transparency into the system.

Going forward, MUL intends to increase procurement through e-sourcing, and is in

the process of deploying a software solution which is integrated with MUL‘s internal


Knowledge management is another area of focus for MUL. To this end, an intranet

portal using Microsoft Share point software — one of the first six free sites of this

product developed by Microsoft before its launch worldwide — has been

established, and is finding increasing popularity among employees across all levels

and functional areas.




The alto is a great combination of economy, practicality and styling. A runaway

success on the roads of Europe, it exemplifies the benchmark in build, quality and

reliability in a compact car. This is testified by the 24 hour endurance record set

on August 3, 2003 of covering 3082 kms in 24 hours at an average speed of 128



Live the grand life with the new GRAND VITARA XL –7.

This luxurious 7 seater, 4 wheel drive sports utility vehicle comes equipped with a

powerful V6 engine, 166 bhp of power and 236 Nm of torque. Which enables you

to conquer any terrain with utmost ease? Enjoyed by both the adventurous and

successful, the new restyled Grand Vitara XL –7 is now available in India directly

imported from Suzuki, Japan.


Be it the wild outdoors or the urban jungle, the Gypsy King

glide by with ease. The adventurous streak runs through all the gypsy siblings.

This 1300 cc off – road vehicle combines the raw of 80 bhp (at 6000rpm) with

superb 4 – wheel drive maneuverability and a rugged frame (it‘s available in both

soft and hard top versions). It‘s useful fifth gear, of course, delivers over drive for

on – road cruising.


The Omni is truly India‘s Original Maruti suzuki india

limitedtipurpose Vehicle. Today it is available in six avatars – 5 seater, 8 seater,

cargo, ambulance, CNG and LPG. It meets diverse needs across different user

segments and can double up both as a people carrier and a goods carrier. This

faithful workhouse is easy on the pocket, yet tough on the job.


It has gone beyond being just a car; it has actually changed the

lifestyles of countless people, by bringing the joy of motoring to millions across

the length and the breadth of the country. Standing testimony to this claim is the

fact that more than 2 millions Maruti 800s have been sold till date. Today, India

best selling continues to be the final word on value and economy at the entry-level



The Wagon R‘S original tall body design, spaciousness,

ergonomically designed interior and flexible seating all set it apart from other

cars. It complements the buyers unique personality enables him to live a maruti

suzuki india limitedti-dimensional life by the sheer excellence of its engineering

and its versatility.


If you are looking for a car with drop – dad looks and

unmatched performances, then you need look beyond the Zen. With its new

contemporary and aggressive look, the Zen preserves its core values of driver

appeal, unmatched reliability and economy. 600000 satisfied customers in India

and around the world bear testimony to this fact.


The hot looks, sexy interiors, the automatic climate control, the

air bags, the power steering moreover, all so affordable. The wait is over. Swift

has entered MARUTI SUZUKI INDIA LIMITED‘s portfolio. What are you

waiting for?


Powered by state of art 998 cc engine, it‘s the best fuel efficient

car in its category with, mileage coming around 20km per liter.


Revolutionary European design, world class ―drive by wire‖ .Most

spacious in its class, Steering mounted audio controls; with maximum ground

clearance, high on safety with dual airbags.


A car having everything you desire stunning looks, luxurious

interiors, enough power to capture your heart. Just slide in desire and take it for a

spin. Its sure steal many of hearts including yours.

Ritz -“Live the Moment”

Model of 2009 known by the name Suzuki splash having attractive

back with maximum ground clearance


Maruti‘s marketing objective is to continually offer the customer

new products and services that: reduce the customer‘s cost of ownership of their

cars; and anticipate and address the customer‘s needs and preferences in all

aspects and stages of car ownership, to provide what they refer to as the ―360

degree customer experience.‖

They sell ten models with more than 50 variants in segments A, B, C, and utility

vehicle segment of the Indian passenger car market. Of these, they manufacture

nine models and import the Grand Vitara as a completely built unit from Suzuki in

Japan. Their models and variants are designed to address the changing demands of

the market and are periodically upgraded in technology, styling and features. To

take advantage of the brand recognition associated with their products, they retain

the brand name of the product through various stages of product upgrades over

time. For example, the version of the Maruti 800 brand currently sold in the

market is a significantly upgraded version, in terms of technology, design and

styling, of the Maruti 800 launched in 1983.


A Maruti 800


B Zen

B Wagon R

B Alto

C D zire




Utility Vehicle GYPSY KING

Utility Vehicle GRAND VITARA


 Product

 Price

 Place

 Promotion

Product Strategy:-

 Portfolio of 12 products

 Five product lines

Product Line Products

A1 800

A2 Alto, Zen ,Wagon –R, Swift, A-star

A3 D ZiRE, Sx4

SUV Vitara, Gypsy

C - Class Omni, EECO

Price Strategy:-

The price of the Maruti car is between Rs. 210000 to Rs. 1500000. Maruti – 800

is the lowest price car of this company. Alto, Omni, Wagon R, are also the low

price car of the company, Zen & Esteem are the mid price car of the company. But

Grand Vitara is the high price model of the company. The price of car is decided

according to its product variety, quality, design etc.

Place strategy:-

600 New car sales outlets covering 393 cities.

265 ‗Maruti True Value‘ outlets spread across 166 cities.

2628 Maruti Authorized Service Stations, covering 1220 cities.

Tie up with Adani group for exporting 200,000 units through Mnudra port Gujarat

Suggested Place strategy:-

400 new car sales outlets in next three years.

S150 new true value shops in next three years.

1200 new Maruti Authorized Service Stations in next three years.

Tie up with other distributors for Exports.

Promotion Strategy:-


 TV Ads

 Print Ads

 Radio Ads

SWOT Analysis:-


 Bigger name in the market

 Trust of People

 Maruti suzuki India limited Ltd. is the market leader for more than a


 Has a great dealership chain in the market.

 Better after sales service

 Low maintenance cost of vehicle


 Exports are not that good.

 Lesser diesel models in the market compare to others

 Global image is not that big


 Great opportunities to go global with success of Swift and SX4 allover

 Introduction of more diesel models. The diesel car segment is growing

 Opportunity to grow bigger by entering into bigger car markets

 Already a market leader so great opportunity to be the king of market in

every stage of industry


 Foreign companies entering market; so a bigger threat from


 To the market share, as many big names are coming in the industry

 There is hardly any diesel models

Portfolio Analysis


STAR: The Company has long run opportunity for growth and profitability. They

have high relative market share and high Growth rate. SWIFT, SWIFT DESIRE

AND ZEN ESTILO is the fast growing and has potential to gain substantial profit

in the market.

QUESTION MARK: there are also called as wild cats that are new products with

potential for success but there cash needs are high And cash generation is low. In

auto industry of MARUTI SX4, GRAND VITARA, ASTAR there has been

improve the organization reputation

As they want successful not only in Indian market but as well as in global market.

CASH COW: It has high relative market share but compete in low growth rate as

they generate cash in excess of their needs.

MARUTI 800, ALTO AND WAGNOR have fallen to ladder 3 & 4 due to

introduction of ZEN ESTALIO and A STAR.

DOG: The dogs have no market share and do not have potential to bring in much

cash. BALENO, OMINI, VERSA There business have liquidated and trim down

thus The strategies adopted are that are harvest, divest and drop.

BCG matrix can serves as a simple tool for viewing a corporation‘s business

portfolio at a glance , and may serves as a starting point for discussing resource

allocation among strategic business units.



Customer satisfaction, as a construct, has been fundamental to marketing for over

three decades. As early as 1960, Keith (1960) defined marketing as ―satisfying the

needs and desires of the consumer”. Hunt (1982) reported that by the 1970s,

interest in customer satisfaction had increase to such an extent that over 500

studies were published. This trend continued and by 1992, Peterson and Wilson

estimated the amount of academic and trade articles on customer satisfaction to be

over 15,000.

Several studies have shown that it costs about five times to gain a new customer as

it does to keep an existing customer (Naumann, 1995) and this results into more

interest in customer relationships. Thus, several companies are adopting customer

satisfaction as their operational goal with a carefully designed framework. Hill and

Alexander (2000) wrote in their book that ―companies now have big investment in

database marketing, relationship management and customer planning to move

closer to their customers”. Jones and Sasser (1995) wrote that ―achieving customer

satisfaction is the main goal for most service firms today‖.

Increasing customer satisfaction has been shown to directly affect companies‘

market share, which leads to improved profits, positive recommendation, lower

marketing expenditures (Reichheld, 1996; Heskett et al., 1997), and greatly impact

the corporate image and survival (Pizam and Ellis, 1999).

Parker and Mathew (2001) expressed that there are two basic definitional

approaches of the concept of customer satisfaction. The first approach defines

satisfaction as a process and the second approach defines satisfaction as an

outcome of a consumption experience. These two approaches are complementary,

as often one depends on the other.

Customer satisfaction as a process is defined as an evaluation between what was

received and what was expected (Oliver, 1977, 1981; Olson and Dover, 1979; Tse

and Wilton, 1988), emphasizing the perceptual, evaluative and psychological

processes that contribute to customer satisfaction (Vavra, 1997, p. 4).

Parker and Mathews (2001) however noted that the process of satisfaction

definitions concentrates on the antecedents to satisfaction rather than satisfaction


Satisfaction as a process is the most widely adopted description of customer

satisfaction and a lot of research efforts have been directed at understanding the

process approach of satisfaction evaluations (Parker and Mathews, 2001). This

approach has its origin in the discrepancy theory (Porter, 1961), which argued that

satisfaction is determined by the perception of a difference between some standard

and actual performance.

Cardozo (1965); and Howard and Sheth (1969) developed the contrast theory,

which showed that consumers would exaggerate any contrasts between

expectations and product evaluations.

Olshavsky and Miller (1972); and Olson and Dover (1979) developed the

assimilation theory, which means that perceived quality is directly increasing with

expectations. Assimilation effects occur when the difference between expectations

and quality is too small to be perceived.

Anderson (1973) further developed this theory into assimilation-contrast theory,

which means if the discrepancy is too large to be assimilated then the contrast

effects occur. The assimilation-contrast effects occur when the difference between

expectations and quality is too large to be perceived and this difference is

exaggerated by consumers.

According to Parker and Mathews (2001), the most popular descendant of the

discrepancy theories is the expectation disconfirmation theory (Oliver, 1977,

1981), which stated that the result of customers‘ perceptions of the difference

between their perceptions of performance and their expectations of performance.

Positive disconfirmation leads to increased satisfaction, with negative

disconfirmation having the opposite effect. Yi (1990) expressed that customers

buy products or services with pre-purchase expectations about anticipated

performance, once the bought product or service has been used, outcomes are

compared against expectations. If the outcome matches expectations, the result is

confirmation. When there are differences between expectations and outcomes,

disconfirmation occurs. Positive disconfirmation occurs when product or service

performance exceeds expectations. Therefore, satisfaction is caused by positive

disconfirmation or confirmation of customer expectations, and dissatisfaction is the

negative disconfirmation of customer expectations (Yi, 1990).

While several studies support the disconfirmation paradigm, others do not. For

instance, Churchill and Surprenant (1982) found that neither disconfirmation nor

expectations had any effect on customer satisfaction with durable products.

Weiner (1980, and 1985); and Folkes (1984) proposed the attribution theory,

which stated that when a customer purchases a product or service, if the

consumption is below expectation, the customer is convinced that the supplier

causes the dissatisfaction. The complaining customer is focused on restoring

justice and the satisfaction outcome is driven by perceived fairness of the outcome

of complaining.

Westbrook and Reilly (1983) proposed the value-percept theory, which defines

satisfaction as an emotional response caused by a cognitive-evaluative process,

which is the comparison of the product or service to one's values rather than an

expectation. So, satisfaction is a discrepancy between the observed and the desired.

Fisk and Young (1985); Swan and Oliver (1985) proposed the equity theory, which

stated that individuals compare their input and output ratios with those of others

and feel equitable treated. Equity judgement is based on two steps; first, the

customer compares the outcome to the input and secondly, performs a relative

comparison of the outcome to the other party.

Pizam and Ellis (1999) reported that there are two additional distinct theories of

customer satisfaction apart from the seven aforementioned ones and these include:

1. Comparison-level

2. Generalized negativity; and

The outcome approach of the customer satisfaction is defined as the end-state

satisfaction resulting from the experience of consumption. This post- consumption

state can be an outcome that occurs without comparing expectations (Oliver,

1996); or may be a cognitive state of reward, an emotional response that may occur

as the result of comparing expected and actual performance or a comparison of

rewards and costs to the anticipated consequences (Vavra, 1997, p. 4).

Furthermore, Parker and Mathews (2001) expressed that attention has been focused

on the nature of satisfaction of the outcome approach which include:

1. Emotion - Satisfaction is viewed as the surprise element of product or service

purchase and or consumption experiences (Oliver, 1981), or is an affective

response to a specific consumption experience (Westbrook and Reilly, 1983). This

acknowledges the input of comparative cognitive processes but goes further by

stating that these may be just one of the determinants of the affective ―state‖

satisfaction (Park and Mathews, 2001).

2. Fulfillment –The theories of motivation state that people are driven by the desire

to satisfy their needs (Maslow, 1943) or by their behaviour aimed at achieving the

relevant goals (Vroom, 1964). However, satisfaction can be either way viewed as

the end-point in the motivational process. Thus ―consumer satisfaction can be seen

as the consumer's fulfillment response‖ (Rust and Oliver, 1994, p. 4).

3. State – Oliver (1989) expressed that there are four framework of satisfaction,

which relates to reinforcement and arousal. ―Satisfaction-as-pleasure‖ results from

positive reinforcement, where the product or service is adding to an aroused

resting state, and ―satisfaction-as-relief‖ results from negative reinforcement .In

relation to arousal, low arousal fulfillment is defined as ―satisfaction-as

contentment‖, a result of the product or service performing adequately in an

ongoing passive sense. High arousal satisfaction is defined as ―satisfaction as

either positive (delight) or negative surprise‖ which could be a shock (Rust and

Oliver, 1994).


Maruti Suzuki India Limited

BSE: 532500
Traded as NSE: MARUTI
BSE SENSEX Constituent

Industry Automotive

Predecessor Maruti Udyog Limited

Founded 1981

Headquarters New Delhi, India

R. C. Bhargava (Chairman)
Key people
Kenichi Ayukawa (Managing Director & CEO)

Products Automobiles

Production output 1,429,248 units (2016)

Revenue 58,612 crore (US$8.7 billion) (2016)

Net income 4,630.90 crore (US$690 million) (2016)

Number of employees 12,900 (2015)

Parent Suzuki Motor Corporation


Maruti Suzuki India Limited, formerly known as Maruti Udyog Limited, is an

automobile manufacturer in India. It is a subsidiary of Japanese automobile and

motorcycle manufacturer Suzuki Motor Corporation.As of January 2017, it had a

market share of 51% of the Indian passenger car market. Maruti Suzuki

manufactures and sells popular cars such as the Ciaz, Ertiga, Alto, Swift, Celerio,

Swift Dzire and Omni.The company is headquartered at New Delhi.In February

2012, the company sold its ten millionth (ten million = one crore) vehicle in India.

Maruti Udyog Limited (MUL) was established in Feb 1981 through an Act of

Parliament, to meet the growing demand of a personal mode of transport caused by

the lack of an efficient public transport system. Suzuki Motor Company was

chosen from seven prospective partners worldwide. This was not only due to their

undisputed leadership in small cars but also to their commitment to actively bring

to MUL contemporary technology and Japanese management practices (which had

catapulted Japan over USA to the status of the top auto manufacturing country in

the world). A license and a Joint Venture agreement were signed between Govt of

India and Suzuki Motor Company (now Suzuki Motor Corporation of Japan) in

Oct 1982. The objectives of MUL then were: Modernization of the Indian

Automobile Industry, Production of fuel-efficient vehicles to conserve scarce

resources, Production of large number of motor vehicles which was necessary for

economic growth.

The Revolution

Maruti created history by record production in 13 months. On 14 December 1983,

the then Prime Minister of India, Mrs. Indira Gandhi, handed over the keys of the

first car to Mr. Harpal Singh of Delhi. Volume targets were routinely exceeded,

and in March 1994, it became the first Indian company to produce over one million

vehicles, a landmark yet to be achieved by any other car company in India. Maruti

is the highest volume car manufacturer in Asia, outside Japan and Korea, having

produced over 3.5 million vehicles by December 2001. Maruti is one of the most

successful automobile joint ventures, and has made profits every year since

inception till 2000-01. In 2000-01, although we generated operating profits on an

income of Rs 92.5 billion, high depreciation on new model launches resulted in a

book loss. We are again on track for profits in 2001-02, with a profit of Rs 300

million in the first half. In this period, sales were increased by 5.3%, against an

industry decline of 6.1 %. We revolutionized the wav Indians looked at cars. "No

other car company so completely dominates its home market" - (The Economist).

Despite there being 11 companies now in the passenger car market, Maruti holds

about 60 % of the total market share. MUL is also the first and only car company

in the world to lead its home market in terms of both market share and in the JD

Power Customer Satisfaction study (JD Power Asia Pacific 2000 India Customer

Satisfaction studies).

Transfer of Technology

Every minute two vehicles roll out of the Maruti Plant. It is therefore imperative

that the transfer of contemporary technology from our partner Suzuki is a smooth

process. Great stress is laid on training and motivating the people who maintain the

equipment, since the best equipment alone cannot guarantee high quality and

productivity. From the beginning it was a conscious decision to send people to

Suzuki Motor Corporation for on-the-job training for line technicians, supervisors

and engineers. This helps them to imbibe the culture in a way that merely

transferring technology through documents can never replicate. At present 20 % of

our workforce is trained under this program.

Our Ethos

Our employees are our greatest strength and asset. It is this underlying philosophy

that has molded our workforce into a team with common goals and objectives. Our

Employee-Management relationship is therefore characterized by: Participative

Management, Team work, Kaizen, Communication, Information sharing, and an

open office culture for easy accessibility to implement this philosophy. We have

taken several measures like a flat organizational structure i.e. there are only three

levels of responsibilities ranging from the Board Of Directors, Division Heads to


Heads. Other visible features of this philosophy are common uniforms (at all

levels), and a common canteen for all. This structure ensures better communication

and speedy decision making processes. It also creates an environment that builds

trust, transparency and a sense of belonging amongst employees.


In more ways than one, the year 2004-05 was a watershed year for Maruti Udyog

Limited (MUL). The company has consolidated and initiated a new growth

momentum. There have been several developments, of which it is useful to begin

with three.

First, driven by renewed vigor and aggression in the market, Maruti recorded its high-

est ever sales of over 4.72 lack vehicles in the domestic & export markets which resulted

in gross sales revenue of Rs.112,840 million — a growth of 25.8 per cent over 2003-

04. It is the highest top-line growth in the last seven years.

 Second, this high sales growth, coupled with significant improvements in operational

efficiencies, has translated into much higher returns on investment. Earnings per share

(EPS) more than trebled from Rs.5.14 in 2003-04 to Rs.18.77 in 2004-05.

Third, the Government of India divested a majority of its shares through an initial

public offer(IPO) and made way for greater participation from you — the shareholders

– in the fortunes of India‘s leading passenger car manufacturer.

In a nutshell, therefore, 2004-05 marks the beginning of a new journey for your

company, as it restructured itself in the face of stiff competition and entered a

new high growth phase.

The sharp revival in the Indian economy — from 4 per cent GDP growth in 2003-04

to 8.2 per cent in 2004-05 — has definitely assisted your company in increasing

revenue. This is the highest GDP increase recorded by India since the advent of

economic liberalization, and the country has become one of the fastest growing

economies of the world .This has considerably increased per capita disposable

income which, coupled with much easier availability of significantly cheaper

consumer finance, has driven automobile sales.

Historically, the fortunes of automobile industries across the globe are strongly

correlated with macro-economic parameters and the performance of the industrial

sector. Chart A plots growth in GDP, industry, passenger vehicle (PV) sales volumes

and total automobile sales volumes – and emphasizes this correlation. In 2004-05,

the Indian passenger car and multi-utility vehicles market finally reached

efficient scales of nearly a million. Although the improved economic environment

helped growing automobile sales, it was not a totally smooth drive for the Indian

automobile industry. An increase in the number of players and models has resulted

in fierce competition — driving down prices across all segments. The industry also

witnessed significant rise in prices of key raw materials like steel, rubber and

plastics. Thus, profit margins were under pressure.

Maruti has always believed in size and spread. When the Indian automobile industry

was reconciled to around 40,000 cars in early 1980‘s, MUL was the first company

that aspired to sell 100,000 cars a year. The aspiration of being the market leader

with high sales volume continues to be intrinsic to your company‘s philosophy.

This belief has held the company in good stead during 2004-05 — where the

strategy of pushing volume growth resulted in higher margins due to the positive

effects of better capacity utilization. Improved operational

efficiencies, which are largely due to the transfer of technology, systems and

work culture from MUL‘s majority shareholder.

Suzuki Motor Corporation (SMC) — has also contributed to the improved returns

on investments. In 2004-05, the company has had record growth in bottom-line

and return on investments. Here are some numbers.

 Net profit margin (PAT/total income) increased from 2 per cent in 2003-04 to

5.6 per cent in 2004-05.

 Return on average capital employed (ROCE) increased from 9.9 per cent in

2003-04 to 22.3 per cent in 2004-05.

 Return on average net worth (RONW) increased from 5.2 per cent in 2003-04 to

16.5 per cent in 2004-05.

 Earnings per share (EPS) increased from Rs.5.14 in 2003-04 to Rs.18.77 in

2004-05, while cash EPS increased from Rs.17.79 in

2003-04 to Rs.38.39 in 2004-05.

MUL also witnessed a key structural change during 2004-05. The company was

originally set up as a joint venture between the Government of India (GOI) and SMC

to provide the average Indian with a reliable and affordable car. Today, 20 years

hence, MUL has come a long way from charting the initial growth of the Indian

automobile industry to becoming one of India‘s leading business organizations

-which has also promoted overall industrial growth through its linkages with

vendors. GOI played a key role in supporting Maruti‘s growth. In 2004-05, GOI

divested a bulk of its shares in the company to the public.

GOI offered 72,243,300 equity shares, which is 25 per cent of the company‘s share

capital, for sale to the public through the book-building route. Even in a somewhat

bearish stock market, the issue was fully subscribed within three hours of its

opening. In fact, it was over subscribed nearly 10 times at the floor price.

Encouraged by the overwhelming response, GOI exercised the green-shoe option,

and offloaded an additional 10 per cent of the issue size (equivalent to 7,224,300

equity shares).

Thus, MUL is now a listed company in Indian stock exchanges (Bombay Stock

Exchange & National Stock Exchange) with Suzuki Motor Corporation having 54.2

per cent share ownership. Today, GOI owns 18.3 per cent of MUL‘s ordinary shares,

while 27.5 per cent is in public hands.

MUL is a company which is constantly reinventing itself in a sector that is on the

move. In the course of the following sections, we shall discuss markets, operations

and financials of Maruti during 2004-05, and analyze the rapid external and

internal transformations in its business. All data pertaining to markets is based on

figures released by Society of Indian Automobile Manufacturers (SIAM).




Great technology enables the Maruti 800 to deliver great fuel efficiency. The

Maruti 800 has topped every fuel efficiency survey that has been conducted in the

past. The Maruti 800 has the lowest fuel cost per kilometer of any petrol car in the

country with a cost of Rs1.94 per kilometer.This confirms the position of the

Maruti 800 as the most fuel efficient petrol car in the country and Maruti also

launched their LPG model which is more economic than others.



This car position itself in the mind of consumer as a family car. The punch line of

the car is ―total solution of the entire family‖

Features are:

MPFI Engine

The multi-point fuel injected engine helps to lower emissions and achieve greater

fuel efficiency.

With 37 bhp @ 5000 rpm, you have greater pulling power. A torque of 6.32 kgm

@ 3000 rpm ensures better climbing power and lesser gear changes. In other

words, less fatigue.

The MPFI engine also meets all the stringent Euro II emission norms


Stretch out. Open up. Enjoy the luxury of space inside the Omni. The ample

headroom and legroom make long rides comfortable and enjoyable. Reclining front

seats with adjustable head restraints let you relax completely. With its ample

luggage space, the Omni is equipped for anything. Pack in your family, your group

of friends, your luggage, your golfing gear, your picnic hamper…all can fit in



Features are:


Plenty of power, great mileage and low emission make the Alto the perfect choice

for Indian roads. The fuel efficiency of the Alto is better than any other vehicles in

its class.

The 16x4 hypertech MPFI engine delivers unadulterated power, begging for fun.

The 4-valves per cylinder MPFI engine mated with a 5-speed gearshift and a 16-bit

on-board computer allows the Alto to effectively combine power with optimal fuel



Here's another first by ALTO, which has been setting records since its introduction

in India!

Alto becomes the first Indian car to undergo a 24 hours endurance test and sets 13

national records in the process.

Wagon R


The smarter race knows exactly how to take the stress out of driving and push

driving comfort to the max. Full flat folding front seats and reclining rear seats

allow you to stretch yourself during long drives. This ensures that you travel in

maximum comfort as compared to cramped seating arrangements in other cars.

The McPherson strut suspension in the front and coil springs at the rear ensures a

smooth comfortable drive. It's not just comfort; Wagon R also has a 1061cc MPFI

low friction engine


Nothing cramps the style of the smarter race. That‘s why it prefers the Wagon R.

Tall body, high seats and wide opening doors make it easy to get in and get out.

Seven cm taller than the Santro, the Wagon R offers more headroom, amazing

spaciousness and a commanding driving position. The split rear seating

arrangement along with fully reclining front and the reclining rear seats gives a

first class airline seating comfort.

The Wagon R comes with an extra large boot space, which is possible because of

its unique design that maximizes space on a compact platform. Caution, safety and

protection are integral to a smarter mindset. And the Wagon R is designed to

satisfy every concern. Just check out the battery of safety features:

Dual side-impact beams in the front and rear doors protect you from lateral


A long crumple zone shields you in the unlikely event of a frontal collision.

A Roll Control device in the front suspension imparts greater stability and helps

the Wagon R to negotiate sharp curves at high speeds. The 8 inch booster-assisted

brakes equip you well to handle any emergency High seating position gives you a

bigger field of view, allowing you to better anticipate traffic problems before they




The Versa is one of the safest cars on the road. It has safety features to guard your

loved ones from road disasters. Side impact absorbing beams in all 4 doors protect

the passengers from side crashes. Front impact beams between the front pillars and

the collapsible steering column shield you from head on collisions.

A steel pipe frame in the rear seat safeguards your family from rear impacts.ELR

seat belts allow free movement, but hold you securely during sudden stoppages.

Height adjustable head restraints, brake boosters and a collapsible steering column

further ensure your safety. When you step out of the house and into your Versa,

rest assured

Sink in. Stretch out. Lie back. Indulge

Versa's the ideal car for long journeys. Now stretch your legs on those long rides.

All seats* have recliners. In SDX, the 2nd row bucket seats can be slid forward or

backward independently to suit the convenience of the passengers.

The high seat position makes it easy to get in and out and gives superior road

visibility. The front row seats have thick insulation between seat and the engine.

Two layers of PUF and aluminium sheets act as a buffer, protecting the driver from

engine heat. The rear seat also has a steel pipe frame for protection in the event of

a rear impact.

* Except for the folding seat in 2nd row (DX, DX2) and last row seats.


Gypsy Advantage


 Higher ground clearance of 210 mm to ensure better off-road handling.

 Diaphragm Spring Clutch designed to with stand higher rotational speeds

requiring less release load ,thereby reducing the wear of parts


 The Engine that‘s high on thermal conductivity, and heats up quickly even

under extremely cold conditions. Thus, there are no starting problems even

in the midst of snow.

 1300 cc petrol engine — lighter than a diesel engine, resulting in a higher

power to weight ratio. This ensures better control, more power and greater



 The Engine avoids overheating because its high thermal conductivity

enables it to give off heat much faster


 Maximum power of 80 bhp @ 6000 rpm makes for easier crossings.

 4-Wheel drive for better control and more power at the wheel.

 A higher power to weight ratio of 0.0812 ensures faster acceleration

through streams and muddy terrain.



 Steering Damper ensures that shocks encountered from bumps and potholes

are not passed on to the steering wheel. Thus, any loss of control owing to

unexpected obstacles is avoided.

 The Gypsy is a lighter vehicle weighing in at 1020 kg (hard top) and 985

kg (soft top). This is a major advantage on sandy or muddy tracts — a

heavier vehicle will get stuck but the Gypsy keeps


The time has come for a new kind of compact car, one that's based on a fresh

approach to design and development, delivers the kind of driver and passenger

experience that places it in a class of its own and has true worldwide appeal.

The time has come for the Maruti Suzuki Swift. The Swift is more eye-catching,

more spacious, more refined, more user-friendly, and a whole lot more enjoyable

to drive than anything else in the compact-car category.


Maruti Swift DZire

The new Swift DZire joined the Swift and SX4 in Suzuki's Indian lineup and is

intended to "redefine the market and stir excitement in the entry level sedan

segment". It's a good news for the consumers because Swift DZire, which comes

both in diesel and petrol engines, offers luxury feature options including integrated

stereo, steering mounted audio controls, automatic climate control and power

windows as well. Not only this but, it is also equipped with latests safety features

like Dual Airbags, ABS with EDB, collapsible steering column and an i-CATS

anti-theft facility. It's true to say that many of these features are being offered for

the first time in this segment in contemporary car market in India.

Variants Petrol Diesel





There is a wide range of colors for the customers. The newly Swift DZire is

offered in seven colours:

Arctic White

Silky Silver

Clear Beige

Midnight Black

Bright Red

Azure Gray

Sovereign Blue


Launched as a replacement of the earlier mid size sedan Maruti Esteem, the Swift

DZire is sophisticated in look and features. There is a long list of features of Swift

DZire which includes:


Steering Mounted Audio Controls:

Swift DZire is equipped with a classy dashboard integrated audio system with

remote control along with powerful speaker.

Automatic Climate Control (ACC):

Whenever you need to choose you temperature, just choose the temperature you

desire and the on-board computers is there to auto-adjust to the weather outside,

maintaining precise cabin temperature.


Makes Heads Turn with its desirable exteriors:

There is a chiseled shoulder line to complement muscular flared wheel arches and


Rich chrome styling for an imposing grille and an impressive rear is also there


Stylish wraparound tail lamps fitted.

Powerful clear lens headlamps for superior night visibility is and additional benefit

for you.

Headlight leveling allows you perfect light beam adjustment while driving.

A high mounted stop lamp and a rear bumper-integrated fog lamp give clear

signals to following traffic, thus avoiding accidents.

Comfort & Convenience

Indulge your desire of complete comfort:

All around power windows for improved convenience to the drivers is there now.

Sounds absorbing materials and vibration dampers for a smooth and pleasurable


Now, there is height adjustable drivers seat for personalized driving position.

A tilt adjustable steering column lets you to set it just right for your height, so you

enjoy a comfortable drive and enjoy the ride even for long distance.

Improved comfort in the back row for those who don't drive but enjoy the ride.



Maruti Suzuki SX4

Maruti Suzuki India Ltd.. is out with it's cutting edge new model, Maruti Suzuki

SX4, a joint venture made by two of automobile czars, Suzuki and Maruti. The

model closely follows the Swift platform, therefore, it is easily available with

exclusive features which makes it all the more desirable among car connoisseurs.

A mini SUV (sport utility vehicles) style, SX4 is almost like a car in it's

construction & comfort context.

The model is found in two- and four- wheel drive. With two variants, the model is

all set to conquer the Indian auto biz market. These are commonly referred as the

"Urban Line" & the "Outdoor Line", where the latter is more like an SUV in

appearance compared to the first one. The car is expected to have 1590cc petrol

engine making it capable enough to deliver a power of 94bhp and a torque of



Maruti Suzuki SX4 is assorted with elegant features which makes the model worth

possessing. These are :



Dual SRS airbags

Front and rear side doors having impact beams

Seat belt pre-tensioners

Force limiters

Car immobilizer

Anti theft device

Switchable three-mode 4x4 system for :


4WD Auto mode

4WD Lock mode


Colors for Maruti Suzuki SX4 are quite unique & contemporary in nature


Grand vitara is anew segment entered by maruti. Initially they are just in traditional

cars business Grand vitara is a SUV (sports utility vehicle) with a powerful engine

of 2600 cc. It is fitted with a MPFI diesel engine. It delivers 4x4 drive.

Price charged for grand vitara is between 13.5 lakh to 16 lakh. It is of premium



Maruti Ritz Review

Maruti Ritz is the perhaps the most awaited and hyped car from Maruti Suzuki.

The car is positioned in the premium A2 market segment, which includes its

compact offering such as Alto, WagnoR, Swift, Zen and the newly-launched A-

Star. Hundai has already launched their i10 model in the Indian market. Now, it‘s

the turn of market leaders maruti Suzuki to respond with a brand new vehicle for

the Indian market. Engineers from Maruti Suzuki worked at close quarters with

their Japanese counterparts in the development of the Ritz, much like that for the

A-Star.MUL seems to be going the complete distance to insure that the Ritz

manages to make an impact on the cut-throat A-2 hatchback space. How far the

new Ritz manages to complete with its counterparts is yet to be seen in the time to


Ritz launched in the Indian markets on 15th May,2009, the Ritz Maruti is one of

the first BS-IV complaint cars of India. Priced at Rs 4 Lakh to Rs.5 Lakh, the Ritz

Maruti has a sporty new look with cool spacy interiors. It's true to say segment in

contemporary car market in India.that many of these features are being offered for

the first time in this segment in contemporary car market in India.

Mruti Ritz LXi

Mruti Ritz VXi

Mruti Ritz VXi ABS

Mruti Ritz ZXi

Mruti Ritz VDi

Mruti Ritz LDi

Mruti Ritz VDi ABS


 Alloy wheels

 Engine immobilizer(iCATS)

 Steering-mounted audio controls

 Front seat under tray

 60:40 rear split seats

 Driver seat / Steering wheel / Seatbelt height adjustor



Maruti primarily operates in the passenger vehicles market with an emphasis on

passenger cars. During 2004-05, the Indian passenger vehicles market finally

attained critical mass with sales volume of 900,752 units — a 27.4 per cent

increase from 707,198 units sold in 2003-04.

The passenger vehicle market is divided broadly into the following three


1. Passenger cars

2. Multi-purpose vehicles (MPVs) and 3. Utility vehicles (UVs)

Within these categories, MUL‘s presence in order of prominence and in volume

term is in passenger cars, MPVs or the C segment and UVs or the B segment. Chart B

gives the relative share of each segment in Maruti‘s passenger vehicles sales, where

passenger car sales have been broken up according to the SIAM based classification



In volume terms, passenger car sales accounted for over 77 per cent of the Indian

passenger vehicles market and grew by 28.6 per cent from 541,491 units in 2003-04

to 696,207 units in 2004-05. Maruti continues to be the market leader. During

2004-05, not only did Maruti grow due to the overall market growth, but also

managed to overcome intense competition and gain market share — which

increased from 50.8 per cent in 2003-04 to 51.4 per cent in 2004-05.

The Indian car market is classified into six categories based on the vehicle


 1: Mini — up to 3,400 mm.

 A2: Compac — from 3,401 mm to 4, 000 mm.

 A3: Mid-size — from 4,001 mm to 4,500 mm.

 A4: Executive — 4,501 mm to 4,700 mm.

 A5: Premium — from 4,701 to 5,000 mm.

 A6: Luxury — 5,001 mm and above. MUL has presence in three of these categories

namely A1, A2 and A3. Chart C plots MUL‘s sales volumes in these three categories for

2004-05 and 2003-04.

A1 CATEGORY: With its Maruti 800, your company is the only player in this

category. Sales volumes increased by 16.9 per cent during 2004-05. Growth in

this economy segment comes mainly from first-time buyers, and consumers

buying their second car. Penetrating this market requires greater reach in

distribution, and MUL is undertaking many efforts in this direction.

A2 CATEGORY: Maruti has three models in this category — Zen, Alto and

Wagon R. This is the segment where the company faced stiff competition in the last

few years, and had lost some ground due to delays in launching new models. Things

have fundamentally changed in 2004-05. Through a well-crafted strategy, Maruti

consolidated its leadership position in the A2 category. While the category grew by

23.4 per cent in 2004-05, MUL‘s sales volume grew by 46 per cent. Consequently,

the company‘s market share has increased from 40.3 per cent in 2003-04 to 47.7 per

cent in 2004-05.

We believe that given India‘s income distribution and low levels of car penetration,

the A1 and A2 segments will continue to register strong growth as the population

increases its levels of motorization. Today, India is the second largest two-wheeler

market in world with sales of around 5 million two wheelers during 2004-05. The

existing stock of two wheelers on India‘s roads is over 50 million. With cheaper

credit facilities, many users of two-wheelers, especially in the higher end

segment, should shift to cars in the A1 category. MUL is the dominant company in

India, which has the models to tap this huge growth opportunity. To penetrate

deeper into the Indian market, MUL has tied up with the State Bank of India (SBI) to

finance cars. SBI has the widest branch network in India, and we expect to reach

parts of the rural markets hitherto uncovered by retail finance availability.

Apart from strengthening the distribution network, key initiatives that drove this

growth during 2004-05 include:

 Strengthening the brand image of the three models through advertisements and

sales promotional initiatives.

 Repositioning Alto in a niche space between A1 and A2 cars. Aggressive pricing

of the Alto was supplemented by a strong ad campaign that targeted the younger

generation. These factors played a role in boosting the volume of Alto sales by

over 125 per cent.

 New variant of the Zen was launched in the latter half of 2003, which

rejuvenated the brand in the market. There were also significant changes in the

Wagon R, which contributed to a volume growth of 59 per cent.

A3 CATEGORY: This is a highly fragmented category with several models, and

no single player has major leadership position. MUL‘s two models —Swift Desire&

SX4— have a combined market share of a little over 10 per cent. Maruti lost some

market share as its volume sales grew by around 30 per cent, against the overall

category‘s growth of 50.8 per cent. In the last quarter of 2004-05, to increase

market penetration, MUL revised the prices of SX4 downwards and launched a new

version — the SX4Lxi. We have already started witnessing results from this



In this segment, Maruti‘s models include the Omni and the Versa. Here, Maruti is

the dominant player with nearly 100% market share. In 2004-05, the company‘s

sales volumes grew by 14.7 per cent.

During the latter half of the year, Maruti launched an economy model of the

Versa. A new Omni variant, which runs on LPG was launched to tap newer

cargo markets.

Passenger Cars + M P V M arket

Passenger cars and MPVs are generally analyzed as a comprehensive segment.

Maruti marginally increased its share in this segment with about 55.2 per cent in

volume terms during 2004-05. Segment with a market share of only 2.5 per cent.

The primary model in this segment is the Gypsy. During April 2003 , the


Launched its state-of-the-art sports utility vehicle (SUV) — the Grand


C ustom er Ori ent at ion

The growth in sales volumes is a consequence of Maruti‘s continuous stress on

customer focus. Regular interface and feedback from customers is integral to the

company‘s planning process. A tribute to its efforts at improving customer

satisfaction is the top ranking given to the Wagon R in the premium compact

segment, and Esteem in the entry midsize segment, by JD Power‘s survey on

IQS. Table 1 gives a snapshot of five top reasons why people buy Maruti cars as

per the JD Power survey.

It is important to note that the rating, which was between 10 and 20 per cent in

2000, has increased to above 50 per cent in 2003. Another interesting point is

that while Maruti‘s


Diesel vehicles dominate this segment with a share of around 95 per cent. This

is mainly because vehicles in this segment are by nature heavy and diesel has

a policy determined price advantage over petrol. Since Maruti does not have a

diesel vehicle today, it remains a small player in the MUV economy factor was

the most important reason for purchase in 2000, the company‘s reputation has

become the leading factor determining the customer‘s purchase decision in 2003.

Thus, Maruti has managed to build a strong brand image in the last four years.

MUL‘s technological capabilities are getting greater recognition as in 2003:

―good technology‖ became one of the five leading reasons cited by customers

for buying a Maruti car.

Dealership and Service Network

This high level of customer satisfaction and award of number 1 position in

customer satisfaction by world renowned J D Power survey for four times in a row

can be translated into sales only through a strong dealer network, which actively

reaches out to potential customers. The company has extended its dealership

network to 280 sales outlets, spread over 182 cities, and has a service network of

more than 1900 workshops spread across 1000 cities. The confidence of the dealer

community in Maruti is spelled out by the fact that 28 existing dealers made large

investments and opened new showrooms. On the same lines, 59 new workshops

were opened by 51 existing dealers.

The automobile industry has two levels of customers — the dealer and the buyer.

It is imperative to have a robust dealer network to push sales to the final

customer. Therefore, MUL treats its dealers as its first level of customers. In the

last three years, Maruti has worked hard to revitalize and strengthen its dealership


Apart from having a good product, the key factor in developing a good dealer

network is to assure profits for the dealers. Maruti believes that selling a car is only

the beginning of a long-term relationship with the car buyer. During the course of

a car‘s life, there are many services and products which can be offered to the

customer like finance, accessories, insurance, service, spare parts and finally trade-

in resale opportunities.

MUL offers its customers a suite of products through its authorized dealers, which

meets all the requirements during the life cycle of a car. This not only meets a

much larger basket of customer needs but also provides dealers with the

opportunity to generate greater profits. Other services that have been launched

under new business initiatives of Maruti include Maruti Finance (a consortium of

finance companies), Maruti Insurance and the pre owned cars business under the

True Value brand name. In all these businesses, Maruti plays the role of an

aggregator and brand manager. None of the risks related to these businesses are

booked in the books of MUL.

Most dealers have understood the importance and profitability of this new business

model and their strong motivation has resulted in record top-line growth for


A key initiative to promote best practices on the dealer front has been the practice

of the balanced scorecard to evaluate dealers. Those dealers who achieve or exceed a

certain score are financially rewarded for their efforts.

The company acknowledges that superior customers experience is only possible if

the dealers‘ employees are adequately trained. To achieve this, training is

undertaken in all areas of dealership operations.

We are proud to state that Maruti‘s dealer‘s technicians were ranked the best among

Suzuki distributors in South-East Asia; and now, an Indian team will participate in

the International Technical Skill Competition in Japan.


2004-05 was also a landmark year for Maruti in terms of exports. The FOB value of

exports grew by 51.7 per cent from Rs.6,204 million in 200203 to Rs.9,410 million

in 2004-05 — which is the highest ever in Maruti‘s 17 years‘ export history. It is

also the first year in which the company exported over 50,000 vehicles. It exported

51,175 units. Maruti‘s export growth has been driven primarily by 56.8 per cent

increase in exports of Maruti 800, and 60.5 per cent growth in exports of A2 category

cars. Within the A2 category the YG4 (Alto) was a huge success in the European

market, where 34,399 Suzuki Altos were sold during 2004-05. The M-800 and the Zen

were very well accepted in Algeria. We also achieved substantial growth in our exports

to Algeria, Belgium, Bhutan, Chile, Denmark, Germany, Hungary, Nepal, Sri Lanka

and UK. Maruti entered the Gulf market (Saudi Arabia, Kuwait and Qatar) for the first

time with the new Alto GCC specifications, specially designed for this region.



Primary objective:-

1. To study the level of customer satisfaction towards Maruti Suzuki Cars

2. To study the factors those satisfy and delight the customer.

Secondary objective:-

1. To study the problems faced by customers

2. To understand the customers requirement from the Maruti Suzuki.

3. To know customer opinion about Maruti Suzuki‘s vehicles.




The research undertaken was a descriptive research as it was concerned with

specific predictions, with narration of facts and characteristics concerning

Customer satisfaction towards Maruti Suzuki in Lucknow City.


The following factors have been decided within the scope of sample design:

UNIVERSE OF STUDY: Universe of the study means all the persons who are the

customers of Maruti Suzuki Lucknow City.

SAMPLE SIZE: A sample of minimum respondents will be selected from various

areas of Lucknow City. An effort was made to select respondents evenly. The

survey was carried out on 100 respondents.

SAMPLING TECHNIQUE: For the purpose of research convenient sampling

technique was used.


The data has been collected from both primary and secondary sources, to

get information regarding the organization and products

PRIMARY DATA: Primary data has been collected through questionnaires. The

questionnaire was mostly related to the brand awareness towards Maruti after sale

services provided by KTL.

SECONDARY DATA: Secondary data has been taken from

1) Reports

2) Pamphlets

3) Advertisement

4) Customer database

5) News papers

6) Internet


Out of few lakes of Maruti Suzuki customers spread all over India, the customers

of KTL, Lucknow City only are taken as target population for the study.

The sample size of 100 is selected from the database of the company. The

study requires on in depth survey and keen observation in a collecting data

regarding the brand awareness levels of Maruti customers.

Only simple random sampling technique is adopted in selection the

sample. In this technique, each and every unit of the population has on equal

opportunity of being selected in the sample.



 The study suffered from time constraints as it is completed within the short

period of one month.

 Sample size is small.

 Area of the study limited.

 Lack of response.

 The data collected and all the ground work that was felt necessary had to be

done by author itself. Thus huge work force was another constraint in the


 There was dearth of free time in hands of the employees. As such carrying

survey and getting the questionnaire filled correctly on time was


 Lack of professional approach since researcher is a student.

 I will have to rely upon the information get from secondary sources and

given by respondents, which may not be fully true.



Table No.-1 Table showing Occupation of Customer-

S.No. Occupation No. of


1 Business 44

2 Employee 32

3 Agriculture 14

4 Other 10

Source-Primary data

4 Other
10% Occupation of the customer
3 Agriculture
14% 1 Business
2 Employee

Interpretation –

It is observed that, 44% customers are doing the Business and 32%
customer are the employee in private or government sector, 14% are
farmer and 10% in other field.

Table No.2 Table showing Age of the Maruti Suzuki’s Customer

Buyer 20 - 25 26 – 34 35 - 44 45 & above

1st 5 22 8 6

2nd 0 10 14 10 \

Additional 0 8 8 9

Total 5 40 30 25



15 Ist

20 - 25 26 - 34 35 - 44 45 & above

Source-Primary data

Interpretation –

It is observed that, 5% customer’s age is between the 20-25 years, 40% in

26-34 years, 30% in 35-44 years and 2% customers above 45 years.

Table No.-3 Table showing Pre-Purchase satisfaction level of the

Customers remark No. of respondent

Excellent 50

Good 30

Average 15

Below average 5

Pre Purhase Satisfaction of customers

Excellent Good Avverage Below average




Interpretation –

It is observed that, 50% of the customers are highly satisfied with the Pre-
purchase services

And 5% are dissatisfied with the Pre purchase services.

Table No.-4 Table showing customers opinion about the Maruti’s
vehicles for Value for Money

Respondent's Remark No of respondents

Above Expectation 38

As per Expectation 42

Below Expectation 20

Value for Money

Above Expectatiom As per Expectation Below Expectation

20% 38%


Interpretation –

42% of the respondents are of opinion that vehicles are as per expectation
& 20% are of the opinion that the vehicle are below expectation.

Table No.-5 Table showing Post-purchase satisfaction level of the

Customers remark No. of respondent

Excellent 30

Good 45

Average 20

Below average 5

Post purchase satisfaction of the

Excellent Good Avverage Below average

20% 30%


Interpretation –

It is observed that, 45% of the customers are highly satisfied with the Post-
purchase services

And 5% are dissatisfied with the Post purchase services.

Table No.-6 Table showing customer priority with respect to

Aspect No of Respondents

Comfort 12

Mileage 26

Features 12

Looks 20

Price 24

Safety 6

Customers Pirority with respect to

6% 12% Aspect
24% Comfort
26% Milage
20% 12% Looks

Interpretation –

It is observed that, 26% of the customers preferred Mileages as first

preference and 6% preferred safety.

Table No.-7 Table showing customer remark about services.

Customers remark No. of Respondent

Excellent 32

Good 50

Average 15

Below average 3

Customer remark about services


Below average


Interpretation –

It is observed that, 55% of the customers are satisfied with the

services, and 3% are not satisfied.

Table No.-8 Table showing customer expectation for improvement in
Maruti Suzuki.

Customers remark No. of Respondent

Price 16

Quality 46

Service 24

Other 14

Customer expectation from Maruti Suzuki

14% 16%

24% Price
46% Quality

Interpretation –

46% of the customers are of opinion that Maruti should improve in quality.

Table No.-9 Table showing customer’s repurchase intention.

Customers remark No. of Respondent

Yes 74

No 26

No. of Respondent
30 No. of Respondent
Yes No

Interpretation –

It is observed that, 74% of the customers are ready to repurchase

the Maruti’s car, 26% are not ready to purchase the car.

Table No.-10 Table showing customer’s recommendation intention.

Customers remark No. of Respondent

Yes 72

No 28

Recommandation to friends/relatives


72% No

Interpretation –

It is observed that, 72% of the customers are ready to recommend

the car to the friends and relative, 28% are not ready to recommend the car
to the friends and relatives.

Table No.-11 Table showing customer’s preference about M-Finance.

Customers remark No. of Respondent

Yes 38

No 62

Customer Preference about M-Finance


62% Yes

Interpretation –

It is observed that, 62% of the customers are ready to prefer M-

Finance, 28% are not ready to prefer M-Finance.

Table No.-12 Table showing customer’s preference about M-

Customers remark No. of Respondent

Yes 86

No 14

Customer Preference about M-Insurance

60 No. of Respondent
40 14
Yes No

Interpretation –

It is observed that, 86% of the customers are ready to prefer M-

Insurance, 14% are not ready to prefer M-Insurance.


1. The prospective segment is from the business and self employed class.

2. The company should concentrate on the age group 26-34.

3. Maruti should continue to maintain the standard of the service.

4. It is observed that, 42% of the respondent are of opinion that vehicles

are as per expectation, and 20% are saying its below expectation.

5. Company should improve its post sales service.

6. The customer highest priority is for the mileage.

7. Maruti Suzuki needs to improve its awareness about Add-on-Services

like any time Maruti, MEW etc.

8. Customer are highly satisfied with the service which help in customer


9. It is observed that, 46% of the customers are of opinion that Maruti

should improve in quality, and 16% of the opinion that Maruti should

improve in price.

10. Customers are highly satisfied which help in customer retention.

11. Company has created goodwill among the customers which will help

them to recommend car to friends and relatives.

12. Maruti Suzuki needs to educate the customers about the benefits of M-

Finance. They can motivate the cash customers to offer M-Finance.

13. It is observed that, 86% of the customers are ready to prefer M-

Insurance, 14% are not ready to prefer M-Insurance.



After conducting the survey and knowing the market, I realized that:

 The company should keep in mind the need of young generation.

 Company should improve the promotion strategy of product.

 Company should improve the promotion strategy of Add-on services.

 It will be beneficial for the company to make the warehouse near to the

showroom and there should be roof facility, adequate security facility in the


 The Company should know its customers satisfaction level throughout doing

periodic surveys. Periodic surveys can treat customer satisfaction directly.

 Company should improve/upgrades its employee‘s product knowledge,

market situation, and its competitor‘s knowledge by giving proper training to


 Company should upgrade or innovate its new product.

 The Company should not only concentrate on the customer satisfaction but

also the company led to monitor their competitor‘s performance in their areas of


 The Company should make changes according to the other competitors &

according to the customer‘s expectations.



It has been observed that most customers are satisfied with pre sales

services similarly most of these customers are dissatisfied with the post sales

service which is the matter of concern for the company. Maruti Suzuki needs to

improve some parts of products specifically the interiors. High customer

satisfaction level helps the company to retain its existing customer as well as

generate new customer through word to mouth publicity.

Customer satisfaction index is a good tool to make improvements in the

products and services of the company. And therefore should utilize carefully &

kept as confidential as possible.

Customer satisfaction provides a leading indicator of consumer purchase

intentions and loyalty." "Customer satisfaction data are among the most frequently

collected indicators of market perceptions. Their principal use is twofold:"

"Within organizations, the collection, analysis and dissemination of these data send

a message about the importance of tending to customers and ensuring that they

have a positive experience with the company‘s goods and services."




 Kotler, P (2002),‖Marketing Management‖, Millennium Edition, Tenth

Edition, Prentice Hall, Inc, A Pearson Education Company, Upper Saddle
River, New Jersey ,pp.
 Hair, Joseph, F., Anderson, Rolph, E. and Tatham Ronald, L.
(1987),Multivariate Data Analysis, New 'fork: MacMillan Publishing
 Helen Woodniffe (1997), "Financial Sewices Marketing", Services
Marketing,Macmillion, Delhi.
 Hill, N., (1996), Hanbook of Customer Satisfaction Measurement, Gower
Press, Aldershot, UK.
 Jayaram, N. and Sandhog, R.S. (1998), Housing in India - Problems, Policy
andperspectives, B.R. Publishing Corporation, Delhi.
 Jeffrey Gitomer (1998), Customer satisfaction is worthless: Customer
loyalty is priceless: How to make customers love you, keep them coming
back and tell everyone they know, Austin TX: Board Press.




Name: - Sex:-

Address: - Occupation:-

Contact No:-

Age of Respondent

a) <25 b) 25-34

c) 35-44 d) 45 & above

Annual Income
a) 3-5 lack b) 5-8 lack

c) 8-12 lack d) 12 and above

1. Which Model of Maruti are you using?


2. From how many years you are using this model?

a) 0-2 years b) 2-4 years

c) 4-6 years d) 6-8 years

3. Preference for choosing particular car?

a) Comfort b) Mileage

c) Feature d) Performance

e) Looks f) Price

g) Others Please specify:-………

4. Are you satisfied with your car?

a) Yes

b) No

If No, give the reasons for the same

a) Comfort b) Mileage

c) Feature d) Performance

e) Looks f) Price

6. Do you prefer M-Insurance over any other insurance option?

a) Yes

b) No

If No, then why:-……………….

7. Do you prefer M-Finance over any other finance option?

a. Yes

b. No
If No, then why:-……………….

8. Do you prefer to get MGA fitted in your car or any local accessories?

a) MGA b) Local

9. What is your Pre-sales experience while purchasing the car?

a) Excellent b) Good

c) Average d) Below Average

10. What is your Post-sales experience after purchasing the car?

a) Excellent b) Good

c) Average d) Below Average

11. Are you satisfied with the features of Maruti?

a) Comfort……. /5 b) Mileage……. /5

c) Feature ……. /5 d) Safety……. /5

e) Looks ……. /5 f) Price……. /5

12. How will you rate Maruti on the basis of Value for Money?

a) Above Expectation

b) Below Expectation

c) As per Expectation

13. Do you find easy availability of spare parts?

a) Yes

b) No

14. Would you like to re purchase the Maruti’s car?

a) Yes

b) No

15. Would you like to recommend the Maruti car to your friends/relatives?

a) Yes

b) No

16. In which sector do you think/feel Maruti should improve?

a) Price b) Quality

c) Service d) Others

17. Are you satisfied with the overall service of Maruti?

a) Excellent b) Good

c) Average d) Below Average