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II.

INTRODUCTION

2.1 Steam Turbines


A steam turbine is a device that extracts thermal energy from pressurized steam and uses it to
do mechanical work on a rotating output shaft. Its modern manifestation was invented by Sir Charles
Parsons in 1884. A steam turbine is a prime mover in which the potential energy of the steam is
transformed into kinetic energy and later in its turn is transformed into the mechanical energy of rotation
of the turbine shaft.

2.2 Types of Steam Turbine

2.2.1 Based on Action of Steam

 Impulse turbine: In impulse turbine, steam coming out through a fixed nozzle at a very high
velocity strikes the blades fixed on the periphery of a rotor. The blades change the direction of
steam flow without changing its pressure. The force due to change of momentum causes the
rotation of the turbine shaft. Ex: De-Laval, Curtis and Rateau Turbines .
 Reaction turbine: In reaction turbine, steam expands both in fixed and moving blades
continuously as the steam passes over them. The pressure drop occurs continuously over both
moving and fixed blades.
 Reaction turbine: In reaction turbine, steam expands both in fixed and moving blades
continuously as the steam passes over them. The pressure drop occurs continuously over both
moving and fixed blades

2.2.2 Based on Number of Pressure Stages

 Single stage turbines: These turbines are mostly used for driving centrifugal compressors,
blowers and other similar machinery.
 Multistage Impulse and Reaction turbines: They are made in a wide range of power capacities
varying from small to large. According to the type of steam flow.
 Axial turbines: In these turbines, steam flows in a direction parallel to the axis of the turbine
rotor.
 Radial turbines: In these turbines, steam flows in a direction perpendicular to the axis of the
turbine, one or more low pressure stages are made axial.
2.2.3 Based on Number of Shafts

 Single Shaft Turbine


 Multi Shaft Turbine

2.2.4 Based on Method of Governing

 Turbines with throttle governing: In these turbines, fresh steam enter through one or more
(depending on the power developed) simultaneously operated throttle valves.
 Turbines with nozzle governing: In these turbines, fresh steam enters through one or more
consecutively opening regulators
 Turbines with by-pass governing: In these turbines, the steam besides being fed to the first stage
is also directly fed to one, two or even three intermediate stages of the turbine.

2.2.5 Based on the Heat Drop Process

 Condensing turbines with generators: In these turbines, steam at a pressure less than the
atmospheric is directed to the condenser. The steam is also extracted from intermediate stages for
feed water heating). The latent heat of exhaust steam during the process of condensation is
completely lost in these turbines
 Condensing turbines with one or more intermediate stage extractions: In these turbines, the steam
is extracted from intermediate stages for industrial heating purposes.
 Back pressure turbines: In these turbines, the exhaust steam is utilized for industrial or heating
purposes. Turbines with deteriorated vacuum can also be used in which exhaust steam may be
used for heating and process purposes.
 Topping turbines: In these turbines, the exhaust steam is utilized in medium and low pressure
condensing turbines. These turbines operate at high initial conditions of steam pressure and
temperature, and are mostly used during extension of power station capacities.

2.2.6 Based on Steam Condition at the Inlet to the Turbine

 Low pressure turbines: These turbines use steam at a pressure of 1.2 ata to 2 ata.
 Medium pressure turbines: These turbines use steam up to a pressure of 40 ata.
 High pressure turbines: These turbines use steam at a pressure above 40 ata.
 Very high pressure turbines: These turbines use steam at a pressure of 170 ata and higher and
temperatures of 550°C and higher.
 Supercritical pressure turbines: These turbines use steam at a pressure of 225 ata and higher.
2.2.7 Based on their usage in the Industry

 Stationary turbines with constant speed of rotation: These turbines are primarily used for driving
alternators.
 Stationary turbines with variable speed of rotation: These turbines are meant for driving turbo-
blowers, air circulators, pumps, etc.
 Non-stationary turbines with variable speed: These turbines are usually employed in steamers,
ships and railway locomotives.

III.EFFICIENCY OF A STEAM TURBINE

3.1 Factors affecting the Efficiency of a Steam Turbine

3.1.1 Boiler Efficiency


Boiler Efficiency is a term which establishes a relationship between energy supplied to the boiler and
energy output received from the boiler. It is usually expressed in percentage. As a general rule, “Boiler
efficiency (%) = heat exported by the fluid (water, steam) / heat provided by the fuel x 100." It is usually
ranged between 75% to 90%.

3.1.2 Thermodynamic Efficiency


In general the thermal efficiency, ηth, of any heat engine is defined as the ratio of the work it does, W, to
the heat input at the high temperature, QH.

The thermal efficiency, ηth, represents the fraction of heat, QH, that is converted to work. Since energy
is conserved according to the first law of thermodynamics and energy cannot be be converted to work
completely, the heat input, QH, must equal the work done, W, plus the heat that must be dissipated
as waste heat QC into the environment. Therefore we can rewrite the formula for thermal efficiency as:
This is very useful formula, but here we express the thermal efficiency using the first law in terms
of enthalpy. It is usually ranged between 35% to 50%.

3.1.3 Internal Efficiency

Internal Efficiency of a Steam Turbine means the combined efficiency of all individual components/parts
of the steam turbine. It is usually equal to or greater than 90%.

3.1.4 Mechanical Efficiency

Mechanical efficiency measures the effectiveness of a machine in transforming the energy and power
that is input to the device into an output force and movement. For a Steam turbine it usually lies between
92% to 98%.

3.1.5 Generator Efficiency

Generator efficiency is “the ratio between the power available at the generator output and the energy
supplied at the generator input”.The power available at output of a generator is the net electrical power
after all losses such as core, copper and mechanical losses.

3.1.6 Isentropic Efficiency

This is the efficiency which compares the actual output with the ideal isentropic output to measure the
effectiveness of extracted work. The Isentropic efficiency of a turbine is a comparison of the actual
power output with the Isentropic case. Typical Isentropic efficiencies range from 70-90%.
3.1.7 CHP Electrical Efficiency

Combined Heat and Power (CHP) electrical efficiency measures the amount of boiler fuel converted into
electrical energy or electricity. It can be calculated by following equation

CHP electrical efficiency = Net electricity generated/Total fuel into boiler.

3.1.8 Total CHP Efficiency

This efficiency measures total output including electricity and steam energy by the boiler fuel. It is
calculated by following formula.

Total CHP efficiency = (Net electricity generated + Net steam to process)/Total fuel into boiler

3.1.9 Effective Electrical Efficiency

This efficiency is calculated by the formula

(Steam turbine electric power output) / (Total fuel into boiler – (steam to process/boiler efficiency))
It is equivalent to 3,412 Btu/kWh/Net Heat Rate

3.1.10 Net Heat Rate

It is equal to (total fuel input to the boiler – the fuel that would required to generate the steam to process
assuming the same boiler efficiency/steam turbine electric output (kW)

Heat or power ratio is also an important factor in this discussion and it can be calculated by the formula

3.1.11 Power to Heat Ratio

It is given by CHP electrical power output (Btu)/ useful heat output (Btu)

3.2 Overall Efficiency of a Steam Turbine

The product of all the efficiencies mentioned above gives the overall efficiency of a plant. It generally lies
between 30% to 40%.

IV.RANKINE CYCLE

The Rankine cycle is the fundamental operating cycle of all power plants where an operating fluid is
continuously evaporated and condensed. The selection of operating fluid depends mainly on the available
temperature range.

Figure 4.1 shows the idealized Rankine cycle.


FIGURE 4.1

The pressure-enthalpy (p-h) and temperature-entropy (T-s) diagrams of this cycle are given in Figure 4.2.
The Rankine cycle operates in the following steps:
 1-2-3 Isobaric Heat Transfer. High pressure liquid enters the boiler from the feed pump (1) and is
heated to the saturation temperature (2). Further addition of energy causes evaporation of the liquid until
it is fully converted to saturated steam (3).
 3-4 Isentropic Expansion. The vapor is expanded in the turbine, thus producing work which may be
converted to electricity. In practice, the expansion is limited by the temperature of the cooling medium
and by the erosion of the turbine blades by liquid entrainment in the vapor stream as the process moves
further into the two-phase region. Exit vapor qualities should be greater than 90%.
 4-5 Isobaric Heat Rejection. The vapor-liquid mixture leaving the turbine (4) is condensed at low
pressure, usually in a surface condenser using cooling water. In well designed and maintained
condensers, the pressure of the vapor is well below atmospheric pressure, approaching the saturation
pressure of the operating fluid at the cooling water temperature.
 5-1 Isentropic Compression. The pressure of the condensate is raised in the feed pump. Because of the
low specific volume of liquids, the pump work is relatively small and often neglected in thermodynamic
calculations.
FIGURE 4.2 T-S and P-h Diagrams

The efficiency of power cycles is defined as

Values of heat and work can be determined by applying the First Law of Thermodynamics to each step.
The steam quality x at the turbine outlet is determined from the assumption of isentropic expansion, i.e.,

where is the entropy of vapor and Si* the entropy of liquid.


V.FACTORS AFFECTING THE INCREASE IN WORK OUTPUT

5.1 Regeneration

In a simple Rankine cycle, heat is added to the cycle during process 2-2'-3. During this first stage (process
2-2'), the temperature of the water is low. That reduces the average temperature during heat addition
(process 2-2'-3). To remedy this shortcoming, increasing the temperature of the feedwater (water leaving
the pump and entering the boiler) can be considered. This is accomplished by extracting stream from the
turbine to heat the feedwater. This process is called regeneration and the heat exchanger where heat is
transferred from steam to feedwater is called a regenerator, or a feedwater heater. There are actually two
main types of feedwater heaters. If the steam mixes with the compressed water from the pump, it is an
open feedwater heater. If the steam does not mix with the compressed water from the pump, it is a closed
feedwater heater.

FIGURE 5.1.1

Most cycles don't have all of their heat addition or rejection at one temperature. So, when we look to
improve a cycle's efficiency, we often consider the mean temperature of heat addition, Ta and the mean
temperature of heat rejection, Tr. These reflect what the temperature would have been if the same amount
of heat had been added (or rejected) all at one temperature. They allow us to treat improving cycle
efficiencies as we would for a Carnot cycle: by raising Ta or lowering Tr. For reversable heat transfer, the
average temperature of heat addition is
Ta = Qin / DS

and the average temperature of heat rejection is

Tr = Qout / DS

For more efficient cycles, we would like to add heat at a higher temperature and reject it at a lower
temperature.

So basically in this process the partially expanded steam (bled out steam) is used to heat the feed water.
This causes the feedwater temperature to increase by 65% to 80% for 3 to 6 generators. The governing
system is going to make up for lesser availability of steam. This causes a nearly 30% increase in steam at
the High pressure stages causing a need for increase in blade height thus overcoming 3D/vortex flow.
Hence more work is done. Also there is a 30% decrease in steam at the low pressure stages causing a
decrease in blade height.

FIGURE 5.1.2

FIGURE 5.1.3

5.2 Decrease in Condenser pressure

The effect of lowering the condenser pressure on the Rankine cycle efficiency is illustrated on a T-s
diagram on the left. Steam exits as a saturated mixture in the condenser at the saturation temperature
corresponding to the pressure in the condenser. So lower the pressure in the condenser, lower the
temperature of the steam, which is the heat rejection temperature.
FIGURE 5.2.1

The basic work of Condenser pressure is of three categories:

 Phase change

 Heat sink at low pressure

 Preserves the working fluid

When the condenser pressure is decreased, it causes a need for more stages of the turbine resulting in the
increase of the length of the turbine. This can result in deflection leading to deformation at the center. To
avoid this multishell designs are used. A few examples of multishell designs are one shell for high
pressure, one shell for intermediate pressure and one shell for low pressure or one shell is used for both
high and intermediate pressure and one shell is used for low pressure.

As per Indian standards, taking into account for room temperature, lake water, etc., the condenser
pressure commonly used is 0.6 to 1 bar.

5.3 Increase in Boiler Temperature/ Superheating the steam

By superheating the stream to a high temperature (from state 3 to state 3'), the average steam temperature
during heat addition can be increased. This subsequently causes an increase in the amount of work done.
The only practical constraint for this method is the materials used. If the materials used do not withstand
the temperatures it leads to various issues. The most commonly used materials are:

 Plain carbon steels - up to 400 degree Celsius.

 Alloyed carbon steel – 400 to 480 degree Celsius.

 Heat resistant ferrite steels – 480 to 565 degree Celsius.

 Ostinite steel – greater than 565 degree Celsius (supercritical turbines). Only problem is this
material is difficult to manufacture.
FIGURE 5.3.1

5.4 Increase in the Boiler pressure

If the operating pressure of the boiler is increased, (process 2-3 to process 2'-3'), then the boiling
temperature of the steam raises automatically. Also, the moisture content of the steam increases from state
4 to state 4', which is an undesirable side effect. This side effect can be corrected by reheating the steam,
and results in the reheat Rankine cycle.

FIGURE 5.4.1

The increase boiler pressure also cases an increase in the degree of superheat.
Also we know that H=hW+qL+Cp(Tsup-Tsat)
1% of the moisture content present in the steam can decrease the efficiency by 0.9 to 1.2%.
Blade height should also be checked as the blade height decreases it causes3D/vortex flow.
The casing thickness, parting plane, joining arrangements should also be increased but this causes
asymmetry leading to incremental stresses. The incremental stresses present make speeding and loading
of the turbine very difficult. To avoid this external means to heat the casing and flange-bolt arrangements
are used.
A few commonly used boiler pressures are listed below

 Less than 50MW turbine- 50 ata


 50MW to 100MW turbine- 50 to 90 ata
 100MW to 200MW turbine- 90 to 130 ata
 Greater than 300 MW turbine- 130 to 240 ata

5.5Reheat

In this reheat cycle, steam is expanded isentropically to an intermediate pressure in a high-pressure


turbine (stage I) and sent back to the boiler, where it is reheated at constant pressure to the inlet
temperature of the high-pressure turbine. Then the steam is sent to a low-pressure turbine and expands
to the condenser pressure (stage II). The total heat input and total work output is

qin = qprimary + qreheat = (h3 - h2) + (h5 - h4)

wtotal, out = qturb, I + qturb, II = (h3 - h4) + (h5 - h6)


FIGURE 5.5.1Schematic and T-s Diagram of an Ideal Reheat Rankine Cycle

When the number of the reheat stages increases, the expansion and reheat processes approach an
isothermal process at the maximum temperature. But using more than two stages is not practical.

FIGURE 5.5.2Multistage Reheat Approaching an Isothermal Process

Additional investment is required for pipelines etc.


Also if the pressure drop is at 3-3’(between 14% to 16%) reheat cycle is not useful at all.
For supercritical turbines two to three reheaters are used.
VI.CONSTRUCTIONAL DEAILS OF A STEAM TURBINE

6.1 Rotor
A turbine is a turbomachine with at least one moving part called a rotor assembly, which is a shaft or
drum with blades attached. Moving fluid acts on the blades so that they move and impart rotational
energy to the rotor.
For impulse turbine usually disc type rotors are used whereas for reaction turbines drum type rotors are
used. A practical turbine rotor has both impulse and reaction stages.

FIGURE 6.1.1

The rotor is usually constructed by two methods:

 Integral forging
 Shunt rotors

6.1.1 Integral forging


In this type of manufacturing, the entire rotor is forged and the blades are attached it. This method is
usually very expensive. Also it has a major setback that whenever there is a malfunction the entire rotor
has to be replaced.

6.1.2 Shunt type rotor


In this type, the rotor is manufactured as separate parts and then assembled together. A major advantage
of using this method is that whenever a problem arises the discs can simply be removed and replaced. For
fitting purposes the discs are heated according to their coefficient of expansion by using induction coils
and then fitted together. Or the shaft and the disc can be simply attached and welded together and then
finishing/grooving is done later on.
6.1.3 Sequence of Operation for a Rotor

These below mentioned steps are the ones that are usually followed during the manufacture of a blower
type rotor.

 Check if the forging is as per dimensions.


 Overall dimensions for forging inspection.
 Face milling and center milling is performed with an include angle of 90 degree on a
conventional horizontal boring machine. This helps facilitate loading of the lathe.
 The centers made are checked if they meet the lathe center.
 Loading of the rotor into a lathe and then program proving operation is done. A heavy duty CNC
lathe machine is used for this.
 Grooving operations are done.
o DRP machining is done.
o Roughing operation is performed.
o Digging operation is performed (straight digging, etc.)
o Machining of the journal surface is done.
 Balancing hole drilling, lockway milling and matching is done. ( usually 36 holes are drilled in
the circumference)
 Sealing fin and caulking operation is performed.
 Sealing fin machining. ( cutting off the extra sealing fin)
 A wheel blade drilling and assembly.
 LP blade drilling and assembly.
 Assembly of lacing wire.
 HP blade assembly.
 Gland fin assembly.
 Shroud and journal machining.
 Final machining.
 Balancing
 Checking of clearances.
 Assembly of rotor
 Checking of rotor.

The A wheel groove and LP wheel groove are fork type groove and not T type grooves. Cylindrical or
taper pins are used for their assembly.
The last blade or the locking blade is usually machined separately and fitted differently.
Centrifuging or high speed balancing is running the rotor with 1.2% of the rated rpm.
Lifting of the blades while centrifuging I called projection. Its maximum value is 0.2 mm.
Run out is a method of checking the maximum to minimum deviation of the blade on the linear side
of the contour and then correcting it. This is explained in detail below.
Sequences In rotor assembly

(a) Forging:
The forged raw material is inspected and verified. Overall dimensions of the rotor and suitability for
machining is checked.

(b) Centering:
Face milling and centering milling is done at HBM. The drilled holes are inspected. This is done so that the
lathe machine can hold the rotor for machining

(c) Roughing
In a CNC Lathe machine after program proofing, roughing process up to 2mm diameter and 1 mm length is
done. Front and rear DRP are set.

(d) Grooving
Grooves for T root blades are made with reference from the two DRP. The turning process for the T grooves
are done with the groove diameter as references.

Similarly Fork grooves are made for impulse stage and LP stage. Also sealing fin grooves are also machined.

The grooving process is done in a “Tacchi” machine

(e) Blading
To fix the blades a locking hole is made at each and every groove. The holes are made in an order such that
they neutralize each other using a n wheel bore machine. The blades are inserted from the hole and turned. A
packing brass pin is hammered to fix the blade from moving radially and axially. The final locking blade is
screwed into position after taking its dimension after other blades are assembled.

(f) Balancing grove


Balancing groove is made in an HBM. Also Lock way milling is done.

(g) Sealing fin Caulking


Sealing fin and caulking wire are fitted in the groove. The wire is hydraulically hammered to fix the sealing
fin in the rotor.

(h) Sealing fin machining


The sealing fin is machined in CNC Lathe machine to make an even surface.

(i) A wheel blade drilling and assembly


After assembly of a wheel blades on the rotor, a hole is drilled trough the rotor and the blade root while they
are combined. Then a cylindrical or tapered pin is hammered to fix the blade in position. The excess pin is
machined away.

Similar process is done for the LP blade assembly.


(j) Shrouding
In the case of LP blades lacing wire is used to hold the blades in position. For the HP stages the shroud should
have a planer, step or a double step design. Shrouding is done so that each blade has the same dimension of
the working profile. It also helps in preventing deflection at high pressure and rpm. The process is carried out
in CNC lathe.

(k) Bearings
Either the machining process will begin from front or rear end, but both the bearings on the front are to done
in the same machine. This is done too ensure the geometrical tolerances are acceptable.

(l) Oil glands


Oil glands and other components of the pedestal are machined using the bearings as a reference. Also
tapering of the ends of the rotor is done.

(m)Barring gear
Barring gear is assembled in the rear pedestal with the reference to the bearings. Also, the coupler is
assembled at the ends of the rotor

(n) Center fusing


After all the assembly is done the rotor is rotated at 1.2 times the rated RPM. The run out of all the HP blades
are measured. If above the 2o microns the entire row of blades is reassembled and if it’s below 20 microns the
shroud is machined to get a constant run out.

(o) Final Balancing


Homogeneity of the rotor is checked.

The balancing is done at both low speed a high-speed condition in a balancing tunnel. Static, Couple,
Quasistatic and dynamic balancing are done to ensure the rotor is OK. When there is a disturbance a suitable
weight is added in the balancing groove.

The goal of rotor balancing is to reduce unbalance enough such that it can operate properly once installed on
site. Reducing unbalance reduces vibration and increases efficiency and life of the rotor and bearings.
Additionally, during production and repair, it is necessary to balance rotors before full assembly because
there may be limited access to the rotor.

A balancing machine is used to determine the location and amount of unbalanced masses on a rotor. The
rotor is mounted on the machine bearings and the machine spins the rotor. Soft bearing machines measure
the displacement of the ends of the rotor and bearings. The machine measures this displacement and the
phase angle, then computes the unbalance present. Balancing machines then provide the operator with
corrections to be made to the rotor via addition or subtraction of weight.

(p) Assembly
Depending on the type of turbine (-2, -3, -4) the rotor is assembled. First the lower casing is kept so that it’s is
completely horizontal. Then the rotor is placed, clearances and fittings are checked to ensure that the blades
of the casings and the rotor will not collide. After that the top portion of the casing is fitted in the assembly.
6.2 Casing
Casings are made using casting process. While the manufacture of casing hoop stresses and
longitudinal stresses should be checked. Longitudinal expansion should not occur during steam
movement.
There are two types of casings namely:
o Single shell design
o Multi shell design

6.2.1 Single shell design


In this type of casing the entire casing is made up of a single shell. As the pressure drop is confined
within a single shell the thickness is very high. These type of casing are not used for turbines above
40MW. A prime disadvantage of using this design is that if a single groove for the blades are damaged the
entire casing has to be replaced.

6.2.2 Multi shell design


This type of casing usually consists of multiple shells over which the pressure drop occurs. The thickness
is comparatively less as the pressure drop occurs over multiple shells. When the groove for blades is
damaged only the damaged carrier is replaced.

6.3 Blades
Blades used in the steam turbine are of three types:
o Cylindrical profile: cross section is same from the root to the shroud.
o Tapered cylindrical profile: cross section is tapered/offset. Tapering occurs towards the shroud.
o Twisted blade: profile remains same except twisting occurs.
FIGURE 6.3.1
The working profile of the blade consists of three parts. They are the shroud aero foil and the root.

FIGURE 6.3.2

6.3.1 Roots
There are 4 different kinds of roots that are used commonly:
o T root
o Firture root
o Fork and pin root
o Double T root
6.3.2 Shrouds
For HP blades we use a excess part called the shroud. The blade height is less for HP blades and thus
these shrouds act as support to avoid deflection. In case of LP blades the blade height is more thus the
weight at the tip of the blade should be less to avoid deflection.

FIGURE 6.3.3

6.4 Liners and Diaphragms


The nozzles of a turbine are commonly aligned inside a diaphragm. Usually 4 to 5 nozzles are placed
inside a single diaphragm. Multiple number of diaphragms are placed in a single liners. These liners are
usually present inside the casing. Diaphragms may also be used to place the fixed blades.

FIGURE 6.4.1
6.5 Emergency stop valves

The two types of emergency stop valve used are single seed type (up to 100MW turbine) and double seed
type (more than 100MW turbines). Emergency stop valve (ESV) are used to quick interruption of steam
flow to the turbine during turbine trip. Opening and closing of ESV depends on parameters like

1. Steam temperature
2. Steam pressure
3. Turbine running on barring gear
4. Control and lube oil pressure
5.
When these parameters are achieved the solenoid valves energies and give the command to ESP actuator
to open the valve. Hence steam enters to the control valve casing. if desired parameters are not achieved
or during emergency trip suddenly solenoid valves are de-energized and shuts the ESV.

FIGURE 6.5.1
6.6 Sealing

To avoid the bypass of steam sealants and caulking are used. Caulks are fairly rigid when dry, and are
intended for use in areas with minimal expansion and contraction. Sealants are made from flexible
material--most commonly silicone--making them ideal for areas prone to expansion and contraction.

The caulking wire is pneumatically hammered into the gaps.

FIGURE 6.6.1

6.7 Barring gear

The barring gear is used for the initial starting of the turbine. After a preset amount of speed is reached
the barring wheel is disengaged. It also consists of a speed regulation system with an automatic engaging
and disengaging assembly. There are various types of barring gear mechanisms such as:

o Mechanical barring
o Hydraulic barring
o Both mechanical and hydraulic
FIGURE 6.7.1

6.8 Supervisory instrumentation


This system is used to measure the critical parameters of the turbine such as vibrations, lubrication oil
level, absolute expansion, etc. when the parameters cross over the preset value the mechanism takes the
necessary action.

6.9 Bearings
There are two types of bearings used namely journal bearings and thrust bearings. Journal bearings are
used to take up radial loads and thrust bearings are used to take up axial loads.
There is always a 0.04 to 0.25 mm gap between the bearings to maintain a oil film.
During starting and stopping of the turbine, jacking oil from the jacking oil hole is provide to avoid metal
to metal contact. Force lubrication system is used for lubrication system.
FIGURE 6.9.1

6.10 Governing system


Steam Turbine Governing is the procedure of monitoring and controlling the flow rate of steam into the
turbine with the objective of maintaining its speed of rotation as constant. The flow rate of steam is
monitored and controlled by interposing valves between the boiler and the turbine. Depending upon the
particular method adopted for control of steam flow rate, different types of governing methods are being
practiced.

6.10.1 Throttle Governing


In throttle governing the pressure of steam is reduced at the turbine entry thereby decreasing the
availability of energy. In this method steam is passed through a restricted passage thereby reducing
its pressure across the governing valve. The flow rate is controlled using a partially opened steam
control valve. The reduction in pressure leads to a throttling process in which the enthalpy of steam
remains constant.

FIGURE 6.10.1
6.10.2 Throttle governing – small turbines

Low initial cost and simple mechanism makes throttle governing the most apt method for small steam
turbines. The mechanism is illustrated in figure 1. The valve is actuated by using a centrifugal governor
which consists of flying balls attached to the arm of the sleeve. A geared mechanism connects the turbine
shaft to the rotating shaft on which the sleeve reciprocates axially. With a reduction in the load the turbine
shaft speed increases and brings about the movement of the flying balls away from the sleeve axis. This
results in an axial movement of the sleeve followed by the activation of a lever, which in turn actuates the
main stop valve to a partially opened position to control the flow rate.

6.10.3 Throttle governing – big turbines

In larger steam turbines an oil operated servo mechanism is used in order to enhance the lever sensitivity.
The use of a relay system magnifies the small deflections of the lever connected to the governor
sleeve. The differential lever is connected at both the ends to the governor sleeve and the throttle valve
spindle respectively. The pilot valves spindle is also connected to the same lever at some intermediate
position. Both the pilot valves cover one port each in the oil chamber. The outlets of the oil chamber are
connected to an oil drain tank through pipes. The decrease in load during operation of the turbine will
bring about increase in the shaft speed thereby lifting the governor sleeve. Deflection occurs in the lever
and due to this the pilot valve spindle raises up opening the upper port for oil entry and lower port for oil
exit. Pressurized oil from the oil tank enters the cylinder and pushes the relay piston downwards. As the
relay piston moves the throttle valve spindle attached to it also descends and partially closes the valve.
Thus the steam flow rates can be controlled. When the load on the turbine increases the deflections in the
lever are such that the lower port is opened for oil entry and upper port for oil exit. The relay piston
moves upwards and the throttle valve spindle ascend upwards opening the valve. The variation of the
steam consumption rate ṁ (kg/h) with the turbine load during throttle governing is linear and is given by
the “willan’s line”.
The equation for the willan’s line is given by:
ṁ=aL+C
Where a is the steam rate in kg/kWh, 'L' is the load on turbine in KW and C is no load steam
consumption.
6.10.4 Nozzle governing

In nozzle governing the flow rate of steam is regulated by opening and shutting of sets of nozzles rather
than regulating its pressure. In this method groups of two, three or more nozzles form a set and each set is
controlled by a separate valve. The actuation of individual valve closes the corresponding set of nozzle
thereby controlling the flow rate. In actual turbine, nozzle governing is applied only to the first stage
whereas the subsequent stages remain unaffected. Since no regulation to the pressure is applied, the
advantage of this method lies in the exploitation of full boiler pressure and temperature. Figure 2 shows
the mechanism of nozzle governing applied to steam turbines. As shown in the figure the three sets of
nozzles are controlled by means of three separate valves.

FIGURE 6.10.2

6.10.5 Bypass Governing system


Occasionally the turbine is overloaded for short durations. During such operation, bypass valves are
opened and fresh steam is introduced into the later stages of the turbine. This generates more energy to
satisfy the increased load. The schematic of bypass governing
FIGURE 6.10.3

6.10.6 Emergency governing


Every steam turbine is also provided with emergency governors which come into action under the
following condition.

 When the mechanical speed of shaft increases beyond 110%.


 Balancing of the turbine is disturbed.
 Failure of the lubrication system.
 Vacuum in the condenser is quite less or supply of coolant to the condenser is inadequate.

6.10.7 Characteristics of a governing system


o Steady State Regulation : It is the ratio between difference of efficiency no load and peak load
and nominal load
o Dead band speed
o Temporary speed raise: because of load rejection, there is a sudden raise in the speed. The
anticipatory governing system stabilizes the raise) It works even before the emergency stop valve.

6.10.8 Sub Assembly of a governing system


o Speed governing: takes care of SSR values
o Speed changer: changes the speed of turbine from 98 to 108%
o Anticipatory governing system: takes care of the TSR values.
o Protection system.
7. Project work

Problem statement: design a nozzle blade groove cutting tool for Dorries
CNC vertical lathe machine

TURNING TOOL

Cutting tool material:-HSS M35.


GROOVE CUTTING TOOL

Cutting tool material:- HSS M35.