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Feasibility Of Rainwater Treatment Using Filtration And Distillation In Aeta Community In

Mabalacat City Pampanga

Lingat, Jermy C.

Holy Angel University

Author Note

The authors of this study are students from Holy Angel University, Angeles City under the

Department of Civil Engineering of the School of Engineering and Architecture. This is in partial

fulfilment of their requirements in the subject Civil Engineering Projects.Further concerns and

inquiries about this paper should be addressed to, Jermy C. Lingat, Department of Civil

Engineering, School of Engineering and Architecture, Holy Angel University, Angeles City

Feasibility Of Rainwater Treatment Using Filtration And Distillation In Aeta Community In

Mabalacat City Pampanga

A. Background of the study

Water is our most valuable characteristic asset and something that the greater part of us

underestimates. Water is the most rich and imperative substance in nature. It is the primary

segment of life, wellbeing and sanitation. It is basic forever and vegetation. Despite the fact that

the freshwater accessibility in the land zones of the earth is more than satisfactory to meet the

ebb and flow water needs, it is ending up rare with time, prompting serious water emergency in

numerous pieces of the world. This is ascribed basically to uneven conveyance of water assets

and soak ascend in populace from country to the urban zones. Water is a standout amongst the

most vital things for us to live human as well as plants and creatures we need water to endure.

We can't get by in earth without the assistance of water. Our body weight is fertilizer of in excess

of a half of water. We can live for some days without sustenance, however we can't live without

water since water is our essential wellspring of nourishment. As per Bhalla (2017) we can see a

ton of water around us as ocean, seas and so forth. We are currently progressively getting to be

mindful of the significance of water to our survival and its restricted supply. The individuals

require water for different purposes. The most piece of the earth surface for example around 71

% is secured by water. Out of all out volume of water accessible on the outside of the earth 97 %

is saline water, 2 % water is as ice and icy masses and just 1 % is new and consumable water

(Hattum et al., 2006). Water is fundamental for all life and utilized from various perspectives, it

is additionally a piece of the bigger biological system in which the generation of the bio decent

variety depends. New water shortage isn't restricted to the parched atmosphere locales just,

however in territories with great supply where access of safe water is getting to be basic issue.

Absence of water is brought about by low water stockpiling limit, low invasion, bigger bury

yearly and yearly vacillations of precipitation (because of rainstorm downpours) and high

dissipation request. (Sivanappan, 2006). Without water all living beings like human, plants,

creatures would kick the bucket since all living beings rely upon water to endure. Water isn't

required for drinking, however we additionally need it in our everyday life for cooking, washing,

washing, cleaning, etc. Water can likewise use for mechanical purposes and furthermore for

agrarian. We can't picture existence without the assistance of water. Other that drinking and

family unit purposes, water is so essential for the continuation of the world. Water preservation

is the most essential thing for us to accomplish for our integrity sooner rather than later. We have

to begin to spare water regardless of whether there is shortage or not. Water abuse is a gigantic

issue that many individuals are managing. It might be abused on individuals, creatures, land, or

some other number of things. It might likewise be utilized for recreational exercises with no

consideration about the impacts that it might have on their general surroundings. Water

contamination is an enormous issue, particularly when you're taking a gander at regions that

don't really have a decent sewage framework. Contamination can be anything from oil, to

corpses, to synthetic substances, and to fecal issue. Regardless of what it will be; it makes a ton

of issues for the general population who may need to utilize it. On the off chance that there is

strife over a zone of land, it might be hard to get to the water that is situated there. In the most

pessimistic scenario situations, individuals could finish up biting the dust on the off chance that

they endeavor to get to the water in these regions (because of savagery). This can result in an

assortment of different issues, including contamination, which we examined in the past point.

There are various regions all through the whole world that manage water shortage since they

simply aren't near anyplace that has water. Regions that are desert, or regions that are confined,

might not have some place that the general population can get water adequately. A dry spell is, to

put it plainly, a zone which isn't persuading enough precipitation to almost certainly continue the

existence that is dwelling there. A few regions are in ceaseless dry spell, while different regions

might manage a dry spell once in a while. Dry spells are regular everywhere throughout the

world, and there is little that should be possible to keep such things from occurring. In certain

nations, explicitly those with tyrannies, the utilization of water might be carefully constrained by

people with significant influence, causing a shortage for the individuals who might be situated in

those zones of the world. These administrations use it as a wellspring of authority over those that

they are overseeing, which can be a gigantic problem.Philippines is an archipelagic and

encompassed by tremendous waterways, Dr. Salipsip said and there is a probability of a water

emergency in the nation soon because of the proceeds with quick development of populace. The

water wellbeing cautioning in the Philippines has dared to alert due to the effect of

environmental change, inconsiderateness and maltreatment in the water. As indicated by

Philippine water association out of in excess of 100 million Filipinos, just about 10 percent of

this depend on unchanged, unsustainable and hazardous water assets and around 19 million

difficult to approach improve sanitation. Families without a ceaseless wellspring of water close

to their homes regularly invest a great deal of time and vitality gathering water. Water

contamination and absence of appropriate sewage in the Philippines kills very nearly 55

individuals consistently. As indicated by the investigation led by the World Resources Institute,

predicts that the Philippines will experience an over the top dimension of water deficiency in the

year 2040.

Number of episodes and related cases recorded for enteric sickness and waterborne

enteric malady, 2004– 2013

enteric outbreaks All enteric outbreaks
O Out
Year utbreaks Cases breaks Cases
2004 24 118 363 4623
2005 27 184 342 2365
2006 18 284 483 6171
2007 15 205 479 7866
2008 26 159 429 6311
2009 24 87 587 10217
2010 56 235 571 6153
2011 45 141 545 6751
2012 51 379 659 9489
2013 62 227 616 6950

Like the majority of the creating nations, a few places in India confronting water

shortage. Individuals in the nation don't have an entrance in clean water that is alright to drink

and there is water deficiency for the utilization of cleaning too. Also, there are no urban areas in

India that get pipe water without fail. Since it is just provided only for a couple of hours every

day and for the most part couple of hours from the morning and an additional couple of hours to

the night. The nature of water has compounded in a large portion of the water bodies in the

nation. The deficiency of new water in the nation is brought about by absence of legitimate

arranging of the administration, debasement. Expanded of water use, human and modern waste

that is released into the waterways. What's more, it is relied upon to decline provided that the

proceeds with quick development of populace in the nation. The nature of water required by and

large relies upon the kind of utilization. For example, the open water supply ought to be free

from pathogenic living beings, clear, charming to the taste, at sensible temperature, neither

destructive nor scale framing and free from minerals which would somehow or another produce

unwanted physiological impacts. In perspective on the wide scope of varieties in compound

creation of water accessible in various pieces of India. Monetary water shortage alludes to a

circumstance where by a nation or district has accessible water assets yet needs adequate

budgetary intends to abuse her water assets. Most pieces of sub Saharan Africa experience the ill

effects of financial water shortage. This condition keeps on irritating in this locale and will

possibly show signs of improvement if the administrations of influenced nations make this issue

a national issue and best need. Great administration and accessible monetary assets are both

required to battle financial water shortage. Water shortage issues lead to medical problems

because of the presentation to water borne illnesses. On account of water pressure, individuals

expend whatever nature of waterIn ongoing years, worldwide situations have been the well

known pattern with respect to the guess of environmental change in general and its segments

specifically. Alcamo et al, 2007 examined the situation depicting the adjustment in normal yearly

water accessibility by 2050. This investigated situation predicts the expansion in precipitation in

many pieces of the world coming about to an expansion in water accessibility in those parts. On

the other hand, the expanding air temperatures further builds evapotranspiration in practically all

pieces of the world and in this manner diminishes water accessibility. Precipitation and

evapotranspiration collaborate distinctively and result in either an expansion or abatement in

water accessibility in various pieces of the world, yet evapotranspiration seems to eclipse the

impact of expanding precipitation since it happens all over the place (Alcamo 3 et al, 2007).

This makes it very evident that expansion water accessibility won't be seen in all zones

encountering an increment in precipitation and evapotranspiration is the fundamental guilty

party. Additionally, there is an expansion in yearly precipitation however not a relating


increment in yearly water accessibility. Be that as it may, gathering repositories, storages, can be

sullied and wherever conceivable after an all-inclusive dry period the principal downpour flush

ought to be disposed of (Hatibu et al., 2000). Moderate sand filtration is demonstrated and

supportable that can be utilized for drinking water treatment. Sand filtration is utilized to expel

superfluous particles like leaves, dust, squander, crap of creatures, microorganisms and sinkable

particles. The water streams vertically along a fine bed of sand and rock. The particles are

evacuated by retention or compaction. The procedure is delicate to bring down water temperature

that can cause to quick development of microscopic organisms, and high crude turbidity that can

prompt incessant cleaning of materials or the holder that outcome in the expanded danger of

having microorganisms as per Cleary (2005).Clean, unadulterated drinking water is a vital

requirement for creating nations. Typically water sources are somewhat or potentially contain

unsafe microorganisms that can cause the water can't be utilized for drinking. There is a ton of

seaside area where seawater is rich yet need in consumable water. Refining is one of numerous

systems that can be utilized to decontaminate water. Refining required warmth or sun powered

radiation to be utilized for the wellspring of vitality. In this procedure, water is dissipated, and

the water will isolate from disintegrated matter and it will consolidate in unadulterated water.

These are not considered here. What's more, if treatment of dirtied water is required instead of

desalination, moderate sand filtration is a decent alternative. The motivation behind this

specialized brief is to give essential data and direct the peruser to other, increasingly nitty gritty

sources. Malik (1982). Sunlight based refining is the utilization of sun powered vitality to

dissipate water and gather its condensate inside the equivalent shut framework. Not at all like

different types of water cleaning it can transform salt or harsh water into crisp drinking water

The structure that houses the procedure is known as a sun powered still and in spite of the fact

that the size, measurements, materials, and arrangement are shifted, all depend on the basic

strategy wherein an influent arrangement enters the framework and the more unpredictable

solvents leave in the profluent abandoning the salty solute behind].Solar refining varies from

different types of desalination that are more vitality escalated, for example, strategies, for

example, turn around assimilation, or just bubbling water because of its utilization of free

vitality. A typical and, by a wide margin, the biggest case of sun powered refining is the

characteristic water cycle that the Earth experiences. Utilizing the water reaping framework

gives certain focal points to the network. Most importantly, gathering water enables us to all the

more likely use a vitality asset. It is critical to do as such since drinking water isn't actually

sustainable, and it helps in diminishing wastage. Frameworks for the accumulation of water

depend on basic innovation. The general expense of their establishment and task is a lot lesser

than that of water cleaning or siphoning frameworks. Upkeep requires brief period and vitality.

The outcome is the accumulation of water that can be utilized in significant ways even without

purging. Water gathered in the water collecting framework can be put to use for a few non-

drinking capacities also. For some families and independent companies, this prompts a vast

decrease in their utilities bill. On a modern scale, collecting water can give the required measures

of water for some activities to occur easily without exhausting the adjacent water sources. It

likewise diminishes the weight of soil disintegration in various territories, enabling the land to

flourish indeed. Truth be told, it can likewise be put away in storages for use amid times when

water supplies are at an untouched low. In that capacity, there is little necessity for structure new

framework for the water gathering framework. Most housetops go about as a useful catchment

region, which can be connected to the reaping framework. This likewise diminishes the effect on

nature by lessening utilization of fuel-based machines. Water is free from numerous synthetic

compounds found in ground water, making it appropriate for water system and watering gardens.

Truth be told, putting away extensive stores of gathered water is an incredible thought for

regions where woodland flames and bramble fires are normal amid summer months. With

increment in populace, the interest for water is additionally ceaselessly expanding. The final

product is that numerous private states and ventures are separating ground water to satisfy their

day by day requests. This has prompted consumption of ground water which has gone to critical

low dimension in certain territories where there is enormous water shortage. Amid blustery

season, water is gathered in expansive capacity tanks which likewise help in decreasing floods in

some low-lying regions. Aside from this, it additionally helps in diminishing soil disintegration

and sullying of surface water with pesticides and composts from water run-off which results in

cleaner lakes and lakes. These are disservices of water gathering. Precipitation is difficult to

anticipate and here and there next to zero precipitation can constrain the supply of water. It isn't

prudent to rely upon water alone for all your water needs in regions where there is constrained

precipitation. Water reaping is appropriate in those zones that get a lot of precipitation.

Contingent upon the framework's size and innovation level, a water reaping framework may cost

anyplace between $200 to $2000 and advantage from it can't be inferred until it is prepared for

use. Like sun powered boards, the expense can be recuperated in 10-15 years which again relies

upon the measure of precipitation and complexity of the framework. Water gathering

frameworks require customary support as they may get inclined to rodents, mosquitoes, green

growth development, creepy crawlies and reptiles. They can progress toward becoming as

reproducing reason for some creatures on the off chance that they are not legitimately kept up.

Particular kinds of rooftops may leak synthetic substances, creepy crawlies, soil or creatures'

droppings that can hurt plants in the event that it is utilized for watering the plants. The

accumulation and storerooms may likewise force some sort of confinements with respect to how

much water you can utilize. Amid the overwhelming storm, the accumulation frameworks will

most likely be unable to hold all water which finishes in going to channels and streams. Water

reaping is a framework that is picking up speed after some time. Zones that experience high

measures of precipitation will profit the most from the framework and will almost certainly

disperse water to dry terrains effortlessly. Notwithstanding, the advantageous ecological effect of

the framework is the thing that drives it further starting at now. Downpour water reaping isn't

just barely gathering water however making it safe. There is a work in the rooftop canal to keep

the leaves heading off to the rooftop canal that can hindered the section of water and it

additionally keep the rooftop drain being the natural surroundings of mosquitos that can cause

dengue or even puts the occupants of this locale in a truly helpless position as far as medical

problems related with water borne infections in tainted surface water. The alliance of sand

filtration and sun based refining can create more secure water. The filtration procedure dispenses

with every pointless material that can be seen by our bare eyes that can dirty the water. While

sun powered refining will dispense with all the superfluous materials that are can't be seen by our

bare eyes like microbes, acids and so forth by this procedure the nature of water that can't be

consumable can be convert into consumable water.

B. Statement of the problem1

As indicated by world health organization over 1.2 billion individuals are essentially

living in zones with water shortage. the accessibility of perfect, sheltered and adequate measure

of water to the everyday exercises of individual is pivotal. water assumes a critical job in

changing or changing the lives of individuals to better and more beneficial one. access to

adequate measure of water is a noteworthy issue to a great many people living in country and

urban zones. downpour water collecting is inclined to the green growth development, bugs and

reptiles that taint the tidiness of the water. thusly altogether tending to water lack issues would

contribute in accomplishing the millennium development goals (mdgs). an expansion sought

after undermines the manageability of the earth in the circumstance of shortage and water

accessibility is likewise significant for the accomplishment of a supportable situation and a

practical social monetary improvement.

what is the reason for downpour water gathering?

• where is the water put away?

• is downpour water alright to drink?

• why would it be advisable for me to actualize downpour water gathering?

• who can rehearse downpour water reaping?

• where can rain water reaping be actualized?

• is downpour water gathering doable for new structures

• what is the cost engaged with downpour water reaping?

• what are the advantages of downpour water collecting?

C. Objectives of the study

• The reason for downpour water collecting is to utilize precipitation as a

wellspring of water.

• Water is put away either in uncommonly developed tanks or in a subsoil/Aquifer

or at both the spots.


• Rain water collecting with the utilization of sand filtration and sun based refining

can make water into consumable water

• Rainwater is a definitive wellspring of all the crisp water that can be utilized

through downpour water gathering, this inconsistent precipitation can be saved, put away and

utilized according to accommodation, either legitimately or for reviving groundwater.

• You, me and everyone it won't just give you water in the midst of intense water

deficiency, yet will likewise energize the groundwater and increment its dimension.

• RWH should be possible in homes, lofts, social orders, schools, organizations,

business premises and some other space insofar as there is a catchment zone as a rooftop or open

space to catch the downpour. Residential water gathering is a moderately easier undertaking,

where even a downpour barrel can fill in as a capacity unit for housetop RWH. Singular homes

have effectively executed this simple and eco-accommodating strategy for increasing family

level water accessibility. Ranchers additionally have executed downpour water reaping to change

an infertile real estate parcel into a self-economical, lavish green homestead

• No, existing structures can likewise execute downpour water collecting by

changing the current pipes and making increases, if important.

• The cost will differ contingent on the catchment region and the

transport/stockpiling structures finished. Downpour water collecting can be introduced requiring

little to no effort in extensive plots where open structures, schools and universities are found, and

this expense is irrelevant to the absolute development cost, whenever coordinated with the

structure plan. Whenever arranged in a current structure, the expense is higher because of

additional pipes included, yet the profits are wealthy as far as repeating benefits.

• Appropriately planned revive structures in open spaces, will help shield the streets

from flooding. At the point when water isn't permitted to leave the premises, its odds tearing up

the streets are negligible. Stamped improvement of both the amount just as the nature of the

groundwater in regions which have actualized water reaping. Water gathered away tanks is

accessible as and when required. Forestalls soil disintegration and flooding particularly in urban


• General Objectives

Water reaping is a technique that can build the accessibility of consumable water in the

created spot as well as in remote territories. The goal of this examination is to measure the

measure of precipitation in the investigation region and to decide the most extreme likely

measure of water that can be reaped. Water reaping can be changeless answer for the issue in

water shortage in various pieces of the world particularly the individuals who are in remote

zones. This straightforward strategy can advance an answer which will be serviceable where

there is adequate in downpour, however the accessibility of consumable water isn't adequate. It is

one noteworthy answer for meet water necessities particularly in the territories which don't have

adequate water assets and high innovations. The goal of this exploration is to evaluate the status

state and make suggestions for a superior water the board practice that will diminish water

shortage in the aeta network, to investigate the capability of downpour water reaping in the aeta

network. Setting up the crucial establishment to begin on downpour water collecting by families

to grow the water supply.


D. Significance of the study

This examination will furnish a thorough comprehension with respect to settling the

water request of the nearby populace. This examination will give information on water reaping

potential outcomes and assemble the limits of the both the neighborhood occupants just as the

experts. This will give learning to the network about the advantages of utilizing free water to

expand their local water supply and the embodiment of network based coordinated water asset

the executives. The discoveries of this investigation will be given to higher instructive

foundations. Access to spotless, sheltered and adequate measure of water for household purposes

will lessen the instances of water related ailments, for example, cholera, typhoid, skin and eye

contaminations and so on. This will increment additionally gainful time for generally ladies in

scanning for water, hence help to support the national and individual economy. Water gathering

implies the movement of direct accumulation of downpour water which can be revived in to the

ground water to avert fall of ground water level or putting away in surface or underground water

tank (Jothiprakash et al., 2009). It is the most logical and financially savvy method for energizing

the ground water and restoring the water table. It offers advantage in water quality for both water

system and local use. It tends to be done at individual just as in a network level. Along these

lines we can act naturally adequate as far as local water prerequisites and not only reliant on the

activities started by government or some other nearby body. Gathering water as it tumbles from

the sky appears to be monstrously reasonable in regions attempting to adapt to consumable water

needs. Water is one of the most flawless wellsprings of water accessible as it contains low

polluting influences. Downpour water gathering frameworks can be received where customary

water supply frameworks have neglected to address individuals' issues. Water is the most

bounteous and essential substance in nature. It is the important segment of life, wellbeing and

sanitation. It is significant forever and vegetation. Despite the fact that the freshwater

accessibility in the land zones of the earth is more than satisfactory to meet the ebb and flow

water needs, it is ending up rare with time, prompting serious water emergency in numerous

pieces of the world. This is ascribed essentially to uneven dissemination of water assets and soak

ascend in populace from rustic to the urban zones. In the mission to wind up created nation in

2020, the maintainable design must be placed in a cutting edge. This in accordance with the other

creates country on the planet. Downpour water reaping innovation is a piece of the practical

design and it must be joined with the hypothesis of structure execution. Having this in line, the

engaged assessment of downpour water reaping must be done. This is additionally to guarantee

downpour water gathering can support in the entire structure life cycle just as makes the venture

advantageous. Collecting water isn't just water moderating, it is likewise vitality rationing since

the vitality input requires to work an incorporated water framework intended to treat and siphon

water over an immense administration territory is by-passed. By catching water specifically, we

can essentially decrease our dependence on water stockpiling dams. This spots less weight on

these water storerooms and can possibly decrease the need to extend these dams or construct new

ones. Abstaining from structure extra dam supplies therefore stays away from natural harm to the

territory to be submerged. Lessen the weight for new venture to fabricate, work and keep up

extra water supply frameworks, for example, repositories, water treatment plants and conveyance

frameworks important to satisfy the regularly expanding needs for water. It additionally saves

money ashore territory resolved to store water in counterfeit lakes worked for the reason. (Last

Name, Year)

E. Theoretical Framework

In 1589, Galileo led explores different avenues regarding gravity, for example, dropping

balls from the Leaning Tower of Pisa; he found that they hit the ground in the meantime

notwithstanding having distinctive loads. Newton's work, after 100 years, set up together an

image of gravity sufficient to last an additional two centuries. Notwithstanding, in spite of the

fact that Newton's hypothesis depicted how protests pulled in one another, it didn't clarify why.

In 1915, Einstein's Theory of Relativity portrayed gravity as mass twisting existence. It

additionally portrays the way that even light twists when going close stars and other very

enormous items. All things considered, regardless of this later tweaking, Newton's unique

hypothesis clarifies a lot of the conduct of items all through the universe. (Well, 2018) The

hydrological cycle is the ceaseless pathway through which water in its different physical states

travels through seas, the environment and the dirt. This is the wellspring of new water for our

planet. The vitality required to drive this procedure is from the sun. The sun warms up the sea

surface and thus, water dissipates into the environment in a procedure called vanishing. Sea

water is salty and vanishing helps in its desalinization. The water vapor rises and with expanding

height, it chills off and gathers into little water beads and ice gems framing mists in a procedure

known as buildup. The term of these mists in the air may change contingent upon other physical

and compound impacts yet run between two or three hours to days. At the point when cloud

particles develop sufficiently vast, they will in general tumble down during the time spent

precipitation (downpour, snow, hail and so on.). Precipitation could prompt substantial tempests

which exchange heat vertically. These tempests relocate and all things considered disperse heat

from the equator and the Polar Regions. Their power and advancement is dictated by surface

temperatures, climatic dampness and wind design. Precipitation falling ashore is consumed into

the earth in a procedure called penetration or streams superficially as overflow which at long last

winds up in lakes, waterways, supplies, soils and aquifers. Plants assimilate soil water and

discharge it into the climate in a procedure called transpiration. These hydrological forms shift

from spot to put and from year to year. The worldwide precipitation and vanishing balance out

regardless of the varieties in locales and years. People approach groundwater by methods for

wells, drill gaps and springs. Surface water get to is by methods for streams, lakes, waterways

and stores. Access to water is conceivable at whatever point and wherever downpour falls. (Well,


Figure 3: The Hydrological Cycle (Gould and Nissen-Petersen, 1999)

To gain field information, a successful rainwater harvesting system installed at a

University owned building was visited that uses collected rainwater for flushing toilets. The

system at this particular building is much smaller than the proposed system for this project,

however it provided a basic understanding of how rainwater harvesting works and the

components involved. In order to properly size a rainwater harvesting system, first, the possible

collection capacity must be determined. The average monthly rainfall for the area was found

using weather data from the National Climatic Data Center. The total amount of rainwater that

can be harvested for each month can be calculated using the following equation.

According to WHO Drinking-water Quality 3rd edition (2008):


The computation of the base region of the sun based still is the most basic part as it is crucial to

realize the region required for wanted measure of sun based radiations to be occurrence so as to

create the required yield. With an ideal yield of 5 liters of water, the measure of sun oriented

vitality required can be determined as pursues:


Along these lines,



Presently, In request to compute the measure of occurrence sunlight based vitality (Q) , it is

expected to dissect the information of the normal measure of sun powered vitality episode in

Mumbai consistently. The normal sunlight based vitality got in Mumbai during the time is 6.23


Along these lines,

Q=6.23x1000/24 = 259.58 W/m^2

Business glass transmits at least 80% of light beams occurrence on it.

Along these lines,

Q = 259.58 W/m^2x .8 = 207.66 W/m^2

Expecting a time of 8 hours out of each day of episode sunlight based vitality,

Q = 259.58 W/m^2x 8 x 3600= 5980.72 KJ/m^2

Territory of base required

=Qreq/Q = 11300/5980.72 = 1.89m^2

Therefore, thinking about territory of base as 2m^2

Q= 11961.44 KJ/m^2

Measure of occurrence sun based vitality and the successful zone of the outer reflector is 4' x 3'

which is comparable to 1.15m^2.

Q=5980.72 KJ/m^2 x 1.15m^2 = 6877.82 KJ

Give us a chance to accept that, at some random time and edge of tendency of the outer reflector,

at any rate half of the complete episode sun powered radiations will be reflected

straightforwardly onto the slanted glass of the sun powered still. Therefore, the base measure of

extra sunlight based vitality occurrence on the sun based still because of the outer reflector is

Q=0.5 x 6877.82 KJ

= 3438.91 KJ

In this way, the base absolute episode sun based vitality on the sun based still is

Q=Total sun powered vitality episode on base + Total sun oriented vitality occurrence on


= 11961.44 + 3438.91

= 15400.35 KJ

In this manner, measure of refined water that can be acquired by utilizing an outside reflector

connection can be determined by

Mw=Q/L=15400.35/2260 = 6.8 kg = 6.8 liters of water Thus,

using an external reflector, theoretically, about 35% increase can be obtained in the daily output

of the solar still.

Slow sand filtration

Sand filter material used in the testing program was tested in term of sieve analysis. Filter

material was sieved through stainless steel sieves with the mesh sizes


SIZE (mm) #

1.18 #16

0.6 #30

0.425 #40

0.3 #50

0.15 #100

0.075 #200

Percent of suspended solid removal

influent concentration of suspended solid − effluent concentration of suspended solid

𝑖𝑛𝑓𝑙𝑢𝑒𝑛𝑡 𝑐𝑜𝑛𝑐𝑒𝑛𝑡𝑟𝑎𝑡𝑖𝑜𝑛 𝑜𝑓 𝑠𝑢𝑠𝑝𝑒𝑛𝑑𝑒𝑑 𝑠𝑜𝑙𝑖𝑑

Percent of fecal coliforms removal

influent concentration of fecal coliforms − effluent concentration of fecal coliforms

𝑖𝑛𝑓𝑙𝑢𝑒𝑛𝑡 𝑐𝑜𝑛𝑐𝑒𝑛𝑡𝑟𝑎𝑡𝑖𝑜𝑛 𝑜𝑓 fecal coliforms

𝑉 =𝐴 ×𝑅 ×𝐶

Where 𝑉 is the measure of harvestable water, 𝐴 is catchment territory, 𝑅 is aggregate

sum of precipitation, and 𝐶 is the overflow coefficient.

A capability of 457,500 gallons of city water can be spared because of water reaping. The

college pays around 0.0045 $/lady. Subsequently, the all out yearly reserve funds (TAS) was

resolved as pursues.

TAS = 457,500 gal×0.0045$/lady

TAS = $2,059

The last consequences of this task are $2,059 in funds every year and $83,860 in

execution costs. The basic recompense is determined by partitioning the yearly funds from the

usage cost.

Basic restitution = $83,860/($2,059 per year)= Simple Payback = 40.7 years


F. Conceptual Framework

G. Scope and limitation

In spite of being potential elective water source, these frameworks are related with certain

impediments. The Philippines is a tropical island. It has just two seasons the wet and dry season.

The blustery seasons begins in June and keeps going till October. September and October are

frequently the storm season in the Philippines. Because of time limitations and labor it won't be

conceivable to visit every one of the organizations situated in Aeta people group and along these

lines the aggregate sum of water required for each dimension of water quality might be a gauge

of the territory. The water reaping is extremely practical in the region of Aeta people group. The

precision of information concerning what measure of water is required for various dimensions of

water characteristics won't be exact. The greater part of the assessments will just have water

estimations of how much water it is that they use in a month and not for what amount is

apportioned to its diverse uses since it is far-fetched that all houses can introduce water the board

frameworks. The improvement of a general public is essentially subject to the accessibility of

sound water. In any case, by and by like the various pieces of the world, Aeta people group is

confronting expanding shortage of water assets. At this circumstance, supportable administration

of new water can be guaranteed by use of elective water sources. As precipitous is favored by

enormous amount of water every year all through the nation, water gathering can be the most

potential elective water supply choice for Aeta people group. Extent of water collecting in a

specific zone relies upon the accessibility of locales, climatic conditions (particularly

precipitation) and catchment attributes. Solid precipitation information of a specific period in a

given catchment is required to plan the potential water supply of that catchment. The example

and recurrence of blustery days are likewise imperative factor for structuring water reaping. The

less the yearly stormy days or longer the dry time frame, the more need of water accumulation in

a locale. Water gathering shows the conceivable outcomes of water stockpiling in a region or

area. In spite of the fact that downpour falls rarely over reality in the investigation zone yet

reaping this accessible water can give water to districts where different sources are excessively

inaccessible, expensive and constrained. When the downpour water has been collected, it very

well may be utilized for harvest generation and lifesaving water system amid the dry season like


H. Definition of terms

Appropriation System - Is a gadget that utilizes gravity or a siphon to move water

through the water system framework or whatever reasons the proprietor wants (GoI, CGWB,


Capacity tank - is utilized to store the water that is gathered from the Roof tops. Regular

vessels utilized for little scale water stockpiling are plastic dishes, basins, jerry jars, dirt of fired

containers, concrete containers, old oil drums and so forth. For putting away bigger amounts of

water, the framework will typically require a greater tank with adequate quality and strength

(GoI, CGWB, 2007).

Catchment of a water collecting framework - is the surface which specifically gets the

precipitation and gives water to the framework. (GoI, CGWB, 2007).

Channel funnels of reasonable size made of PVC/Stoneware - are given in RCC

structures to deplete off the rooftop top water to the tempest channels. They are given according

to the construction standard prerequisites (GoI, CGWB, 2007).


Channel bed - is comprises of a uniform fine molecule sand blend as indicated. The most

basic plan include is utilizing a right sand or elective media (GoI, CGWB, 2007).

Coarse work - is at the rooftop to keep the section of garbage (GoI, CGWB, 2007).

Consumable - IS water that has been regarded ok to drink. In the event that water has been

gathered, treated and purified, it might be reasonable to drink (GoI, CGWB, 2007).

Controlling tap - ought to be associated with the channel outlet to control the stream rate.

On vast channels a stream meter is now and then introduced for use in checking the stream rate

(GoI, CGWB, 2007).

Courses - are pipelines or channels that convey water from the catchment or housetop

region to the reaping framework (GoI, CGWB, 2007).

Down pipe - is the pipe that conveys the water from the canals to the capacity tank. Down

pipe is joined with the canals toward one side, though the other 53 end is associated with the

channel unit of the capacity tank. (GoI, CGWB, 2007).

Drains - are channels fixed to the edges of rooftop all around to gather and transport the

water from the rooftop to the capacity tank. Canals are channels made of either plain Galvanized

Iron sheets or cut PVC pipes or split Bamboo. These channels are fixed to the rooftop closures to

occupy the water into the capacity tank (GoI, CGWB, 2007).

Filter - treats the water and expels contaminants so that is protected to utilize (GoI,

CGWB, 2007).

First flush gadget - is a valve that guarantees that spillover from the primary spell of

downpour is flushed out and does not enter the framework (GoI, CGWB, 2007).

Filtration of water Screens - hold bigger flotsam and jetsam, for example, leaves can be

introduced in the down-pipe or at the tank delta. For this situation, basic rock sand channels can

be introduced at the passage of the capacity tank to channel the water coming in to the gathering

tank. The channel is utilized to expel suspended poisons from water gathered over rooftop. A

channel unit is a chamber loaded up with sifting media, for example, fiber, coarse sand and rock

layers to expel flotsam and jetsam and earth from water before it enters the capacity tank or

energizes structure (GoI, CGWB, 2007).

Sand Filtration- is given at the base of the channel to anticipate development of the fine

sand into the channel outlet (GoI, CGWB, 2007).

Top of the house - is utilized as the catchment for gathering the water. The style,

development and material of the rooftop decide its reasonableness as a catchment. Rooftops

made of creased iron sheet, asbestos sheet, tiles or cement can be used thusly to gather water

(GoI, CGWB, 2007).

Water layer - over the channel bed gives the head to push water through the channel bed.

It is helpful as a water stockpiling zone and gives a compelling temperature cushion to balance

out the Water stream rates - are pertinent in connection to the infection heap of the water system

water (GoI, CGWB, 2007).

Water quality - is a term utilized here to express the appropriateness of water to continue

different uses or procedures. A specific use will have certain prerequisites for the physical,

compound or organic qualities of water (WHO 1993).

Water Table - additionally called groundwater table, upper dimension of an underground

surface in which the dirt or rocks are for all time immersed with water. The water table isolates

the groundwater zone that lies underneath it from the slim periphery, or zone of air circulation,

that lies above it (Bhutia, 2016).


I. Review of Related Literatures

Analysis of Different Rare Metals, and Rare Earth Metals in Harvested Rain Water in Gaza

Strip/Palestine by ICP/MS-Data and Health Aspects (Gaza 2012)

This downpour water tests reaped for drinking and horticulture from Gaza gathered in November

2012 were dissected for various uncommon metals (Rb, Zr, Ti, Tl, Sb, Sc, Y), and uncommon

earth metals (La, and Ce). These metals more often than not have no greatest worthy points of

confinement as there is no adequate information about their poisonous quality to human

wellbeing. Their control ought to be along these lines controlled in water to screen their focus in

water (ground, reaped, and so on.). This investigation was directed to decide the water nature of

gathered water which is utilized for savoring the examination region. 43 water tests were

gathered in November 2012 amid the main downpour from house wells and downpour water

pools. The centralizations of the metals identified in the gathered collected water fluctuate

essentially between the 43 tests, and every one of them were recognized in all water tests

dissected in this investigation. The outcomes acquired from this examination propose a

conceivable hazard to the number of inhabitants in the investigation zone given the high

centralization of certain metals that have no most extreme permitted focus, and the way that for

some individuals in the investigation region, collected downpour water is a principle wellspring

of their water supply. Before this examination was directed to explore the nature of reaped water

from Gaza in November 2012 as far as their follow uncommon metals content since gathered

water is utilized for drinking and horticulture in Gaza as Gaza is situated in the semiarid district

and it is one of the rare water nations in Middle East. Also this investigation was led to screen

uncommon metals in collected downpour water as there are no adequate examinations led on the

convergence of such uncommon metals in water (ground, drinking, reaped water). The location

furthest reaches of the examined metals are accounted for and are multiple times the standard

deviation evaluated from six recreate estimations of the clear (1% v/v HNO3). As far as possible

by ICP-MS go somewhere in the range of 0.01 and 0.10 ppb for the follow metals dissected in

this examination. ICP/MS examination results demonstrated that all follow metals (Rb, Zr, Ti, Tl,

Sb, Sc, Y, La, Ce)

Economic Benefits of Supplemental Irrigation in Uganda (Kimera 2018)

Precipitation inconstancy and the intermittent dry seasons in the semi-dry locales of Sub-Saharan

Africa have extensive outcomes. They effectsly affect the financial and natural supportability of

country networks. This examination researches the specialized, monetary, and money related

possibility of little scale downpour water gathering, and supplemental water system (RWHSI)

framework to relieve the negative effect of long dry seasons on harvest creation. The proposed

framework comprises of constrained homestead evaluating to guide the collected downpour

water to a lined earth-lake where a few choices for siphoning are proposed for supplemental

water system plans. The proposed plan is principally actuated amid the brief time frame when the

dirt dampness is most basic for the harvest yield. To achieve an ideal size of the lake, the dirt

dampness amid the basic development time frame is recreated utilizing FAO's water efficiency

demonstrate (Aqua Crop). The lake measure is enhanced by applying Aqua Crop for quite a long

while with the real precipitation design and the conceivable supplemental water system

applications. For every year with its conceivable dry season periods, crop yield for every lake

estimate is anticipated, and after that utilized for the monetary practicality of the lake sizes. The

ideal lake estimate is the one boosting its advantage over its expense. The achievability of the

proposed RWHSI is examined on maize creation for the Soroti territory in Uganda. For the

precipitation design, soil conditions, and maize development attributes of Soroti, the proposed

RWHSI is turned out to be in fact, and financially plausible. For a regular ranch holding with a

catchment territory of one hectare, a 800 cubic-meters arranged earth-lake can provide for half

increment in the maize yield. In the wake of thinking about the development and running

expenses of the supplemental water system framework, the compensation back period is 6 years.

The examination exhibits a straightforward supportable monetary answer for the issue of harvest

disappointments because of short dry spells and droughts amid the yield developing seasons. As

a standout amongst the most vital staple nourishments in practically all districts of Sub-Saharan

Africa, the creation of Maize has incredibly diminished because of water deficiency. In this way,

this investigation recommends that a rancher can forfeit 5% of his cropland to develop a

miniaturized scale stockpiling framework that can gather surface spillover and use it principally

amid the basic development stages for a maize crop. Be that as it may, since it's an open

catchment the capacity was turned into the home of mosquitos that reason a great deal of dengue

cases in Uganda.

Design and Development of Innovative Highland Water Filtration System (Razali, 2016)

The equitable book of Al-Quran makes reference to that the fundamental need of

the living thing in this world is water. Occupant of provincial regions, for example, indigenous

individuals will tap the good country sea-going assets as the principle establishment for water.

The repository is based on the highest point of bumpy region to gather water before it releases

through a pipe framework that utilizes the power of gravity to go down to the settlements. Be

that as it may, the filtration framework much of the time stops up and requires the inhabitants to

ascend the store slope for cleaning process. A great deal of vitality and time are required to deal

with the water system frameworks. Consequently, a development framework has been directed as

the channels will be cleaned naturally utilizing sun based vitality supply. The structures of the

channels are extraordinarily planned as the channel is outfitted with electric engines, washer

bars, control supply units, and programmed control box. The upsides of this undertaking are the

item will sifted the water as stay as normal good country watering assets while utilizing the sun

based vitality to achieved green innovation application. This examination was engaged toward to

make a filtration framework utilizing new thoughts so as to conquer the issue of obstructed on

sifting framework. This undertaking was utilized of sunlight based vitality as a power source to

work this channel framework. Water system framework is critical to individuals either for

agrarian purposes or day by day use. Clean water source can influence human wellbeing. Normal

water assets incorporate lakes, waterways, streams, groundwater, precipitation and seas. Water is

a principal asset to all human. This examination centers around the populace in the provincial

zone, for example, the native. This is on the grounds that they are utilize common water for

every day utilized. In any case, gets to the water are constrained and less effective. A ton of

vitality and time are required to deal with the task of the regular water supply. Many compel

should be looked by native so as to get the water supply as the geography of the uneven

landscape and soak inclines, assault by natural life and eccentric climate. Normal water assets

ought to be imparted to different clients, for example, creature in nature.

After research, we find this created channel still has some shortcoming with the task

timing. As proposed, the improvement should be possible by changing the utilization of a clock

framework to sensor framework. Sensor framework is more successful than the clock framework

as it will work just on the time required. Besides, the expansion of water stream spouts can

likewise be introducing on the principle bar to expand cleaning viability rate.

Bacterial Analysis of Selected Drinking Water Sources in Mbarara Municipality, Uganda

(Lukubye 2017)

Observation of water quality to guarantee microbiological security is an imperative

general wellbeing capacity to avert water borne infections. Bacterial complete coliform and

Escherichia coli (E. coli) examination give sign of the sterile state of drinking water and are real

devices in the appraisal of the wellbeing hazard borne by pathogen in water. Sadly, there is

lacking data on the absolute coliform and E. coli sums in the normal drinking water sources in

Mbarara Municipality, Uganda regardless of the famous anthropogenic wellsprings of

defilement. Henceforth the investigation built up the clean hazard and measured the all out

coliform and E. coli load in chosen drinking water sources in Mbarara Municipality, Uganda. A

sum of 70 water tests were gathered from chose boreholes, springs, wells and water in

Nyamitanga, Kamukuzi and Kakoba divisions of Mbarara district. The water tests were

examined for complete coliform and E. coli wealth utilizing the American Public Health

Association (APHA) standard strategy. The all out coliform and Escherichia coli tallies were

contrasted and the World Health Organization (WHO) drinking water standard rules. The clean

hazard appraisal score is a dependable instrument for foreseeing the conceivable dimensions of

bacterial sullying of drinking water sources in Mbarara region. The outcomes showed that there

is a solid linkage between microbiological (all out coliforms and E. coli) water quality and water

source sanitation, just as the vicinity of lavatories, creature ranches and landfills around the water

sources. All the examined groundwater sources (boreholes, springs and wells) in Mbarara

Municipality were not consistent to either both or one of the WHO absolute coliform and E. coli

criteria for drinking water thus they are unsatisfactory for drinking without treatment for

example bubbling and so on. Just water gathered from Mbarara University of Science and

Technology met the WHO complete coliform and E. coli criteria for drinking water accordingly

is reasonable for drinking with no treatment. Mbarara city chamber ought to in this manner

guarantee that pit restrooms and creature ranches are not situated inside WHO prescribed least

nearness of 30 m to the groundwater sources (boreholes, springs and wells). Mbarara city

committee ought to likewise guarantee successful and normal task and upkeep of the drinking

water sources through the selection and advancement of suitable Water Safety Plans

Low-Cost Storm water Filtration System to Improve Urban Water Quality: The Case of Addis

Ababa, Ethiopia (Adugna 2017)

Urbanization in creating nations regularly adversely impacts water re-sources by contaminating

surface waters. Addis Ababa, Ethiopia, is right now encountering fast urbanization joined by

huge water deficiencies, unmanaged storm water, and expanding stream water contamination. To

enhance the requirement for non-consumable water and address storm water overflow

contamination, we developed a minimal effort stormwater filtration framework. The filtration


framework is included a sedimentation region pursued by three rock grain sizes orchestrated on a

level plane from coarse to medium to fine channel media. We contrasted the nature of

pretreatment water and post-treatment water by estimating physicochemical parameters,

substantial metals and supplements. We found that the filtration framework decreased turbidity

by 87%, TSS by 80%, Cu by 87% and Zn by 90%. Further, it decidedly expanded the grouping

of DO by 42%. Be that as it may, the filtration framework did not expel nitrates and nitrites.

Actualizing this framework at outfalls in the quickly extending apartment suite lodging zones

can expand occupants' supply of non-consumable water and diminish the measure of

contaminated tempest water entering close-by streams and waterways. In Addis Ababa, Ethiopia,

storm water overflow conveys toxins that weaken waterway water quality. In this manner, to

enhance inhabitants' requirement for non-consumable water supplies and to improve stream

water quality, we built an ease storm water filtration framework and tried its adequacy in July

through August 2016 (amid the Ethiopian stormy season) by looking at water tests dependent on

dimensions of physicochemical parameters, substantial metals and supplements. The tempest

water was gathered from the housetops, a nearby road, and parking areas. Our framework

utilized three rock grain sizes (coarse, medium and fine) organized on a level plane from coarse

to medium to fine. In view of water test testing, our filtration framework evacuated turbidity,

complete suspended solids, and overwhelming metals by over 80%. Further, it expanded the

grouping of disintegrated oxygen by 42%. In any case, our filtration framework was not

compelling at bringing down nitrates and nitrites levels. It is our expectation that the sifted

tempest water will in the long run be associated with an underground stockpiling tank at the

"Biruh tesfa" apartment suite lodging site. We will keep on observing the water quality and we

trust this minimal effort filtration framework will fill in as a network resource that produces

water quality enhancements and helps occupants in their every day assignments.

The effect of using different designs of solar stills on water distillation (Badranb, 2004).

Sun based refining is one of the essential strategies for using the sunlight based vitality

for the supply of consumable water to little networks where the common supply of new water is

insufficient or of low quality, and where daylight is plentiful. Sun oriented vitality use in two

distinct kinds of sun powered stills is considered, and factors that impact the profitability of sun

based stills are examined. The present examination demonstrated that the profitability of awry

nursery type still (ASGHT) having mirrors on its inside dividers was higher than that of the

symmetric nursery type still (SGHT) and increasingly proficient. It was discovered that the

refined water yield of the awry nursery type was 20% higher than that of symmetric nursery

type. Execution qualities of the two stills demonstrated that the temperature at the water surface

is firmly identified with the occurrence sun powered radiation, and the efficiency of the stills can

be expanded with diminishing water profundity, and by the expansion of color.

J. Research Design

This research is an example of quantitative research about the bacterial testing parameter

standards , quantity of water if it is enough to supply the Aeta community, the flowrate of the

water, physical test parameter characteristics of the water.

K. Materials

Water Tank is a container for storing water with the capacity of 2 Cubic meter.

PVC Pipes are safe choice for transportation of drinking water. This is due to their high

degree of inertness and resistance to corrosion, In this research 2 different PVC pipes are

used one is used for collecting of water and the other one is for the transporting of potable


Gutter is the part of the roof where the rainwater was collected

Mesh is located at the gutter that prevents the rainwater to be the breading of mosquitos

and other unnecessary materials

Glass is used in the solar distillation process where in it transmit the heat of the sun that

makes the water to evaporate

Sand is used in the filtration removing unnecessary materials.

Gravel is used in the filtration removing unnecessary materials.

Charcoal is used in the filtration removing unnecessary materials.

Wood is used for the support in the glass in solar distillation

Black paint used to transmit more heat in the solar distillation

Miscellaneous consist of diverse things or members.

L. Population

People in the Aeta community in Mabalacat Pampanga are the people who will benefits

in this research. I need the help of professional like Department of Health for the testing

parameters for the microbiological examination and for the physical appearance of the water and

also, I need the help of professionals for the construction of the material to be used.

M. Research Instrument and Data Collection

The research instrument uses the average rainfall in the Philippines, the population

growth in aeta community in Mabalacat Pampanga, speed of the flow in the filtration process and

the speed in evaporating and settlement of water and also the dimension of the roof of every

housed that will use the Rainwater Harvesting. In this research the rainwater will go into the roof

gutter and then straight to the filtration system where it removes unnecessary materials after

filtering the water will go to the solar distillation process wherein in this process all bacteria that

passed in the filtration will remove in the distillation process because only pure water will

evaporates after the process the water will be test if it is failed in the physical appearance there is

something error in the filtration process or if it is failed in the microbiological examination there

is something wrong in the distillation process.

N. Methods for data recording and analysis

Method 1 catching the rainwater in to the roof and it will go to the gutter with mesh that

protects the water from the mosquito.

Method 2 the water from the gutter will go in to the container and it will filtered into the slow

sand filtration that removes unnecessary materials like dust, poop of animals that passed in

the gutter

Method 3 after filtering the water will go into the tank and will be processed in the

distillation if there is sun.

Method 4 the output water will be tested in the physical appearance and in microbiological

testing if it is safe or no.



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