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DESIGN AND ANALYSIS OF A TWO STAGE REDUCTION

GEARBOX

A project report submitted


in partial fulfilment of the requirement for the award of the degree of

BACHELOR OF TECHNOLOGY IN
MECHANICAL ENGINEERING BY

V.PRANAY DEEPAK REDDY 14071A0344


TALASILA PRANAY NAG 14071A0354

Under the guidance of

Mr. CH. NAVEEN REDDY, Assistant professor

Department of Mechanical Engineering


VNR VIGNANA JYOTHI INSTITUTE OF ENGINEERING & TECHNOLOGY
(Autonomous)
Vignana Jyothi Nagar, Bachupally, Nizampet (SO), Hyderabad – 500 090 (Approved by
AICTE & Govt. of T.S and Affiliated to JNTU, Hyderabad)

April, 2018
DEPARTMENT OF MECHANICAL ENGINEERING
CERTIFICATE
This is to certify that the project report entitled “DESIGN AND ANALYSIS OF A TWO
STAGE REDUCTION GEARBOX” has been carried out at VNR VJIET, Hyderabad and
submitted by the following Students.

S.No NAME OF THE STUDENT HALL TICKET No.

1. V.PRANAY DEEPAK REDDY 14071A0344


2. TALASILA PRANAY NAG 14071A0354

In partial fulfillment of the requirements for the award of the Bachelor of Technology in
Mechanical Engineering to Jawaharlal Nehru Technological University Hyderabad at VNR
Vignana Jyothi Institute of Engineering & Technology during the period of 2012-2016 is a
bonafide of the work carried out by them under the guidance and supervision of the under signed.
The results embodied in this project report have not been submitted to any other University or
institution for the award of any Degree.

Mr. CH. NAVEEN REDDY Dr. M.V.R. DURGA PRASAD


Project Guide Head of the Department,
Assistant Professor
Mechanical engineering,
VNR VJIET
VNR VJIET
APPROVAL CERTIFICATE

Viva-Voice examination conducted for the dissertation work entitled “DESIGN AND ANALYSIS
OF A TWO STAGE REDUCTION GEARBOX” is conducted on……………… and the work is
approved for the award of Degree of Bachelor of Technology in Mechanical Engineering.

INTERNAL EXAMINER EXTERNAL EXAMINER


DECLARATION

We, the undersigned declare that the project report entitled “DESIGN AND ANALYSIS OF A
TWO STAGE REDUCTION GEARBOX” has been carried out and submitted in partial
fulfillment of the requirements for the Award of the Bachelor of Technology in Mechanical
Engineering at VNR Vignana Jyothi Institute of Engineering & Technology, affiliated to
Jawaharlal Nehru Technological University, Hyderabad is an authentic work and has not been
submitted to any other university.

PLACE: HYDERABAD V.PRANAY DEEPAK REDDY(14071A0344)

DATE:

TALASILA PRANAY NAG(14071A0354)


ACKNOWLEDGEMENT

The satisfaction and euphoria that accompany the successful completion of any task
would be incomplete without mentioning the people who have made it possible, because success
is the epitome of hard work. So with gratitude, we acknowledge all those whose guidance and
encouragement have made our efforts successful.

We wish to express our deep sense of gratitude to the our Principal


Dr. C.D.NAIDU and Head of the Department of Mechanical Engineering Dr.M.V.R. DURGA
PRASAD for their encouragement, which went a long way in the successful completion of this
project.

We express gratitude to Mr. CH.NAVEEN REDDY, Assistant Professor,


for his valuable suggestions, constant encouragement and support of our Endeavour’s.

We cannot ignore the support given by our parents who have been always been
inspirational.

We thank every individual who has directly or indirectly influenced us to propel the
project to its completion.
ABSTRACT
An All-Terrain Vehicle is an Off Road vehicle that has the ability to drive on any terrain
without any difficulty. These vehicles are designed to sustain any sort of extreme loads that act
during off road driving. All-Terrain Vehicles are fitted with large tires with grooves for better
traction on slippery terrains, high ground clearance to avoid obstacles, and usually designed with
high torque rather than speed. As compared to commercial vehicles, these vehicles are designed
to be more strong and durable. These vehicles are vastly used in Deserts, Mountains, forests or any
other gravel surfaces.

All-Terrain Vehicles are vastly used in farming in India. Best examples are tractors and
snow mobiles. The main key for such vehicles is the powertrain assembly which is unique and
differs from other vehicles. The power train includes Engine, Manual Gearbox, Limited slip
Differential or in some cases a reduction gearbox coupled with a continuously Variable
Transmission (CVT).CVT is the new technology being implemented in Off Road Racing.

BAJA vehicles are the most famous Off Road Vehicles in India.However,due to the
extreme loads caused by the gravel tracks and the constraints to reduce the weight, one major
component is susceptible to failure—Reduction Gearbox. Gearbox is a costly component and on
failure, the vehicle is immobile The Power Train assembly is so complicated that it occupies a lot
of space in the vehicle hence increasing the overall weight. The aim of this project is to design a
gearbox that is compact, lightweight and has extended life. Major fields covered are Material
selection, Machine Engineering Design of Gears, Shafts, Gearbox Casing, Bearing selection,
Vibrations caused due to the Engine. These analytical designs have been validated through the
help of CAD and FEA software like SolidWorks and ANSYS. Various Analysis like Structural,
Repeated loads and Computational Fluid Dynamics (CFD) have been performed to study the
behavior of components and oil flow during operations. The design is also finalized with the fits
required for assembly and the final product is expected to be efficient, light weight, compact and
long lasting than the other Gearboxes being used today.

Keywords: All-Terrain Vehicle, Reduction Gearbox, Computer Aided Engineering (CAD),


Computational Fluid Dynamics (CFD), Vibrations, Finite Element Analysis (FEA)
CONTENTS
LIST OF FIGURES i

LIST OF TABLES iii

LIST OF SYMBOLS iv

1.INTRODUCTION 1

1.1 GEARBOX 1

1.2 REDUCTION GEARBOX 2

1.2.1 Types of Reduction Gearbox 2


1.3 COMPONENTS OF GEARBOX 3

1.3.1 Casing 3
1.3.2 Gears 4
1.3.3 Shafts 6
1.3.4 Bearings 6
1.4 FITS AND TOLERANCES 7

1.4.1 Types Of Fits 8


1.5 ALL TERRAIN VEHICLE 9

2.LITERATURE REVIEW 10

3. METHODOLOGY FOR MATERIAL SELECTION 12

3.1 OBJECTIVES 12

3.1.1 DESIGN CONSIDERATIONS 12


3.2 REQUIRED SPECIFICATIONS 13

3.3 MATERIAL SELECTION 14

3.3.1 Material For Gears 14


3.3.2 Material For Shafts 15
3.3.3 Material For Casing 16
3.3.4 Aluminum Alloy Grade 7071-T6 16
3.4 GEAR OIL SELECTION 17
3.5 SELECTION OF FITS AND TOLERANCES 18

4.DESIGN OF COMPONENTS OF TWO STAGE 21

REDUCTION GEARBOX
4.1 DESIGNING OF GEARS 21

4.1.1 Gear Profile Parameters 21


4.2 DESIGN OF FIRST STAGE REDUCTION 21

4.3 DESIGN OF SECOND STAGE REDUCTION 27

4.4 CONSIDERATIONS & SELECTIONS OF BEARINGS 32

5. MODELLING OF TWO SATGE REDUCTION 34

GEARBOX IN SOLIDWORKS
5.1 INTRODUCTION TO SOLIDWORKS: 34

5.2 MODELLING OF THE COMPONENTS 35

5.2.1 Procedure For Modelling The Gears 36


5.2.2 Procedure For Modelling The Shafts 39
5.2.3 Modelling the Gearbox Casing 42
5.3 ASSEMBLY OF THE PRODUCT 44

6.ANALYSIS AND RESULTS 46

6.1 FORCES ACTING ON GEARS 46

6.2 FORCES ACTING ON THE SHAFTS 51

6.3 VIBRATION AND LOADING EFFECT ON CASING 54

6.4 FLOW ANALYSIS USING FLOW SIMULATION 57

7.CONCLUSION AND FUTURE SCOPE 60

REFERENCES 62
LIST OF FIGURES
S.No DESCRIPTION PAGE No.
1 1.1 A Gearbox contain various Gear Ratios. [5] 1
2 1.2 A single Reduction has one set of gears.[12] 2
3 1.3 A Double Reduction has two set of gears. [5] 3
4 1.4 Terms used in Gears. [8] 4
5 1.5 Spur Gear has flat teeth. [8] 5
6 1.6 Helical Gears have inclined teeth. [8] 6
7 1.7 Terms in Roller Contact Bearing. [7] 7
8 1.8 Basic terms in Limits and Tolerances. [7] 7
9 1.9 Clearance Fit [12] 8
10 1.10 Transition Fit [12] 8
11 1.11 Interference Fit [12] 9
12 1.12 A Baja ATV. 9
13 3.1 Forces acting on a gear. [1] 14
14 3.2 Forces acting on a shaft. 15
15 3.3 Viscosity for different type of oils. 18
16 3.4 Hole basis system is used between shaft and bearing. [12] 19
17 3.5 Shaft basis system. [12] 19
18 3.6 Reference for using Fits for components [12] 20
19 5.1 1st Spur gear has 18 teeth and 15mm Shaft Diameter. 37
20 5.2 2nd Spur gear has 36 teeth and 30 mm Shaft Diameter. 37
21 5.3 3rd Spur gear has 22 teeth and 25 mm Shaft Diameter. 38
22 5.4 4th Spur gear has 22 teeth and 25 mm Shaft Diameter. 38
23 5.5 Input Shaft has 15mm ID and length:76 mm 39
24 5.6 Intermediate shaft has 30mm OD stepped down to 25 mm. 40
Length:76 mm
25 5.7 Final shaft has 30mm OD Length: 76 mm 40
26 5.8 M6 Hex Head Bolt. Length:30 mm. 41
27 5.9 M6 Hex Head Nut. Length: 5.2 mm. 41

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28 5.10 Outside of Gearbox Casing 43
29 5.11 Inside of Gearbox Casing 43
30 5.12 Final Assembly of Gearbox. 44
31 5.13 An Exploded View of the Assembly. 45
32 6.1 Static Structural Analysis on Gear 1 47
33 6.2 Static Structural Analysis on Gear 2 47
34 6.3 Static Structural Analysis on Gear 3 48
35 6.4 Static Structural Analysis on Gear 4 48
36 6.5 Displacement Analysis on Gear 1. 49
37 6.6 Displacement Analysis on Gear 2. 49
38 6.7 Displacement Analysis on Gear 3. 50
39 6.8 Displacement Analysis on Gear 4. 50
40 6.9 Stress developed in 1st shaft 52
41 6.10 Stress developed in intermediate shaft. 52
42 6.11 Stress developed in 3rd shaft. 53
43 6.12 Displacement in 1st Shaft 53
44 6.13 Displacement in Intermediate Shaft 545
45 6.14 Displacement of 3rd Shaft 54
46 6.15 Vibration Analysis on Assembly 55
47 6.16 Fasteners affected by Vibrations 56
48 6.17 Maximum Stress observed near the mounting points 56
49 6.18 Shafts and Bearing are majorly not affected by Vibrations. 57
50 6.19 Velocity contours of Oil flow 58
51 6.20 The Oil flow is driven by the movement of gears. 58

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LIST OF TABLES
S.No. DESCRIPTION PAGE No.
1 3.1 Minimum requirements a Gearbox should meet 13
2 3.2 Materials suitable for gears 15
3 3.3 Available material for shaft’s requirements 16
4 3.4 Choice of materials for Gearbox Casing 16
5 3.5 Material Properties 17
6 3.6 Alloy chemical composition 17
7 3.7 Properties of EP series Oils 18
8 4.1 Material chosen for first stage reduction gears. 23
9 4.2 Material chosen for second stage reduction gears 28
10 5.1 Materials selected for various parts. 35
11 5.2 Specifications of the gears 36
12 5.3 Specifications of shafts 39
13 6.1 Loading conditions applied on Gears 46
14 6.2 Loads acting on Gears 46
15 6.3 Loading conditions applied on Shafts 51
16 6.4 Loads acting on Shafts 51
17 6.5 Loading conditions applied on assembly 55
18 6.6 Loading conditions for CFD 57

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LIST OF SYMBOLS
α -Pressure Angle
a -Centre Distance
b -Face width
Cv -Velocity Factor
d -Pitch diameter
d1 -Pitch diameter of pinion
d2 -Pitch diameter of gear
E -Young’s Modulus
F0 -Height Factor;0.8 for stub gear tooth
Fd -Dynamic Load
Fs -Strength of Gear tooth
Ft -Transmitted Load
Fw -Wear Load
HP -Horse Power
i -Gear Ratio
K -Load Concentration Factor
Kd -Dynamic load factor
M -Module
Mt -Torque Transmitted by Pinion
Pc -Circular Pitch
Q -Ratio Factor
σc -Contact Stress
σb -Designed Bending Stress
vm -Mean Velocity
y -Lewis Form Factor
Z -Number of teeth
Z1 -Number of teeth Pinion
Z2 -Number of teeth Gear

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CHAPTER 1

INTRODUCTION

1.1 GEARBOX
A Gearbox is a device that used for transmitting power from the Power source to
the output shaft. A gearbox has a set of gears that are enclosed in a casing. The gears are
mounted on shafts which rotate freely about their axis. The gears are fixed on the shafts
by Fits or by a key. These shafts are made to rotate freely on a support called casing.
Bearings are tightly fit between the shafts and the casing. Today’s cars have various sets
of gears which give different speeds and torque on different Gears. A Gearbox is
necessary because it is impractical to directly connect the input source to the output shaft.
The power source may not have enough torque to bear the whole load at once. This will
put a load on the power source which may cause overheating, more fuel consumption or
even failure of the components. Gearbox gives leverage to the power source by
enhancing the torque at initial gears and then delivering high speeds at final stages. This
reduces the capacity of the power source required and hence less fuel consumption. Each
Gearbox has its own set of Gear ratios that can be selected by the driver or just one set of
universal Gear Ratio that will work with the help of a Torque converter or a Continuously
Variable Transmission Major components include gears, Casing, Shafts, and Bearing.

Figure 1.1: A Gearbox contain various Gear Ratios. [5]

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1.2 REDUCTION GEARBOX:
A reduction gearbox is a device by which an input speed can be lowered for a
requirement of slower output speed, with same or more output torque. Reduction gear
assembly consists of a set of rotating gears connected to an output shaft. The high speed
incoming motion from the wheel work is transmitted to the set of rotating gears, wherein
the motion or torque is changed. The number of gears used in the reduction gear
assembly depends on the output speed requirement of the application. The reduction gear
assembly is usually known as reduction gear box. Depending on the Output speed
required, the reduction may have single stage or two stage reduction.

1.2.1 Types of Reduction Gearbox


There are mainly two types of reduction gears:
 Single reduction gear
 Double reduction gear

Single Reduction Gear:


This arrangement consists of only one pair of gears. The reduction gear box
consists of ports through which the propeller shaft and engine shaft enters the assembly.
A small gear known as a pinion is driven by the incoming engine shaft. The pinion
directly drives a large gear mounted on the propeller shaft. The speed is adjusted by
making the ratio of the speed reduction to the diameter of pinion and gear proportional.
Generally, a single gear assembly has a gear double the size of a pinion.

Figure 1.2: A single Reduction has one set of gears. [12]


Double Reduction gear
Double reduction gears are generally used in applications involving very high
speeds. In this arrangement the pinion is connected to the input shaft using a flexible
coupling. The pinion is connected to an intermediate gear known as the first reduction

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gear. The first reduction gear is then connected to a low speed pinion with the help of one
more shaft. This pinion is connected to the second reduction gear mounted directly on the
propeller shaft. Such arrangement facilitates the reduction of speed to a ratio as high as
20:1.

Figure 1.3: A Double Reduction has two set of gears. [5]

1.3 COMPONENTS OF A GEARBOX:


A Gearbox comprises of major components namely:
1. Casing
2. Gears
3. Shafts
4. Bearings
1.3.1 Casing:
Casing is a fixture that fixes all the shafts and assembles all gears into an
assembly without any interference. Casing also contains the mounting points to mount it
in a powertrain Assembly. The Casing takes the load imposed by the power source.
Vibrations are also transmitted in case the power source is an Engine. Intricate shape are
drawn on the casing to keep it from yielding. There are bearing sockets on the casing
where the bearings are fit into the casing. Then the shafts are placed in the bearing. An
inlet is created in casing to pour gear oil. The casing should be air tight as it
accommodates space for the gear oil for cooling. The casing is usually a symmetric two
piece setup that is used to open or close the gearbox for maintenance or repairs. The
casing should be manufactured with utmost precision to avoid misalignment. Over the
years, Cast Iron is being used for manufacturing casing. Nowadays, casings are coming in
Steels or oven Aluminum Alloys.

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1.3.2 Gears
A gear is a rotating machine part having cut teeth, which mesh with another
toothed part to transmit torque. Geared devices can change the speed, torque, and
direction of a power source. Gears almost always produce a change in torque, creating
a mechanical advantage, through their ratio. The teeth on the two meshing gears all have
the same shape. Two or more meshing gears, working in a sequence, are called a gear
train or a transmission.

Advantages:
1. It transmits exact velocity ratio.
2. It may be used to transmit large power.
3. It may be used for small center distances of shafts.
4. It has high efficiency.
5. It has reliable service.
6. It has compact layout.

Figure 1.4: Terms used in Gears. [8]

Gear Ratio

It is the ratio between the Input and the output gear. From gear ratio, we can
calculate the speed, Diameter and number of teeth of the gears

Formula: = =

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Gear Types: Spur Gear and Helical Gear

Spur Gear: Spur gears are mounted in series on parallel shafts to achieve large
gear reductions. The most common gears are spur gears and are used in series for large
gear reductions. The teeth on spur gears are straight and are mounted in parallel on
different shafts. Spur gears are used in washing machines, screwdrivers, windup alarm
clocks, and other devices. These are particularly loud, due to the gear tooth engaging and
colliding. Each impact makes loud noises and causes vibration, which is why spur gears
are not used in machinery like cars. A normal gear ratio range is 1:1 to 6:1.

Figure 1.5: Spur Gear has flat teeth. [8]

Helical Gear: Helical gears operate more smoothly and quietly compared to spur
gears due to the way the teeth interact. The teeth on a helical gear cut at an angle to the
face of the gear. When two of the teeth start to engage, the contact is gradual--starting at
one end of the tooth and maintaining contact as the gear rotates into full engagement. The
typical range of the helix angle is about 15 to 30 deg. The thrust load varies directly with
the magnitude of tangent of helix angle. Helical is the most commonly used gear in
transmissions. They also generate large amounts of thrust and use bearings to help
support the thrust load. Helical gears can be used to adjust the rotation angle by 90 deg.
when mounted on perpendicular shafts. Its normal gear ratio range is 3:2 to 10:1.

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Figure 1.6: Helical Gears have inclined teeth. [8]

1.3.3 Shafts
A shaft is a rotating machine element which is used to transmit power from one place to
another. The power is delivered to the shaft by some tangential force and the resultant
torque (or twisting moment) set up within the shaft permits the power to be transferred to
various machines linked up to the shaft. In order to transfer the power from one shaft to
another, the various members such as pulleys, gears etc., are mounted on it. These
members along with the forces exerted upon them causes the shaft to bending. In other
words, we may say that a shaft is used for the transmission of torque and bending
moment. The various members are mounted on the shaft by means of keys or splines.

STRESSES IN SHAFTS
The following stresses are induced in the shafts:
1. Shear stresses due to the transmission of torque (i.e. due to torsional load).
2. Bending stresses (tensile or compressive) due to the forces acting upon
machine elements like gears, pulleys etc. as well as due to the weight of the shaft
itself.
3. Stresses due to combined torsional and bending loads.

1.3.4 Bearings

Bearing is a component that ensures smooth rotation between the fixed support
and the rotating shafts. These components are made of high carbon alloy steels that can
bear huge amount of loads and rotate at high RPMs/There are two types of bearing---
Sliding contact bearing and rolling contact bearings. Sliding contact have a fluid between
the inner and outer race that ensures smooth rotation. Rolling contact bearings also
known as ball bearings have a handful of tiny hardened steel balls or rollers between the
inner and outer race, these balls are super finished and have less friction compared to the
sliding contact bearings.

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These bearing have two types of loads acting on them namely Radial and Axial
loads. These loads are calculated while making the gearbox. The outer race of the bearing
are fitted into the casing and the inner race to the shaft.

Figure 1.7: Terms in Roller Contact Bearing. [7]

1.4 FITS AND TOLERANCES:

In a Gearbox, the bearings, shafts, gears and the casing are fitted together with a
transition or Interference Fit. This locks the two mating surfaces with ease and the mating
surface will move together in sync. Along with the tolerances, fits are important. Giving a
loose fit may cause sliding between the mating parts. Too tight a fit between the mating
parts may impose unnecessary loads which may cause failure very soon. Hence limits and
Fits are important while designing the Gearbox. The three type of Fits are namely:
Interference, Transition and Clearance Fit.

Figure 1.8: Basic terms in Limits and Tolerances. [7]

Upper Deviation: The algebraic difference between the maximum limit of size (of either
hole or shaft) and the corresponding basic size, like ES, es.

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Lower Deviation: The algebraic difference between the minimum limit of size (of either
hole or shaft) and the corresponding basic size, like EI, ei.
Fundamental Deviation: It is one of the two deviations which is chosen to define the
position of the tolerance zone.
Tolerance: The algebraic difference between upper and lower deviations. It is an
absolute value.
Limits of Size: There are two permissible sizes for any particular dimension between
which the actual size lies, maximum and minimum.
Basic Shaft and Basic hole: The shafts and holes that have zero fundamental deviations.
The basic hole has zero lower deviation whereas, the basic shaft has zero upper deviation.

1.4.1 Types of Fits


The three types of fit are:

1. Clearance - the hole is larger than the shaft, enabling the two parts to slide and /
or rotate when assembled.

Figure 1.9: Clearance Fit [12]

2. Transition - the hole is fractionally smaller than the shaft and mild force is
required to assemble / disassemble.

Figure 1.10: Transition Fit [12]

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3. Interference - the hole is smaller than the shaft and high force and / or heat is
required to assemble / disassemble.

Figure 1.11: Interference Fit [12]

1.5 ALL TERRAIN VEHICLE

An all-terrain vehicle (ATV), also known as a quad, quad bike, three-wheeler, and
four-wheeler is a vehicle that is designed to go on any Terrain or any obstacle that comes
in front it. Many event of off road Racing is conducted across India. Baja SAE INDIA is
conducted every year in the month of January. The type of Off Road vehicle is known as
Baja. These vehicles use Briggs & Stratton 305cc 8HP Engine driven Reduction
Gearbox. For such vehicles, high torque is required as opposed to speed.

Figure 1.12: A Baja ATV.

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CHAPTER 2

LITERATURE REVIEW

The Volvo Group [1] introduced a concept of Automatic Transmissions. It is


discussed that Manual Gearboxes are complicated in design and is difficult for the users
to drive the vehicle. Usage of so many components in the manual gearbox also reduced
the efficiency and the clutch plates had to be replaced periodically. The company stated
that it is difficult to implement manual gearbox in smaller vehicles.
HubvanDoorne of DAF [2] has developed the concept of Continuously Variable
Transmission (CVT).They have studied the concept briefly which was introduced by
Leonardo Da Vinci in 14090s.They have studied the concept and its flaws discovered
through 1900s and have manufactured a CVT that was implemented in cars. This resulted
in the new age of Automatic Transmissions. CVTs were first tested in Volvo cars.

Willis, Christopher Ryan [3] (VTechWorks-79677) have developed a CVT design


that can be tuned to a range of Reduction ratios. Such CVTs can be tuned and can be used
on any vehicle that can accommodate space for CVT. They have explained that such
CVTs still need a reduction gearbox with a fixed reduction gear ratio.

Polaris Automobili [4] has successfully implemented CVT coupled with


Reduction Gearbox. They have stated that the power train in their ATVs is very
complicated and have studied the various complications caused due to the reduction
gearbox including Noise, Vibration and the Noise produced.

John M. Hawkins [5] simplified the design of a gearbox and made it more
compact for usage in low power vehicles like Mopeds and Forklifts. He even analyzed
the current flaws in reduction gearbox which were either reduced or nullified in his
design. His design was so compact that it is being used in Helicopters to increase the
torque which has reduced the startup time of the rotors.
Ralph E.Taggert [8] made a detailed experimental study on ‘Forces that affect the
operation and efficiency of reduction Gearbox’ that contributes the complete information
about a single stage reduction gearbox that includes dimensions of the real time
gyroplane parts, the parts used in the Gearbox, assembly of individual components of the
Gearbox, Gearbox mounting, VT mounting and Differential mounting in Automobiles.
Sellgren, U.; Akerblom, M. [9] have done extensive studies on the gearbox to
study the origin of noise at high speeds. Noises in gearbox is a sign of inefficient
operation and faster wear of components. It has been observed that the origin of noises is
from improper meshing of gears in the assembly. This mostly happens due to not giving

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proper clearances between gear train that cause either huge Backlash or interference
hence leading to faster wear.
Canonsburg [10] made a detailed study on ‘ANSYS Workbench’ that includes the
process of ANSYS workbench Project, Project schematic, Toolbox, Modal Analysis, and
Configuring ANSYS Workbench. ANSYS workbench users interface
Todd Grimm [11] made a study on ‘Experimental Analysis on Aluminum Alloys’
which includes the advantages of Aluminum Alloys, Heat treatment methods and their
outcomes.
Ramesh Banothu [12] worked on ‘Design and analysis of Gear Shaft’ in which he
concluded that Vibrations can be transmitted from the casing to the gears through the
gear shafts. He even conclude that the shafts are subjected to bending moments and slight
torsion when there are at least two gears mounted on one shaft.
Vilas Warudkar [13] from his study ‘Design and Optimization of 2-Stage
Reduction Gearbox’ has concluded the methodology to make a conventional Reduction
gearbox for Water pumps. This Gearbox did not use any alloys for materials and did not
consider vibrations or Thermal analysis inside the Gearbox.

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CHAPTER 3

METHODOLOGY FOR MATERIAL SELECTION

3.1 OBJECTIVES:

To Design, Analyze the problems being faced in an ATV and overcome all those
flaws. Major flaws include weight, size and cost. Occasional breakdowns and constant
maintenance have been observed. Design plan includes research and material selection
for the Casing, Gears and shafts. Gear oil selection is also based on market survey and
behavior of fluids at a given temperature range. Once the material is selected, the
calculations for minimum dimensions will be calculated. Standard dimensions similar to
the minimum dimensions are selected and modelled in a CAD software. Various profiles
have been created on the components to ensure structural integrity and less weight.

3.1.1 Design Considerations:

The gears and shafts present in the reduction gearbox undergo various forces
acting over them. The two stage reduction gearbox consists of three shafts and four gears
(two driver gears, two driven gears). The driver gear of the first stage of reduction which
is probably the smallest gear in the entire reduction gear box is present on the input shaft
which gets the input from the continuously variable transmission (CVT). And the second
shaft also called as the intermediate shaft consists of the driven gear of the first stage of
reduction and also the driver gear of the second stage of reduction which are termed to be
as compound gears. Finally, the third shaft called as the output shaft consists of the
driven gear of the second stage of reduction which could be the largest gear. This output
shaft delivers the required rpm to the wheels via a Limited Slip Differential (LSD) which
is connected by a chain drive from the output shaft of the gearbox.
When certain RPM is given as an input to the driver gear of the first stage of
reduction, it starts rotating in a particular direction by causing a rotational moment on the
driven gear of the first stage of reduction. This happens as the teeth of the gears are
engaged with each other and the teeth of the pinion (driver gear) exerts some force on the
teeth of the gear (driven gear).Now, as the driven gear of the first stage of reduction is in
compound connection with the driver gear of the second stage of reduction. It also starts
to rotate causing its teeth to apply some rotational force on the teeth of driven gear of the
second stage of reduction. All these components are positioned in a gearbox casing which
is made of seven series aluminum so that it could accommodate the load an also it
comprises of less weight. The shafts are supported with the grooves that are created on
the casing of the gearbox with the help of bearings. The bearings used could vary as per
the requirements, i.e. the load acting on them.

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Now, considering all these parameters the calculations are done and the required
parameters are identified such as the load or the torque acting on the components and the
material of the gear and shaft are selected. The selection of material includes various
parameters such as weight, cost, machinability, strength, etc. Then, based on the heat
dissipated and lubrication required the gear oil is selected.

3.2 REQUIRED SPECIFICATIONS

Many parameters have been gathered from the present ATVs. Table 3.1 mentions
the requirements that should be fulfilled by a Gearbox the final product should comply
with all these parameters. The components must structurally comply without any failure.

Table 3.1: Minimum requirements a Gearbox should meet.


SPECIFICATION VALUE
Input Power Briggs & Stratton 300cc Engine
Horse Power 8 HP(7.365 KW)
Maximum Torque 19.659 N.m
Engine Speed(RPM) Minimum: 1750
Maximum: 3800
Engine Vibration 50 Hz
Wheel Speed(RPM) Minimum 47.3 RPM
Maximum 669 RPM
Maximum Acceleration 7.8 𝑚⁄𝑠
Maximum Speed 60 𝐾𝑚⁄ℎ
Maximum Output Torque 520 N.m
Maximum Dimensions 500*80*130 mm
Maximum Weight 8 Kg
Operating Temperatures 60°𝐶 to 180°𝐶
Vehicle weight 290 Kg

13
3.3 MATERIAL SELECTION

Material selection plays an important role. Material takes up most of the cost
required to make a gear box. So many alloys are available in the market at low prices.
But keeping the weight in mind as well as performance an optimal material that can
sustain the above requirements are selected for each component of the Gearbox. In order
to reduce the variety of materials that are being used, it was decided that only one
material should be used for all the shafts, another for Gear and another for the casing.

Figure 3.1: Forces acting on a gear. [1]

3.3.1 Material for Gears

For choosing the material and designing the gears, the following data should be given:
In the design of a gear drive, the following data is usually given:
1. The power to be transmitted.
2. The speed of the driving gear,
3. The speed of the driven gear or the velocity ratio, and
4. The center distance.

The following requirements must be met in the design of a gear drive:

(a) The gear teeth should have sufficient strength so that they will not fail under static
loading or dynamic loading during normal running conditions.
(b) The gear teeth should have wear characteristics so that their life is satisfactory.
(c) The use of space and material should be economical.

14
(d) The alignment of the gears and deflections of the shafts must be considered because
they effect on the performance of the gears.
(e) The lubrication of the gears must be satisfactory.

Through market survey, these materials are available

Table 3.2: Materials suitable for gears


MATERIAL YIELD STRENGTH (MPa) DENSITY (𝑲𝒈⁄𝒎𝟑 ) COST(Kg)

EN31 STEEL 550 7500 71


EN8 STEEL 415 7500 55
AISI 9310 690 7500 120
STEEL
CAST IRON 350 7850 80
CAST 550 7500 100
STEEL

3.3.2 Material for Shafts:

The material used for shafts should have the following properties:
1. It should have high strength.
2. It should have good machinability.
3. It should have low notch sensitivity factor.
4. It should have good heat treatment properties.
5. It should have high wear resistant properties.

Figure 3.2: Forces acting on a shaft.

15
Table 3.3: Available material for shaft’s requirements
MATERIAL YIELD(MPa) Cost(Rupee/Kg)
40 C 8 560 Not available
45 C 8 610 Not available
EN31 STEEL 550 71
EN8 STEEL 415 55
MILD STEEL 42 45

3.3.3 Material for Casing:

The casing should be light weigh as possible but even should comply with the structure
loads. Since Cast Irons are brittle and develop cracks due to constant vibrations. Steel is a
good replacement but the weight is still heavy. So opting for aluminum is a suitable
option. Pure Aluminum has less Yield and has more chances of failure so we opted for
aluminum alloys that offer high strength to weight ratio. Aluminum density is 2700
Kg/m3.The choice is between six series or 7 series Aluminum Alloy. These alloys can be
hardened after machining to get full strength.

Table 3.4: Choice of materials for Gearbox Casing.


MATERIAL YIELD(MPa)
8xxx Aluminum alloys 380
7xxx Aluminum alloys 520–620
6xxx Aluminum Alloys 505

3.3.4 Aluminum Alloy-Grade 7071-T6:


Aluminum are used in aircraft construction. These super alloys are still quite
expensive for the aircraft. With its good strength to weight ratio and high cost, aluminum
is still used vey widely in the industry. Current developments indicate that more and
more manufacturers (Boeing, Airbus) are using carbon fiber and other nonmetallic
materials in aircraft construction. As time goes by these materials will have to prove
themselves to be as reliable as aluminum.
Aluminum alloys are identified by a four digit number system. The first digit
gives the alloy group and the others the alloys that are present. Below a list of the most
commonly used aircraft aluminum alloys and their respective properties.
The numbering is ended by a temper designation T3 is solution heat-treated and
cold-worked by the flattening process. T6 is solution heat-treated and artificially aged...

7071-T6 [11]:
This alloy has a very good corrosion resistance and finishing ability, welding goes
good too. Typical applications of this alloy is aircrafts, Truck bodies and frames.
Table 3.5: Material Properties
16
Property Value
Brinell Hardness Number 95
Density 2700kg/m3
Elastic Modulus 89GPa
Poisson’s Ratio 033
Shear Modulus 30GPa
Strength to Weight Ratio 110kN-m/Kg
Tensile Strength(Ultimate) 750 MPa
Tensile Strength(Yield) 505 MPa

Table 3.6: Alloy chemical composition


Aluminum (Al) 90.7 to 94.7 %
Copper (Cu) 3.8 to 4.9 %`
Magnesium (Mg) 1.2 to 1.8 %
Manganese (Mn) 0.3 to 0.9 %
Iron (Fe) 0 to 0.5%
Silicon (Si) 0 to 0.5%
Zinc (Zn) 0 to 0.25%
Zirconium (Zr) 0 to 0.2%
Residuals 0 to 0.15%
Titanium (Ti) 0 to 0.15%
Chromium (Cr ) 0 to 1%

3.4 GEAR OIL SELECTION

Gear oil plays an important role in cooling and lubricating the inside components
of the gearbox. From the previous Baja vehicle, it has been recorded that the Gearbox
reaches up to 180°𝐶.So the major parameters that needs to be considered is Flash point of
the oil. Viscosities vary based on the temperatures. Figure 3.3 shows the rate of change
for different types of oils over a range of temperatures. The flash point should be at least
a minimum of 200°𝐶 on the safe side to remove the risk of fire accidents. Through
thorough research, we shortlisted the oils asper the requirement. They are EP 18, EP 90,
and EP 140.

17
Table 3.7: Properties of EP series Oils
PROPERTIES EP 80 EP 90 EP 140

Kinematic 10.5-12.5 16.5-18 28-33


Viscosity at 100°𝐶
VISCOSITY 90 90 90
INDEX,MIN
FLASH POINT, 165 180 190
(COC) C,MIN
POUR POINT, C , -27 -9 -3
MAX
CHANNEL POINT -35 -18 -7
MAX

Figure 3.3: Viscosity for different type of oils.

3.5 SELECTION OF FITS AND TOLERANCES

Since the bearings come in standard sizes, for the fit between inner race and
shafts, we choose the Hole basis system. This mean the shaft should be manufactured
accordingly to satisfy the fit. In between the outer race of the bearing and the Casing, the
outer race has a fixed dimension. Hence, we should follow Shaft basis and machine our
hole accordingly.

18
Regarding the type of fit that needed to be imposed, giving a clearance fit may
cause sliding between the mating parts. But if we give an Interference fit, the interference
may be so much that they may imply unnecessary forces on the mating parts. Last year
vehicle has a Tight Interference fit between the Inner race of bearing and the Shaft. Due
to this, a force was implied on the inner race in a radially outward direction. This put
radial pressure on the ball bearings because of which the Bearing failed every 3
Kilometers of test run. Hence, it is decided to use a transition fit and select a tolerance
grade based on previous research. Figure 3.4 and 3.5 compares the different types of bias
systems used for mating components.

Figure 3.4: hole basis system is used between shaft and bearing. [12]

Figure 3.5: Shaft basis system. [12]

19
Figure 3.6: Reference for using Fits for components [12]

20
CHAPTER 4

DESIGN OF TWO STAGE REDUCTION GEARBOX

4.1 DESIGNING OF GEARS:


The first criteria in designing the gears is to keep them simple, less weight and at
the same time to keep the cost as low as possible. So, the weight and cost have their
respective weightage during the design such that both the parameters could be worth
enough. The machinability is another important consideration.
4.1.1 Gear Profile Parameters:
Type of gears used: Spur Gear & stub involute.
The following the parameters required to obtain the required gear profile.
 Number of teeth
 Module
 Gear Ratio
 Circular Pitch
 Diametric Pitch
 Pitch Circle Diameter
 Addendum
 Addendum circle Diameter
 Dedendum
 Dedendum circle Diameter
 Centre Distance
 Clearance
 Face width

4.2 DESIGN OF FIRST STAGE REDUCTION:


Desired gear ratio = 2
Maximum speed of the engine, N = 3800 RPM
Reduction ratio of CVT at high speed = 0.43
The speed at input shaft of gearbox = = 8837 (say 9000 RPM)
.
Gear Profile = Involute
Pressure angle, 𝛼 = 20o
Profile type = Stub

 Minimum number of teeth to avoid interference.

21
2∗𝐹
𝑍 =
sin 𝛼
Where; 𝐹 = safety factor
2∗1
𝑍 = = 17.09
sin 20
𝑍 = 18(Say)
 Speed Reduction = 2
𝑁
𝑁 =
𝑖
9000
𝑁 =
2
𝑁 = 4500
 Teeth on driven gear (𝑍 )
𝑍 =𝑖∗𝑍
= 2*18
𝑍 = 36
 Lewis form factor (Y)
𝑌 =𝜋∗𝑦
0.912
𝑤ℎ𝑒𝑟𝑒, 𝑦 = (0.154 − )
𝑧
For pinion,

0.912
𝑌 = 𝜋 0.154 −
𝑧
0.912
𝑌 = 𝜋(0.154 − )
18
𝑌 = 0.325
For Gear,
0.912
𝑌 = 𝜋 0.154 −
𝑧
0.912
𝑌 = 𝜋(0.154 − )
36
𝑌 = 0.404

22
Table 4.1: Material chosen for first stage reduction gears.

S.No Part Material 𝜎 𝜎

1. Pinion 40Ni2Cr1Mo28 400 MPa 1100 MPa

2. Gear 15Ni2Cr1Mo15 320 MPa 950 MPa

Determining weaker number:

For Pinion,
𝑆 = [𝜎 ] ∗ 𝑌
= 400*0.325=130
For Gear,

𝑆 = [𝜎 ] ∗ 𝑌
= 320*0.404=129.3
Pinion is weaker, hence pinion shall be designed.
Design of weaker member (based on bending stress)

Torque to be transmitted (𝑀 ):
2∗𝜋∗𝑁∗𝑀
𝑃=
60
Where, P= power of the engine
N= RPM of pinion at minimum reduction of CVT
2 ∗ 𝜋 ∗ 9000 ∗ 𝑀
7457 =
60
𝑀 = 7912.12 𝑁𝑚𝑚
Torque for designing gears:
[𝑀 ] = 𝑀 ∗ 𝐾 ∗ 𝑘

Where, 𝐾 ∗ 𝑘 = 1.2 (for overhanging shafts)

[𝑀 ] = 7912.12 ∗ 1.5

[𝑀 ] = 11868.18 𝑁𝑚𝑚

23
Module of the gear:

𝑀
𝑚 = 1.26 ∗
𝑌 ∗𝜎 ∗∅ ∗𝑧
Where, ∅ = 10 (for gears)
11868.18
𝑚 = 1.26 ∗
0.325 ∗ 400 ∗ 10 ∗ 18
m=1.004=1.5 (say)
Therefore, m=1.5 (for standardized module)

Checking for contact stress:

Centre distance,
𝑚(𝑧 + 𝑧 )
𝑎=
2
1.5(18 + 36)
𝑎=
2
𝑎 = 40.5 𝑚𝑚
Face width,
b=10*m

=10*1.5
=15mm

Young’s modulus of material = 2.15*10 5 MPa


𝑖+1 𝑖+1
𝜎 = 0.74 ∗ ∈𝑀
𝑎 𝑖∗𝑏

2+1 2+1
𝜎 = 0.74 ∗ ∗ 2.15 ∗ 10 ∗ 11868.18
40.5 2 ∗ 15

𝜎 = 875.61 𝑁/𝑚𝑚

𝜎 𝑖𝑠 𝑙𝑒𝑠𝑠 𝑡ℎ𝑎𝑛 𝑡ℎ𝑒 𝑐𝑜𝑛𝑡𝑎𝑐𝑡 𝑠𝑡𝑟𝑒𝑠𝑠 𝑜𝑓 𝑡ℎ𝑒 𝑚𝑎𝑡𝑒𝑟𝑖𝑎𝑙 (875.61 < 1100 𝑁/𝑚𝑚
Therefore, it is safe to say the gear won’t fail due to contact stresses.

24
Checking for dynamic loads:

The condition is Fs >Fd


Where, Fs = strength of gear
Fd = strength of dynamic load
𝐹 =𝜎 ∗𝑏∗𝑌 ∗𝑚

𝐹 = 400 ∗ 15 ∗ 0.325 ∗ 1.5

𝐹 = 2925𝑁
Velocity of gear:
𝜋∗𝑑 ∗𝑁
𝑉 =
60
Where, d1=m*z1=1.5*18
=27mm=0.027m
𝜋 ∗ 0.027 ∗ 9000
𝑉 =
60
𝑉 = 12.72 𝑚/𝑠
Transmitted load:

2[𝑀 ]
𝐹 =
𝑑
2 ∗ 11868.18
𝐹 =
0.027
𝐹 =𝐹 ∗𝐶

2 ∗ 11868.18 5.5 + 12.72


𝐹 = ∗
0.027 5.5
𝐹 = 1449.2 𝑁
Since, Fs >Fd strength of gear can bear dynamic load

25
Checking of wear load:

Wear load Fw should be more than dynamic load.


Fw = dQkb

Where, Q is ratio factor

K is load stress factor


2∗𝑖
𝑄=
𝑖+1
2∗2 4
𝑄= =
2+1 3
1 1
875.61 ∗ sin 20 ∗ +
𝑘= 2.15 ∗ 10 2.15 ∗ 10
1.4
k = 1.742 N/𝑚𝑚

Fw = 36* ∗ 1.742 ∗ 15
Fw = 1254.24 N
Constructional Details:

𝜂 = 0.55 ∗ 𝑃 ∗𝑍

Where, Pc=𝜋 ∗ 𝑚=𝜋 ∗ 1.5 = 4.71𝑚𝑚

𝜂 = 0.55 ∗ 4.71 ∗ 18

𝜂 = 3.43 [𝑖𝑛𝑡𝑒𝑔𝑟𝑎𝑙 𝑡𝑝𝑒]

𝜂 = 0.55 ∗ 𝑃 ∗𝑍

𝜂 = 0.55 ∗ 4.71 ∗ 36

𝜂 = 4.56 [𝑤𝑒𝑏 𝑡𝑦𝑝𝑒]

Shaft for Pinion:


𝜋
𝑀 = ∗𝑑 ∗𝜏
16
26
𝜋
11868.18 = ∗𝑑 ∗ 45
16
Diameter of the shaft, d=11.03mm
Therefore, for standardizing, d= 20mm

Shaft for Gear:

𝑑
= √𝑖
𝑑
𝑑
= √2
20
Diameter of the shaft, d=25.19mm
Therefore, for standardizing, d= 30mm

4.3 DESIGNING OF SECOND STAGE REDUCTION:


Desired gear ratio = 2.5
Maximum speed of the engine, N = 3800 RPM
Reduction ratio of CVT at high speed = 0.43
The speed at input shaft of 2nd gear set = = 4418.60 (say 4500 RPM)
. ∗
Gear Profile = Involute
Pressure angle, 𝛼 = 20o
Profile type = Stub

 Teeth on pinion,
𝑍 = 22
 Speed Reduction = 2.5
𝑁
𝑁 =
𝑖
4500
𝑁 =
2.5
𝑁 = 1800
 Teeth on driven gear (𝑍 )
𝑍 =𝑖∗𝑍

27
= 2.5*22
𝑍 = 55
 Lewis form factor (Y)
𝑌 =𝜋∗𝑦
0.912
𝑤ℎ𝑒𝑟𝑒, 𝑦 = (0.154 − )
𝑧
For pinion,

0.912
𝑌 = 𝜋 0.154 −
𝑧
0.912
𝑌 = 𝜋(0.154 − )
22
𝑌 = 0.3536
For Gear,
0.912
𝑌 = 𝜋 0.154 −
𝑧
0.912
𝑌 = 𝜋(0.154 − )
55
𝑌 = 0.432
Table 4.2: Material chosen for second stage reduction gears:

S.No Part Material 𝜎 𝜎

1. Pinion 40Ni2Cr1Mo28 400 MPa 1100 MPa

2. Gear 15Ni2Cr1Mo15 320 MPa 950 MPa

Determining weaker number:


For Pinion,
𝑆 = [𝜎 ] ∗ 𝑌
= 400*0.3536=141.44
For Gear,

𝑆 = [𝜎 ] ∗ 𝑌
= 320*0.432=138.24
Pinion is weaker, hence pinion shall be designed.

28
 Design of weaker member (based on bending stress)
Torque to be transmitted (𝑀 ):
2∗𝜋∗𝑁∗𝑀
𝑃=
60
Where, P= power of the engine
N= RPM of pinion at minimum reduction of CVT
2 ∗ 𝜋 ∗ 4500 ∗ 𝑀
7457 =
60
𝑀 = 15824.25 𝑁𝑚𝑚
Torque for designing gears:
[𝑀 ] = 𝑀 ∗ 𝐾 ∗ 𝑘

Where, 𝐾 ∗ 𝑘 = 1.2 (for overhanging shafts)

[𝑀 ] = 15824.25 ∗ 1.5

[𝑀 ] = 23736.375 𝑁𝑚𝑚

 Module of the gear:

𝑀
𝑚 = 1.26 ∗
𝑌 ∗𝜎 ∗∅ ∗𝑧
Where, ∅ = 10 (for gears)
23736.375
𝑚 = 1.26 ∗
0.3536 ∗ 400 ∗ 10 ∗ 22
m=1.15=1.5 (say)
Therefore, m=1.5 (for standardized module)
 Checking for contact stress:
Centre distance,
𝑚(𝑧 + 𝑧 )
𝑎=
2
1.5(22 + 55)
𝑎=
2
𝑎 = 57.75 𝑚𝑚

29
Face width,
b=10*m

=10*1.5
=15mm
Young’s modulus of material = 2.15*10 5 MPa
𝑖+1 𝑖+1
𝜎 = 0.74 ∗ ∈𝑀
𝑎 𝑖∗𝑏

2.5 + 1 2.5 + 1
𝜎 = 0.74 ∗ ∗ 2.15 ∗ 10 ∗ 23736.375
57.75 2.5 ∗ 15

𝜎 = 978.8 𝑁/𝑚𝑚

𝜎 𝑖𝑠 𝑙𝑒𝑠𝑠 𝑡ℎ𝑎𝑛 𝑡ℎ𝑒 𝑐𝑜𝑛𝑡𝑎𝑐𝑡 𝑠𝑡𝑟𝑒𝑠𝑠 𝑜𝑓 𝑡ℎ𝑒 𝑚𝑎𝑡𝑒𝑟𝑖𝑎𝑙 (978.8 < 1100 𝑁/𝑚𝑚
Therefore, it is safe to say the gear won’t fail due to contact stresses.

 Checking for dynamic loads:


The condition is Fs >Fd
Where, Fs = strength of gear
Fd = strength of dynamic load
𝐹 =𝜎 ∗𝑏∗𝑌 ∗𝑚

𝐹 = 400 ∗ 15 ∗ 0.3536 ∗ 1.5

𝐹 = 3182.4𝑁

 Velocity of gear:
𝜋∗𝑑 ∗𝑁
𝑉 =
60
Where, d1=m*z1=1.5*22
=33mm=0.033m
𝜋 ∗ 0.033 ∗ 4500
𝑉 =
60
𝑉 = 7.775 𝑚/𝑠

 Transmitted load:

2[𝑀 ]
𝐹 =
𝑑

30
2 ∗ 23736.375
𝐹 =
0.033
𝐹 =𝐹 ∗𝐶

2 ∗ 23736.375 5.5 + 7.775


𝐹 = ∗
0.033 5.5
𝐹 = 2167.89 𝑁
Since, Fs >Fd strength of gear can bear dynamic load

 Checking of wear load:


Wear load Fw should be more than dynamic load.
Fw = dQkb
Where, Q is ratio factor
K is load stress factor
2∗𝑖
𝑄=
𝑖+1
2 ∗ 2.5 5
𝑄= =
2.5 + 1 3.5
1 1
978.8 ∗ sin 20 ∗ +
𝑘= 2.15 ∗ 10 2.15 ∗ 10
1.4
k = 2.178 N/𝑚𝑚

Fw = 55* ∗ 2.178 ∗ 15
.
Fw = 2566.93 N
 Constructional Details:

𝜂 = 0.55 ∗ 𝑃 ∗𝑍

Where, Pc=𝜋 ∗ 𝑚=𝜋 ∗ 1.5 = 4.71𝑚𝑚

𝜂 = 0.55 ∗ 4.71 ∗ 22

𝜂 = 3.8 [𝑖𝑛𝑡𝑒𝑔𝑟𝑎𝑙 𝑡𝑝𝑒]

𝜂 = 0.55 ∗ 𝑃 ∗𝑍

𝜂 = 0.55 ∗ 4.71 ∗ 55

𝜂 = 6.01 [𝑤𝑒𝑏 𝑡𝑦𝑝𝑒]

31
 Shaft for Pinion:
𝜋
𝑀 = ∗𝑑 ∗𝜏
16
𝜋
23736.375 = ∗𝑑 ∗ 45
16
Diameter of the shaft, d=13.9mm
Therefore, for standardizing, d= 20mm
 Shaft for Gear:

𝑑
= √𝑖
𝑑
𝑑
= √2.5
20
Diameter of the shaft, d=27.144mm
Therefore, for standardizing, d= 30mm

4.4 CONSIDERATIONS & SELECTIONS OF BEARINGS:


The bearings are to support large amounts of loads that are acted by the shafts.
Them, being the most important components for a healthy and smooth running of the
shafts, they have to be selected very carefully so that they do not fail even at high
operating speeds. So, going over the catalogue of bearing manufacturers (SKF) who are
widely recognized and used throughout the globe, we got to select our bearings. The
online catalogue provided by the manufacturer is given below.

http://www.skf.com/skf/productcatalogue/jsp/viewers/productTableViewer.jsp?&l
ang=en&newlink=1&tableName=1_1_1&presentationType=3&startnum=15

Bearings for the 1st shaft:


Bearing No. (SKF): 6202
d =inner diameter of the bearing =15mm
D1 =abutment diameter on shaft =19mm
D =outer diameter of the bearing =35mm
D2 =abutment diameter of housing =31mm
B =width of the bearing =11mm
r1 =corner radii on shaft &housing =0.6mm
Co =Basic capacity (static) =335 kgf
C =Basic capacity (dynamic) =610 kgf
Maximum permissible speed =16,000rpm
32
Bearings for the 2nd shaft:
Bearing No. (SKF): 6206
d =inner diameter of the bearing =30mm
D1 =abutment diameter on shaft =36mm
D =outer diameter of the bearing =62mm
D2 =abutment diameter of housing =56mm
B =width of the bearing =16mm
r1 =corner radii on shaft &housing =1.0mm
Co =Basic capacity (static) =1000 kgf
C =Basic capacity (dynamic) =1530 kgf
Maximum permissible speed =13,000rpm

Bearings for the 3rd shaft:


Bearing No. (SKF): 6206
d =inner diameter of the bearing =30mm
D1 =abutment diameter on shaft =36mm
D =outer diameter of the bearing =62mm
D2 =abutment diameter of housing =56mm
B =width of the bearing =16mm
r1 =corner radii on shaft & housing =1.0mm
Co =Basic capacity (static) =1000 kgf
C =Basic capacity (dynamic) =1530 kgf
Maximum permissible speed =13,000rpm

33
CHAPTER 5
MODELLING OF TWO SATGE REDUCTION GEARBOX IN
SOLIDWORKS
5.1 INTRODUCTION TO SOLIDWORKS:
SolidWorks is a multiplatform software suite for Computer Aided Design (CAD)
and Computer Aided Engineering (CAE) developed by a French company Dassault
Systems. SolidWorks is a low risk investment one can expand as value is demonstrated. It
is scalable to all organizational levels, degree of analysis complexity and stage of product
development.

SolidWorks advantages and benefits are well documented. According to studies,


best-in-class companies perform more simulations in less time. As a leader in virtual
prototyping, SolidWorks is unmatched in the functionality and user interface.

Overview of SolidWorks Modules:


There are over a dozen modules incorporated in SolidWorks. Five of those
modules have been used for Product development. They are:

1. Part Modelling
2. Assembly Module
3. Drafting
4. SolidWorks Simulation
5. SolidWorks Flow simulation

Part Modelling: This module is used to model intricate shapes and parts that are
made to make a component. It is the first module in the software and is most widely used.
The 2D sketches are converted into 3 dimensional objects. The final finishing of each
component is done by this module including assigning the material and the desired
colour. The product or prototype produced is called a part.
Assembly Module: This module is to make a final product by assembling all the
parts modelled in the Prat modelling module. Assembly module provides us with various
modules that help in assembling or mating two specific components. Assembly is
essential because it helps in finding collision or interference between the components.
After assign all the components, we study the nature of movement of the components
inside our product.

Drafting: Drafting is used to generate a Production Grade schematic which will


be sent to the manufacturer for producing the component. The drafting sheet include that
dimensions, Surface Roughness value, Component Material and Bill of Materials in case

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of an Assembly. It is a very essential tool to know all the specifications of a component.
They software directly generates the Projections of the component based on the Part
designed. It is a faster process to generate Production Drawings.

SolidWorks Simulation: SolidWorks Simulation is an essential tool to analyze


the behavior of the component upon the loading conditions applied by the user. It is a
very powerful too that conducts Finite Element Analysis and provides accurate results.
Modules used for the project are Static, Dynamic, Frequency to perform Structural,
Fatigue and Vibration analysis on the gearbox respectively/

SoildWorks Flow simulation: This module is used to conduct Computational


Fluid Dynamics (CFD) on a component. This module is used to study flow of fluids
around an object or an assembly in a confined space of study. It is a very essential tool to
study the properties of fluids at different temperatures and space. Flow simulation has
been used to study the flow of oil inside the gearbox.

5.2 MODELLING OF THE COMPONENTS:


Based on the dimension derived from the analytical calculations, dimensions of
the Gears and shafts and Bearings have been derived. For easy availability, these
dimension have been rounded off to the higher number that can be standardized. Based
on the dimensions, the components have been modelled in SolidWorks.
Table 5.1: Materials selected for various parts.

PARTS LIST
Part Name Material
Spur Gear 1 40Ni2Cr1Mo28 (Alloy Steel)
Spur Gear 2 15Ni2Cr1Mo15 (Alloy Steel)
Spur Gear 3 40Ni2Cr1Mo28 (Alloy Steel)
Spur Gear 4 15Ni2Cr1Mo15 (Alloy Steel)
Shaft 1 Plain Carbon Steel (EN8)
Shaft 2 Plain Carbon Steel (EN8)
Shaft 3 Plain Carbon Steel (EN8)
Bearing 1 100Cr6 Steel
Bearing 2 100Cr6 Steel
Bearing 3 100Cr6 Steel
Bearing 4 100Cr6 Steel
Gearbox Casing Aluminum 7071-T6
M6 Bolt High Speed Steel(HSS)
M6 Nut High Speed Steel(HSS)

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5.2.1 Procedure for Modelling the Gears:
1. Select the Front Plane and right click on Sketch option.
2. Draw a circle with the diameter equivalent to PCD. Convert that Circle into a
construction Circle.
3. To draw the tooth profile, draw a line tangential to the Base Circle of the gear.
Assign the lengths of the tangent equal to the Vertical point to the point from
where the line is originating from.
4. Draw addendum circle with Diameter mentioned above.
5. Draw deddendum circle as per the value given above.
6. Project the profile at the end of the lines and join them with the help of a spline.
7. Trim of the spline that is projected above the addendum circle. The toot profile is
created.
8. Select the sketch of the tooth profile and use circular pattern around the PCD of
the circle.
9. Use Extrude option to extrude the whole complete sketch to 15 mm Length i.e.
Equal to the face width of the gear
10. The gear profile is complete as shown in Figure 5.1.

Table 5.2: Specifications of the gears.

Gear Specifications
Part PCD Addendum Deddendum Teeth Module Face Shaft
Name (mm) (mm) (mm) Width Diameter
Gear 1 27 30.6 23.4 18 1.5 15 mm 15 mm
Gear 2 54 57.6 50.4 36 1.5 15 mm 15 mm
Gear 3 33 36.6 29.4 22 1.5 15 mm 30 mm
Gear 4 82.5 86.1 78.9 55 1.5 15 mm 30 mm

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Figure 5.1: 1st Spur gear has 18 teeth and 15mm Shaft Diameter.

Figure 5.2: 2nd Spur gear has 36 teeth and 30 mm Shaft Diameter.

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Figure 5.3: 3rd Spur gear has 22 teeth and 25 mm Shaft Diameter.

Figure 5.4: 4th Spur gear has 22 teeth and 25 mm Shaft Diameter.

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5.2.2 Procedure for Modelling the Shafts:
1. Select the Front Plane and right click on Sketch option.
2. Draw a circle with the diameter equivalent to the shaft diameter. Convert that
Circle into a construction Circle.
3. Using the Extrude command, extrude the shaft to the desired shaft length. The
generated models have been shown in the figure 5.5, 5.6, 5.7.
Table 5.3: Specifications of shafts.

Shaft Specifications
Part Name Shaft Type Shaft Diameter (mm) Length (mm)
Shaft 1 Constant Diameter 15 mm 76 mm
Shaft 2 Stepped Shaft 25/30(Length:38 mm each) 76 mm
Shaft 3 Constant Diameter 30 mm 76 mm

Figure 5.5: Input Shaft has 15mm ID and length:76 mm

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Figure 5.6: Intermediate shaft has 30mm OD stepped down to 25 mm. Length:76 mm

Figure 5.7: Final shaft has 30mm OD Length: 76 mm

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Figure 5.8: M6 Hex Head Bolt. Length:30 mm.

Figure 5.9: M6 Hex Head Nut. Length: 5.2 mm.

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5.2.3 Modelling the Gearbox Casing:
The Gearbox casing shall cover the insides of the Gearbox without any interaction
to the surroundings. The Casing should be an Air tight container so that the Gear oil does
not leak out. It is not possible to manufacture a casing in one piece. This is in order to
open the gearbox during the maintenance. Hence, the casing has to be split into two parts
and have been modelled as shown in the Figure 5.10. These two split parts are joined
using the M6 Nut and Bolt that are readily available in the market. First, the total center
distances between all the stages have been calculated manually. Based on those distances,
Holes have been developed on the casings to accommodate and mount the shafts. The
inside profile of the casing is developed in such a way that it accommodates enough oil to
cool down the moving components. The profile even helps in better flow of the oil inside.
A protrusion is given at the top of the casing to pour oil into the Gearbox. Tiny and thick
brackets have been given at the ends of the outer casing profile in order to accommodate
holes for the bolt and nuts.As shown in the figure 5.11 Cylinder like structures have been
protruding on the sides of the casing so that bearing can be properly fit inside for the
shaft. They even help in protecting the bearing from dust. At the bottom of the casing, a
12 mm protrusion has been given that accommodates 10 mm holes. These holes are the
designated mounting points for the gearbox on the frame of an ATV. Excess material has
been removed at places where the stress induced us very less .A smoother shape is given
to the casing to make it look aesthetically pleasing.

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Figure 5.10: Outside of Gearbox Casing

Figure 5.11: Inside of Gearbox Casing

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5.3 ASSEMBLY OF THE PRODUCT:
The assembling of all components is done using the Assembly module of
SolidWorks. Rough dimensions of the bearings have also been modeling to ensure
perfect assembly. Few interferences have been detected between the gear tooth and the
casings but the dimensions have been modified to the casing. After deep inspections of
each part, the assembly is not interfering with the components. From the assembly, it is
decided that the Gearbox occupies least space. The final prototype has been shown in the
Figure 5.12 Rigorous analysis will be conducted on the Assembly. All the components
are shown in the exploded view in the Figure 5.13.

Figure 5.12: Final Assembly of Gearbox.

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Figure 5.13: An Exploded View of the Assembly.

45
CHAPTER 6
ANALYSIS & RESULTS
6.1 FORCES ACTING ON THE GEARS:
The gears inside are subjected to high torque during the operation. Due to the
High Torque produced, the gear is subjected to twisting moment from the center of the
axis. Since the center of the gear is welded to the shaft, there is negligible resistance
offered by the gear against the torque. However, since there is high torque variation from
the CVT the moment of Inertia of the Gear may resist the torque for a small amount of
time (milliseconds).Thought the shaft is attached to Roller bearings that have negligible
friction, it is essential to perform torque analysis on the gears assuming that the shaft is
fixed rigidly. Different Gears bear different Torques and the loading conditions are
applied separately for each Gear. The Loading conditions are mentioned in Table 6.1.
Table 6.1: Loading conditions applied on Gears.
Part Name Loading Condition Constrain
Gear 1 12000 N-mm Fixed at Shaft Hole
Gear 2 24000 N-mm Fixed at Shaft Hole
Gear 3 16000 N-mm Fixed at Shaft Hole
Gear 4 40000 N-mm Fixed at Shaft Hole

Results:
The shafts do not fail and have Yielded a Factor of Safety between 2.6 to 4.The
deflection is negligible. These gears are safe for the worst operating conditions. Figure
6.1 shows that the maximum stress occurs at the base of gear tooth. Other Results have
been mentioned in detail in the Table 6.4.

Table 6.2: Loads acting on Gears.


Part Name Maximum Stress Maximum Factor of Safety
(MPa) Displacement(mm)
Gear 1 85.7 0.00357 2.6
Gear 2 69.7 0.0038 3.2
Gear 3 72.7 0.00321 3.1
Gear 4 54.4 0.00221 4.2

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Figure 6.1: Static Structural Analysis on Gear 1.

Figure 6.2: Static Structural Analysis on Gear 2.

47
Figure 6.3: Static Structural Analysis on Gear 3.

Figure 6.4: Static Structural Analysis on Gear 4.

48
Figure 6.5: Displacement Analysis on Gear 1.

Figure 6.6:Static Structural Analysis on Gear 2.

49
Figure 6.7: Displacement Analysis on Gear 3.

Figure 6.8: Displacement Analysis on Gear 4.

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6.2 FORCES ACTING ON THE SHAFTS:
The gear is welded to the shaft and then Press fitted to the bearings. Only one
degree of freedom is not arrested by the assembly—Rotation of shafts. The shafts are
made to rate freely on the bearings with the help of the torque transmitted by the gears.
There are three major types of forces acting on these shafts, namely—Torsion, Pre
loading of shaft ends due to press fit of bearings and the weight excreted by the Gears.
Since the pre load force excreted by the bearings cannot be calculated, the main loads
focused on are Torsion and the weight of gears. For the intermediate Shaft, There are two
Gears mounted on it. Hence, the summation of both the torques generated by the gears
are applied. Table 6.3 shows the Forces Applied are the torque generated and the weight
of the gears.
Table 6.3: Loading conditions applied on Shafts.
Part Name Torque Applied Force Applied Constrain
Shaft 1 12000 N-mm 1.5 N Fixed support at Ends
Shaft 2 40000 N-mm 3.6 N Fixed support at Ends
Shaft 3 40000 N-mm 2.2 N Fixed support at Ends

Results:
The shafts do not fail and have Yielded a Factor of Safety between 2.6 to 3.1.The
deflection is negligible. These shafts are safe for the worst operating conditions. Other
Results have been mentioned in detail in the Table 6.4.
Table 6.4: Loads acting on Shafts.
Part Name Maximum Stress Maximum Factor of Safety
(MPa) Deflection(mm)
Shaft 1 85.7 0.00357 2.6
Shaft 2 69.7 0.0038 3.2
Shaft 3 72.7 0.00321 3.1

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Figure 6.9: Stress developed in 1st shaft

Figure 6.10: Stress developed in intermediate shaft.

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Figure 6.11: Stress developed in 3rd shaft.

Figure 6.12: Displacement in 1st Shaft

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Figure 6.13: Displacement in Intermediate Shaft

Figure 6.14: Displacement of 3rd Shaft

6.3 VIBRATION AND LOADING EFFECT ON THE CASING


The Vibrations produced by the engine is approximately 50Hz.The vibrations
from the engine are transmitted through the CVT and to the input shaft of the gearbox.
Practically,there will be significant loss while transmitting through CVT.For the safe
considerations, it is assumed that the CVT can transmit all the Vibration that are
produced by the engine. Additionally,the weight of the inside components and the Gear

54
oil is also added to the loading condition. The aim of the analysis is to make sure that the
casing absorbs all the vibrations without disturbing the shafts and bearings due to which
eccentricity or misalignment takes place. The material of the casing is 7071-T6
Aluminum Alloy that has an Endurance limit of 121MPa [11].The loading conditions for
the Assembly are mentioned in Table 6.5.
Table 6.5: Loading conditions applied on assembly.
Part Name Torque Applied Force Applied Contact/Constrain
Shaft 1 12000 N-mm 1.5 N Frictionless support at Ends
Shaft 2 40000 N-mm 3.6 N Frictionless support at Ends
Shaft 3 40000 N-mm 2.2 N Frictionless support at Ends
Gear 1 12000 N-mm -- Bonded contact to the shaft
Gear 2 24000 N-mm -- Bonded contact to the shaft
Gear 3 16000 N-mm -- Bonded contact to the shaft
Gear 4 40000 N-mm -- Bonded contact to the shaft
Bolt and Nut -- -- Bonded contact to Casing
Casing 50Hz Vibration & 12 N Rigid support at Mounts

Results:

Figure 6.15: Vibration Analysis on Assembly

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Figure 6.16: Fasteners affected by Vibrations

Figure 6.17: Maximum Stress observed near the mounting points

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Figure 6.18: Shafts and Bearing are majorly not affected by Vibrations.

6.4 FLOW ANALYSIS USING FLOW SIMULATION:


It is mandatory to pour oil into the gearbox for essential lubrication and cooling
purposes. The amount of oil required is a critical parameter to ensure proper flow. Fill the
gearbox completely will result in inefficient flow of oil to the components. Although,
lubrication is done, the perfect cooling effect is not achieved. And for the viscosity chose
for the gearbox shall be tested so that the oil is reaching to each and every component
with ease. In order to understand this phenomena, Flow simulation has been conducted
on the Assembly with the Fluid properties of EP 90.The flow is studied when the
Gearbox is at maximum speed. The loading parameters are stated in Table 6.6.
Table 6.6: Loading conditions for CFD
Parameter Value
Working Fluid EP 90
Kinematic Viscosity 18 m2/s
Type of Flow Laminar and Turbulent
Rotating Parts All Gears, All shafts
Rotational Speed 9000 RPM
Fluid Start condition Stagnant; Gravity
Computational Domain Inside surface of Casing
Temperature Ambient(300K)

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Figure 6.19: Velocity contours of Oil flow

Figure 6.20: The Oil flow is driven by the movement of gears.

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Result:
The study of the oil flow is observed in Figure 6.19.It has been observed that the
oil flow is able to cover all the insides of the casing at medium to highspeeds. The figure
6.20 depicts the velocity contours across the rotating components. It is observed that the
velocity of oil is maximum at the periphery of the gear showing that the oils is
propagating across the gear tooth effectively. At the base of the casing where the oil is
accumulated, there is no stagnancy of oil showing that the oil is being continuously
recycled throughout. As per the viscosity point of view, the oil is viscous enough to
maintain the surface tension when the oil is accumulated between two teeth. That main
force that is driving the major part of the oil flow is the intermediate shaft and the stepped
gears mounted on it is observed that the maximum velocity of the oil is occurring around
the intermediate gears. Therefore, it is concluded that the Intermediate shaft plays an
important role in oil propagation and oil flow is efficient in this setup.

59
CHAPTER: 7
FUTURE SCOPE

The Gearbox designed is lightweight, compact and gives more performance than
the present Reduction Gearboxes. However, there still scope for better and more precise
design in the following areas.

For this Reduction Gearbox, the differential should be connected externally


through a chain drive. This will still make the power train assembly little complicated.
Assembling the Differential inside the Gearbox itself will make the Power train assembly
simpler.
The Factor of Safety of the output Gear is too high. This is done because the
output shaft is connected to the wheel with the help of a Knuckle Joint. Since the wheel is
subjected to various loads from the road condition it is believed that the loads may be
transmitted to the out gear also. Considering the loads from the drive shaft will result in
better design.

The Gear oil has be chosen based upon the operating temperature of the gearbox.
The flow simulation was done to understand the flow. The behavior of oil changes with
respect to the operating temperature. Simulating Flow of Oil with varying temperatures
with respect to time will give more accurate results.

The brackets for the Bolts to join the casing have been protruded outwards to
make sure that the oil flow inside the casing is efficient. The brackets should redesigned
in such a way that they do not have to protrude outside completely. This reduces the
height and makes the Gearbox look aesthetically pleasing.

60
CHAPTER 7

CONCLUSION

Today’s Gearboxes in All Terrain Vehicles occupy more space, heavy and have
limited life based on the operation. Operating these Gearboxes for continuously will
produce heat that may affect the structural integrity. The Reduction Gearbox designed to
be coupled with a CVT that can vary the transmission ratios. The transmission ratio of
CVT reduces as the Engine RPM increases. Based on the analytical calculations and
Finite Element Analysis we can conclude that all the components are not bound to failure
within the given working parameters. The Gearbox is lightweight, compact and has
increased life over the conventional Manual Gearboxes.

Final Specifications:
Purpose :To function as a speed reducer between CVT and
Differential
Maximum Dimensions :180 mm*110 mm*50 mm
Maximum Input RPM :9000 RPM
Maximum Acceleration :8 m/s2
Weight :4.4 Kg (Estimated)
Total Reduction :5
Input Shaft Diameter :15 mm
Output Shaft Diameter :30 mm
Estimated Cost of Production :Rs 18,000 /-

61
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failures." Tribology International 37, no. 2 (2004): 103-109.
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