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CHAPTER 1

INTRODUCTION

1.1 Introduction

Speed reducers are mechanical devices generally used for two purposes. The
primary use is to multiply the amount of torque generated by an input power source
to increase the amount of usable work. They also reduce the input power source
speed to achieve desired output speeds. The selection and integration of speed
reducers entails much more than simply picking one out of a catalog. In most cases
the maximum torque, speeds, and radial loads published cannot be used
simultaneously. Proper service factors must be applied to accommodate a wide range
of dynamic applications. And, once the appropriate speed reducer is selected, proper
installation and maintenance are the keys to maximizing life.

1.2 Speed reducer categories

The wide variety of mechanical speed reducing devices includes pulleys,


sprockets, gears, and friction drives. There are also electrical products that can
change the motor speed. This discussion will focus on enclosed-drive speed
reducers, also known as gear drives and gearboxes, which have two main
configurations: in-line and right angle. Each can be achieved using different types
of gearing. In-line models are commonly made up of helical or spur gears, planetary
gears, cycloidal mechanisms, or harmonic wave generators. Planetary designs
generally provide the highest torque in the smallest package. Cycloidal and harmonic
drives offer compact designs in higher ratios, while helical and spur reducers are
generally the most economical. All are fairly efficient. Right angle designs are
typically made with worm gearing or bevel gearing, though hybrid drives are also
available. Worm gears are perhaps the most cost-effective reduction solution, but
usually have a minimum 5:1 ratio and lose considerable efficiency as ratios go
higher. Bevel reducers are very efficient but have an effective speed reduction upper
limit of 6:1. The type of application dictates which speed reducer design will best
satisfy the requirements. Before choosing any reducer, specifications must be
collected to properly size and install the unit: torque, speed, horsepower, reducer
efficiency, service factor, mounting position, connection variables, and life required.
In some applications the amount of backlash, transmission error, torsional rigidity,
and moment of inertia are also important.

1.3 Objective

Not all system run at the same rpm, if the input only needs less rpm than the
motor supplies, a gear system is needed to reduce the rotation, thus this project is to
fabricate a speed reducer gear. It also increases the torque produced by the motor
without change in the input.

1.4 Organization at Work

Completion of any work requires proper planning and management from the
initial stage. From case study to fabrication different steps are involved. First of all
we decide the aim of our project. Application of our design, benefits and other
aspects are discussed in the first chapter.

In the second lap of our work we finalize about the material required for the
fabrication of different parts. A lot of engineering materials are studied before the
selection of material.
CHAPTER-2

LITERATURE REVIEW
2.1 Introduction
A lot of research activities has been carried out on gears mechanisms since
very first gear was manufactured. A gear transmits the power from one shaft to
another in various relative position. Many engineers and designers put their efforts
in this field and succeeded also. They put all of their knowledge and the studies about
gears on papers, with the use of these papers anyone can know about advancement
of the research carried out by them.

With these research papers, we come to know various aspects about gear. These
papers explore how a mechanism can be driven at uniform speed and non–uniform
speed. Also, this paper tells about selection of material for a gear depending upon
requirement. There are a number of different gears which have different application
areas. The research papers help in choosing the appropriate type of gear.

1.Wen-Hsiang Hsie in his paper “An experimental study on cam-


controlled planetary gear trains” describes that a mechanism is driven by a motor
at uniform speed. However, more and more researches indicate that there are many
advantages if a mechanism can be driven at non-uniform speed, and this kind of
mechanism is called a variable input mechanism. The purpose of this work is to
propose a novel approach for driving a variable speed mechanism by using a cam-
controlled planetary gear train, and to investigate its feasibility by conducting
prototype experiments. First, the geometrical design is performed. Then, the
kinematic equations and the cam profile equations are derived based on the geometry
of the mechanism.
2.Kuen-BaoSheu in his paper “Analysis and evaluation of hybrid scooter
transmission systems” describes a new design concept of transmissions for the
hybrid scooters. These transmissions consist of a one-degree-of-freedom planetary
gear train and a two-degree-of-freedom planetary gear train to from a split power
system and to combine the power of two power sources, a gasoline engine and an
electric motor. In order to maximize the performance and reduce emissions, the
transmissions can provide a hybrid scooter to run five operating modes: electric
motor mode; engine mode; engine/charging mode; power mode, and regenerative
braking mode. The main advantages of the transmissions proposed in this paper
include the use of only one electric motor/generator, need not use clutch/brake for
the shift of the operating modes, and high efficiency.

3.Ligang Yao Jian S. Dai Guowu Wei and YingjieCai in their paper states
that investigates meshing characteristics of the toroidal drive with different roller
shapes, examines the effect on the characteristics from roller shapes and produces a
comprehensive comparative study. Based on the coordinate transformation, the
paper introduces the generic models of meshing characteristics and characterizes the
meshing to introduce both undercutting and meshing limit curves. The paper further
develops meshing functions and their derivatives with respect to each drive type with
a different roller shape. This leads to a comprehensive examination of each meshing
characteristics against each drive type of a roller shape. The comparative study
focuses on the effect of contact curves, tooth profile, undercutting, meshing limit
curves and the induced normal curvature.
4.Gordon R. Pennock and Jeremiah J. Alwerdt in their paper “Duality
between the kinematics of gear trains and the statics of beam systems” describes
about the geometric insight into the duality between the first-order kinematics of
gear trains and the statics of beam systems. The two devices have inherent
geometrical relationships that will allow the angular velocities of the gears in a gear
train to be investigated from a knowledge of the forces acting on the beams of the
dual beam system, and vice versa. The primary contribution of the paper is the
application of this duality to obtain the dual beam system for a given compound
planetary gear train, and vice versa. The paper develops a systematic procedure to
transform between the first-order kinematics of a gear train and the statics of the dual
beam system. This procedure provides a simple and intuitive approach to study the
speed ratios of a planetary gear train and the force ratios of the dual beam system.