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250, Reliability evaluation of power systems and am Usa ham 6.12) where AS seal He) aye atdard(datt) ) ea #) = 50h) (as TE) A= Ast (be er Files riPats neoneg ere Hints tri nit instr oye hth ee nt lar equations can be deduced for any number of parallel compo- 1 any order of failure event using the same logic. ee the system can due to forced outages overlapping forced outages or forced two effects can be combined together to give the overall relia Of the load-point, ic. A= Age tA U=Apsteo hoon r= ‘where Apa and Fyn are given by Equations (8.7)-(8.12) and Aye and tp (forced outages overlapping forced outages) are given by Equations 8.1)-6.6). 8.4.3 Coordinated, and uncoordinated maintenance is that each component separately and each component of a given branch is maintained simultaneously. The ‘merit of this policy is thatthe total exposure time in a year during which a Distribution systems—parallel and meshed networks 251 another branch may fail is reduced and therefore the is also reduced. The disadvantage of the alternative is increased capital expenditure to improve the system Tedundaney. There can be no general concusion on this point since it depends on relative values of labour costs, equipment costs and outage of all these factors and and breakers are 100% branch 1 as that containing components 1, 3,7 and 9 th component forced outages overlapping branch maintenance outages can be deduced: A failures were i er deducing these failure events, the reliability 7) and (8. |. This modifica- tion is necessary be the maintenance rat component. This failure rate of the therefore has no practical meaning. A similar the last four terms of Equation (8.10). (a)_Uncoordinated maintenance Consider first an uncoordinated maintenance system of Fig. 81 and ‘assume that each component is removed for scheduled maintenance once a year for a period of 8 hours.