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= 0.20 flyear of normal weather A'= 40.0 flyear of adverse weather r=1hours A"= Loutage/calendar year P= Shours In addition it is assumed that the weather states have the following average durations: N=200hours S=2hours (©) Single weather state If the weather is not considered in the analysis, the average failure rate £ can be evaluated using Equation (8.26a) «200 2 Ha Fp 020+ 555% 40= 0.594 tyr ‘This value of £ is the failure rate which would be identified by a data collection scheme if the weather state were not associated with each system failure. It is evident that the value of X is much closer to the failure rate during normal weather because the value of N is much greater than the value of S. ‘Using ‘this value of A, the system reliability indices can be evaluated tion systoms—parallel and meshed networks 267 using Equations (8.1)-(8.3) which gives App = 0.594 x 0.594(10+ 10)/8760 = 8.06 x 10~ f/yr 10X10. " T= 30+10 Ue = Rgpfpe= 4.03% 10" hours/yr = Shours (©) Two weather states—repair possible in adverse weather ‘This contribution can be evaluated from the data given in (a) above and Equations (8.27b), (8.28); (8.29), (8.30)~(8.33). 200, A= ZP (0.20%0.20(10-+ 10))8760=9.08%10"* tyr 1B lode fos dae taox 0.20 10 2/8760= 1.81 x 10~fiyr dosh [40(402228) 2] /s160= 6.03%10° tye App = Aa tAp@ Act Aa = 6.45% 10 fiyr re AR = Sours Upp = Appfpp = 3.23% 10? hourslyr A similar set of results would be obtained if repair were not possi adverse weather. In this case Equations (8.34)-(8.40) would be used. It is seen, by comparing the previous results for a single-state and a ‘two-state weather model, that the failure rate and annual outage time is ‘much greater for the two-state weather model. This shows the importance ‘of recognizing the effect of the environment and identifying in which ‘weather state the failures occur. It is very useful therefore to establish the system reliability indices as a function of the number of failures occurring in adverse weather. This type of sensitivity analysis is illustrated consider- ing the system shown in Fig. 8.6 and assuming N=200hours, S= hours, r=10hours and X =0.594 f/yr, (b) above. ‘The values of A and A’ can be evaluated using Equation (8.26) for values of F between zero and unity and the system indices evaluated as illus- trated in (€) above.