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254 Reliability evaluation of power systems but it overshadows the significance and effects of the different types of ‘damage the component. An example of the second type srike whi tection breakers or blows the prot 1¢ effect on the customer of these types of rent from that of failures that require Beneficial to separate them in the effect on the i. In this book, the non-damaged type of failure will be jed into transient forced outages which are restored by ig and temporary forced outages which are restored by that the outage time 8.5.2 Evaluation techniques ‘The method for evaluating the relia the minimal cut set method. This will give failure events of first order, second order and, if required, higher orders. (a) First order ‘The first-order events are evaluated using directly the concepts of Equa- tions (7.1)-(7.3), in which the values A, and r, ate the appropriate failure rate and outage duration respectively of the transient or temporary outage. In the transient failures (automatic restoration) the values, of m may be negligible, in which case the contribution of such failures to ion systems—parallel and meshed networks 255 can be negle is may not be valid in the detection of the eause of failure is dificult and the site of failure is in a emote rural area. (b) Second order “The second-order events can be evaluated using the concepts of Equa tions (8.1)-(8.3) and of overlapping failure events. The overlapping events that could be considered are a temporary or transient failure overlapping a temporary or trans- 3 failure; a temporary oF transient failure overlapping a permanent failure; a temporary or transient failure overlapping a scheduled mainte- nance outage. Gi @_Temporary/transient failures overlapping temporary/transient failures concepts of Equations (8. Age Aa (Aata) + Anata) +Aa(ara)+AQan) (8.16) Uy (6.17) tae (6.18) where Ay =transient or temporary failure rate of component i ra =Testoration or reclosure time following temporary or transient failure of component i Aym=permanent failure rate and repai spectively When the reclosure time is small or negligible, this being particularly ‘of component j re-