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for the system can now be evaluated from the above those derived in Section 8.6.6 using Equations (6.13)8.15) A= 8.06% 10+ 1.08 107 = 1.89% 107 fly U=4,03x 10? +4,82X 10°? = 8.88% 10 hours/yr r= U)=4.71 hours (b) Two weather states @ Maintenance In this case (ee S Equations (8.7)-(8.9) can be used with the data given in Section 8.6.6 to give Ayn = 10.28) X2/8760= 3.6510 flyr _30x8 Fn 1048 Up Apaen = 1.62% 10" hoursiyr ‘These can be combined with the values for overlapping forced outages (Section 8.6.6) to give the total indices 16.45% 107° +3,65 10-4 = 6.82% 10" fly U=3.23x1077+1.62x 10-9=3.39% 10" hourslyr 1=UIA=4.98hours = 4.44 hours Gi) Maintenance not continued into adverse weather In this case Equations (8.44)-(8.46) can be used to give a pa [10.2841 x02 x Geax ODI GES AO 28760 = 1,83 x 10-44 1.83% 10744 3,65% 10+3,65% 10 =1.10%107 fiyr x10 Lge (uasx10- 2229) ssetorn (laa x2 = 6.33% 107 hours/yr = 5.75 hours | hie can again be combined with the appropriate values for oveslapping | If adverse weather is probable ~ forced outages. \ Distribution systems—parallel and meshed networks 275 A similar set of results can be obtained if maintenance is continued into adverse weather using Equations (8.41)-(8.43).. 8.6.9 Application to complex systems ‘The techniques to consider normal and adverse weather have been topic oa simple paral! est nthe previous sections. Mos tems, however, are clearly more complex than this particul deduced, in which case the previous techniques and applied to cach of these failure modes. The load poit fated by combining the indices given by each event. ‘The second method, which may be useful as a partial so larly in the ease of hand calculations, is to tse wholly or partly a network reduction solution. This requires equivalent component indices to be evaluated, ‘These methods can be illustrated by means of the ring distribition system shown in Fig. 8.12, In this example, asst same component reliability N=200 hours and S=2 hours. mT LH! 3 —, a pow im rere Fig. 8.12 Ring distribution system (a) Failure modes method ‘The failure modes for each load point of Fig. 8.12 are shown in Table Section 8.6.6(¢). Therefore the total load A=4x6.45x 107° = 2.58% 107 fiyr U=4x3.23%107=1.29% 10" hours/yr 1=U/A=Shours ices are