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Fig. 8.14 Model for two components with separate down states The si icance of the values of repair rates in these two models should down states, Fig. 8.14, all repair rates are non-zero and eq reciprocal of the appropriate component repair times. In addi common mode failures are restored by an equivalent common mode repair process. In the case of the model with a single down st interpretation is rather diflerent. In this case the valui repairs are conducted independently and each componer Fig. 8.13, the 10% of yy oF of yz. Having evaluated cated {0 give a value of rz, which represents an Tt was shown in Section 11.7.2 of Engineering Systems that the set of equations [5] representing these models is (2) Failure rate For both models, App = Adal +r) +a (6.47) (0), Outage time it Jand meshed networks 279 Distribution systers—para then, for the moder of-Fig. 8.13, nts thin than 2 see and if wy2=0 (8.480) and Tor the model of Fig. 8.14 Avdorirat Asta rpg atiet Ate (8.49) 8.7.2 Application and inumerical examples (2) Effect of model on outage duration ‘The discussion in Section 11.7 of Engineering Systems and Equations (8.48) and (8.49) show that the two models give the same value for failure rate but different values for the outage du to assess the most suit ‘order to illustrate this effect on outage jon, consider a two- component parallel system and the following data =Aa= 0.5 flyr y= 0.05 flyr r=n=2.5hours Fa 10 hours and 20 hours ‘The values of outage duration can be evaluated from Equations (8.48) . The results shown i ae 8.12 19) and are shown in Table 8, indicate that the outage time for equal to the outage time associated with the common repair process. ‘Table 8.12 Outage durations including common mode failures ‘Outage duration (hours) for model of Fig fa aid 8.13, (hours) Eqn (8.49) Eqn (8.482) "Eqn (6.480) 10 998 a 125 20 19.95 118 125