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evaluation of power systems Pn 1 aga wh ae Sub Paes Fig, 82 State space diagram for system of Fig. 8.1 as a means of developing alternative methods, illustrating a technique, or as a secondary solution method. 8.2.2 Approximate methods ‘An alternative method to state space diagrams is a method based on a set of appropriate equations for evaluating thi outage duration and annual outage time or unavailability. This alternative method is _Akntn) oe (6.19) =AA(ntr) when <1 (eb) (8.2) systems. The f subsequent equations are based on these approximations. (6) for three components in para Aap Avastin try nts Upp Aootop= ArA2AaMats minimal cut set approach. 8.2.3 Network reduction method ‘The network reduction method creates a sequence of nents obtained by gradually combi the case of the system shown in Fig, 8.1, this method would combine components 1 and 3 in series, components 2 and 4 in series and finally combine these two equivalent components in parallel. The numerical resu jerefore be evaluated using Equations (7.1)-(7.3) and Equa- tions (8.1)-(8.3) as appropriate. If the reliability data for each component of Fig. 8.1 is that shown in Table 8.1, the load point rel indices can be evaluated as follows. Combining components 1 and 3 in series (Equa- tions (7.1)-(7.3)) gives A= OSI fir riy=1L.76hous — Uy=6hoursiyr