You are on page 1of 1
ty evaluation of power systems, is shown in Table 8.13 differ only marginally from those in ‘Table 8.4 owing to the dominant effect of the two busbars. If these busbars were 100% reliable, however, a significant increase would be observed when breaker failures are included. 8.9.2. Failure modes of a breaker Most power system components can be represented by a two-state model lenifes the operating (up) state and the failure (down ue for a breaker, however, fails to open ‘opens inadvertent suffers an open yodel does inot recognize procedure for breakers is ns and switching stations and models of Chapter 10 are equally appl and can be used if so desired. The more enl necessary, however, and fications can be made when evaluating the istribution systems. These are discussed in Section 8.9.3. 8.9.3. Modelling assumptions ‘The main assumptions for a simplified breaker model are: probability of opening successfully (state b) is probability of not opening succesfully ( contributions. id of a single radial ‘malfunction is seaibe compared with other si Breakers are normally located at the sendi feeder and at both ends of a branch’in a parallel or meshed system. It follows from assumptions (i) and (ii) and this method of design that short circuit faults on any branch component, other than the. breakers Distribution systems—paralel and meshed networks 287 will be isolated by their protection breakers which will the effect of the fault to the branch in which it occurs, This network reduction or failure modes analysis to be comparison with short circuits. leaves only states (d), (f)and (g) to be considered as failure states. State (@) usually manifests itself due to false signals being developed by or in the protection system. Its effect is similar to that of an open circuit and will only affect the branch in which the breaker exists ‘A short circuit on a breaker, states (f) and (g), can cause different switching action. For example, a fault on the line side (@, in Fig. 8.1 could be protected by itself and breaker 9. Simi on the busbar side of breaker 7, state (0), could bé'protected the breaker (not shown) protecting busbar S. This can be defined circuits cleared by itself’. On the other hand, if the fault cannot be cleared s own operation, then in both of the above examples, the breaker protecting busbar 5 and breaker 9 must operat, This canbe defined as ‘short circuits not cleared by itself. techniques described in the next section are dived from the above assumptions and concepts. 8.9.4 Simplified breaker models (a) Inadvertent opening Inadvertent opening (i) The breaker is identified asa system component and the Tnadvertent (i) ‘The breaker is neglected as a mat combined with the inadvertent opening, dices of the next compo- reliability indices of line 1. (b) Short circuits not cleared by itself In this case, the breaker is neglected as a component and its short-circuit indices are combined with the reliability indices of the busbar to which it is connected, These indices are combined as for series components. For ‘example, the indices of breakers 7 and 9 are combined with those of busbars 5 and 6 respectively.