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Multiscale modelling and design for engineering HNOLOG

VTT TECHNOLOGY 77
application EC

• SC I E N CE• T

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Utilizing 3D design procedures in manufacturing industry is well matured

SEARCH
in industrial R&D. The shape of the components, design of the machine 77
or the vehicle, assembly and finally the whole production are designed
virtually through computational methods, which naturally offer flexibility

NS

HI
and speed to the design phase. Simulation and virtual verification of the

O
I G
HL
I G H T S• VI S
designed components is rapidly increasing and can further shorten R&D
phase dramatically.
However, virtual material values or models available for digital design
and simulation are still limited. Due to the lack of digital material values
the huge potential of tailoring performance cannot be fully exploited.
VTT has recognized that for the economic and ecologic use of materials,

Multiscale modelling and design for engineering application


digital design tools are a necessity of the digital design chain covering
the whole region from material modelling to functional design.
Development of new materials and understanding of material and
process behaviour is always a complex equation of crossing interactions.
Physical and chemical phenomena are affected from the nano- and/or
molecular level up to macroscopic level. Interactions between the
material performance, properties, microstructure and processing
methods need to be understood more deeply. For this purpose,
modelling skills have developed rapidly in recent decades both in
industry and in academia, with the support of increased numerical
calculation capacity and commercial multi-level and multi-physics
software development.
In this publication we are presenting some highlights from our current
modelling activities obtained within VTT’s MultiDesign innovation
programme. We hope they will inspire new ideas on what could be
done and obtained via digital approach to design.

Multiscale modelling
and design for
engineering application
ISBN 978-951-38-7913-6 (Soft back ed.)
ISBN 978-951-38-7914-3 (URL: http://www.vtt.fi/publications/index.jsp)
ISSN-L 2242-1211
ISSN 2242-1211 (Print)
ISSN 2242-122X (Online)
VTT TECHNOLOGY 77

Multiscale modelling and


design for engineering
application

Tarja Laitinen & Kim Wallin (Eds.)


ISBN 978-951-38-7913-6 (Soft back ed.)
ISBN 978-951-38-7914-3 (URL: http://www.vtt.fi/publications/index.jsp)
VTT Technology 77
ISSN-L 2242-1211
ISSN 2242-1211 (Print)
ISSN 2242-122X (Online)
Copyright © VTT 2013

JULKAISIJA – UTGIVARE – PUBLISHER


VTT
PL 1000 (Tekniikantie 4 A, Espoo)
02044 VTT
Puh. 020 722 111, faksi 020 722 7001
VTT
PB 1000 (Teknikvägen 4 A, Esbo)
FI-02044 VTT
Tfn +358 20 722 111, telefax +358 20 722 7001
VTT Technical Research Centre of Finland
P.O. Box 1000 (Tekniikantie 4 A, Espoo)
FI-02044 VTT, Finland
Tel. +358 20 722 111, fax +358 20 722 7001

Kopijyvä Oy, Kuopio 2013


Foreword
Utilizing 3D design procedures in manufacturing industry is well matured in indus-
trial R&D. The shape of the components, design of the machine or the vehicle,
assembly and finally the whole production are designed virtually through computa-
tional methods, which naturally offer flexibility and speed to the design phase.
Simulation and virtual verification of the designed components is rapidly increasing
and can further shorten R&D phase dramatically.
However, virtual material values or models available for digital design and
simulation are still limited. Due to the lack of digital material values the huge po-
tential of tailored performance can not be fully exploited. We at VTT have recog-
nized that for the economic and ecologic use of materials, digital design tools for
material design are a necessity of the digital design chain.
Development of new materials and understanding of material and process be-
haviour is always a complex equation of crossing interactions. Physical and chem-
ical phenomena are affected from the nano- and/or molecular level up to macro-
scopic level. Interactions between the material performance, properties, micro-
structure and processing methods need to be understood more deeply. For this
purpose, modelling skills have developed rapidly in recent decades, with the sup-
port of increased numerical calculation capacity and commercial multi-level and
multi-physics software development.
At VTT we have a great capacity and potential for exploiting this competence. It
is recognised that there are many activities related to materials and process mod-
elling in various scales, based on various methodologies and targeting various
applications. At VTT we have a strong vision to bring this knowledge better to-
gether creating opportunities for multiscale approaches as well as to offer a plat-
form for cross learning experiences. At the same time, it is clear that good model-
ling goes hand in hand with experimental verification. Modelling creates more
detailed understanding of phenomena, while experimental verification directs the
model to correctly reflect and predict the real world phenomena. Also in this sense
VTT can offer a 360 service as VTT’s competences are well recognised in many
fields combining modelling and in experimental research.
Research programmes play essential roles in VTT’s day-to-day operation. They
are the main vehicle for implementing VTT’s strategy. The programmes produce
comprehensive technology-based solutions aiming at industry renewal and thus
have a great impact on the society and industries. They also provide a platform for

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longer-term interaction and collaboration with VTT’s clients, financiers and other
stakeholders. Last, but not least, the programmes encourage transdisciplinary
research and new openings within VTT.
In this publication we are presenting some highlights from our current modelling
activities obtained in VTT’s MultiDesign innovation programme. We hope they will
inspire new ideas in your mind on what could be done and obtained via digital
approach to design. We are happy to discuss your thoughts further as to how we
could help you take MultiDesign approaches to the next level for the benefit of
industry, research community, and society at large.

Espoo, February 5th, 2013

Erja Turunen, Vice President


VTT Strategic Research, Applied Materials

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Contents
Foreword.......................................................................................................... 3

1. Multiscale modelling of engineering materials......................................... 9


1.1 Abstract.............................................................................................. 9
1.2 Introduction ........................................................................................ 9
1.3 Multiscale modelling ......................................................................... 11
1.4 Process-Structure-Properties-Performance, PSPP............................. 13
1.5 Material structure in multiscale modelling........................................... 14
1.6 Material properties and performance in multiscale modelling .............. 15
1.7 Summary and conclusions ................................................................ 17

2. Materials modelling research in VTT ...................................................... 18


2.1 Abstract............................................................................................ 18
2.2 Introduction ...................................................................................... 18
2.3 Material models ................................................................................ 20
2.3.1 Materials.................................................................................. 20
2.3.2 Categories ............................................................................... 20
2.3.3 Phenomena ............................................................................. 21
2.3.4 Size scale ................................................................................ 22
2.3.5 Scale transition methods .......................................................... 24
2.4 Tools ................................................................................................ 24
2.5 Experimental validation of models ..................................................... 29
2.6 Discussion........................................................................................ 31
2.7 Conclusions...................................................................................... 33
2.8 Acknowledgements........................................................................... 34

3. Effects of structure, doping, and environment on the tribochemistry


of DLC ..................................................................................................... 35
3.1 Introduction ...................................................................................... 35
3.2 Method ............................................................................................. 35
3.3 Results & discussion......................................................................... 37
3.4 References ....................................................................................... 39

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4. Introduction to the IMAGO project .......................................................... 42
4.1 Introduction to the IMAGO project ..................................................... 42
4.2 Material modelling development by focused cases in IMAGO project .... 43
4.2.1 Optimized structure of diamond-like carbon coatings (DLC) for
low friction and wear by material modelling ................................. 43
4.2.2 Increased lifetime of components by optimized high temperature
protective thermal spray coatings through material modelling....... 44
4.2.3 Energy savings in bio fibre processing by material modelling ....... 45
4.3 Benefits from the IMAGO materials modelling tools............................ 45

5. Modelling of friction and structural transformations in diamond-like


carbon coatings ...................................................................................... 47
5.1 Introduction ...................................................................................... 47
5.2 DLC coating structure ....................................................................... 48
5.3 Tribological mechanisms of DLC ....................................................... 50
5.4 Integrated modelling of DLC films at VTT........................................... 52
5.4.1 FE modelling of a-C:H and ta-C ................................................ 53
5.4.2 Molecular dynamic simulation of a-C:H ..................................... 55
5.5 Conclusions and future aspects......................................................... 57
5.6 References ....................................................................................... 58

6. Molecular dynamics simulations of mass transport in chromium


oxide scales ............................................................................................ 63
6.1 Abstract............................................................................................ 63
6.2 Introduction ...................................................................................... 63
6.3 Computational details ....................................................................... 65
6.4 Results ............................................................................................. 66
6.5 Conclusions...................................................................................... 75
6.6 References ....................................................................................... 75

7. µFEM modelling of wood cell deformation under pulping-type


dynamic loads ......................................................................................... 78
7.1 Abstract............................................................................................ 78
7.2 Introduction ...................................................................................... 78
7.3 Short description of the research carried out by De Magistris and
Salmén............................................................................................. 81
7.3.1 Experiments............................................................................. 81
7.3.2 Numerical modelling of wood cell.............................................. 83
7.4 A µFEM model for woodchips biomass in Abaqus code ..................... 84
7.4.1 Description of the µFEM model................................................. 84
7.4.2 Dynamic analysis of microstructures by Abaqus ........................ 85
7.4.3 Case-study: mixed compression-shear load .............................. 86
87
7.4.4 Discussion and future steps...................................................... 88
7.5 Conclusions...................................................................................... 89
7.6 References ....................................................................................... 89

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8. MultiDesign innovation program ............................................................ 92
8.1 Abstract............................................................................................ 92
8.2 Introduction ...................................................................................... 92
8.3 Current project portfolio .................................................................... 93
8.4 Impact .............................................................................................. 94
8.5 References ....................................................................................... 95

9. Vertical multiscale modelling.................................................................. 97


9.1 Abstract............................................................................................ 97
9.2 Introduction ...................................................................................... 97
9.3 Advantages of integration of CAE tools in design ............................... 98
9.4 The directions of integration: multiscale, multidimension,
multiresolution ................................................................................ 100
9.5 The challenge of creating a complete system: putting everything
together.......................................................................................... 102
9.6 References ..................................................................................... 104

10. Combined CFD, material and system level analyses – Case Naantali
power plant............................................................................................ 106
10.1 Abstract.......................................................................................... 106
10.2 Introduction .................................................................................... 107
10.3 Tube damages at power plant ......................................................... 108
10.3.1 Motivation for the simulation study..................................... 108
10.3.2 The modelling platform ..................................................... 108
10.3.3 The model building ........................................................... 109
10.3.4 Results............................................................................. 112
10.3.5 Outcome of the simulation study ....................................... 114
10.4 Discussion...................................................................................... 115
10.5 Conclusions.................................................................................... 115
10.6 Acknowledgements......................................................................... 115
10.7 Literature........................................................................................ 115

11. Combined structural analyses and system level simulation – Cases


1) Apros-TVO PAMS and 2) Apros-Abaqus Co-use .............................. 116
11.1 Abstract.......................................................................................... 116
11.2 Introduction .................................................................................... 116
11.3 Case Apros – TVO-Pams................................................................ 117
11.4 Case Abaqus – Apros ..................................................................... 119
11.5 Conclusions.................................................................................... 120

12. Optimizing life-cycle environmental performance of a value chain


with MultiDesign approach ................................................................... 122
12.1 Abstract.......................................................................................... 122

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1. Multiscale modelling of engineering materials

1. Multiscale modelling of engineering


materials
Anssi Laukkanen, Kenneth Holmberg & Kim Wallin

VTT Technical Research Centre of Finland


Metallimiehenkuja 8, P.O. Box 1000, FI-02044 Espoo

1.1 Abstract

Outline of multiscale modelling and the process-structure-properties-performance


(PSPP) concept is presented. Brief description of multiscale modelling methods is
provided following their range of application in spatial and temporal ranges. The
PSPP concept as a state-of-the-art modelling assisted material design procedure
is described. Case examples illustrating the material features incorporated to a
PSPP analysis are given, emphasizing the modelling of realistic material struc-
tures in the nano to microstructure range and on the other hand the mechanisms
responsible for material performance in a component environment.

1.2 Introduction

A trend which has gained momentum during the last decade is a loose integration
of computational methods under the banner of multiscale modelling. The core idea
of multiscale modelling is not in the effusive complication of materials related
modelling tasks, but the realization that present day material modelling means can
be effectively used in solving materials related engineering problems and system-
atically aim towards optimal material solutions on a component specific case by
case basis. These abilities were previously unobtainable due to affiliated limita-
tions in available computational methodologies and resources, but have reached a
degree of maturity during the last five to ten years. Thus, the argument is that
incorporation of material modelling systematically in material development, tailor-

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1. Multiscale modelling of engineering materials

ing and selection processes enables the development of materials with improved
performance, better utilization and leads to more cost effective solutions.
Carrying out modelling in a productive manner requires tight integration of ex-
perimental and modelling activities, experimental activities being for example
material characterization and testing in the context of the desired function. Model-
ing is a synonym for understanding and quantifying what actually takes place
when the material performs the critical functions it is supposed to, and such an
activity can not be effectively carried out solely from a modelling standpoint, when
the methods being applied to a particular case have not matured to a status with
predictive abilities. As such, in an optimal scenario material processing, character-
ization, testing and modelling activities form a tightly knit cross-linked bundle. In a
material design task, one such way of operation is the process-structure-
properties-performance (PSPP) methodology, or the VTT ProperTune method.
The purpose in utilization of such concepts is to provide tools which integrate the
various necessary means and methods into a workable whole, enabling and defin-
ing the required interactions between the various manufacturing, experimental and
modelling activities.
The interplay between modelling and experimental work, emphasizing the role
of modelling in materials research, is presented in the tried and tested Figure 1.
The role of building sound mechanistic and physically grounded understanding of
the problem is emphasized, and in Figure 1 is demonstrated by levels 1 to 2. Ap-
plying modeling as an exploratory tool is extremely laboursome and not recom-
mended at such stages due to its inefficiency. After obtaining a degree of under-
standing, a typical step is the building of a qualitative or simplified theoretical basis
which is in line with available observations. At this point tools such as multiscale
modelling become attractive when the understanding of the problem has matured
to a state where a quantitative model can be formulated. Thus, the multiscale
modelling approach can be best formulated on the basis of early understanding of
the problem obtained on an empirical basis, after which the modelling task con-
tains the derivation and validation of a quantitative model first utilizing the availa-
ble results pool. Being successful, the sound basis provides means for identifying
the applicability of the resulting model, and its abilities as far as being able to
predict behaviour outside the data contained within the confines of model valida-
tion. As the rudimentary division implies, obtaining that predictive ability for a new
phenomenon and material does require extensive contributions in terms of labour.

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1. Multiscale modelling of engineering materials

Figure 1. Role of modelling and empirical work in obtaining predictive capability


for materials related problems.

Current work is organized to a provide a brief outline of multiscale modelling, pri-


marily arising from experiences with engineering materials such as metallic, hybrid
composite (polymer or metal matrix composites), ceramic or polymer materials
either as coatings or bulk material. Most of the content is as such fairly general
and the means and methods can be generalized to various specific materials, a
testament to the applicability of multiscale modelling. Multiscale modelling is ex-
plored from two different angles crucial for most modelling tasks – what it in reality
contains and how does it describe the material and its behaviour, and how to
successfully apply it in finding materials related solutions. The former is a method-
ology based description, while the latter emphasizes methods of work, concepts,
such as the PSPP methodology. Brief selected case examples are provided to
demonstrate the sort of material features and phenomena which can be incorpo-
rated in multiscale analyses, the emphasis being in meso-scale analyses of me-
chanical, fracture and wear behaviour.

1.3 Multiscale modelling

Multiscale modelling usually relies on establishing modelling toolkits and packages


for solving material related problems by incorporating an array of methods over a
vast range of spatial and temporal scales. One way of organizing multiscale mod-
elling methods and demonstrating some of the spatial and temporal linkages is
presented in Figure 2. The presentation as given here is inclined towards prob-
lems of strength, fracture and wear of materials. The modelling methods can be

11
1. Multiscale modelling of engineering materials

roughly divided to two categories, discrete and continuous methods on the basis
of how they describe materials. A descriptive synonym often used for discrete
methods is atomistic methods. Methods are present which enable the treatment of
physical phenomena at small atomistic scales or primarily nanoscale structures,
like various ab initio approaches, molecular dynamics or specific topics of interest
such as dislocation dynamics of deformation behaviour in ordered materials. At-
omistic methods can be applied more effectively to time controlled phenomena,
such as diffusion, aging, deformation mechanisms etc. by incorporation of sto-
chastic, usually Monte-Carlo based, methods. The macroscale continuous region
is commonly populated by methods arising for example from solid or fracture me-
chanics. Of note is also the increasing use of discrete methods, such as coarse
grained molecular dynamics. The range in between, often referred to as the
mesoscale, is for several materials an interesting one since it often contains from
a practical solution standpoint many interesting material features, such as micro-
structures (and it can be directly coupled to component macroscale operating
environments). Methods of this intermediate scale typically deal with microstruc-
tures and how material properties are affected by mechanisms active in multi-
phase structures, grain structures, interfaces and various different types of sub-
structures.
The underlying idea is not to perform extremely and overtly complex numerical
analyses, but to identify the key features having the greatest impact on a specific
material problem or goal and model them quantitatively. Performing analyses with
a high degree of concurrence and coupling is usually not the best approach in
attacking a specific problem. The most common example for many engineering
materials is the structure-properties-performance chain from the PSPP method. In
such a context, the problem is typically laid out such that the focus is in under-
standing what are the features of material microstructure (or nanostructure) which
are most prevalent in finding the optimal solution for the material problem at hand,
or “simply” understanding what are the features in the current material selection
responsible for the observed behaviour and performance of the material in a com-
ponent setting. As such, a fair way of comprehending multiscale modelling is to
view it as a framework having the ability to pick the viewpoint to a material from
the “buffet” offered by the available methods which has the greatest impact on the
end result, performance requirement, cost or simply the desired outcome. If need
be in the long run, coupling and complicating the numerical model as seen appro-
priate can be performed by incorporation of new features, mechanisms and meth-
ods. For many scenarios, certain very specific material qualities are relevant for a
set of active mechanisms, and as such a multiscale analysis does not need to be
overtly complex in order to yield a desirable outcome. A classic example would be
the identification of microstructural features most prevalent to deformation behav-
iour, as such to discover dependencies responsible and impacting material
strength and mechanisms of fracture.

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1. Multiscale modelling of engineering materials

Figure 2. Multiscale modelling methods for deformation, fracture and wear orga-
nized according to their nominal spatial and temporal ranges.

1.4 Process-Structure-Properties-Performance, PSPP

Multiscale modelling by way of looking at the various methods and even mecha-
nistic understanding itself does not describe in detail its successful application or
how to include it in material design and tailoring tasks, keeping in mind that the
whole process effectively entails integration to experimental and characterization
activities. For this reason, application concepts have been developed and one of
prominent ones is the process-structure-properties-performance concept, or the
PSPP concept, which is presented schematically in Figure 3. VTT ProperTune is
an implementation of the PSPP concept. The PSPP concept is a template for
seeking a solution to material design and optimization tasks. The outline is such
that in order to provide the necessary freedom for finding the optimal solution
material processing (manufacturing) stage, or stages, with its processes and their
parameters is tied to comprehension of the resulting material structure, by way of
utilizing modeling and experimental means. The structure followingly yields and is
coupled to material properties, this link being established again by combining both
experimental and modelling approaches. Properties when the material undergoes
the conditions and mechanisms it experiences in a component setting translate to
material performance. Modeling and experimental activities are intertwined and
coupled throughout the PSPP chain, and the couplings are established in a case

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1. Multiscale modelling of engineering materials

specific manner in order for the overall methodology to support the finding of an
optimal solution. However, the crux of the concept is to let go of the dated trial and
error founded “let’s see what we can do” or “pipeline” approaches, and initiate the
process from performance requirements (typically “performance at a cost”). The
processing, experimental and modelling methodologies are adapted to finding the
solutions meeting these conditions and identifying the case specific features being
able to yield solutions meeting desired criteria and requirements for material use
at a component scale.

Figure 3. Process-Structure-Properties-Performance concept exploiting multiscale


modelling.

1.5 Material structure in multiscale modelling

An example of multiscale modelling incorporating the meso-scale is presented in


Figure 4 for microstructures of a metallic material, in this case essentially a 3 dif-
ferent types of steels. Incorporation of the microstructure entails its detailed mod-
elling at the scale of material grains, and incorporation of any additional features
and substructures such as precipitates or particles depending on the mechanisms
being scrutinized. The basis for modeling the microstructure in a continuous man-
ner is derivation of a 3D image of the different phases. This can be performed
directly by way of using 3D imaging or in a mathematical manner utilizing statisti-
cal properties of microstructures in question. The resulting aggregates, like repre-
sentative or statistical volume elements, are then utilized to model and to deter-
mine the link between material microstructure and its properties, in the simplest

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1. Multiscale modelling of engineering materials

case its true stress-strain curve. The obtained sub-grain stress-strain fields can be
for example further processed to yield information about material performance
against a specified set of mechanisms, such as fracture events originating from
initiation of local of defects and cracks. A noteworthy feature is to acknowledge
that generation of various 3D microstructures is possible within the PSPP frame-
work, and as such, it is possible to devise models of nano- and microscale com-
posites in addition to grain and subgrains structures, interfaces etc.

Figure 4. Examples of mesoscale microstructures of a metallic material and the


resulting stress state of a representative volume element in a simulated tensile
test: aggregate comprised of a grain structure (left), inclusion of grain boundary
precipitates (middle), stress state in a lath containing microstructure (right).

1.6 Material properties and performance in multiscale


modelling

An example of a modelling case comprising both the structure to properties and


properties to performance PSPP modelling routes is presented in Figures 5 and 6
for a thick metal matrix composite coating. The point being made is that in addition
to structural modelling, a detailed mechanistic understanding is required in order
to consider how the material behaves in terms of performance. The performance
in this context being measured by the propensity of the material to initiate and
propagate cracks when being subjected to loading by applied external contact.
The structure to properties analysis of Figure 5 is carried out by building a finite
element model directly on the basis of a scanning electron microscope image, i.e.
the microstructural phases are segmented and a numerical model is generated to

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1. Multiscale modelling of engineering materials

the resulting material distribution. The resulting model is then subjected to indenta-
tion testing to obtain the mechanical properties and behaviour of the microstruc-
ture, and to validate the numerical model.

Figure 5. Structure-properties-performance analysis for a metal matrix composite


coating.

The stress-strain fields demonstrate the features responsible for the structure-
property relationship, but do not contain any other information about performance,
unless mechanical strength was the ultimate goal. For this reason, the mechanism
critical to performance needs to be incorporated in the modelling chain, and for the
current demonstration the measure of performance arises from fracture properties
of the composite coating. A fracture mechanical analysis of crack initiation and
propagation within the material is carried out as presented in Figure 6. The frac-
ture mechanical analysis yields a measure of performance against material failure,
demonstrating the initiation and progression of damage as resulting from the ap-
plied external loading.

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1. Multiscale modelling of engineering materials

Figure 6. Extended finite element analysis of crack initiation and propagation in a


metal matrix composite coating.

1.7 Summary and conclusions

A brief outline of multiscale modelling and the process-structure-properties-


performance (PSPP) concept was presented. Multiscale modelling is a family of
methods ranging from physics to engineering being able to tackle various material
behaviour related problems in a general setting. The PSPP method is a concept
for effective application of multiscale modelling and integration of crucial experi-
mental and characterization resources. In addition, the PSPP method is a meth-
odology for modelling assisted material design, for finding optimal material solu-
tions and tailoring materials. Within a specific multiscale modelling application two
features were emphasized: the representation of material and the behaviour re-
sponsible for critical measures of performance. These are crucial in order to be
able to apply the PSPP methodology effectively for a range of materials and in a
performance requirement driven and cost conscious manner.

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2. Materials modelling research in VTT

2. Materials modelling research in VTT


Yingfeng Shen, Merja Sippola, Kenneth Holmberg & Kim Wallin

VTT Technical Research Centre of Finland


Tekniikantie 2, P.O. Box 1000, FI-02044 Espoo

2.1 Abstract

This survey was conducted to review present activities at VTT related to materials
modelling, used techniques, HW and SW tools as well as problems and visions of
the modellers. The results show that materials modelling is actively used at VTT,
the materials and phenomena are various and the modelling tasks usually chal-
lenging with several phases, phase changes and several size scales. Material
degradation and surface/interface phenomena are the most common to model, but
also fracture, moisture/heat transfer and thermodynamics are common modelling
tasks. The largest material group is metals, but coatings, ceramics, biomaterials,
polymers, composites, bentonite and ice are also modelled extensively. The larg-
est modelling categories are material performance and properties. The most used
hardware is PC. Linux clusters are used for heavier calculating jobs. The most
used commercial software are Matlab, ABAQUS and COMSOL Multiphysics.
FactSage and HSC are used in thermodynamics. Several different open source
programs are used. VTT researchers also develop subroutines for commercial
programs and open source codes. Experimental validation is a general rule at VTT
and validation is done at small, medium and full scale. The full scale validation is
less common due to large time, size scale or lack of resources.

2.2 Introduction

This survey was conducted to review present activities at VTT related to materials
modelling, used techniques, Hard Ware and Soft Ware tools.

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2. Materials modelling research in VTT

Figure 1 shows the thinking behind the survey: modelling is seen as a tool for
understanding and in some cases prediction of material behaviour. Reliable mod-
elling is based on understanding previously developed in experiments, but on the
other hand the model extends the understanding. Validation of models with exper-
imental data is a must in the extent possible and practical.
The definition for materials modelling used in this survey was: materials model-
ling includes all computerised material modelling and simulation activities:
– from material processing, structures and properties to performance and
– from atomic scale up to component scale; technical systems composed
by a number of components are excluded, and
– related to metals, ceramics, polymers, biomaterials, composites and coat-
ings, liquids and gases (all materials and structures are included).

Also analytical modelling was included as a separate point.

Figure 1. Modelling and its context.

The following categories were reviewed:


– VTT research teams involved in materials modelling
– physical phenomena and their scale, multiscale and transition
– experts on modelling and their skills
– used software tools: commercial, open source and VTT developments
– VTT materials modelling software products
– used hardware tools, databases
– experimental model verification techniques
– descriptions of reference cases
– related VTT publications
– national and international partners
– problems and visions
– large materials modelling projects active in 2011.

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2. Materials modelling research in VTT

2.3 Material models

2.3.1 Materials

Figure 2 summarizes the materials modelled at VTT. The same people work often
with several different materials but also many models are multi-material models,
often even involving different phases (solid, liquid, gas).
The biggest material group is metals, but also polymers, biomaterials, compo-
sites, coatings, liquids and gases are well represented. Some people model ben-
tonite clay, some ice. Then there are a few materials modelled by only one or two
people.
The other materials include construction product, concrete, granular frictional
materials, functional materials (SMA, MR-elastomers), powders, metal-liquid inter-
face, plasma, metal oxides and foams.

18

16

14

12
Pe r c e n t a g e

10

0
ice

bentonite
metals

ceramics

polymers

biomaterials

composites

coatings

liquids

gas

others

Figure 2. Materials.

2.3.2 Categories

Figure 3 shows what is sought with the models. The biggest is material perfor-
mance, but material properties and microstructure are also often sought for. Pro-
cessing is less often the target. Here each person is counted only once even if the
modeller has several modelling cases in the same category.

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2. Materials modelling research in VTT

30

25

20
Percentage

15

10

0
processing microstructure properties performance

Figure 3. Catergories.

2.3.3 Phenomena

The phenomena modelled by VTT material modellers are extremely varying (see
Figure 4). Most people model several different phenomena and several different
materials/material combinations, but there are also people concentrating on a few
phenomena and/or on one material or a few materials or material combinations.

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number of persons

18
16
14
12
10
8
6
4
2
0
surface/interfac
moisture/heat

thermodynamics
fracture

degradation

deformation

phenomena in
e phenomena

environment

chemical and
material

transfer

gas

Figure 4. Modelled phenomena.

21
2. Materials modelling research in VTT

Several modellers are working with material degradation (corrosion, wear, irradia-
tion embrittlement, pyrolysis, chemical and mechanical erosion), surface or inter-
face phenomena or deformation. Also moisture/heat transfer, damage and fracture
are common modelling topics. Chemical reactions and thermodynamics are also
fairly common topics. Some people model phenomena occurring in gaseous envi-
ronment (flame spread and fire extinguishment, sputtering, mixing of materials
with plasma). Then there are a few scattered topics modelled by only one or a few
modellers interviewed.
Modelling usually contains multi-material combinations. A somewhat surprising
result is that most modellers tackle phenomena involving different phases (solid,
liquid, gas) and phase changes.
Figure 5 shows the phenomena map in terms of both category and size scale.
The most studied fields are material properties and performance in mm to meter
scale. Atomic scale study is the lowest in all categories.

2.3.4 Size scale

Figure 6 shows the size scales indicated by the modellers. Even though the mod-
els themselves are usually in one scale, the behaviour of the material is usually
studied at a large range of size scales.
The survey showed that quite a few people are interested in atomic and molec-
ular scale modelling and molecular dynamics in order to increase understanding of
the fundamental phenomena of materials (for examples, fracture and pyrolysis).

22
2. Materials modelling research in VTT

Figure 5. Phenomena map, the vertical axis is the number of cases.

20
18
16
number of person

14
12
10
8
6
4
2
0
molecular nm micron mm m
or atomic

Figure 6. The size scales of the models and research.

23
2. Materials modelling research in VTT

2.3.5 Scale transition methods

Figure 7 summarizes how researchers derive material data in one scale and utilize
it in another scale. The most common methods for scale transition are homogeni-
zation (such as the Representative Volume Element method) utilizing FEM or
other software, deduction from small scale experiments or models, and using
parameters from small scale experiments as input in larger scale models. Analyti-
cal homogenization and statistics are also used. Thermodynamics is a special
case – it is rather scale independent.

12
10
number of persons

8
6
4
2
0

statistics
sw homogenization

homogenization

thermodynamics
deduction

parameters from
small scale exp
analytical

Figure 7. Scale transition methods.

2.4 Tools

Table 1 shows the main commercial software used in VTT. The use is strongest
with Matlab, Abaqus and Comsol Multiphysics.
Table 2 shows the open source software usage in VTT. The FDS fire dynamics
simulator was created in NIST and it has been actively developed in VTT for many
years. Most other specialty programs are used by individual modellers. These
include mesh tools (Gmsh), solversolvers (Elmer, openFOAM), post processing
tools (Paranoid), modelling languages (Modelica, SCIPY, gcc) and others.
Table 3 shows the software or programs developed inside VTT, including sub-
routines and scripts for larger programs. There are quite many developments
within the last ten years. Many of the VTT developments are subroutines or scripts
to some commercial or open source program. The codes are usually developed
for the project only. Small software are developed in a few months, while larger
ones are taking several years, which may indicate that it has been continued in
more than one project.

24
2. Materials modelling research in VTT

Table 1. Main commercial modelling software used in VTT.

Program Type
suite of software applications for finite element analysis
Abaqus FEA
and computer-aided engineering
Ansys engineering simulation software
Chemsheet EXCEL based multi-phase thermodynamic calculations
analytical tool that computes the acoustic characteris-
Comet Trim tics of multi-layered, planar materials consisting of
structural, elastic-porous and fluid layers
finite element analysis, solver and simulation software,
Comsol
especially coupled phenomena, or multiphysics
ExtendSim simulation program for modelling discrete event
integrated database computing system in chemical
FactSage
thermodynamics
work-station based FRacture ANalysis Code for simu-
Franc3D
lating arbitrary non-planar 3D crack growth
Geochemist’s Work- integrated set of interactive software tools for solving a
bench range of problems in aqueous chemistry
general purpose dynamic, probabilistic simulation soft-
GoldSim
ware
thermodynamic chemical reaction and equilibrium soft-
HSC
ware
software for simulating and modeling materials like
Materials Studio polymers, nanotubes, catalysts, metals, ceramics, and
so on
computational software program used in scientific, en-
Mathematica gineering, and mathematical fields and other areas of
technical computing
numerical computing environment and fourth-
Matlab
generation programming language
Numerrin mathematical modelling software
program for interactive scientific graphing and data
Origin
analysis
general-purpose numerical simulator for multiphase
Tough2/Toughreact
fluid and heat flow
code to perform electronic structure calculations of
Wien2k
solids using density functional theory (DFT)

25
2. Materials modelling research in VTT

Figure 8 shows the man months used for development and usage of the VTT
software. In general, it can be seen that the usage time is more than the develop-
ment time.

60
man month per year

50

40

30

20

10

dev<2011 use<2011 dev2011 use2011

Figure 8. Manmonths for development and usage of the VTT software.

2/3 of the modellers are using personal computer for their work. The rest are
using other means, especially Linux clusters. More than 50% of the researchers
also do analytical modelling in combination to the numerical work.
Almost all researchers have important collaboration partners outside VTT. The
most common partner is Aalto University. The most common domestic collabora-
tion partners are universities. The most common foreign collaboration partners are
NIST and Osaka University. More than half of the indicated collaboration partners
are foreign. Universities are well represented also in foreign collaboration partners.
The contacts seem to be based on researcher – to researcher collaboration. Geo-
graphically the collaboration partners are located in Europe, America and Japan.

Table 2. Main open source modelling software used in VTT.

Program Type
Abinit suite of programs for materials science, implementing density func-
tional theory, using a plane wave basis set and pseudopotentials,
to compute the electronic density and derived properties of materi-
als ranging from molecules to surfaces to solids
Code_Aster software package for Civil and Structural Engineering finite element
analysis and numeric simulation in structural mechanics
dod_tbmd Tight binding molecular dynamics code
FDS Fire Dynamics Simulator
Elmer finite element software for numerical solution of partial differential
equations and multiphysical problems

26
2. Materials modelling research in VTT

Eq3/6 software package for geochemical modelling of aqueous systems


FEMM software package for solving electromagnetic problems using FEM
gcc, gdb compilers and debuggers for GNU system
Gmsh automatic three-dimensional finite element mesh generator
Lammps molecular dynamics simulator
Lsmdd Level Set Method Dislocation Dynamics library provides support for
the parallel simulation of dislocation motion and interactions in
materials
Micromegas program for DD (Dislocation Dynamics) simulations
Mika multigrid-based program package for electronic structure calcula-
tions
Modelica an object-oriented, declarative, multi-domain modelling language
for component-oriented modelling of complex systems
NumPy package for scientific computing with Python
OpenFOAM toolbox for the development of customized numerical solvers, and
pre-/post-processing utilities for the solution of continuum mechan-
ics problems
ParaDiS FEM dislocation dynamics simulation code
Paranoid post processing tool
Phreeqc program for low-temperature aqueous geochemistry calculations
Salome generic platform for Pre- and Post-Processing for numerical simu-
lation
SciPy software for mathematics, science, and engineering
Siesta software implementation for performing electronic structure calcula-
tions and ab initio molecular dynamics simulations of molecules
and solids
Simantics software platform for modelling and simulation
Tahoe research-oriented platform for the development of numerical meth-
ods and models for the simulation of complex material behavior
Warp3D 3-D nonlinear finite element analysis of solids for fracture and fa-
tigue processes

Table 3. VTT development software list.

Id Software name or type


1 tesselation and structure generation codes
2 Solvers
3 finite element libraries
4 multiscale codes

27
2. Materials modelling research in VTT

5 MD codes
6 Mixed Conduction Code (in ORIGIN)
7 ABAQUS subroutines & scripts
8 ABAQUS subroutines & scripts (Fortran)
9 FDS (Fire Dynamics Simulator)
10 PFS (Probabilistic Fire Simulator)
11 ABAQUS subroutines and scripts
12 Extreme value analysis
13 Ice friction model
14 Icing model
15 THMC in COMSOL Multiphysics
16 ChemSheet (Team)
17 Simulation of degradation
18 Aging management of concrete structures (BridgeLife, RoadLife, Mainte-
nanceManServiceMan
19 FDS / combustion
20 ERO – 3D Monte Carlo code for local impurity transport in plasma (main
developers are in FZ Jülich)
21 PARCAS (Molecular dynamics code, University of Helsinki)
22 ChemSheet
23 KilnSimu
24 TubeBank
25 Surfer
26 CheMac
27 solver for electrostatic aided gravure printing
28 ink absorption on porous substrate
29 ABAQUS subroutines
30 Fiber network model (in Fortran)
31 Virtual Web (in Matlab)
32 Drying simulators
33 Simantics – Open SW platform for modelling and simulation
34 Thimes; in-house program for upward flame spread calculations

28
2. Materials modelling research in VTT

2.5 Experimental validation of models

Experimental validation is generally a rule for VTT material modellers. In some


cases full scale validation is not possible due to large time or size scale, for exam-
ples in modelling storage of spent nuclear fuel. In some cases full scale validation
is difficult because the full scale measurements would be outdoor experiments in
highly non-standard test conditions, for examples in modelling crushing of ice
against offshore structures. In some projects – especially customer projects –
there is no money allocated for experimental validation. Only a small minority of
the researchers rely on experimental data from literature only. Most do experi-
mental validation with experiments made at VTT or by research partners. Some-
times experimental data is taken from some external database. Figure 9 shows
the typical sources of experimental data used for model validation. Small scale
experiments are the most common type of validation, but medium and large scale
experimental validation is also used when possible (Figure 10). In some groups
the experiments are the main thing and models are only used for understanding
the experimental results.

70

60

50
Percentage

40

30

20

10

0
VTT Litterature Other source

Figure 9. Sources of experimental data used in validation.

Figure 11 shows the problems met in validation. Lack of good quality, well docu-
mented experimental data is a common problem. Sometimes the reasons behind
the lack of experimental data are financial or organizational, but most often the
problem is that the key parameters and material behaviour are difficult to measure.
The modelled phenomena are often coupled and rather complicated. In some
cases there are experimental values from several decades, but the test conditions

29
2. Materials modelling research in VTT

and test setup were not properly documented and the data is thus unreliable. In
non-homogeneous materials the test setup strongly affects the results. In natural
materials the scatter in material values is large. Even some of the man-made
materials are not well standardized and the batches can vary considerably. With
small funding it is not possible to make a comprehensive test matrix. In some
fields the time or size scales make full scale validation difficult or impossible.

50

40
Percentage

30

20

10

0
small medium full
Scale

Figure 10. Size scales of experimental validation.

Sometimes the problem lies in correlating the modelled results with experimental
ones, especially with models that use simplifications and idealizations not present
in reality.

30
2. Materials modelling research in VTT

30

25

20
Pecentage

15

10

0
experimental
equipment
experimental
lack of good

size scale

variation
challenge

material
lacking

limitation
money
lack of

time or

none

model
data

Figure 11. Problems met in validation.

2.6 Discussion

A growing and challenging research field: We can conclude that materials


modelling is an important part of the research conducted at VTT and the demand
for modelling seems to be still increasing. The materials and phenomena are vari-
ous and the modelling tasks are usually challenging with several phases, phase
changes and several size scales (see Figure 3, Figure 4). Nonlinear and coupled
phenomena are also included.
Materials and categories: The largest material group is metals, but coatings,
ceramics, biomaterials, polymers, composites, bentonite and ice are also modelled
extensively. Material properties and performance were the most common catego-
ries. Processing was maybe even surprisingly low.
Phenomena: Material degradation and surface/interface phenomena are the
most common to model, but also fracture, moisture/heat transfer and thermody-
namics are common modelling tasks.
Size scales and scale transition: Figure 6 shows the size scales indicated by
the modellers. Even though the models themselves are usually in one scale, the
behaviour of the material is usually studied at a large range of size scales. This
calls for development of multiscale modelling, but the software tools for that are

31
2. Materials modelling research in VTT

not yet at very high level. The most common methods for utilizing data derived in
one scale in another scale are homogenization using some software, deduction,
and utilizing material values from small scale experiments in larger scale models.
True multiscale modelling is still uncommon. In most fields there is need for im-
provement of both tools and skills for multiscale modelling.
Software tools: The most often used software tool is Matlab. This could be ex-
plained by that it is both a programming language and a calculation toolbox. It can
be used for modelling as well as for post processing the results from Abaqus and
Comsol. The other two are dedicated state of the art Finite Element or Finite Vol-
ume solvers. It should also be noted that although Ansys is rather similar to
Abaqus or even better in certain fields, it was much less used in VTT due to mod-
eller’s preference or historical reasons.
The VTT developed software tools are beneficial to the projects, although most
of them are not yet ready for commercialization. Figure 8 shows that the time
spent to develop these programs is less than their usage time, which proves our
efficiency and the readiness of the code. On the other hand, the developing and
usage time is often related to the time span of the project. A longer or continued
project is expected to extend the usage time even longer. Only a few VTT devel-
opments have so far been commercialized, for example APROS, ChemSheet and
Virtual Web. Most of the other programs could be usable by third party, or they
could even be commercialized, but that would mean a lot of extra work: comment-
ing the code, taking away scrap code, documentation, building user friendly inter-
face etc. There is usually no money allocated for this in the project.
There is a slight warning that VTT is spending less time in developing and us-
ing our own software tools. This can be seen from Figure 8. The man months we
use in software development and usage is dropping compared with the average in
the past ten years. However, this could also be due to using more commercial and
open source software.
Hardware tools: The most used hardware is PC, Linux clusters are used for
heavier calculating jobs. Easy access to powerful clusters and education in paral-
lel computing are wished for. Otherwise the modellers are rather satisfied with the
current tools.
Analytical models are not history: VTT modellers do not just rely on numeri-
cal tools, the survey results show that analytical methods are still used in many
cases. During last twenty years, computing power and numerical methods have
greatly improved, complicated engineering problems can now be modelled and
solved. More and more analytical modelling has shifted towards numerical analy-
sis. However, analytical modelling is still very essential in the research. It often
gives a quick although sometimes rough estimation, means for checking the re-
sults of numerical models and reflects modeller’s understanding of the system.
Awareness of experimental validation: The importance of experimental vali-
dation and working hand to hand with experimentalists is well understood by most
modellers at VTT. Some of them indicate that lacking of experimental validation as
one of the problems. Both modellers and experimental researchers hope for pro-

32
2. Materials modelling research in VTT

jects in which there was money allocated for both models and experiments. This is
already a case in many TEKES projects, but less in customer projects.
Problems in validation: The reasons for lack of experimental validation can be
difficulty and/or variety of the phenomena and experiments, large size of time
scales, lack of time, financial reasons or the validation did not get enough attention
in the project planning.
Communication in practice: The co-operation between modellers and exper-
imentalists already works rather well in many fields at VTT, even though infor-
mation gaps do occur now and then. Often the modelling is done in one team and
the experiments in another team. In the beginning there are problems in commu-
nication, but when the same people work together in a few projects, they learn to
communicate the relevant information. It is seen the responsibility of the experi-
mentalist (the material expert) to indicate the key parameters (and how easy or
difficult it is to measure them) and help the modeller to understand the phenome-
na. On the other hand it is the modeller’s responsibility to explain the limitations of
the model/program to the experimentalist.
Reference cases and publications: The large amount of published results
and the good amount of customer projects show that VTT materials modellers are
trusted and valued experts in their field. Some modellers told in the interview that
they are among the top in the world in their field of expertise.

2.7 Conclusions

This survey was conducted 2011 in the Multiscale Materials Modelling project to
review present activities at VTT related to materials modelling, used techniques,
HW and SW tools as well as problems and visions of the modellers. Materials
modelling is an important part of the research conducted at VTT and the demand
for modelling seems to be still increasing.
The materials and phenomena are various and the modelling tasks usually
challenging with several phases, phase changes and several size scales. The
largest material group is metals, but coatings, ceramics, biomaterials, polymers,
composites, bentonite and ice are also modelled extensively. Material degradation
and surface/interface phenomena are the most common to model, but also frac-
ture, moisture/heat transfer and thermodynamics are common modelling tasks.
Material properties and performance were the most common categories. Pro-
cessing was maybe even surprisingly low.
In most fields there is need for improvement of both tools and skills for mul-
tiscale modelling. Even though the models themselves are usually in one scale,
the behaviour of the material is usually studied at a large range of size scales.
This calls for development of multiscale modelling, but the software tools for that
are not yet at very high level. The most common methods for utilizing data derived
in one scale in another scale are homogenization using some software, deduction,
and utilizing material values from small scale experiments in larger scale models.
True multiscale modelling is still uncommon.

33
2. Materials modelling research in VTT

The most used hardware is PC, Linux clusters are used for heavier calculating
jobs. The most used commercial software are Matlab, ABAQUS and COMSOL
Multiphysics. FactSage and HSC are used in thermodynamics. Several different
open source programs are used. Modellers are rather satisfied with the current
tools. VTT researchers also develop subroutines for commercial programs and
open source codes.
The importance of experimental validation and working hand to hand with ex-
perimentalists is well understood. Validation is done at small, medium and full
scale. The full scale validation is less common due to large time, size scale or lack
of resources. The researchers on both sides hope for projects in which there was
money allocated for both models and experiments. The co-operation between
modellers and experimentalists already works rather well in many fields at VTT.
Publication of the modelled results with experimental verification in conferences
and journal papers is active.
As one of the biggest problems, the modellers see the complexity and difficulty
of the phenomena. In many cases experiments are the main thing and models can
only be used in understanding the experimental results, not in predicting anything
absolute. Regarding to the level of materials modelling, we are on the level 3 in
Figure 1 and our challenge is to reach level 4.
The visions for the future do not have much synergy. Most groups intend to
continue on the current path, only a few have plans of enlarging or changing their
field. Molecular dynamics modelling is seen as a necessary new area to go into.
Thermodynamics is seen as another research gap that should be covered.

2.8 Acknowledgements

The authors wish to thank the VTT Multimodelling team for valuable comments
and encouragement in this work. Furthermore the authors acknowledge with grati-
tude the time and effort given by each researcher who was interviewed and/or
answered the questionnaire.

34
3. Effects of structure, doping, and environment on the tribochemistry of DLC

3. Effects of structure, doping, and


environment on the tribochemistry of DLC
Judith A. Harrison1, P. T. Mikulski1 & J. David Schall2

1
United States Naval Academy
Departments of Chemistry & Physics, 572 Holloway Road, Annapolis, MD 21402, U.S.A

2
Oakland University
Department of Mechanical Engineering, 2200 N. Squirrel Rd., Rochester, MI 48309, U.S.A

3.1 Introduction

The low friction and good wear resistance of diamondlike carbon (DLC) films make
them attractive for many tribological applications. Unfortunately, the friction of DLC
is known to be a function of variables, such as structure, hydrogen content, and
humidity. In this talk, we will review previous molecular dynamics simulations, and
present new data, aimed at elucidating the influence of film structure, doping, and
presence of vapour-phase species on the friction and wear of DLC. 1–8

3.2 Method

Non-hydrogenated and hydrogenated DLC films containing zero (referred to as


P00) and twenty (referred to as P20) atomic-percent hydrogen, respectively, were
created using a previously described melt and quench technique. 9–11 The same
hydrogen-terminated, tetrahedral amorphous carbon surface was used as the
counterface for both of these films. The properties of each film have been summa-
rized elsewhere.11, 12 In what follows, the simulation system comprised of the P 00
film plus the counterface is referred to as the “non-hydrogenated system” and the
P20 film plus counterface is referred to as the “hydrogenated system”. Both of
these systems are shown in Figure 1. The P00 surface is composed of 2.2%,

35
3. Effects of structure, doping, and environment on the tribochemistry of DLC

85.3%, and 12.5% sp-, sp2-, and sp3-hybridized carbon. The P20 surface is com-
posed of 2.1%, 83.4%, and 14.5% sp-, sp2-, and sp3-hybridized carbon.
Interatomic forces needed to conduct molecular dynamics (MD) simulations of
sliding were calculated using the reactive empirical bond-order (REBO) potential
for hydrocarbons developed by Brenner and coworkers.13 The many-body nature
of the REBO potential allows the bond energy of each atom to depend on the local
environment. Therefore, the REBO potential allows for chemical reactions (or
tribochemistry), and the accompanying changes in bond-hybridization, to be mod-
elled. During the simulations, the outermost layers of both the surface and coun-
terface are held rigid. Moving inward toward the interface, the next two layers of
both the surface and the countersurface are held at 300 K using a Langevin ther-
mostat.14 All remaining atoms are free to move according to classical dynamics
and periodic boundary conditions are applied in the plane that contains the sliding
interface.
Molecular dynamics simulations have been used to examine the effects of trap-
ping both hydrogen atoms and H2 molecules at the sliding interface between the
counterface and the DLC surface of interest (Fig. 1). The molecules were placed
in between the surfaces and the systems were equilibrated at 300K. The counter-
face was then moved closer to the lower surface until the desired, constant load
was achieved. Two concentrations of atomic hydrogen (0.254 H/Å2 and 0.508 H/Å2
in units of parts per unit surface area) ere examined. These concentrations corre-
spond to 200 and 400 total hydrogen atoms added. Sliding is accomplished by
moving the rigid layers (outermost) layers of the counterface at a constant velocity
of 0.902 Å/ps in the sliding direction.

36
3. Effects of structure, doping, and environment on the tribochemistry of DLC

Figure 1. Simulation systems containing the P00 (left) and the P20 (center) surfac-
es surface in the absence of interfacial hydrogen and the equilibrated P00-
containing system with interfacial atomic hydrogen (right). The counterface (upper
surface) is the same in all simulations. Large green, small red, and gray spheres
represent carbon atoms, hydrogen atoms, and carbon in the diamond substrate,
respectively. (right) The P00 system with atomic hydrogen (light green spheres)
after equilibration at 0 nN and 300 K. The sliding direction is from left to right.

3.3 Results & discussion

Interesting changes occur in the simulation systems upon equilibration in the


presence of interfacial gases. For example, when atomic hydrogen is trapped
between the P00 surface and the counterface, equilibration results in 95% of these
atoms becoming hydrogen molecules, 3.3% of the hydrogen atoms bonding to the
P00 surface and 1.7% of the hydrogen atoms bonding to the counterface. When
hydrogen bonds to the DLC surfaces, the hybridization of the carbon atoms at the
interface is altered. Before equilibration in the presence of hydrogen atoms, 18%
of the carbon atoms in the 2 Å of the P00 surface closest to the sliding interface
have sp-hybridization, 76% are sp2 hybridized, and 7% are sp3 hybridized. After
equilibration in the presence of hydrogen atoms, the unsaturation of the interfacial
region of the P00 surface is reduced with 11% of the carbon atoms adopting sp
hybridization, 80% are sp2 hybridized, and 9% are sp3 hybridized. The case of the
P20 substrate, inclusion of hydrogen through the DLC film results in a slight reduction
in the amount of sp and sp2-hybridized carbon in the film, particularly in the interfa-
cial region. As a result, the addition of interfacial hydrogen atoms to the P 20-
containing system followed by equilibration in the presence of atomic hydrogen,
does not alter the top 2 Å of the film and all the atomic hydrogen forms gaseous H2.
Sliding simulations were performed for 200 ps (or six complete passes over the
film) at constant load. The instantaneous friction forces on the rigid layer were
saved every 0.1 ps of sliding. For the P00-containing system, the smoothed, instan-
taneous friction forces are plotted as a function of time in the right hand side of

37
3. Effects of structure, doping, and environment on the tribochemistry of DLC

Figure 2. In the absence of atomic hydrogen (green line), interfacial chemical


bonds form and are break between the P00 film and the countersurface during
sliding. (This type of bonding was previously referred to as interfilm bonding.15)
Once carbon-carbon bonds form across the sliding interface, continued sliding
strains the bonds resulting in an increase in friction, which corresponds to the
maxima in the friction versus distance (Fig. 2, green line). Continued sliding of the
counterface, increases the stress on the interfacial carbon-carbon bonds enough
to rupture of these bonds, which is associated with a concomitant decrease in
friction. The structure of the interfacial region of the DLC films is continually chang-
ing as a result of the making and breaking of interfacial bonds during sliding.11
These changes in structure can also be monitored by tracking the changes in the
distribution of bond angles and the changes in carbon-atom coordination number.
Finally, when the strain-energy is released by the rupture of the carbon-carbon
bonds during sliding and the instantaneous friction decreases, the temperature of
the interfacial region increases. 11 This has been identified as an important mode of
energy dissipation in films.
It is apparent from examination of the friction versus load data in Figure 2 that
the inclusion of hydrogen within the DLC film reduces friction at all loads, even in
the absence of interfacial hydrogen. The number of interfacial bonds formed dur-
ing sliding, and thus the friction, can also be reduced by the addition of atomic
hydrogen to the interfacial region prior to sliding. Friction versus sliding distance of
the P00-containing system is shown for two different starting concentrations of
interfacial hydrogen atoms. It is clear from the absence of discontinuities in the
friction versus time data for the 0.508 H/Å2 coverage that the formation of interfa-
cial, chemical bonds between the counterface and the P00 film have almost com-
pletely been eliminated.
In general, these simulations demonstrate that reducing unsaturated carbon at-
oms at the sliding interface of self-mated DLC contacts reduces the number of
adhesive interactions, alters the nature of the transfer film formed, and reduces
friction compared to non-hydrogenated systems. These, and related, simulation
results will be discussed in this talk and placed in the broader context of what is
know about the friction of DLC films.

38
3. Effects of structure, doping, and environment on the tribochemistry of DLC

Figure 2. (above) Average friction force as a function of average normal load for
the P00-containing system (red squares) and the P20-containing system (blue dia-
monds).11 (below) Friction as a function of time at an average (constant) load of 60
nN for the P00-containing system. The green line is the friction in the absence of
interfacial atomic hydrogen. The red and the blue lines correspond to initial sur-
face coverages of 0.254 and 0.508 H/Å2, respectively.

3.4 References

1. Erdemir, A., The role of hydrogen in tribological properties of diamond-


like carbon films. Surf. Coat. & Technol. 2001, 146, 292–297.

2. Erdemir, A.; Donnet, C., Tribology of Diamond, Diamond-Like Carbon,


and Related Films. In Modern Tribology Handbook, Bhushan, B., Ed.
CRC Press LLC: Boca Raton, FL, 2001; Vol. 2, 871–908.

3. Erdemir, A.; Donnet, C., Tribology of diamond-like carbon films: recent


progress and future prospects. Journal of Physics D-Applied Physics
2006, 39, (18), R311-R327.

39
3. Effects of structure, doping, and environment on the tribochemistry of DLC

4. Kim, H. I.; Lince, J. R.; Eryilmaz, O. L.; Erdemir, A., Environmental ef-
fects on the friction of hydrogenated DLC films Tribol. Lett. 2006, 21, 53–
58.

5. Ronkainen, H.; Koskinen, J.; Varjus, S.; Holmberg, K., Load-carrying


capacity evaluation of coating/substrate systems for hydrogen-free and
hydrogenated diamond-like carbon films. Tribology Letters 1999, 6, (2),
63–73.

6. Ronkainen, H.; Varjus, S.; Holmberg, K., Tribological performance of


different DLC coatings in water-lubricated conditions. Wear 2001, 249,
(3–4), 267–271.

7. Ronkainen, H.; Varjus, S.; Koskinen, J.; Holmberg, K., Differentiating the
tribological performance of hydrogenated and hydrogen-free DLC coat-
ings. Wear 2001, 249, (3–4), 260–266.

8. Konicek, A. R.; Grierson, D. S.; Sumant, A. V.; Friedmann, T. A.; Sulli-


van, J. P.; Gilbert, P.; Sawyer, W. G.; Carpick, R. W., Influence of sur-
face passivation on the friction and wear behavior of ultrananocrystalline
diamond and tetrahedral amorphous carbon thin films. Physical Review
B 2012, 85, (15).

9. Gao, G.-T., Mikulski, P. T., Chateauneuf, G. M., and Harrison, J. A., The
Effects of Film Structure and Surface Hydrogen on the Properties of
Amorphous Carbon Films. J. Phys. Chem. B 2003, 107, 11082–11090.

10. Gao, G. T., Mikulski, P. T., and Harrison, J. A., Molecular-Scale Tribology
of Amorphous Carbon Coatings: Effects of Film Thickness, Adhesion,
and Long-Range Interactions. J. Am. Chem. Soc 2002, 124, 7202–7209.

11. Schall, J. D.; Gao, G. T.; Harrison, J. A., Effects of Adhesion and Trans-
fer Film Formation on the Tribology of Self-Mated DLC Contacts. Journal
of Physical Chemistry C 2010, 114, (12), 5321–5330.

12. Schall, J. D.; Mikulski, P. T.; Chateaueuf, G. M.; Gao, G. T.; Harrison, J.
A., Molecular Dynamics Simulations of Tribology. In Superlubricity, Er-
demir, A. a. M., J.J., Ed. Elseveir: Amsterdanm, The Netherlands, 2007;
Vol. Chapter 5, 79–102.

13. Brenner, D. W.; Shenderova, O. A.; Harrison, J. A.; Stuart, S. J.; Ni, B.;
Sinnott, S. B., Second Generation Reactive Empirical Bond Order

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3. Effects of structure, doping, and environment on the tribochemistry of DLC

(REBO) Potential Energy Expression for Hydrocarbons. J. Phys. C.


2002, 14, 783–802.

14. Adelman, S. A.; Doll, J. D., Generalized Langevin Equation Approach for
Atom/Solid-Surface Scattering: General Formulation of Classical Scatter-
ing off Harmonic Solids. J. Chem. Phys. 1976, 64, 2375–2388.

15. Gao, G. T.; Mikulski, P. T.; Chateauneuf, G. M.; Harrison, J. A., The
Effects of Film Structure and Surface Hydrogen on the Properties of
Amorphous Carbon Films. J. Phys. Chem. B 2003, 107, 11082–11090.

41
4. Introduction to the IMAGO project

4. Introduction to the IMAGO project


Maria Oksa

VTT Technical Research Centre of Finland


Metallimiehenkuja 8, P.O. Box 1000, FI-02044 Espoo

4.1 Introduction to the IMAGO project

Modelling assisted material design is an important development target at VTT. At


VTT, frontier projects are used to develop competence and know-how develop-
ment. Frontier projects are self-funded instruments to increase top skills in select-
ed areas. IMAGO – Integrated material modelling for demanding applications is a
frontier project, which combines materials science and computer modelling. The
main focus of the project is to develop and validate material modelling tools, which
can simulate and predict material behaviour in demanding environments. The
modelling tools will integrate physical and chemical material transformation mod-
els in multiscale, from nano to macro size and different time scales. These model-
ling tools being developed in IMAGO project belong to an overall modelling con-
cept VTT ProperTuneTM. VTT ProperTuneTM represents a systematic approach
for controlled performance by material modelling. It enables understanding and
controlling the relationship between processing, structure, properties and perfor-
mance in material development. Together with multiscale modelling tools and
deep understanding of materials, processes, characterization and performance, it
is possible to perform modelling assisted material design, and avoid excess exper-
imental work and hence generate cost and time savings. The IMAGO project fo-
cuses on three different material cases, which aim for creation of tools for tailored
material and component design, and targeting to energy savings, development of
new products, and lifetime control.

42
4. Introduction to the IMAGO project

4.2 Material modelling development by focused cases in


IMAGO project

The three cases in the IMAGO project are diamond-like carbon coatings, and the
effect of the coating structure to coating properties, high temperature corrosion
and erosion protection properties of thermal spray coatings, and effect of bio fibre
structure into processing of the material. A more detailed description of the cases
is presented in the following presentations:
– Modelling of friction and structural transformations in diamond like carbon
coatings by Helena Ronkainen
– Molecular dynamics simulations of mass transport in chromium oxide
scales by Jukka Vaari, and
– µFEM modelling of wood cell deformation under pulping-type dynamic
loads by Stefania Fortino.

4.2.1 Optimized structure of diamond-like carbon coatings (DLC) for low


friction and wear by material modelling

Diamond-like carbon (DLC) coatings have excellent properties, such as high me-
chanical strength, high hardness, low friction and good wear resistance. They offer
beneficial properties to applications like slide bearings, valve rockers, gears, other
sliding components, cutting tools, flat panel displays and surgical tools. DLC coat-
ings are amorphous and contain mixture of sp3 and sp2 carbon bonds and gener-
ally significant quantities of hydrogen due to the deposition process (e.g. CVD –
chemical vapour deposition, and PVD – physical vapour deposition). The effect of
the structure to the coating properties, and thermal and aging effects on friction
and wear are under study in the IMAGO project. The novel modelling approach
combines several multiscale components from atomistic scale to macro scale by
molecular dynamics (MD), finite element modelling (FEM), Monte Carlo simula-
tions (MC) and thermodynamical calculations (CFE – constraint free energy). The
models are being validated by thorough analysis of the different DLC coating
structures and careful testing of different coating properties. Co-operation with
Argonne National Laboratory, USA, and Universities of Sheffield, UK; and
Jyväskylä is active. An example of atomistic modelling is presented in Figure 1
simulating nanoindentation measurement on DLC coating with a diamond tip.

43
4. Introduction to the IMAGO project

Figure 1. Nanoindentation (~15 nm tip size) of an a-C:H (25 at% H) DLC coating
with a diamond tip. Colouring based on atomic coordination, model cut in half
diagonally.

4.2.2 Increased lifetime of components by optimized high temperature


protective thermal spray coatings through material modelling

Thermal spray coatings for high temperature applications are typically metallic,
cermet or ceramic coatings sprayed with HVOF (high velocity oxy-fuel) or plasma
methods, using high temperature and high velocity to form dense lamellar struc-
tures with good corrosion and wear properties. High temperature corrosion and
erosion resistant coatings can be used for example to protect economical low
alloyed substrate material in heat exchanger surfaces of power plant boilers. The
material modelling in the IMAGO project combines atomistic simulation by MD to
calculate diffusion coefficients, which can be used in thermodynamic calculations
to estimate the corrosion mechanics, and FEM to simulate the effect of erosion.
The development and validation of the models are performed by using data from
literature and concurrent experimental work. The different levels in the modelling
are presented in Figure 2.

44
4. Introduction to the IMAGO project

Figure 2. Three different levels of integrated modelling for high temperature corro-
sion are atomistic, thermodynamical and empirical.

4.2.3 Energy savings in bio fibre processing by material modelling

Use and processing of bio fibres, e.g. wood, is an important industrial sector. Bio
fibre refining is vastly energy consuming process. µ-FEM modelling is used for
development of elastic and inelastic models of bio fibre deformation, to understand
the effect bio fibre structure on processing and to gain energy savings, see Figure
3. Experiments on wood to understand the mechanisms of crack propagation and
disintegration starting from the external surface are performed to validate the
models. Collaboration on microscale modelling and experiments is being conduct-
ed with University of Uppsala, Sweden.

Figure 3. Elastic model of wood cell deformation. On left a SEM figure of wood
cell under load (by De Magistris & Salmén 2006), and on right modelled wood cell
deformation under pulping-type load.

4.3 Benefits from the IMAGO materials modelling tools

The VTT ProperTuneTM concept enables deep understanding of the relationship


in the process-structure-properties-performance chain and hence more effective

45
4. Introduction to the IMAGO project

material design. The material modelling tools being developed in the IMAGO pro-
ject can estimate wear, aging and high temperature behaviour of DLC coatings,
and help tailoring of the coating structure for best performance in selected applica-
tions and conditions. These tools enable selecting optimal materials to increase
lifetime by protective thermal spray coatings, decreasing maintenance work and
extending replacement cycle of failured components, providing cost savings in
energy and process sector. Furthermore, the use of material modelling tools can
produce energy and cost savings by more efficient process development for biofi-
bre processing and enable to create new bio based products. Expected impact
and benefits of the materials modelling tools in the VTT ProperTuneTM concept are
more effective material and component design targeting for energy, time and cost
savings.

46
5. Modelling of friction and structural transformations in diamond-like carbon
coatings

5. Modelling of friction and structural


transformations in diamond-like carbon
coatings
Helena Ronkainen, Anssi Laukkanen & Kenneth Holmberg

VTT Technical Research Centre of Finland


Metallimiehenkuja 8, P.O. Box 1000, FI-02044 Espoo

5.1 Introduction

Diamond and diamond-like carbon (DLC) based coatings have attracted a rapidly
increasing number of researchers since the middle of 1980’s and these films are
today the most intensively researched tribological coatings [Donnet & Erdemir
2008; Holmberg & Matthews 2009]. The commercial interest in diamond and dia-
mond-like coatings is considerable, not only because of their great potential in
tribological applications but also because of their potential as new and more effi-
cient semiconductor and optical thin film materials.
Diamond-like carbon coatings are extensively used in the computer industry as
wear protective layer in the multilayer system deposited on practically all computer
hard disks. This means that only for this purpose there are one million DLC coat-
ings deposited every day. There is a large variety of other commercial applications
where the excellent low friction and good wear resistant properties of DLC films
are beneficial such as: valve rockers, gears, injection pumps, tappets, other auto-
motive sliding components, cutting tools, mechanical seals, textile industry parts,
optical windows, flat panel displays, photomultiplier and microwave power tubes,
acoustic wave filters, sensors, heat spreaders, razor blades, surgical tools and
biological implants [Hauert 2004; Erdemir and Donnet 2005].
The purpose of this paper is to present the state-of-art understanding of the
structures of DLC coatings and an integrated computational modelling and simula-
tion approach combining macro-to-microscale Finite Element Method (FEM) mod-
elling and Constrain Free Energy (CFE) modelling with micro-to-nano scale Monte

47
5. Modelling of friction and structural transformations in diamond-like carbon
coatings

Carlo (MC) statistical modelling and nano scale Molecular Dynamic Simulations
(MDS). Simulations of macro-to-micro scale FEM modelled hydrogenated and
hydrogen free DLC coatings and nano scale MDS modelled hydrogenated DLC
coatings are demonstrated and reported.

5.2 DLC coating structure

Diamond-like carbon (DLC) is the name commonly used for hard carbon coatings
which have similar mechanical, optical, electrical and chemical properties to natu-
ral diamond, but which do not have a dominant crystalline lattice structure. They
are amorphous and consist of a mixture of sp3 and sp2 carbon structures with
sp2-bonded graphite-like clusters embedded in an amorphous sp3-bonded carbon
matrix. Generally they contain significant quantities of hydrogen originating from
the use of hydrogen for controlling the initial nucleation and subsequent growth in
the deposition process.
Several CVD and PVD deposition techniques such as plasma-enhanced CVD,
sputtering, ion plating, laser ablation etc., have been successfully used for deposit-
ing DLC films. The substrate temperature during deposition is mostly below 200
ºC. The adhesion to the substrate has been improved by depositing an interlayer
some nanometres thick, of Si or Ti, between the DLC coating and the substrate.
DLC coatings are typically used in the thickness range of 0.01 to 2 µm but they
have been prepared with thicknesses down to only a few nanometres and as
nanosmooth coatings with intrinsic roughness less than 0.1 nm [Grill 1997; Bhu-
shan 2008].
The CVD and PVD deposition techniques offer good possibilities to tailor DLC
coatings with various structures corresponding to the required properties. The
main categories of DLC coatings and their abbreviations are [VDI-Richtlinien
2005]:

– a-C : hydrogen-free amorphous carbon coating


– ta-C : tetrahedral hydrogen-free amorphous carbon coating
– a-C:Me : metal-containg hydrogen-free amorphous carbon coating (Me =
W, Ti ....)
– a-C:H : hydrogenated amorphous carbon coating
– ta-C:H : tetrahedral hydrogenated amorphous carbon coating
– a-C:H:Me : metal-containing hydrogenated amorphous carbon coating (Me
= W, Ti ...) and
– a-C:H:X : modified hydrogenated amorphous carbon coating (X = Si, O, N,
F, B ...).

Since small quantities of hydrogen, e.g. from residual gases, can still be incorpo-
rated in the films even when there is no use of hydrogen gas in the deposition
process, a hydrogen limit of about 3 at. % is quoted [VDI-Richtlinien 2005] as the
transition between hydrogen-free and hydrogenated carbon coatings.

48
5. Modelling of friction and structural transformations in diamond-like carbon
coatings

The most important structural parameters are the sp3/sp2-ratio and the hydro-
gen content in the coating. The balance between them and the regions of the
various DLC coatings is illustrated in the ternary phase diagram in Figure 1a. At
higher temperatures a recrystallisation of the carbon structure to graphite takes
place and this transition is depending on the sp3/sp2 ratio.
Molecular dynamic simulations have shown that the three dimensional struc-
ture, not just the sp3/sp2-ratio, is important in determining the mechanical proper-
ties of the coatings [Gao et al. 2003]. Particular orientations of sp2 ring-like struc-
tures create coatings with both high sp2 content and large elastic constants. Coat-
ings with graphite-like top layers parallel to the substrates have lower elastic con-
stants than coatings with large amounts of sp3-hybridised carbon. The layered
structure of the hydrogen-free coatings results in a mechanical behaviour that
influences the friction to load relationship. The atomic-scale structure of the coat-
ing at the interface has turned out to be of critical importance in determining the
load at which tribochemical reactions and wear between the coating and the coun-
terface is induced. The coatings that are highly hydrogenated to provide enough
hydrogen for all free dangling bonds to avoid the possibility that some strong cova-
lent bonds are formed between the surfaces. Some unbonded free hydrogen can
serve as a reservoir and replenish or replace those hydrogen atoms that may have
been lost due to thermal heating and mechanical grinding during sliding. A mo-
lecular dynamic simulation of a highly hydrogenated a-C:H coating structure in-
cluding bonded, atomic and molecular hydrogen within the coating is shown in
Figure 1b.

(a) (b)

Figure 1. (a) Ternary phase diagram for DLC coatings showing the balance of the
sp3/sp2-ratio and the hydrogen content in the coating [after Ferrari and Robertson
2000]. UNCD refers to ultrananocrystalline diamond and HC to hydrocarbon. (b)
Tight-binding molecular dynamic simulation of highly hydrogenated DLC coatings,
showing bonded, atomic and molecular hydrogen within the structure [from Erde-
mir 2004, with permission].

49
5. Modelling of friction and structural transformations in diamond-like carbon
coatings

5.3 Tribological mechanisms of DLC

Diamond-like carbon coatings have excellent tribological properties, very similar to


the diamond coatings; they are chemically inert and have excellent biocompatibil-
ity. However, because of their amorphous structure they are less brittle than dia-
mond coatings and due to their lower deposition temperature, down to room and
even sub-zero temperatures, they can be deposited on a large variety of materials,
including all kinds of metals and ceramics, with good adhesion.
The coefficient of friction for DLC is generally in the range of 0.02 to 0.4 and the
wear rate 0.0001 to 1 • 10-6 mm3/N•m in normal air. For the hydrogenated DLC
the coefficient of friction in a vacuum or inert environment is in the range of 0.001
to 0.02 and the wear rate may be as low as 0.00001 • 10-6 mm3/N•m [Robertson
1992; Holmberg and Matthews 1994; Grill 1997; Gangopadhyay 1998; Bhushan
1999; Nastasi et al. 1999; Ronkainen 2001; Erdemir 2002; Singer et al. 2003;
Klaffke et al. 2004; Hauert 2004; Donnet and Erdemir 2008]. On the other hand
the hydrogen-free DLC films typically had high friction performance in dry and inert
environments [Voevodin and Donley 1996, Ronkainen et al. 1999, Andersson et
al. 2003, Meunier et al. 2005].
It was already in the 90´s speculated that the very low coefficient of friction of
diamond-like carbon coatings in sliding contacts is due to graphitisation and the
formation of a thin graphitic layer on top of the hard. Later number of studies have
pointed to the appearance of graphite in the wear tracks. They have also shown
another important contact mechanism that influences friction and wear – the for-
mation of a carbon-rich transfer layer on the counter surface [Hirvonen et al. 1990;
Ronkainen et al. 1993; Grill 1997; Voevodin and Zabinski 2000; Ronkainen 2001;
Sanchez-Lopez et al. 2003; Erdemir and Donnet 2005; Kano et al. 2005; Scharf
and Singer 2003]. This transfer layer covers more or less completely the counter
surface giving it a smooth load carrying platform ideal for low shear in combination
with the graphitised top layer of the DLC coating. Transfer layers consisting of
carbon, oxygen, chromium, aluminium and iron have been observed. The result is
that the friction occurs between two surfaces with amorphous carbon top layers,
which have a structural chemistry quite different from the original DLC coating, but
similar to that of crystalline graphite. Recently tehere have also been carried out in
situ TEM and EELS (electron energy loss spectra) analysis showing a mechanical-
ly-induced increase in sp2 bond content in the tribolayers formed on a-C:H nearly
frictionless carbon coatings in sliding. The study established a nanoscale sliding
interface within the TEM and performed real-time imaging and spectroscopy of the
moving contact and offered strong evidence that the formation of a graphitic layer
is the frictional controlling mechanism.
The hydrogen content in a diamond-like carbon coating has a most significant
influence on its hardness, modulus of elasticity, density and the sp3/sp2 ratio
[Dunlop et al. 1991]. The presence of hydrogen is also important for the develop-
ment of favourable friction conditions in diamond and DLC coatings according to
the dangling bond orbital and graphitisation mechanisms described earlier. The

50
5. Modelling of friction and structural transformations in diamond-like carbon
coatings

decrease in microhardness for a variety of DLC coatings with increasing hydrogen


content in the coating has been shown [Raveh et al. 1993; Gupta et al. 2004]. The
influence of hydrogen content in the coating as well as the presence of hydrogen
in the surrounding environment has been shown by several studies [Ronkainen et
al. 1993; Andersson et al. 2003; Sanchez-Lopez et al. 2003; Fontaine et al. 2004;
Erdemir and Donnet 2005; Li et al. 2007; Ronkainen and Holmberg 2008]. For
higher hydrogen content in the coating, the surface is covered by hydrogen atoms,
leading to weak van der Waals bonds between the sliding surfaces. For lower
hydrogen content, on the other hand, there are not enough hydrogen atoms to
shield the strong interactions between the free orbitals of carbon bonds.
In non-oxidising controlled environments like vacuum, argon or dry nitrogen the
tribological behaviour of diamond-like carbon coatings is often similar to that of
bulk diamond. However, water vapour influences the DLC coating and in humid air
the coating behaves more like bulk graphite [Miyoshi 1990; Erdemir et al. 1991;
Ronkainen and Holmberg 2008]. It is well documented that graphite requires mois-
ture or other vapours to achieve low friction and low wear. The adsorbed vapour
covers the edge sites, thereby lowering the surface energy and reducing the ad-
hesion to other surfaces [Spear 1989].
The very low coefficient of friction, often below 0.05, when a steel slider slides
over a hydrogenated DLC surface in dry air gradually increases with increasing
humidity and reaches values in the range of 0.15 to 0.3 at relative humidities close
to 100% [Enke et al. 1980; Memming et al. 1986; Franks et al. 1990]. Ronkainen
and Holmberg (2008) have reviewed the environmental effects on the tribological
performance of DLC coatings and they show the different influences of humidity
on different categories of DLC coatings and the mechanisms controlling their tribo-
logical performance as presented in Figure 2.

51
5. Modelling of friction and structural transformations in diamond-like carbon
coatings

Figure 2. Schematic presentation of friction performance of DLC coatings as a


function of humidity and the related mechanisms controlling their tribological per-
formance (from Ronkainen and Holmberg, 2008).

5.4 Integrated modelling of DLC films at VTT

The tribological friction and wear mechanisms in contacts with DLC coated surfac-
es may be very different depending on the geometrical and topographical scales
investigated [Holmberg et al. 2007]. Some phenomena are best understood on
nano scale while other may be better understood on micro scale. From an indus-
trial application point of view is it important to manage to scale up and consolidate
these mechanisms to macro scale conditions typically observed and measured in
practical applications.
To achieve this VTT has developed the integrated computational modelling and
simulation approach, shown in Figure 3. The basic physical mechanisms that
appear on nano sacle are modelled with Molecular Dynamic Simulation (MDS)
and combined with their statistical features by Monte-Carlo (MC) methods. The
thermochemical features are introduced by Constrain Free Energy (CFE) model-
ing and this information is consolidated to global tribological behaviour on macro
scale by Finite Element Method (FEM). It is necessary to carry out a number of
separate validation exercises on different scale levels to be sure that the models
are reflecting the material behaviour of real materials in real contacts. Nano scale
models are validated by nano indentation, Atomic Force Microscopy (AFM) and in-
situ Scanning Electron Microscopy (SEM) scratch testing. Scratch testing and
Raman surface analysis are carried out on micro scale, residual stresses meas-

52
5. Modelling of friction and structural transformations in diamond-like carbon
coatings

ured on macro scale and the final validation on macro scale is done by pin-on-disc
tribometer friction and wear measurements.

Figure 3. Integrated multiscale material modelling with length and time scale
ranges of the four modelling techniques (FEM, CFE, MC and MDS) and used
empirical validation techniques, shown in yellow circles.

5.4.1 FE modelling of a-C:H and ta-C

Meso and macroscale modelling is commonly carried out using the finite element
method, since it provides a direct link to means applied to perform component
analyses. The best all around method for determination of mechanical perfor-
mance of coatings is the scratch test. A typical finite element model of a scratch
test of a DLC coating is presented in Figure 4. Symmetry of the setup is exploited
and the relevant coating, interface and substrate layers are included along with the
diamond tip usually with a radius ranging from some tens of micrometers to 200
µm. In Figure 5 results are presented for a 0.6 µm thick a-C:H coating and 0.3 µm
ta-C coating. The results for both a-C:H and ta-C demonstrate typical behavior as
far as the principal stress distribution is concerned, the peak values being located
at the edge of the scratch test groove, which along with the scratch bottom is one
of the most common locale for crack field initiation.

53
5. Modelling of friction and structural transformations in diamond-like carbon
coatings

Figure 4. Finite element modelling of DLC scratch testing.

Figure 5. Contours of first principal stress in 0.6 µm thick a-C:H DLC coating (left)
and equivalent von Mises stress in 0.3 µm thick ta-C DLC coating (right).

The FE modelling can provide more thorough understanding on the performance


of different DLC coating types in tribological contacts. By studying the stress and
strain performance of DLC films under load it is possible to understand the differ-
ent properties and aspects influencing the coating performance. For expample the
a-C:H and ta-C coatings with different coating thicknesses were evaluated in pin-
on-disc tests with increasing normal load. The test results showed delamination of
the 0.3 µm thick ta-C coating with a lower normal load compared to the 0.6 µm
thick a-C:H coating as described in Figure 6. The modelling results of the coatings
clearly explaned the coating performance by generation of higher stresses in the
ta-C coating when subjected to high contact loads. The modelling results also
showed that the coating thickness is playing an important role in coating perfor-
mance [Ronkainen et al. 2012].

54
5. Modelling of friction and structural transformations in diamond-like carbon
coatings

Figure 6. The friction performance of 0.6 µm thick a-C:H DLC coating (left) and
0.3 µm thick ta-C DLC coating (right) with increasing normal load in pin-on-disc
testing.

5.4.2 Molecular dynamic simulation of a-C:H

Molecular dynamics (MD) analysis can take a direct stance on the mechanisms of
friction, material damage and wear arising from nanoscale upwards [Harrison et al.
1992; 1995; 1998]. Molecular dynamics analyses have been carried out using
various force fields, in the following results utilizing the AIREBO potential are re-
ported [Stuart et al. 2000]. The amorphous DLC structures are derived using a
liquid quench method, where a randomized ordered cubic lattice of C and H in the
respective fractions of a given density is allowed to spontaneously melt. After
melting and reaching temperatures of approximately 8000K the system is thermo-
statted using velocity rescaling and stabilized. After a stabilization period cooling
to 300K is conducted using several temperature gradients and again velocity
rescaling, followed by a stabilization period of the final structure. What results is an
amorphous C-H structure to be utilized as a starting structure in further analyses.
One such demonstration is given in Figure 7 presenting the distribution of the
normal stress component in the direction of the indentation, providing a glimpse
how the stress distribution differs in the atomic scale from that of the continuum,
e.g. when comparing to Figure 4. One of the main goals in MD studies of DLC is
identification of the mechanisms responsible for its performance with respect to
friction, i.e. the reasoning underlying the low coefficients of friction and on the
other hand limitations in its range of application. Results to this effect are present-
ed in Figure 8, where the coordination number of a system is plotted during
scratch testing of a 25at% H a-C:H structure. One of the long standing theories for
friction behavior of DLC surfaces under contact is surface stress state induced
phase transformation to graphitization, which forms a low friction surface layer.
Reasoning towards such a conclusion is given in Figure 6 by acknowledging the
formation of a shear layer, i.e. orientation of the surface atomic structure from a
sp3 dominated atomic coordination to graphite like sp2, and to some extent even
further, sp1 bonding. This arises solely from the mechanical interaction between
the two surfaces at ambient conditions.

55
5. Modelling of friction and structural transformations in diamond-like carbon
coatings

Figure 7. MD results for in-plane compressive stress during indentation of 25at%


H a-C:H DLC surface with a-C:H DLC tip.

56
5. Modelling of friction and structural transformations in diamond-like carbon
coatings

Figure 8. MD coordination plot during scratch testing of 25at% H a-C:H DLC sur-
face with a-C:H DLC tip.

5.5 Conclusions and future aspects

The modelling provides an excellent tool to understand the coating performance


and to design coatings with optimal structures and properties. Modelling aided
design can also be used to greate design rules for coatings and coated compo-
nent for real applications.
The integrated computational modelling and simulation approach adobled at
VTT combine the MDS modelling of basic physical mechanisms on nano sacle,
MC modelling with statistical features, CFE modeling for the thermochemical fea-
tures, and finally consolidate the information to global tribological behaviour on
macro scale by FEM. With this approach the aging and thermal effects of DLC
coatings will be studied and the modelling will be verified by testing.

57
5. Modelling of friction and structural transformations in diamond-like carbon
coatings

5.6 References

Andersson, J., Erck, R.A. and Erdemir, A. 2003. Frictional behavior of dia-
mondlike carbon films in vacuum and under varying water vapor pres-
sure. Surface and Coatings Technology, Vol, 163-164, pp. 535–540

Bhushan, B. 1999. Chemical, mechanical and tribological characterization of ultra-


thin and hard amorphous carbon coatings as thin as 3.5 nm: recent de-
velopments. Diamond and Related Materials, Vol. 8, pp. 1985–2015.

Bhushan, B. 2008. Nanotribology of ultrathin and hard amorphous carbon films. In:
Tribology of diamond-like carbon films. Donnet, C. and Erdemir, A.
(Eds.). Springer, New York, USA. Pp. 510–570.

Donnet, C. and Erdemir, A. (Eds.). 2008. Tribology of diamond-like carbon films –


Fundamentals and applications. Springer, New York, USA. 664 p.

Dunlop, E., Haupt, J., Schmidt, K. and Gissler, W. 1991. Hardness and Young's
modulus of diamond-like carbon films prepared by ion beam methods. In:
Proceedings 2nd European Conference on Diamond, Diamond-like and
Related Coatings, Nice, France, 2-6.9.1991. Pp. 644–649.

Enke, K., Dimigen, H. and Hübsch, H. 1980. Frictional properties of diamondlike


carbon layers. Applied Physics Letters, Vol. 36, pp. 291–292.

Erdemir, A., Switala, M., Wei, R. and Wilbur, P. 1991. A tribological investigation
of the graphite-to-diamond-like behaviour of amorphous carbon films ion
beam deposited on ceramic substrates. Surface and Coatings Technolo-
gy, Vol. 50, pp. 17–23.

Erdemir, A. 2002. Friction and wear of diamond and diamond-like carbon films.
Proceedings of the Institution of Mechanical Engineers, Part J: Journal of
Engineering Tribology, Vol. 216, pp. 387–400.

Erdemir, A. 2004. Genesis of superlow friction and wear in diamondlike carbon


films. Tribology International, Vol. 37, pp. 1005–1012.

Erdemir, A. and Donnet, C. 2005. Tribology of Diamond and Diamond-Like Carbon


Films: An Overview. In: Wear – Materials, Mechanisms and Practice.
Stachowiak, G.W. (Ed.). Tribology in Practice Series, John Wiley and
Sons, Chichester, UK. Pp. 191–222.

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coatings

Ferrari, A.C. and Robertson, J. 2000. Interpretation of Raman spectra of disor-


dered and amorphous carbon. Physical Review B, Vol. 61, No. 20, pp.
14095–14107.

Fontaine, J., Belin, M., Le Mogne, T. and Grill, A. 2004. How to restore superlow
friction of DLC : the healing effect of hydrogen gas. Tribology Interna-
tional, Vol. 37, pp. 869–877.

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62
6. Molecular dynamics simulations of mass transport in chromium oxide scales

6. Molecular dynamics simulations of mass


transport in chromium oxide scales
Jukka Vaari

VTT Technical Research Centre of Finland


Kemistintie 3, P.O. Box 1000, FI-02044 Espoo

6.1 Abstract

Mass transport in bulk -Cr2O3 has been studied by means of classical molecular
dynamics (MD) simulations. Point defects were assumed to be responsible for
ionic diffusion. The focus of this study were vacancies both in the cation and anion
lattice (Schottky defects). Two parametrizations of the Buckingham potential were
used to describe the interactions between ions. Defect concentrations between
8e-5 and 8e-4 were studied in the temperature range 1300 K – 2000 K. Diffusion
coefficients were calculated from mean square displacements. Activation energies
for migration were determined from Arrhenius plots. The results were compared to
literature values for diffusion coefficients and parabolic growth constants.

6.2 Introduction

Mass transport properties of chromium(III) oxide have been the subject of much
interest both experimentally and theoretically. These studies have revealed that
not only does Cr2O3 exhibit a complex defect chemistry, but that the method by
which the Cr2O3 samples are manufactured will greatly affect the defect chemistry.
An ideal -Cr2O3 (corundum) single crystal has no grain boundaries and no im-
purities, and the only mechanism for bulk mass transport would be through intrin-
sic defects present at finite temperatures. The energy required to generate these
defects can be readily computed, and Atkinson et al. [Atkinson et al. 2003] report
values of 5.59 eV, 5.34 eV, and 7.80 eV for intrinsic Schottky, anion Frenkel and

63
6. Molecular dynamics simulations of mass transport in chromium oxide scales

cation Frenkel defects, respectively. Clearly, these energies are large compared to
kBT at temperatures of practical interest, so one would expect mass transport in
such crystals to be extremely slow due to a low concentration of point defects.
The defect chemistry of Cr2O3 is complicated by impurities present in the bulk
material. Since intrinsic defect concentrations in Cr2O3 are small, small impurity
concentrations, down to the ppm level, may have significant effects on the defect
chemistry. Impurities are unavoidable in practical materials, but they may also be
introduced during experimental measurements. For example, Holt and Kofstad
[Holt and Kofstad 1994] report elevated levels of Mg and Al impurities in their
Cr2O3 samples due to extended exposure to the materials in the conductivity
measuring instruments.
According to Atkinson et al. [Atkinson et al. 2003], small divalent substitutional
cations (such as Mg) in a Cr2O3 lattice have solution energies of the order of 2 eV,
significantly less than the energies of intrinsic defect formation. This implies that
real Cr2O3 samples should be regarded as doped semiconductors with the charge
carrier concentration dictated by the impurity concentration. The nature of the
charge carrier depends on the dopant, and can be modeled by writing equations
describing the mass (and charge) balance of the possible defect reactions. Ac-
cordingly, Atkinson et al. [Atkinson et al. 2003] argue that doping a Cr2O3 crystal
with a divalent cation will drive up the concentration of oxygen vacancies. Howev-
er, since both Schottky and anion Frenkel defects involve oxygen vacancies, it is
not possible to make definite conclusions on the type of defect introduced.
Experimental work on the nature of ion transport in Cr2O3 remains somewhat
inconclusive. For example, Su and Simkovich [Su and Simkovich 1987] present a
comprehensive analysis on the point defect structure of Cr2O3 fully starting out
from the assumption that the point defects are in the cation lattice. Young et al.
[Young et al. 1987] acknowledge the possiblity of defects in the oxygen lattice to
explain the observed p-type conductivity in their Cr2O3 samples, but go on to con-
clude that Cr lattice defects are a more plausible explanation. Holt and Kofstad
[Holt and Kofstad 1997], in a study of Mg-doped Cr2O3, discuss the possibility of
defects in the oxygen lattice, especially at low oxygen partial pressures.
One complication regarding the experiments is the method of sample prepara-
tion. The Cr2O3 scales of Tsai et al. [Tsai et al. 1996] were prepared by oxidizing a
Ni70Cr30 alloy, and those of Young et al. [Young et al. 1987] by first die pressing
Cr2O3 powder particles together, followed by high-temperature sintering at low-
oxygen atmosphere. Lillerud et al. [Lillerud et al. 1980] employed thermal etching
in high vacuum, Salomonsen et al. [Salomonsen et al. 1989] used electron-gun-
evaporation of Cr on a Si substrate followed by oxidation. The variety of proce-
dures raises issues about the comparison of results in view of the differing mor-
phology of the samples prepared by different methods. This is important especially
regarding diffusion along grain boundaries, as it may be much faster than bulk
diffusion. Tsai et al. [Tsai et al. 1996] report bulk diffusion coefficients of the order
of 10-18 to 10-16 cm 2/s at 800–900 °C, with corresponding grain boundary diffusion
coefficients of the order of 10-13 to 10-12 cm2/s. The apparent macroscopic diffusion
coefficient, as reflected by the parabolic growth constant, is a weighted average of

64
6. Molecular dynamics simulations of mass transport in chromium oxide scales

bulk and grain boundary diffusion coefficients, where the weighting depends on
the details of the grain boundary morphology. It should also be noted that the low
bulk diffusion coefficients for Cr2O3 also imply long equilibriation times after a
possible high-temperature treatment of a sample which in practice means that
defects introduced during the sample preparation process are effectively frozen in.
In this work, molecular dynamics simulations have been used in order to gain
insight into the relationship between the defect structure and mass transport prop-
erties of Cr2O3. The basic assumption in this work is that point defects are respon-
sible for the ion transport. No attempt is made to predict the defect structure either
qualitatively or quantitatively. Instead, a range of Schottky defect concentrations
are considered. Diffusion coefficients are determined from the mean square dis-
placement of ions. The Cr2O3 crystal is treated as a regular single crystal with
Schottky defects introduced randomly throughout the crystal. The approach is thus
similar to the one taken by Beverskog et al. [Beverskog et al. 2002] where the
kinetic and transport parameters for oxide layer growth are obtained solely based
on defect concentration, not regarding the type of defect. Therefore, the role of
grain boundaries, dislocation defects, etc. in the transport process are not explicit-
ly modeled. The defect concentrations have been chosen sufficiently low that
individual point defects are not expected interact with each other, but high enough
(in combination with a temperature range) that diffusion coefficients can be ob-
served with reasonable accuracy given the limitations of the computational re-
sources.

6.3 Computational details

The atomic interactions in this work were described by a Buckingham potential in


combination with a Coulomb term:

rij C ij qi q j
Vij ( rij ) Aij exp
ij rij6 rij
Two sets of parameters applicable to -Cr2O3 were used in this work, as shown in
Table 1. Pairwise interactions were explicitly calculated up to a distance of 15 Å.
Long-range Coulombic interactions were computed by the Ewald method. Polari-
zation effects were not accounted for. Only Coulombic interaction was assumed
between chromium ions due to the small radius of these ions. Ions were assumed
to adopt their formal charges.
A supercell of 20 x 20 x 10 hexagonal unit cells with periodic boundary condi-
tions was used in the simulations for a total of 120000 atoms. Schottky defects
were generated by randomly deleting atoms from both cation and anion lattices to
maintain charge neutrality. The integration of Newton’s equations was performed
by the Verlet algorithm. A timestep of 1.0 fs was used. All simulations were con-
ducted in the NPT ensemble. Simulations were typically run up to 400 ps of real
time.

65
6. Molecular dynamics simulations of mass transport in chromium oxide scales

The diffusion of ions was measured by recording the Mean Square Displace-
ment (MSD) for ion type i as a function of time, and computing the diffusion con-
stant from the slope of the MSD(t) curve according to

1 2
ri 2 t ri t ri 0 6 Dt
N N

To obtain the slope, a line was fitted to the MSD(t) curve between 200 and 400 ps.
The MD simulations were performed using LAMMPS software [Plimpton 1995].

Table 1. Buckingham potential parametrizations used in this work.

Parameter set 1 [Lewis and Cat- Parameter set 2 [Minervini et al.


low 1985, Catlow 1977] 1999]
6 6
A (eV) r (Å) C (eV Å ) A (eV) r (Å) C (eV Å )
3+ 2-
Cr –O 1734.1 0.301 0 1204.18 0.3165 0
2- 2-
O –O 22764 0.149 27.88 9547.96 0.2192 32
Cr3+–Cr3+ Only Coulombic Only Coulombic

6.4 Results

Simulations were performed for defect fractions of 8.3 10-5, 2.0 10-4, 4.2 10-4, and
8.3 10-4 and for temperatures from 1300 K to 2000 K at 100 K intervals. The de-
fects were created at 300 K, followed by a 10 ps heating time from 300 K to the
target temperature. Figure 1 presents typical MSD(t) curves from the simulations.
The time zero in the figure has been set to the point in time when the simulation
has reached the target temperature. This explains the initial non-zero MSD values
which are slightly different for the two parameter sets. The data contains consider-
able noise due to the low defect fraction, limiting the accuracy of determining the
slope of the MSD(t) curve especially at lower temperatures. The main difference
between the parameter sets is that for set 1, oxygen appears to be the mobile ion,
while chromium shows essentially no diffusion. For set 2, both ions are mobile.
It can be observed from Figure 1 that for parameter set 2, the initial 10 ps heating
period is not sufficient to equilibriate the system. The shape of the MSD curves is
curved up to about 200 ps, after which a linear trend continues. This is the reason
for determining diffusion coefficients from the MSD data between 200 and 400 ps.

66
6. Molecular dynamics simulations of mass transport in chromium oxide scales

0.22
Parameter set 1, 1500 K
Oxygen
Chromium
2
MSD (Å ) 0.20

0.18

0.16

0.14
0 100 200 300 400

Time (ps)
Parameter set 2, 1500 K
0.15 Oxygen
Chromium

0.14
MSD (Å )
2

0.13

0.12

0.11

0 100 200 300 400

Time (ps)

Figure 1. Mean square displacement of oxygen and chromium ions for a Schottky
defect fraction of 8.3 10-4 at a temperature of 1500 K. Above: Parameter set 1.
Below: Parameter set 2.

The diffusion coefficients determined from the simulations for parameter set 1 are
presented in the left part of Figure 2 for O diffusion in -Cr2O3 at a Schottky defect
fraction of 8.3 10-4. There is scatter in the data, and especially the diffusion coeffi-
cient determined at 1700 K seems to be an outlier. However, when presented in
the form of an Arrhenius plot (lower part of Figure 2), the data can be reasonably
fitted with a line, yielding an activation energy of 0.85 eV for O migration. Chromi-

67
6. Molecular dynamics simulations of mass transport in chromium oxide scales

um data is not presented, as the MSD curves for chromium showed no slope that
could have been determined reliably.

-12
20x10
Diffusion coefficient (cm /s)

15
2

10

0
1400 1600 1800 2000

Temperature (K)
-24.5

-25.0
Ea=0.85 eV

-25.5
ln D

-26.0

-26.5

-27.0

0.50 0.55 0.60 0.65 0.70 0.75x10-3

1/T

Figure 2. Diffusion coefficients and Arrhenius plot for O diffusion in -Cr2O3 for
parameter set 1 at a Schottky defect fraction of 8.3 10-4.

The diffusion coefficients determined from the simulations for parameter set 2 are
presented in the left part of Figure 3 for O diffusion in -Cr2O3 at a Schottky defect
fraction of 8.3 10-4. It can be noted that the diffusion coefficients are roughly half of
those obtained for parameter set 1. The Arrhenius plot for the data (lower part of
Figure 3) gives an activation energy of 1.1 eV for O migration.
In order to understand the scatter in the data, five simulations at 1600 K and
two simulations at 1700 K were conducted. The initial velocity vectors for the at-
oms, as well as the defect configurations were different for each run. The range of

68
6. Molecular dynamics simulations of mass transport in chromium oxide scales

the data points for these runs gives an indication of the sensitivity of the approach
to the initial configuration, and explains the scatter observed in the data of Figure
3. Although a similar sensitivity study was not conducted for parameter set 1, it is
expected that the result would have not differed too much.

-12
10x10

8
Diffusion coefficient (cm /s)
2

0
1400 1600 1800 2000

Temperature (K)

-25.5

-26.0
Ea=1.10 eV
-26.5

-27.0
ln D

-27.5

-28.0

-28.5

-29.0
0.50 0.55 0.60 0.65 0.70 0.75x10-3

1/T

Figure 3. Diffusion coefficients and Arrhenius plot for O diffusion in -Cr2O3 for
parameter set 2 at a Schottky defect fraction of 8.3 10-4.

The diffusion coefficients determined from the simulations for parameter set 2 are
presented in the left part of Figure 4 for Cr diffusion in -Cr2O3 at a Schottky defect
fraction of 8.3 10-4. In this case, the scatter in the data is considerable, and the five
simulations conducted at 1600 K suggest a large error bar for an individual data

69
6. Molecular dynamics simulations of mass transport in chromium oxide scales

point. The diffusion coefficients are roughly half of those obtained for O diffusion.
The Arrhenius plot for the data (lower part of Figure 4) gives an activation energy
of 0.37 eV for Cr migration, but there is significant uncertainty involved with this
number.

-12
5x10

4
Diffusion coefficient (cm /s)
2

0
1400 1600 1800 2000

Temperature (K)
-26.0

-26.5

Ea=0.37 eV
ln D

-27.0

-27.5

-28.0
0.50 0.55 0.60 0.65 0.70 0.75x10-3

1/T

Figure 4. Diffusion coefficients and Arrhenius plot for Cr diffusion in -Cr2O3 for
parameter set 2 at a Schottky defect fraction of 8.3 10-4.

Direct comparison of the diffusion coefficients to literature values is not possible


due to the high temperatures used in the simulations. For example, Tsai et al.
[Tsai et al. 1996] determined the Cr and O diffusion constants at 1073 K and 1173
K, and Liu et al. [Liu et al. 1998] used a temperature range from 573 K to 1173 K.

70
6. Molecular dynamics simulations of mass transport in chromium oxide scales

However, if it is assumed that the physical migration mechanism remains the


same regardless of temperature, the activation energies from the Arrhenius plots
may be used to extrapolate results to lower temperatures by writing the diffusion
coefficient in the form

EM
D D0 exp
kT
It is important to understand that the above expression strictly relates to migration,
which is the reason for the activation energy having a subscript ‘M’. The true diffu-
sion constant depends on the defect fraction, which in principle adds the activation
energy for defect formation to the equation. As already mentioned in the introduc-
tion, the defect fraction in -Cr2O3 is dependent on the impurity levels in the mate-
rial, and the details of the manufacturing process of the samples, especially the
high temperature treatments. It is not the purpose of this paper to try and predict
defect fractions in Cr2O3 scales. The approach is to assume various point defect
fractions and to see whether they are realistic in the first place, and secondly
whether they yield diffusion coefficients that are in line with experiments. Thus, it is
assumed that the diffusion coefficients in this work are of the form [Murphy 2009]

EM n n 1 EM
D D0 exp di d i ,0 fza 2 0 exp
kT N N 6 kT
where n is the number of defects, N is the total number of lattice sites, and d i is the
diffusion coefficient associated with defect type i. The last form of the expression
tells that di depends on the vibrational frequency of the diffusing atom 0 (the num-
ber of attempts per time unit to cross the activation barrier EM), the jump distance
a, the number of equivalent pathways z the diffusing mechanism can follow, and a
correlation factor f which relates diffusion of actual atoms to the diffusion of the
defect (often between 0.4 and 1).
The dependence of the oxygen diffusion coefficient on the defect fraction, as
found in the simulations of this work, is presented in Figure 5. It can be observed
that the dependence seems to be close to linear between for the three lower de-
fect fractions studied, but a deviation from linearity occurs when going to the high-
est defect fraction especially for temperatures between 1300 K and 1700 K. Given
the expression for the diffusion coefficient above, this may suggest that at a defect
fraction of 8.3 10-4 the defects can no longer be regarded as completely isolated
from each other. In particular, the possibility of two defects being initially close to
each other increases, which gives more freedom for the lattice to deform and allow
atoms to diffuse. In addition Atkinson et al. [Atkinson et al. 2003] point out the
possibility of the formation of stabile defect clusters, although it is not immediately
clear how this should affect the overall diffusion constant.
To compare defect fractions to experiments, we refer to the work of Young et
al. [Young et al. 1987] who employed a Seebeck measuring system. In this case,

71
6. Molecular dynamics simulations of mass transport in chromium oxide scales

the measured thermoelectric power ( ) relates to the concentration of charge car-


riers (n) through

k N
ln
e n
where k is the Bolzmann constant and N is the density of states, which is taken
equal to the number of cation sites. For p-type Cr2O3 at temperatures below 1300
K Young et al. find a thermoelectic power of 750 µV/K corresponding to an elec-
tron hole concentration of 2 10-4 per cation site. Young et al. then assume that
chromium vacancies are present in the p-type material, and since one vacancy in
a triply charged lattice corresponds to three holes, a defect fraction of 6.7 10-5
comes out of the analysis, close to the lower range of defect fractions used in this
work.

1.0

0.8

0.6
D/D0

0.4
2000K (set 1)
1700K (set 1)
1500K (set 1)
0.2 1300K (set 1)
1600K (set 2)

0.0
0.0 0.2 0.4 0.6 0.8 1.0x10
-3

Defect fraction

Figure 5. Normalized oxygen diffusion coefficients as a function of Schottky defect


fraction.

The activation energies for electronic and ionic diffusion were measured by Liu et
al. [Liu et al. 1998] using asymmetry polarization technique. Whereas pure elec-
tronic conductivity was observed above 700 °C, mixed electronic and ionic con-
ductivity was observed below 700 °C. The activation energies for electronic and
ionic conductivities were 0.6 eV and 0.3 eV, respectively. The analysis by Liu et al.
assumes that chromium interstitials dominate the ionic conduction. Interestingly,

72
6. Molecular dynamics simulations of mass transport in chromium oxide scales

the activation energy of 0.3 eV for ionic conduction is close to the activation ener-
gy of 0.37 eV found in Figure 4 for Cr diffusion. Betova et al. [Betova et al. 2007]
determined kinetic and transport parameters for the ‘inner’ (compact oxide) layer
on AISI 316 L(NG) stainless steel in temperature range of 150–300 °C using the
mixed-conduction model [Beverskog et al. 2002], and found an activation energy
of 0.45 eV for chromium diffusion.
For oxygen, Horita et al. [Horita et al. 2008] used an isotope tracer technique to
study oxygen diffusion in the oxide scales formed on Fe-Cr -based ferritic stainless
steels. They found an activation energy of 1.4 eV for oxygen diffusion which is
close to the value of 1.1 eV found in Figure 3 for parameter set 2.
Whereas the above comparisons were favourable with respect to the MD re-
sults, it must be noted that different interpretations exist. For example, Salomon-
sen et al. [Salomonsen et al. 1989] find a parabolic growth constant to have an
activation energy of 1.2 eV but they claim, based on implanted Xe marker studies,
that the mobile species is Cr rather than O.
We may now attempt to extrapolate the diffusion coefficients from MD simula-
tions to lower temperatures based on the approximation that the diffusion coeffi-
cient is linearly dependent on the defect fraction. Figure 6 shows the linear fits to
the Arrhenius plots of Figures 3 and 4 together with the experimental data from
Tsai et al. [Tsai et al. 1996]. The experimental data distinguishes between bulk
and grain boundary diffusion coefficients, and it also includes an apparent diffu-
sion coefficient which is a suitably weighted average over the bulk and grain
boundary values.
It is seen that extrapolation of the MD data (for a defect fraction of 8.3 10-4)
passes close to the experimental grain boundary diffusion coefficients. Decreasing
the defect fraction to 2.5 10-6 makes the MD data pass close to the apparent diffu-
sion coefficient data. This defect fraction is of the same order of magnitude as
determined experimentally by Young et al. [Young et al. 1987]. In order to make
the MD data pass close to the bulk diffusion data, the defect fraction needs to be
decreased by roughly four orders of magnitude which seems not credible given
the data in [Young et al. 1987]. Regarding the accuracy of the experimental data,
Tsai et al. note that the experimental diffusion coefficients presented by various
authors (see Figures 8 and 9 in [Tsai et al. 1996]) vary by orders of magnitude,
reflecting the difficulties in obtaining consistent experimental data.

73
6. Molecular dynamics simulations of mass transport in chromium oxide scales

-26
Dgb
-28 Xd=8.3·10
-4

-30

-32
ln D

-6
-34 Xd=2.5·10
Dapp
-36
-8
-38 Xd=8.3·10
Dbulk
-40

-42
0.5 0.6 0.7 0.8 0.9 1.0x10
-3

1/T

Figure 6. Extrapolation of MD diffusion coefficients to lower temperatures and


defect fractions for parameter set 2. Thick solid lines are the extended linear Ar-
rhenius fits to Cr (blue) and O (red) data of Figures 3 and 4. Thin solid lines are
calculated for a defect fraction of 2.5 10-6, and the dotted lines for a defect fraction
of 8.3 10-8. The markers are the experimental data by Tsai et al. [Tsai et al. 1996]
for Cr (blue) and O (red) bulk diffusion (squares), grain boundary diffusion (dia-
monds) and apparent (spheres) diffusion coefficients.

Finally we note that according to the MD data of Figure 6, temperature has an


effect on the relative mobility of oxygen and chromium. At high temperatures
(above 1600 K), oxygen is more mobile, whereas at lower temperatures chromium
is the more mobile ion. It can be noted that the apparent and grain boundary diffu-
sion data of Tsai et al. [Tsai et al. 1996] is in agreement with this observation. The
mobility of chromium is often associated with interstitial Cr ions, but the results of
this study suggest that the mobility can be explained by lattice diffusion. The po-
tential used to make the simulations is clearly important, as parameter set 1 re-
sulted in no mobility for chromium. Therefore, we believe that parameter set 2 is
better suited to describe mass transport in Cr 2O3.

74
6. Molecular dynamics simulations of mass transport in chromium oxide scales

6.5 Conclusions

Classical molecular dynamics simulations were used to gain insight into the rela-
tionship between the defect structure and mass transport properties of Cr2O3. The
basic assumption was that Schottky defects are responsible for the ion transport.
The results turned out to be sensitive to the Buckingham potential parametriza-
tion used. One parameter set resulted in oxygen only being the mobile species,
while for the other parameter set, both chromium and oxygen were mobile. The
latter parametrization was considered to be more credible, as many experimental
studies have suggested that chromium is mobile. However, whereas literature
often attributes chromium mobility to interstitial diffusion, the results from this study
suggest that lattice diffusion may be responsible for mass transport.
For the defect concentrations involved in this study, diffusion constants could
be reilably determined from the mean square displacement data only at tempera-
tures of 1300 K and above. Extrapolation of the diffusion coefficients to lower
temperatures was done through an Arrhenius plot. For parameter set 2, the activa-
tion energies for oxygen and chromium migration were 1.1 eV and 0.37 eV, re-
spectively.
The diffusion constants were approximately linearly proportional to the defect
concentration. However, the highest studied defect concentration (8.3 10-4)
showed a deviation from linearity, suggesting that the point defects were no longer
isolated.
Experimental studies from literature suggested charge carrier concentrations of
the order of 10-5. The diffusion constants in this work were mostly obtained using a
defect concentration that was a magnitude higher. Extrapolation of the simulated
diffusion coefficients to a lower defect fraction (2.5 10-6) and temperature (800–
900 °C) showed agreement with experimental apparent diffusion coefficients (of
the order of 10-15 cm2/s).

6.6 References

Atkinson, K.J.W, Grimes, R.W., Levy, M.R., Coull, Z.L. and English, T. 2003. Ac-
commodation of impurities in -Al2O3, -Cr2O3 and -Fe2O3. Journal of
the European Ceramic Society vol. 23 pp. 3059–3070.

Betova, I., Bojinov, M., Kinnunen, P. and Saario, T. 2007. Mixed Conduction Mod-
el for Oxide films – quantitative procedure for determination of kinetic pa-
rameters for individual species. VTT Research Report No VTT-R-04098-
07.

Beverskog, B., Bojinov, M., Englund, A., Kinnunen, P., Laitinen, T., Mäkelä, K.,
Saario, T. and Sirkiä, P. 2002. A mixed-conduction model for oxide films
on Fe, Cr and Fe-Cr alloys in high-temperature aqueous electrolytes.

75
6. Molecular dynamics simulations of mass transport in chromium oxide scales

Part 1. Comparison of the electrochemical behaviour at room tempera-


ture and at 200 °C. Corrosion Science vol. 44 pp. 1901–1921.

Catlow, C.R.A. 1977. Point Defect and Electronic properties of Uranium Dioxide.
Proceedings of the Royal Society A vol. 353 pp. 533–561.

Holt, A. and Kofstad, P. 1994. Electrical conductivity and defect structure of Cr2O3.
Part 1. High temperatures (> ~1000 °C). Solid State Ionics vol. 69 pp.
127–136.

Holt, A. and Kofstad, P. 1997. Electrical conductivity and defect structure of Mg-
doped Cr2O3. Solid State Ionics vol. 100 pp. 201–209.

Horita, T. et al. 2008. Evaluation of Laves-phase forming Fe–Cr alloy for SOFC
interconnects in reducing atmosphere. Journal of Power Sources vol.
176 pp. 54–61.

Lewis, G.V. and Catlow, C.R.A. 1985. Potential models for ionic oxides. Journal of
Physics C: Solid State Physics vol. 18 pp. 1149–1161.

Lillerud, K.P. and Kofstad, P. 1980. On High Temperature Oxidation of Chromium.


Part 1. Oxidation of Annealed, Thermally Etched Chromium at 800°–
1100°C. Journal of the Electrochemical Society: Solid-State Science and
Technology vol. 127 pp. 2397–2409.

Liu, H., Stack, M.M. and Lyon, S.B. 1998. Reactive element effects on the ionic
transport processes in Cr2O3 scales. Solid State Ionics vol. 109 pp. 247–
257.

Minervini, L., Zacate, M.O. and Grimes, R.W. 1999. Defect cluster formation in
M2O3-doped CeO2. Solid State Ionics vol. 116 pp. 339–349.

Murphy, S.T. 2009. Atomistic simulation of defects and diffusion in oxides. Disser-
tation, Imperial College of London.
http://abulafia.mt.ic.ac.uk/publications/theses/SMurphy_Thesis2-web.pdf
(downloaded 20.12.2012).

Plimpton, S.J. 1995. Fast Parallel Algorithms for Short-Range Molecular Dynam-
ics. Journal of Computational Physics vol. 117 pp. 1–19.

Salomonsen, G., Norman, N., Lønsjø, O. and Finstad, T.G. 1989. Kinetics and
mechanism of oxide formation on Cr thin films. Journal of Physics: Con-
densed Matter vol. 1 pp. 7843–7850.

76
6. Molecular dynamics simulations of mass transport in chromium oxide scales

Su, M.Y. and Simkovich, G. 1987. Point defect structure of Cr2O3. Technical Re-
port No. TR 87-008. The Pennsylvania State University, Applied Re-
search Laboratory.

Tsai, S.C., Huntz, A.M. and Dolin, C. 1996. Growth mechanism of Cr2O3 scales:
oxygen and chromium diffusion, oxidation kinetics and effect of yttrium.
Materials Science and Engineering vol. A212, pp. 6–13.

Young, E.W.A., Gerretsen, J.H. and de Wit, J.H.W. 1987. The Oxygen Partial
Pressure Dependence of the Defect Structure of Chromium(III) Oxide.
Journal of the Electrochemical Society: Solid-State Science and Tech-
nology vol. 134 pp. 2257–2260.

77
7. µFEM modelling of wood cell deformation under pulping-type dynamic loads

7. µFEM modelling of wood cell deformation


under pulping-type dynamic loads
Stefania Fortino, Petr Hradil & Lauri Salminen

VTT Technical Research Centre of Finland


P.O. Box 1000, FI-02044 VTT, Finland

7.1 Abstract

Compressive and shear loads applied to wet woodchips at high values of speed
and temperature during thermo-mechanical (TM) pulping are aimed at separating
wood fibres from the raw material in order to increase both the flexibility and the
bonding ability of the fibres. This work proposes a computational approach for the
simulation of wood cell deformation finalized to a deeper understanding of the
most consuming mechanism during TM pulping, that is, the fibre cell wall opening.
A flexible µFEM tool for Abaqus code has been developed which uses an auto-
mated script for parametric model generation. The use of the proposed numerical
tool in the presence of different pulping-type loading conditions can provide sug-
gestions for the energy saving during thermo-mechanical pulping processes.

7.2 Introduction

One of today's key objectives of the European forest industry is to decrease ener-
gy consumption during thermo-mechanical pulping. Pulping processes are aimed
at separating fibres from the raw material by means of shear and compressive
loads applied at high speed to wet woodchips biomass at high temperatures (60–
160 ºC). During the refining of pulp, temperatures of 140–160 ºC are reached and
there is a considerable increase of both the flexibility and the bonding ability of the
wood fibres (De Magistris and Salmén 2006). The hardest and most consuming
step during the process is the fibre cell wall opening. However, the scientific re-

78
7. µFEM modelling of wood cell deformation under pulping-type dynamic loads

search on the disintegration of wood cells is still in its infancy due to the fact that
the mechanisms at the origin of this phenomenon are not well understood.
Wood biomass can be defined as a hierarchically structured composite charac-
terized by a complex chemistry (Dvinskikh et al. 2011) due to the fact that its con-
stituents (cellulose, hemicellulose and lignin) are polymers. Wood is a natural
multiscale material very suitable to understand the interactions among different
structural scales of the material itself. In particular softwood is a highly anisotropic
material with both radial and tangential moduli of one order of magnitude lower
than the longitudinal modulus (see literature in Qing and Mishnaevsky Jr. 2010).
Following (Mishnaevsky Jr. and Qing 2008), softwood can be described at four
different structural levels (see Figure 1): 1) at the macroscale level wood is com-
posed of several annual rings that show different grade of darkness. The so-called
earlywood zones are identified by lighter rings characterized by cells with large
diameters and thin cell walls, while the so-called latewood zones are composed of
darker rings characterized by cells with small diameters and thick cell walls (see
also Modén and Berglund 2008). 2) At the mesoscale level wood shows a cellular
structure, composed of hexagonal cells oriented in the direction of the stem. Due
to this geometrical shape, wood is also considered as a material having honey-
comb structure. 3) At the microscale level each cell wall is assumed to be com-
posed of 4 layers with different microstructures and properties (usually named as
S1, S2, S3, P), while a further layer (named M) works as bonding material, see
(Mishnaevsky Jr. and Qing 2008) for the details. 4) At the nanoscale level, the first
three layers in the tracheid cell are made of several hundred individual lamellae
with different volume fractions and microfibril angles (MFAs). As explained in
(Barnett and Bonham 2003), the microfibril angle of a wood cell layer represents
the angle between the long axis of the wood fibre and the orientation of the cellu-
lose microfibrils of the layer as they wind around the cell. The relation of MFA with
the modulus obtained by nanoindentation techniques (Wimmer et al. 1997) and
the stiffness tensor for the different cell wall layers is discussed in (Konnerth et al.
2010).
Several studies within recent COST actions (COST Action E35, 2004–2008,
COST Action FP0802, 2009–2012) have pointed out the importance of both exper-
imental and computational research at the microscale of wood to properly define
its material properties as well as to understand the complex phenomena occurring
in wood cells under different processes and environments (Salmén and Burgert
2009). In the last few years, theoretical micromechanics and numerical approach-
es based on the finite element method applied to microstructures ( FEM) have
been developed to assess the macroscopic mechanical properties of wood mate-
rial (Hofstetter and Gamstedt 2009, Mishnaevsky Jr. and Qing 2008, Qing and
Mishnaevsky Jr. 2010). Some papers were also published on numerical models
for defining the hygroscopic properties of wood (Eitelberger and Hofstetter 2010)
as well as the viscoelastic properties of wood at the microscale (Eitelberger et al.
2012). However, the cited publications refer to dry wood while there is still a lack
of information on the material properties for wet wood cells (De Magistris and
Salmén 2008).

79
7. µFEM modelling of wood cell deformation under pulping-type dynamic loads

Since thermo-mechanical pulping is performed at very high speed and tem-


perature, it is not possible to investigate the microscopic phenomena occurring in
woodchips during the process. To solve this problem, a Swedish research con-
ducted by De Magistris and Salmén during 2005–2008 provided interesting exper-
imental results for wet wood at lower temperatures and low speed by using a
specialized Arcan device (De Magistris and Salmén 2005, 2006). The performed
tests gave interesting informations in regards of the optimal combination of com-
pression and shearing loads to be used to improve the permanent deformation of
wood fibres by reducing the needed work and, consequently, the energy con-
sumption.
More research is needed to investigate the intrawall deformation. At this aim a
flexible computational tool able to handle different geometries in earlywood, late-
wood and transition zones of wood cells composed of several layers with different
orientations of fibrils and several contacts among cell walls during loading is re-
quired. Particle methods like the MPM (Material Point Method), used for example
in the self-made code developed by Nairn’sgroup (Nairn 2006), are able to de-
scribe the complex geometries of wood cell layers by automatically defining the
contacts among layers. However, the power of advanced FEM codes in the pres-
ence of nonlinear behaviour of materials (both constitutive and geometrical) sug-
gests developing special µFEM algorithms for analysis of wood cells also within
commercial codes for a wider range of applications (complex loading and bounda-
ry conditions, coupled hygro-thermo-mechanical analyses, etc.). A first version of
such a computational tool is developed in Abaqus FEM code and introduced in the
present paper.

80
7. µFEM modelling of wood cell deformation under pulping-type dynamic loads

Figure 1. Structure of softwood and material coordinate system with axis 3 along
the fibrils.

7.3 Short description of the research carried out by De


Magistris and Salmén

In the following, the experimental and computational research on wood cell defor-
mation carried out by De Magistris and Salmén is shortly summarized. For all the
details the reader if referred to (De Magistris and Salmén 2005, 2006, 2008).

7.3.1 Experiments

Compared to the real conditions in the refiner during thermo-mechanical pulping,


the tests were performed at lower temperatures (50 or 90 °C) and with a rate of
deformation of 0.1 mm/min in the vertical direction by using a specialized Arcan
device (De Magistris and Salmén 2005, 2006). The main idea of the experimental
work was that by exploiting the principle of time-temperature superposition, the
used test conditions can be considered equivalent to the real ones in the refiner,
see references in (De Magistris and Salmén 2006).

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7. µFEM modelling of wood cell deformation under pulping-type dynamic loads

Figure 2. Scheme of Arcan plates, specimen and different loading conditions.


Figure adapted from (De Magistris and Salmén 2006).

The tested specimens of Norway Spruce material had dimensions of 2 mm in the


radial direction of wood, 40 mm in the tangential direction and 15 mm in the longi-
tudinal direction. These were immersed into water at 4 °C for 1 day and then at-
tached to the plates of the aluminiun Arcan device. During the application of the
loading histories the specimens were immersed into water at 50 or 90 °C. The
load was given in the vertical direction while the Arcan device was rotated in order
to simulate different loading conditions from pure compression to shear to mixed
compression-shear. In the performed tests, the specimens were loaded until col-
lapse of the earlywood fibres but no fibre cracks were noticed.
Both the SEM images and the load-deformation curves registered during the
performed experiments showed that the behaviour of wood cells under compres-
sive or mixed compressive-shear loads is very different. Also earlywood and late-
wood zones deform in different ways. The following types of deformation were
observed (De Magistris and Salmén 2005, 2006):
– During compression, earlywood fibres follow a characteristic ‘‘S’’ shape
because of the tangential wall buckling, while the latewood fibres defor-
mation follows the radial wall bending. The curve load-displacement un-
der compression shows an initial elastic part, then a plateau region at al-
most constant load during buckling and finally a rising region.
– Under mixed compression-shear loading, the wood cells deform accord-
ing to a “brick” shape. In this case the load-deformation curves do not
show plateau.
The specimens were subjected to various cycles of loading and during each cycle
there was a different loading condition. Based on the obtained experimental load-
deformation curves, it was possible to evaluate the amount of work required under
different types of loads and to draw the following main conclusions (De Magistracy
and Salmon 2006):

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7. µFEM modelling of wood cell deformation under pulping-type dynamic loads

– Less work is needed to deform wood cells under mixed compression-


shear load compared to the pure compression case.
– In terms of energy consumption, the first load cycle is the more expen-
sive to get an initial deformation. This suggests that the application of a
combined load during the first loading cycle can represent an optimal
choice to obtain permanent deformation in wood fibres by using less
work.

Figure 3. Typical curves obtained under compression and mixed loading. Figure
adapted from (De Magistris and Salmén 2008). The nominal stress represents the
total stress in the vertical direction (see Figure 2) and the Nominal deformation is
the shortening of the sample in the vertical direction compared to the initial thick-
ness. The curve corresponding to mixed load refers to the small shear experiment
described in the results section.

7.3.2 Numerical modelling of wood cell

In (De Magistris and Salmén 2008) a three dimensional elastic FEM model in
Abaqus code was proposed. Based on the geometry of a representative ear-
lywood cell with dimensions taken from a SEM image, a set of three cell rows with
four cells per row was studied. Each cell was composed of the five layers
M,P,S1,S2,S3 characterising the softwood microstructure and each layer was
attached to the adjacent ones by using the Abaqus option “contact TIE”. Cylindri-
cal material orientations were assigned to each layer where the fibre axis was
aligned with the microfibril (i.e. inclined with respect to the longitudinal axis of
wood). Given displacements were applied trough plates posed at the top and
bottom of the microstructure. The material properties (see Table 1) referred to dry
wood and were calculated as follows:

83
7. µFEM modelling of wood cell deformation under pulping-type dynamic loads

– The concept of laminate theory was used. A cell wall can be considered
as a laminate where the secondary layers S1, S2 and S3 represent 3
unidirectional laminae and the primary layer P is a randomly oriented
lamina (see Figure 1). The chemical and elastic properties of cellulose,
hemicellulose and lignin, were taken from earlier literature (see refer-
ences in De Magistris and Salmén 2008).
– Using these properties, the orthotropic elastic coefficients for each layer
were calculated by using the rule of mixture combined with a semi-
empirical model from (Tsai and Hahn 1980).
The used FEM model was elastic and did not take into account the fact that the
high temperature induces a softening that can provide different material properties
for wet wood. However, the conclusions given in (De Magistris and Salmén 2008)
are the following:
– The wood cell deformation simulated by using material properties for dry
wood is almost the same as the one obtained for wet wood during the
experiments.
– The use of orthotropic properties for the different layers provides a very
similar wood cell deformation as the one provided by using isotropic
properties.
It is worth to point out that in this research no comparison between numerical and
experimental load-deformation curves was provided. Only the shape of the numer-
ically obtained cell deformations were compared with the SEM images.

7.4 A µFEM model for woodchips biomass in Abaqus code

7.4.1 Description of the µFEM model

The finite element models are generated by using a script developed at VTT that
is based on the unit cell geometry proposed in (Qing and Mishnaevsky Jr. 2010).
The script is able to automatically create any number of cell wall layers; usually
five (M, P, S1, S2 and S3) or less in simplified cases.
The geometry of the model is defined by its depth d, the layer thicknesses ti,
width of the internal layer T and angle . Optionally it is possible to specify the
internal fillet radius r to avoid sharp corners between the connected walls. This
was not used in the present paper. The basic model (unit cell) consists of one or
two (in case of modelling earlywood and latewood) complete wood cells together
with smaller parts of connected cells to form a rectangular pattern. It is very easy
to extend the model horizontally and vertically if a larger simulation is needed. The
complete model contains also self-contacts between cell walls that are not used in
the present study because the analysis is stopped before the contacts occur.
Each cell wall layer is connected to a different orthotropic material model that
can be also defined within the script including the material orientation that takes

84
7. µFEM modelling of wood cell deformation under pulping-type dynamic loads

into account the variation of microfiber angle in each layer. When combining ear-
lywood and latewood, another cell is created between the full model cells that do
not belong to any of the materials, and therefore its material properties and thick-
nesses are automatically calculated as averages of earlywood and latewood pa-
rameters (see Figure 2).

7.4.2 Dynamic analysis of microstructures by Abaqus

The Abaqus dynamic analyses are conducted on microstructures composed of a


certain number a of unit cells. In the present study, a group of six cells (three on
the top and three on the bottom), is identified as the smallest group suitable to
capture the representative part of the microstructure that follows the characteristic
shape reached during different types of loads. This representative part is com-
posed of seven sub-cells (a central sub-cell and of six adjacent sub-cells), see
Figure 3. The loads (or assigned displacements) are given through two plates (one
on the top and the other on the bottom). Abaqus Explicit solver (version 6.11-1)
and 8-node linear brick elements with reduced integration are used.

Figure 4. Left: unit cell with geometrical parameters (T and ) and softwood lay-
ers. Right: model with earlywood, latewood and the transition zone.

85
7. µFEM modelling of wood cell deformation under pulping-type dynamic loads

Figure 5. Abaqus model for an earlywood microstructure ( = 30 deg). The red


circle indicates the seven sub-cells composing the representative microstructure to
be compared with the SEM images.

7.4.3 Case-study: mixed compression-shear load

In the present paper, the earlywood cell deformations under two different mixed
compression-shear loads presented in (De Magistris and Salmén 2005) were
numerically simulated by using the new computational tool described in the previ-
ous sub-section.
During the reference experimental tests, the specimens were immersed in wa-
ter at 50 °C and the loads were applied with a rate of deformation of 0.1 mm/min in
the vertical direction. The following combinations of compression and shear were
numerically tested:
– Small shear: 74.6% of the total load in compression and 25.5% in shear;
– Large shear: 64% of the total load in compression and 46% in shear.
For both the performed numerical analyses, assigned displacements correspond-
ing to an experimental vertical stress of 1.6 MPa (in the elastic range of the stress-
deformation curve) were given on the top and on the bottom of the microstructure
(see Figure 5). The geometry of the unit cell is slightly different than the one used
in (De Magistris and Salmén 2008). The edge of the hexagonal cell is T = 24 µm
and the initial cell angle =30º. The density is ~550 kg/m3. According to (De
Magistris and Salmén 2008), the material properties for the secondary wall refer to
the following microfibril angles: 50º for S3, 10° for S2, and –70° for S1, respective-
ly. In the P layer the fibril angle can vary randomly. A depth d = 20 µm was con-
sidered in the longitudinal direction of wood. Orthotropic properties and cylindrical
material orientations were used. Compared to the above reference paper, in the
present work the axis 3 is the one in the fibril direction (see Figure 1). Due to this,

86
7. µFEM modelling of wood cell deformation under pulping-type dynamic loads

the Poisson’s ratios were recalculated. The isotropic properties used for the plates
were E=3500 MPa and =0.2.

Table 1. Thicknesses (th) and elastic properties for each layer.

th E1 E2 E3 12 13 23 G12 G13 G23


µm (MPa) (MPa) (MPa) (MPa) (MPa) (MPa)
M 0.45 1144 1144 2340 -0.35 -0.63 -0.63 890 890 890
P 0.15 10200 1560 10200 0.54 0.26 0.034 870 3910 1100
S1 0.225 2050 2050 41800 0.15 0.022 0.022 890 1330 1330
S2 2.4 3450 3450 70850 0.80 0.035 0.035 950 1910 1910
S3 0.045 3350 3350 68250 0.70 0.034 0.034 980 1890 1890

The simulated deformed shapes are compared with the SEM images taken during
the reference experiments and the results show a good agreement (see Figs. 6
and 7). The stress-deformation curves for the two cases are shown in Figure 8.
The deformation in the global y-direction is simply calculated as the displacement
in the same direction divided by the initial height of the microstructure.

Figure 6. Small shear case. Left: wood cell deformation under the studied mixed
compression-shear load. SEM image adapted from (De Magistris and Salmén
2008), max total stress ~ 1.6 MPa. Right: simulated wood cell deformation.

87
7. µFEM modelling of wood cell deformation under pulping-type dynamic loads

Figure 7. Large shear case. Left: wood cell deformation under the studied mixed
compression-shear load. SEM image adapted from (De Magistris and Salmén
2008), max total stress ~ 2.4 MPa. Right: simulated wood cell deformation (max
total stress =1.6 MPa).

Figure 8. Stress-deformation curves for the studied cases (linear range).

7.4.4 Discussion and future steps

The results presented in the previous sub-section show that dynamic analyses
under mixed compression-shear loading are able to simulate the “brick” shape of
earlywood cells reached during the experiments. It can be noticed that in the case
of small shear the values of vertical stresses are higher than the ones obtained for
large shear (Figure 8). Even if these curves are only in the elastic range, this result
already shows that the effect of a larger shear contribution is to reduce the work
request. However, the reached stress values for both tests are higher than those

88
7. µFEM modelling of wood cell deformation under pulping-type dynamic loads

measured during the experiments due to the fact that the used material properties
are for dry wood.
The next step of this research is to develop a more accurate material model
capable to simulate the whole load-deformation curves as well as the permanent
deformation attained at the end of each test sequence. To this aim, the following
tools are needed:
1. A plastic model under compression to be integrated in the present model
by using a subroutine of Abaqus code. A suitable model could be a vari-
ant of the plastic model for compression of wood cells introduced in
(Nairn 2005).
2. The analysis of contacts between cell walls.
The assessment of the material properties for wet wood at process temperature is
also important. This can be a difficult topic due to the fact that there is a lack of
such information in the current literature.

7.5 Conclusions

This research work proposed a flexible computational tool for simulation of the
wood cell deformation under pulping-type dynamic loads. The tool can automati-
cally generate different geometries and can analyse representative microstruc-
tures under various loading conditions by using orthotropic elastic material proper-
ties. The numerical simulation of wood cell deformation is in agreement with the
SEM images taken during experiments performed in a previous Swedish research.
The future extension of the methods consists in an improvement of the material
model finalized to take into account also the plastic behaviour of wood cells. This
represents an important step for the understanding of wood cell disintegration which
is a challenging topic for both the European research and the forest industry.
The use of numerical virtual testing based on the development of the proposed
model can give quantitative answers in regards of the work required during pulp-
ing-type tests and precious suggestions about the types of loads to be used for
reducing the energy consumption.

7.6 References

Abaqus User’s Manual. (2011). Version 6.11–1. 2011, Dassault Systèmes.

Barnett J.R. and Bonham V.A. (2004). Cellulose microfibril angle in the cell wall of
wood fibres. Biol. Rev. 79, 461–472.

COST Action E35. (2004–2008). Fracture mechanics and micromechanics of


wood and wood composites with regard to wood machining.
http://www.boku.ac.at/physik/coste35/

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7. µFEM modelling of wood cell deformation under pulping-type dynamic loads

COST Action FP0802. (2009–2012). Experimental and computational micro-


characterization techniques in wood mechanics. http://cost-
fp0802.tuwien.ac.at/

De Magistris F., Salmén L. (2005). Deformation of wet wood under combined


shear and compression. Wood Sci Technol 39, 460–471.

De Magistris F., Salmén L. (2006). Mechanical behaviour of wet wood in sequenc-


es of compression and combined compression and shear. Nordic Pulp
and Paper Research Journal, 21 (2), 231–236.

De Magistris F., Salmén L. (2008). Finite Element modelling of wood cell defor-
mation transverse to the fibre axis. Nordic Pulp and Paper Research
Journal, 23 (2), 240–246.

Dvinskikh SV, Henriksson M, Mendicino AL, Fortino S, Toratti T. (2011). NMR


imaging study and multi-Fickian numerical simulation of the moisture
transfer in Norway spruce samples. Engineering Structures 2011;
33:3079–3086.

Eitelberger J., Hofstetter K. (2010). Multiscale Homogenization of Wood Transport


Properties: Diffusion Coefficients for Steady-State Moisture Transport.
Wood Material Science and Engineering 5(2), 97–103.

Eitelberger J., Bader T.K., de Borst K., Jäger A. (2012). Multiscale prediction of
viscoelastic properties of softwood under constant climatic conditions.
Computational Materials Science 55, 303–312.

Hofstetter K., Gamstedt E. (2009). Hierarchical Modelling of Microstructural Effects


on Mechanical Properties of Wood. A Review. Holzforschung 63, 130–
138.

Konnerth J., Buksnowitz C., Gindl W., Hofstetter K., and Jäger A. (2010). Full Set
of Elastic Constants of Spruce Wood Cell Walls Determined by
Nanoindentation. Proceedings of the International Convention of Society
of Wood Science and Technology and United Nations Economic Com-
mission for Europe – Timber Committee October 11–14, 2010, Geneva,
Switzerland.

Nairn J. A. (2006). Numerical simulations of transverse compression and densifi-


cation in wood. Wood and Fiber Science 38(4): 576 – 591.

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Mishnaevsky Jr. L., Qing H. (2008). Micromechanical modelling of mechanical


behaviour and strength of wood: State-of-the-art review. Computational
Materials Science 44, 363–370.

Moden C. S. and Berglund L. A. (2008). A two-phase annual ring model of trans-


verse anisotropy in softwoods. Composites Science and Technology 68,
3020-3026.

Qing H., Mishnaevsky Jr. L. (2010). 3D multiscale micromechanical model of


wood: From annual rings to microfibrils. International Journal of Solids
and Structures 47, 1253–1267.

Salmén L. and Burgert I. (2009). Cell wall features with regard to mechanical per-
formance. A review COST Action E35 2004-2008: Wood machining –
micromechanics and fracture. Holzforschung 63(2), 121–129.

Tsai S.W. and Hahn H.T. (1980): Introduction to composite materials, In: Tech-
nomic pub. Lancaster.

Wimmer R., Lucas B.N., Tsui T.Y. and Oliver W.C. (1997) Longitudinal hardness
and Young’s modulus of spruce tracheid secundary walls using
nanoindentation technique. Wood Science and Technology 31(2), 131–
141.

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8. MultiDesign innovation program

8. MultiDesign innovation program


Tarja Laitinen

VTT Technical Research Centre of Finland


Sinitaival 6, P.O. Box 1300, FI-33101 Tampere

8.1 Abstract

The vision of the MultiDesign innovation programme is to create optimized and


efficient machine components regarding material, design, manufacturing, perfor-
mance, service and recycling by evolving multiscale modelling. Future vision of
raw materials scarcity and energy efficiency integrated with increasing perfor-
mance demands calls for totally novel solutions. Systematic, multiscale modelling
is cost effective and fast way of producing and testing new solutions and concepts.
Main obtained benefits are shorter R&D cycles, reduced time to market, less pro-
totypes, raw materials savings and energy efficiency.

8.2 Introduction

The vision of the MultiDesign innovation programme is to create optimized and


efficient machine components regarding material, design, manufacturing, perfor-
mance, service and recycling by evolving multiscale modelling. The target is to be
able to create a multiscale solver on any technical component or environment in a
short time period (e.g., 2 months). Currently individual modelling tools are accept-
ed and merely also used in research and development. Holistic approach, the
need for comprehensive view instead of optimizing some parameters, is identified.
Occasional multiscale linking takes place, but true multiscale, multidimensional,
multiresolution approach is missing. Through development of modelling tools,
model integration and operational platforms it is seen that in the coming 5–10
years modelling and simulation will be essential part of product development in

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8. MultiDesign innovation program

most companies. The anticipated technological and scientific benefits include the
possibility to iterate and optimize the component behaviour as a part of a system
starting from material development and ending up to recycling. Varying future
scenarios can be simulated and evaluated, a profound understanding of multiscale
and multidimensional problems achieved and tools for decision making developed.

8.3 Current project portfolio

The MultiDesign innovation program started in the beginning of 2012 and runs
totally for 3 years. The volume of the MultiDesign project portfolio was at the end
of year 2012 about 5 Me, corresponding to totally about 35 person years, including
also significant amount of direct customer orders. Close co-operation with the
customers is essential for the success of the programme. Models are always re-
ductions of reality – in order to understand the main parameters affecting the phe-
nomena and the importance of the phenomena in the business context the on-
going, open discussion with industry is fundamental.
One of the VTT spear head areas contributing to the programme is the whole
powder technological value chain from modelling based material desing to powder
manufacturing, consolidation and performance testing of the materials or compo-
nents. A systematic material modelling approach ProperTuneTM for material devel-
opment to meet the performance requirements is currently globally acknowledged
especially in wear research [1, 2, 3], Figure 1. VTT has profound performance and
lifetime knowledge based on modelling and testing (fatigue, creep and fracture) as
well as on thermodynamical modelling [4–7].

Figure 1. ProperTuneTM, systematic approach for controlled performance.

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8. MultiDesign innovation program

The high level scientific research work related to methodology, simulation and
operational platforms aims to develop and combine the different simulators, e.g
material models, varying manufacturing processes, component design rules,
maintenance strategy, sustainability aspects and related life cycle costs, into
common use environment. The ultimate target is automatic linking of heterogene-
ous simulation tools, which provide the results for customers in a collaborative
interface with cost effective computational solutions. Existing integration solution
for computational tools, Simantics, will be utilized and further developed in the
program. [8]
Once digital manufacturing is introduced into the chain, the paradigm change
from traditional design and labour intensive manufacturing to modelling based
material development, digital design, virtual simulation and additive manufacturing
is reality. New lean and agile supply chain based on additive manufacturing (AM)
dramatically changes the logistics and distribution models for manufacturing.
Since AM involves little human involvement to create a part, there is no longer
need to concentrate manufacturing to a region of low-cost labor, but manufactur-
ing can be performed as true just-in-time process near the end customer. Each
and every part can be unique from the part created before or after, AM is truly
manufacturing for design the products being typically customised, high-end prod-
ucts.
Key international partners are linked into the program, such as Karlsruhe Insti-
tute of Technology (KIT), Germany (powder metallurgy and performance), Stony
Brook University, USA (thermal spraying), Argonne research lab USA (wear mod-
elling), University of Sheffield and Saxonian Institute of Surface Mechanics (Prop-
erTuneTM modelling), McGill University Canada (PhaseField modelling),
Mesoscribe Inc, USA (Direct Write), University of Louisville, USA (additive manu-
facturing).

8.4 Impact

The global demand for any industrial manufacturing is cost efficiency. The de-
signed and manufactured products need to fulfil the set design rules, but majority
of the customers are not willing to pay extra on additional features or quality. Still
the products are expected to perform perfectly. By multiscale modelling different
scenarions can be built, simulated and verified, but physical prototypes need to be
manufactured only on the optimised, best solutions. Thus the R&D cycles can be
speeded up remarkably. Total cost of ownership (TCO) calculations related to
different scenarios enlighten the cost efficiency throughout the whole product
lifecycle.
As AM techniques make physical 3D objects directly from virtual 3D computer
data, manufacturing can be localised near the end customer with mainly digital
inventories. The component can be designed for function rather than for manufac-
turing with no additional tooling costs. AM techniques have the potential to ap-

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8. MultiDesign innovation program

proach zero waste material (or 100% utilisation) due to material ending only to the
component being processed.
Energy efficiency is an established, global megatrend throughout the industries
in order to secure energy supply, cut costs and mitigate greenhouse gas emis-
sions. Resource efficiency is becoming the demand of industrial activity in sectors
like construction, chemicals, automotive, aerospace, machinery or commodities.
The alternatives to tackle the raw materials scarcity are either new primary (arctic,
seabed) or secondary sources (reuse, recycling) or substitution. Multiscale model-
ling provides an efficient tool for testing out different material properties or design
novel, performance based materials just for the case in question.
In Figure 2 is presented the current needs of industry and the impacts of Mul-
tiDesign innovation program. The benefitting customers/ customer groups include
the whole value chain from material providers through manufacturing industry to
equipment end users and service providers. New offering is based on identification
and simulation of component and system level interactions resulting in optimized,
sustainable products.

Figure 2. Current needs of industry and impact of MultiDesign innovation pro-


gram.

8.5 References

1. Holmberg K, Ronkainen H, Laukkanen A, Wallin K, Friction and wear of


coated surfaces – scales, modelling and simulation of tribomechnisms.
Surface and Coatings Technology 202 (2007) 1034–1049

95
8. MultiDesign innovation program

2. Holmberg K, Laukkanen A, Wear Models, In: Bruce, R. (ed.) Handbook


on Lubrication and Tribology, Vol. II Theory and Design, 2nd edition,
Chapter 13, CRC press, New York, USA, (2012), 13:1–21.

3. Holmberg K., Laukkanen A., Ghabchi A., Rombouts M, Turunen E.,


Waudby R., Suhonen T., Valtonen K. and Sarlin E. Computational mod-
elling based wear resistance analysis of thick composite thermal sprayed
and laser cladded coatings. To be submitted to Surface and Coatings
Technology in February 2013.

4. Wallin, K. Simple distribution-free statistical assessment of structural


integrity material property data. Engineering Fracture Mechanics. Else-
vier, (2011), vol. 78, 9, pp. 2070–2081.

5. Holmström, S.; Rantala, J.; Laukkanen, A.; Kolari, K.; Keinänen, H.;
Lehtinen, O. Modeling and verification of creep strain and exhaustion in a
welded steam mixer. Journal of Pressure Vessel Technology, (2009), vol.
131, 6, pp. 061405.

5. Wallin, K. Statistical uncertainty in the fatigue threshold staircase test


method. International Journal of Fatigue, (2011), vol. 33, 3, pp. 354–362.

6. Wallin, K. Structural integrity assessment aspects of the Master Curve


methodology. Engineering Fracture Mechanics, (2010), vol. 77, 2, pp.
285–292.

7. Solin, Jussi; Nagel, G.; Mayinger, W. Cyclic behavior and fatigue of stain-
less surge line material. American Society of Mechanical Engineers,
Pressure Vessels and Piping Division (Publication) PVP, vol. 3, pp. 611–
619. 2009 ASME Pressure Vessels and Piping Conference, PVP 2009.
Prague, Czech Republic, 26–30 July 2009.

8. Karhela, T.; Villberg, A.; Niemistö, H. Open Ontology-based Integration


Platform for Modeling and Simulation in Engineering. International Jour-
nal of Modeling Simulation and Scientific Computing, Volume 3, Issues 2:
(1250004), World Scientific Press, 2012.

96
9. Vertical multiscale modelling

9. Vertical multiscale modelling


Alejandro Revuelta

VTT Technical Research Centre of Finland


Tekniikantie 4 A, P.O. Box 1000, FI-02044 Espoo

9.1 Abstract

This paper stresses the need to go towards modelling and simulation solutions
which combine together the different CAE tools available to practicioners. By do-
ing this it is expected that results can be obtained which go beyond of what can be
achieved with the current methodologies. And in this way we could reduce cost
and increase performance through improved design. The different types of integra-
tion of tools are presented. In order to achieve this vision, a review of different
knowledge areas which require further research is discussed. Finally, some of the
current approaches done at VTT for the integration of different CAE tools are
explained and briefly introduced.

9.2 Introduction

During the last decades, the usage of computer aided engineering (CAE) tools has
seen an steady increased use in the technical and scientific world as the ratio of
computational power to price has experienced an exponential growth. The use of
numerical methods combined with this computational power has allowed us to
create virtual models of physical phenomena which help in the understanding of
nature. This models complement and in many cases enhance the analytical calcu-
lations and reduce the need of prototypes and empirical results.
VTT Technical Research Centre of Finland is a multitechnological applied re-
search institute. In the last years we have observed how the use of CAE tools has
permeated into most of its research areas, e.g., RF antenna design, manufactur-

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9. Vertical multiscale modelling

ing technologies, electric machines design, biotechnology, and a long etcetera. In


2011, an internal survey was launched in order to identify the number of employ-
ees directly involved in material modeling. Results highlighted that in 2011 em-
ployees used nearly 100 menmonths in using and developing CAE tools in this
area. About 20 different commercial modeling softwares were employed and near
60 codes which were either open source or in-house built (1). In other technologi-
cal areas similar trends can be observed. This provides with an interesting picture
of how important CAE tools have become in the scientific world.
But we would be mistaken in thinking that this kind of modeling is only the
realm of research institutes or universities. The afore mentioned lower cost of
computational hardware makes possible that a regular desktop PC runs powerful
analyses and not only big companies but also SME use CAE tools regularly as
part of their business workflow.

9.3 Advantages of integration of CAE tools in design

In the Mechanical Engineering context, Shigley defines design as: either to formu-
late a plan for the satisfaction of a specified need or to solve a problem. If the plan
results in the creation of something having a physical reality, then the product
must be functional, safe, reliable, competitive, usable, manufacturable, and mar-
ketable (2). For most products, especially so the more complex they are, there is
no single individual with the know-how and capabilities to tackle all of those re-
quirements at once. On (2) we can see a listing, which might be expanded even
further, of 26 areas to be considered as part of the design process. Among others,
strength/stress, corrosion, noise, maintenance or remanufacturability/resource
recovery. Nowadays, for most of those areas a plethora a different CAE tools are
available and actively used to help in analysing the component/system.
Designing is an innovative and very iterative process in which we create a set
of feasible solutions and select the one which performs better for the intented task
according to some specific metric. As more experience about the task performed
is gained, modifications and improvements on the original design are done contin-
uously. As an example, the basic design of an automobile hasn’t changed much
compared to the initial versions, but its performance and characteristics of both
automobile and components have evolved significantly. CAE tools are a reality in
the design process of many products nowadays and they have helped in reducing
cost and time-to-market as well as increasing performance. But their use is still
very compartmentalized and usually there is no transfer of information for one
CAE tool to another or from one area of the design to another.

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9. Vertical multiscale modelling

Figure 1. Example of benefit sought through integration of CAE tools.

It is obvious to understand that when designing, e.g., a load bearing component


for a machine, the manufacturing process history of the component plays a role on
the actual material properties of the manufactured part and on its final maximum
admissible load or fatigue properties. And yet, still the most usual way to design
this kind of component is to assume a history-free material status. Just nominal
properties.
The integration of the different CAE tools involved at different levels on the de-
sign process shows an enormous potential. It would allow design solutions which
go beyond what actual design methods and practises allow.
To illustrate this point let’s consider a simple practical design exercise: An en-
gineer has to select the best electric motor to run a certain equipment on his/hers
factory. In order to solve this problem, he/she would typically take a catalogue of
different motors provided by a manufacturer and select the one which better fits
the task at the minimum cost. The design of the electric motor and the accompa-
nying bearing would have been already done by the supplier using one CAE tool
for the motor dimensioning and another for the bearing dimensioning and several
options provided based on different usage scenarios. The total cost of ownership
of the motor (TCO), the design metric, could be calculated for example with a
System Dynamics model of the factory.

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9. Vertical multiscale modelling

In Figure 1 we present an schematic of a design strategy in which all the CAE


tools involved in the process are not used separately but integrated together. By
following this approach, the TCO of the electric motor in the final installation could
be considered during the design process of the electric motor itself. And whereas
efficiency or cost might have been the metrics employed traditionally in the design
of the motor, now we can provide a design customized for its final application. This
approach garantees that the final TCO is at least as low as the one we would
obtain with the traditional design method.
Anecdotically we have tested this approach with different usage scenarios and
depending on the usage pattern we have managed to reduce the estimated TCO
between 2–20% when using this integral approach when compared to selecting an
electric motor with efficiency as the main design criteria.
This case is just an example of integration of a few modelling and simulation
tools. Ideally, we could foresee an environment in which all the models and CAE
tools involved would exchange data and results. In this utopic scenario, and com-
bining the models with optimization algorithms, it would be possible to obtain very
advanced designs in a reduced development time.

Figure 2. Representation of Multiscale integration

9.4 The directions of integration: multiscale, multidimension,


multiresolution

When discussing the integration of different models and simulations we can classi-
fy this integration with respect to the directions in which it is done:

– Multiscale: In multiscale modelling the information travels from models


representing phenomena occurring at very small scales of time and
dimension towards models representing ever increasing scales on
both time and dimensions (or viceversa). The scales can go from na-

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9. Vertical multiscale modelling

nometres and nanoseconds and even smaller to kilometres and


months or even years. Figure 2 represents this concept. Usually they
are concerned about the same entity.

– Multidimension: This direction of integration refers to the combination


of models which might be at similar scales of time or dimension but
correspond to complete different entities. On the case represented on
Figure 1 this could be exemplified by the combination of a motor de-
sign CAE tool with another for analysis of the bearings. Information
from different systems and phenomena are combined together.

– Multiresolution: Most existing models treat any given phenomenon


they represent at a particular level of resolution (3) (4). And as the
resolution of the model we employ increases, so does usually its com-
putational requirements. When we use a CAE tool, or a chain of tools,
our objective might be different at different moments. If we are trying
to get basic comprehension of how our system works or exploring the
set of valid solutions to locate areas where those solutions are more
optimal, we can use low-resolution models. If we want to understand
better the underlying phenomenon or locate a more accurate result we
would switch to a model with higher resolution. Figure 3 shows sche-
matically this trade-off.

Figure 3. Representation of Multiresolution integration.

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9. Vertical multiscale modelling

In order to create a successful integrated model which exploits the potential of the
approach to the maximum, we can envision that we would need to produce this
integration in all these directions. The multiscale and multidimensional integration
would provide completeness to the scope of the integration while the multiresolu-
tion dimension could provide the necessary elements to make the whole simula-
tion manageable.

9.5 The challenge of creating a complete system: putting


everything together

As much as we can see a general CAE tool integration as a way to advance the
state of the art on product and processes design, we must be realistic and under-
stand the difficulty of the task. The variety of physical phenomena, dimensional
and time scales, heterogeinity of tools and platforms and in general the particulari-
ties of each of the models and software implementations makes the integration a
daunting objective.
If we are ever to achieve this goal of integration, there are many areas in which
work needs to be focused and research done. Advances on this areas would contrib-
ute towards the final goal. As a non-exhaustive list we could present the following:

– Data exchange: Different CAE tools handle physical entities differently.


Their representation of geometry, boundary conditions or input and out-
put data usually difer. And despite several international standards are
available and being developed for the exchange of simulation and model-
ling data (from organisms as SISO, IEEE or ISO). There seems not to be
any clear option which is supported by the most common CAE tools. In
general, support for those standards is limited at best. A lot of work has
been done in this area and still needs to be done to achieve a universal
solution.

– Validation and verification: In order to have a useful methodology we


need to be sure that the results are reliable. This means that both the un-
derlying mathematical models and their implementations have to be cor-
rect and suitable for the simulation task. Individual CAE tools and the
models we run with them require already solid validation and verification
plans. When we consider an integrated system, this becomes even more
important since an error can propagate and magnify along the chain.

– Computational Resource Management: The factor that all CAE tools


have in common is that all of them require computers to run. Some mod-
els and simulations can be as short as a fraction of a second on a regular
desktop machine while others might require supercomputers to run in a
reasonable amount of time. Advances in computer technology provide us
with an ever increasing availability of computational resources, but still

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9. Vertical multiscale modelling

these are finite and in many occasions the extent of what can be simulat-
ed and its level of detail is limited by our computational budget. When
chaining different CAE tools together, this need of computational re-
sources gets exacerbated.

o A useful CAE integration must optimize its structure to the effi-


cient use of all the forms of computation available: single thread
solutions, Symmetric Multiprocessing (SMP), Massively Parallel
(in clusters or GPU computing). Good queuing systems must be
in place to distribute these resources optimally.

– User Interfacing: Connecting different CAE tools and making them work
together is only as good as the results we can obtain from them. Most
CAE tools, especially commercial ones, include preprocessing tools
which help in setting up the problem and postprocessing tools that help in
the task of printing and visualizing results. In many occasions this auxilia-
ry tools become as important as the results themselves.

o When considering an integrated environment, the same consid-


eration is true. Preprocessing and postprocessing tools, as well
as monitoring are very important. Work need to be done in cre-
ating an homogeneous interface to selected inputs and outputs
for the models even if the individual CAE tools are very hetero-
geneous.

– Data enrichment: Carrying out simulations requires investment of re-


sources. Preparing models and simulations is time consuming and as
mentioned earlier some computations might require significant computa-
tional efforts. In many cases, simulations are deterministic and for a given
set of inputs the outputs would be always the same. So, it only makes
sense to keep a record of the simulation results so that computations
don’t need to be repited. This data can also serve as a basis to create
metamodels of the model which can be used as a lower resolution model
of the same phenomena with reduced computational cost.

o Empirical tests are necessary to validate results or as inputs for


some CAE tools. Those tests can be rather costly and in some
cases even not repeatable at a later stage. So, the recording of
results must be done thoroughly. Using historical data from pre-
vious simulations or empirical tests to improve the quality and
accuracy of our results as well as to reduce the time needed to
obtain a solution is what can be called data enrichment.

– The last cornerstone: The Methodogy: All the previously mentioned top-
ics as well as a few other that we fail to mention are the building blocks

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9. Vertical multiscale modelling

which we need to consider and study when building a successful multi-


scale, multi-dimensional, multi-resolution integrative modelling solution.
But the cornerstone of this infrastructure on top of which we have to build
is the methodology. Methodology has to dictate what, when and how dif-
ferent CAE tools need to interact and to which level of resolution. If we
are designing a mechanical support which will always be working under a
static load in a high oxygen environment it wouldn’t make sense to ex-
pend resources calculating the dynamic behaviour under a cyclic load of
the support, but it could be completely sensible to make a corrosion anal-
ysis. A good methodology, with the help of the user, has to make use of
all the mentioned building blocks to provide a useful solution with the
minimum amount of resources invested in obtaining it. If we would build a
huge chain of simulation without a proper methodology to exploit it we
would found ourselves with an unmanageable system which would be
impossible to run to termination with the current computational capabili-
ties, and therefore with no utility.
As already mentioned; in our institute, with a little over 3000 employees, there are
about 60 CAE tools employed just in material modelling of some kind. When con-
sidering all the disciplines at VTT, the number of codes would be in the hundreds.
In the long run, our vision is having the capability to integrate all these tools to-
gether and be able to combine all the in-house multidisciplinary expertise in mod-
elling. Already at the moment significant efforts towards that direction are being
made. Multi-scale modelling of materials is common practise (1) and the Pro-
cessing-Structure-Properties-Performance (PSPP) concept (5) is put in practice in
areas like tribology.
An ontology based integration platform (6) called Simantics is being actively
developed which already has the capability to integrate several different CAE
tools, e.g. Apros, Balas or Fluent. Simantics also has the capabilities for creating
nice user interfaces to control the models which are integrated. The platform is
modular and open-source and can be used by the public which can also contribute
to the development.
In addition to this, new concepts for integration based on MultiAgent systems
(7) are being tested. In this approach, each model type is treated as an autono-
mous agent with models with different resolutions (which would include different
CAE tools) and they should be capable of interacting with one another by coopera-
tion, coordination and negotiation.

9.6 References

1. Materials Modelling Research in VTT. Yingfeng Shen, Merja Sippola, Kenneth


Holmberg, Kim Wallin. Espoo : VTT Technical Research Centre of Fin-
land, 2013. Multiscale modelling and design for engineering applications.

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9. Vertical multiscale modelling

2. Shigley, et al. Mechanical Engineering Design. 7th. s.l. : McGraw-Hill, 2003.

3. Davis PK, Huber RK. Variable-resolution combat modeling: motivations, issues


and principles. 1992. RAND Notes.

4. Specification of multi-resolution modeling space for multi-resolution system


simulation. Hong, and Kim, Tag Gon. 89, 2012, Simulation.

5. Computational Design of Hierarchically Structured Materials. G.B. Olson, et al.


277, 1997, Science.

6. Open ontology-based integration platform for modeling and simulation in engi-


neering. Karhela, , Niemistö, and Villberg, . 2012, International Journal of
Modeling, Simulation and Scientific Computing, Vol. 3, p. 36.

7. Wooldridge. An Introduction to MultiAgent Systems. 2nd. s.l. : Wiley, 2009.

105
10. Combined CFD, material and system level analyses – Case Naantali power
plant

10. Combined CFD, material and system level


analyses – Case Naantali power plant
Jari Lappalainen

VTT Technical Research Centre of Finland


Vuorimiehentie 3, P.O. Box 1000, FI-02044 Espoo

10.1 Abstract

This paper discusses the use of mathematical models in solving engineering prob-
lems. Undoubtedly there is a need for closer co-operation and co-use of different
tools to enhance solving industrial engineering problems. This is shown through a
recent case study, where thermal behaviour of evaporator pipes in a power plant
was analysed. The main tool is the study was Apros, which is a software for dy-
namic modelling and simulation of industrial processes, and related automation
and electrical systems. Additionally, the work was supported by CFD and thermal
stress calculations. A model of a once-through evaporator of a coal power plant
was developed, and used to analyse thermal behaviour of the evaporator tubes.
Proper knowledge of the boundary conditions at the flue gas side were required.
This information was obtained from the existing CFD results on the same evapora-
tor. The main interest in simulations was the differences in pipe temperatures
between two alternative control strategies of the evaporator: level control mode,
and superheating mode. The simulation results were temperatures, and further
interpretation was needed to draw the conclusions of the risk for the material. So
yet another mathematical approach was needed to answer the original questions.
The modelling part of the case is briefly described, the most interesting results are
shown, and the combined use of modelling is discussed.

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10. Combined CFD, material and system level analyses – Case Naantali power
plant

10.2 Introduction

Many different kinds of modelling and simulation related software tools are used
for obtaining information about a new concept or plant under design, or analysing
and developing an existing one. The common feature is supporting decision-
making in engineering or production problems.
Steady state flow sheet simulators provide state information in various loca-
tions of the process system. The state comprises typically pressure, temperature,
flow, enthalpy and fluid composition. Detailed dimensioning of the equipment,
crucial part of an engineering project, is typically done using proprietary dimen-
sioning programs, e.g. by a boiler manufacturer. These include steady state mass
and energy balance solvers, and a great number of experience-based correla-
tions. Computational Fluid Dynamics (CFD) is used to predict flow of fluids inside
a piece of equipment. Heat transfer is often included in the studies. For example,
boiler suppliers are interested in temperature and flow fields inside the furnace
with different designs. The CFD programs help to optimize boiler geometry, and
fuel and air feed locations for efficient combustion and heat transfer. In the existing
plants, CFD can be used to optimise the operation. A dynamic process simulator
differs from steady state simulation with its capability to predict dynamic behav-
iour. It differs from CFD by using coarser discretisation thus being able to capture
larger scope of the process system. It aims to provide a virtual tool that can be
operated similarly to the actual plant. However substantially more information
about the system is obtained, than by normal process measurements.
Traditionally, the data in different engineering tools, such as P&ID, 3D, or simu-
lation tools, are stored and presented in heterogeneous formats. For sure, de-
ployment of simulation suffers from the fact that tools lay at separate islands which
are hard to bridge with any ad-hoc way, within a tight time frame. Consequently,
the work may be done with the tool that is the most familiar despite of the fact if is
the best or adequete for the job.
During last years, there has been active development to improve tools interop-
erability in engineering. A key to interconnect and re-use data in different engi-
neering tasks and phases is to apply common well-defined semantics for the data.
The different software products must be open to enable export and import of the
data contents and models. This need has been widely recognized and related
development work is undergoing.
The Naantali case presented in the following was reported earlier by Lap-
palainen et al. (2012). The study was conducted without any software bridges
between the different model based methods used. In other words, results by one
tool was interpreted and moved manually into another tool. The case gives an
example of the common need to use different tools to find the answers for a prac-
tical question from industry, thus highlighting the potential for combination of the
tools at an appropriate level.

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10.3 Tube damages at power plant

10.3.1 Motivation for the simulation study

The case study assesses conditions of evaporator pipes in a pulverized coal pow-
er plant in Naantali. History of the 315 MW power plant origins to the 1970’s, with
a number of small retrofits taken place during the years. One such a project was
undergoing in summer 2010, including reconstruction of some evaporator tubes
that had suffered damages, including tube burst, since the last plant maintenance
shut-down (see Figure 1).
The damage followed timely by a recent change of control strategy. VTT stud-
ied some of the damaged tubes and material analysis suggested that the dam-
aged part had experienced high temperatures (over 500 °C) for substantially long
times. Questions arose of circumstances for excessive heating, and, their connec-
tion with the recent changes made in control strategy. The circumstances were too
challenging for experimental study, so the plant engineers proposed analysis by
modelling and simulation.

Figure 1. Some of the damaged evaporator tubes.

10.3.2 The modelling platform

The modelling and simulation platform Apros was used for building a dynamic
model of the process area. Apros (www.Apros.fi) provides easy on-line access for
configuring and running the simulation models, solution algorithms and model
libraries for full-scale modelling and simulation of processes, including combustion
power plants, nuclear power plants, and pulp and paper mills. Besides the pro-

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plant

cess, also automation and electrical systems can be modelled in detail. The extent
of the applications varies from small computational experiments to models for full-
scope training simulators. The model libraries have been comprehensively vali-
dated against data from physical process experiments.
The simulator offers predefined component models that are conceptually anal-
ogous with the actual devices, such as pipes, valves, pumps, heat exchangers,
reactors, tanks, measurements, signal processing, controllers, electric devices,
etc. The user drags and drops appropriate process components from model library
palettes, draws connections, and enters process related input data. Parameterisa-
tion is straightforward, and most importantly, the tool hides all solution algorithms.
The model libraries include models from simple to high fidelity. This way one can
create an optimal model structure in respect of model fidelity needs, development
time available, and simulation speed requirements. Several types of solvers for
thermal hydraulic networks can be used, depending on the demanded fidelity
level. The thermal hydraulics solvers provide means for solving of fluid flows, heat
conduction in solid structures and between fluids and structures. In the solution,
the model is considered as a network of nodes, i.e. control volumes, and branch-
es, i.e. connections between the nodes. This calculation level network is managed
automatically by the process component level, which is the level where user oper-
ates. The primary state variables of the thermal hydraulic nodes are pressure,
enthalpy, and component mass fractions, and flow velocities for branches. Materi-
al property functions are used in calculating various quantities, such as density,
viscosity, thermal conductavity and heat capacity according to the state variables.
The equation solver processes the large systems of linear equations, which arise
from the discretisation and linearisation of partial differential equations with re-
spect to space and time. In addition to model configuration the modelling interface
provides tools to manage simulation experiments, and to visualize the dynamic
behaviour of the simulated system. The user can freely select any component
variables to be displayed on the flowsheet diagrams as numerical values (monitor
fields) or as trends in separate windows. During a simulation run, the model dia-
grams can be used for modifying component properties, e.g. controller set values,
controller tuning parameters, starting/stopping devices. Any variable data can be
logged to file for post-processing purposes.

10.3.3 The model building

In this case study, the scope of the modelling covers half of the evaporator, includ-
ing 16 pipelines. The evaporator composes of two identical halves, which of the
one with most pipe damages was selected. Model diagrams were used to organ-
ize the model configuration into suitable sub-processes, see the following figures
for examples.
Most of the input data was taken from the original design drawings, including
mainly locations and physical dimensions of process equipment and pipelines.
The length and friction losses due to bends in the pipelines were studied and

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10. Combined CFD, material and system level analyses – Case Naantali power
plant

modelled in detail from the design drawings, in order to show up any differences
among the individual tubes due to their different routes at the boiler walls. Also
appropriate data to define the model boundaries was needed, such as pressures,
temperatures, and the heating power to the evaporator tubes.
The selected thermohydraulic model for this simulation study was the non-
equilibrium separate phase flow (so-called 6-equation) model, which calculates the
dynamic mass, energy, and momentum balances for both liquid and gas phases of
water. This choice guaranteed that the modelling should capture any thermohy-
draulically meaningful phenomena taking place in the evaporator pipes.
The model starts from a point after the economizer, before the header that dis-
tributes the individual evaporator pipelines, see Figure 2. The length of each pipe-
line inside the evaporator is approximately 260 m, and this length was discretised
into 65 pieces in the modelling. Additionally, there were two pipelines with more
accurate discretisation.

Figure 2. The model starts where the evaporator tubes separate out from the
header after the economizer.

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10. Combined CFD, material and system level analyses – Case Naantali power
plant

Figure 3. The route of each tube inside the evaporator was modelled like shown
here.

Figure 3 is an example of a diagram showing an individual tube route inside the


evaporator, as part of the water wall. In order to provide a realistic model for sur-
face temperatures of the evaporator pipes inside the furnace, it was essential to
model the pipeline’s route on the walls including accurate positioning of turning
points and elevations. The route of the pipeline starts at the back wall, it goes
down to the cone, and starts to zigzag horizontally until the bottom part is fully
covered. Then it rises upwards in the front wall, and zigzags the whole half of the
furnace up and down, until comes back in the starting point and exits the furnace.
The burners and air ports in the corners are marked in the figure too. The pipeline
model composes of a series of heat pipe modules, having a thermohydraulic point
in between. The heat pipe component includes also the pipe wall’s heat structure.
The average length of the pipe parts is 4 meters in this case. In addition, the heat
structure of each pipe module is axially divided in two parts. There are 16 individ-
ual tubes that travel throughout the furnace half, installed next to each other. After
the evaporator, these tubes are combined in a header, and the resulted flow is
lead to a water steam separator (Sulzer bottle), which acts as the end boundary
for the model.
The modelling did not include the burning and flue gas side of the boiler. Ac-
cordingly, the heating power from the combustion had to be defined as boundary
condition to each heat pipe component that a tube model is constructed of. Initial-
ly, the heating power was considered as a constant value throughout the water

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10. Combined CFD, material and system level analyses – Case Naantali power
plant

wall. The first simulation results revealed that this approximation was poor. Fortu-
nately a CFD study of this same boiler had been conducted some time earlier.
These CFD results were used to derive a more realistic heating power levels as a
function of elevation. Additionally, the boiler corners were considered separately.
Thus the heating power was transmitted to each heat pipe component by its posi-
tion inside the furnace. The heating power levels ranged from 150 to 500 kW/m2.
The bottom part of the evaporator, for example, was treated with the lowest power.

10.3.4 Results

The main interest in the simulation study was the peak temperatures and their
localisation in the evaporator tubes in different situations. The study focused on
comparing two different control strategies to operate the evaporator:
Control mode 1: Level control of the water-steam separation bottle
Control mode 2: Superheating state control
The traditional operation mode (Control mode 1) keeps part of the out coming
water from the evaporator in liquid phase, and accordingly the water steam sepa-
rator is run with liquid level in closed-loop control. In the other mode (Control mode
2) the out coming steam gets superheated, and the level of superheating is con-
trolled. The reference states representing operation in these control modes were
taken from historical data. To reach an operational state like this in the model, the
boundary pressures and flow conditions were firstly set according to the reference
state. Then, the heating power was adjusted to produce a proper match with the
plant measurements. While the level of heating power was adjusted, its relative
profile was not changed.
Besides the simulation of normal operation in these modes, also transients
were simulated, such as throttling of a pipe, and reducing the feed flow. Special
emphasis was put on simulation analysis to the part of the evaporator where the
pipe damages had taken place. In the following, some illustrative samples of simu-
lation results are described.
Simulation example A: Control modes 1 and 2, reference conditions. Pow-
er plants are operated long times in rather steady conditions, and it is important to
analyze the system in these typical conditions, especially if there is suspicion of
harmful condition for process equipment. Figure 4 illustrates conditions inside one
evaporator tube (number 14) in control modes 1 and 2. Steam void fraction is
presented, as well as pressure and temperature as function of the cumulative
length of the tube. It is seen that the pressure and temperature are higher in Con-
trol mode 2, and evaporation starts earlier, than in Control mode 1. Furthermore,
in Control mode 2, in the end of the tube, all liquid is evaporated and steam gets
superheated.

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10. Combined CFD, material and system level analyses – Case Naantali power
plant

Figure 4. Simulation example A. Selected variables as profiles along one evapo-


rator pipeline in different operation modes (system in steady state).

Simulation example B: Control mode 2, feed flow decreased with constant


heating power. This simulation study illustrates the dynamics of the water wall
piping in a disturbance, where the evaporator feed flow rate drops quickly but
heating power stays constant. The feed flow was changed simply by setting 30%
lower set point for the controller. The outer surface temperature of one tube (num-
ber 14) was selected to demonstrate the transient. Figure 5 shows the reference
state for Control mode 2, and four time instants after the initiation of the disturb-

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10. Combined CFD, material and system level analyses – Case Naantali power
plant

ance. The new steady state is reached in 4–5 minutes, and the end of the pipe
heats up to over 500 °C.

Figure 5. Simulation example B. Tube outer surface temperature profiles along


one evaporator pipeline at different time instants after the disturbance.

10.3.5 Outcome of the simulation study

The simulation study was initiated due to the damages in the evaporator pipes,
followed timely by a recent change of control strategy. The study showed that
operation in superheating control mode does not stress these parts of the pipe-
lines substantially more than level control mode. This was seen both in normal
operation and in the transients simulated. In superheating control mode, end of the
pipelines heated up more than in level control mode, but the risk for the pipe mate-
rial was still considered low in normal long term operation conditions. In super-
heating control mode, however, the end side of the piping is clearly more sensitive
for excessive high temperatures in case of power or flow disturbances. This must
be addressed when planning operational practices. The major outcome was the
obtained understanding of the practical meaning of different factors in the opera-
tion of the water steam side of the boiler.

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10. Combined CFD, material and system level analyses – Case Naantali power
plant

10.4 Discussion

The strength of the Apros model build for this study is the rather detailed modeling
of the pipelines, including the path on the walls, friction losses, heat transfer and
thermohydraulic solution. The model scope was limited to just what was necessary
to capture the two alternative operation modes that were compared. The simple
approach used in modeling the heating power to the evaporator pipelines as static
source terms can be considered as a weakness. There however the use of CFD
results improved the accuracy of the approach. The heating power stayed con-
stant regardless of the changing conditions inside the pipes, and in the pipe wall.
One possible development step is to model the combustion and the flue gas flow
in the furnace in Apros. The most sofisticated approach would be to combine the
CFD simulation with the Apros model. Another useful link would be to transfer the
Apros results into calculation of material lifetime. This would speed up the interpre-
tation of the simulation results into practically and economically interesting figures,
such as maintenance costs and prediction of operation life time.

10.5 Conclusions

This paper discussed combined use of model based methods in solving engineer-
ing problems, illustrated by a power plant case, where simulation was initiated due
to the damages in the evaporator pipes. The major outcome was a good under-
standing of the practically meaningful factors in the problem case. To complete the
study successfully, knowledge from two different model based calculations were
utilised. The heating power form the combustion to different locations in the evap-
orator was estimated with the aid of CFD simulations. The simulation results in
different operational conditions produced temperature profiles of the evaporator
tubing, which were used to assess the risk for the tube material.

10.6 Acknowledgements

The author wish to thank Mechanical Maintenance Manager Harri Blom from For-
tum Power and Heat Oy in Naantali who has greatly contributed to this study and
its publishing.

10.7 Literature

Lappalainen, J., Blom, H, Juslin, K., Dynamic process simulation as an engineer-


ing tool – A case of analysing a coal plant evaporator, VGB Powertech – Interna-
tional Journal for Electricity and Heat Generation, 1/2 2012, pp. 62–68.

115
11. Combined structural analyses and system level simulation – Cases 1) Apros-
TVO PAMS and 2) Apros-Abaqus Co-use

11. Combined structural analyses and


system level simulation – Cases 1) Apros-
TVO PAMS and 2) Apros-Abaqus Co-use
Pasi Laakso

VTT Technical Research Centre of Finland


Vuorimiehentie 3, P.O. Box 1000, FI-02044 Espoo

11.1 Abstract

This paper discusses about combined usage of structural analysis and system
level simulation. Application area is continuous processes and their pipeline sys-
tems e.g. Power plants. Main idea is to base structural analysis on simulated tran-
sients. Simulation results include e.g. time dependant behaviour of pressures and
temperatures. Simulation model can be done manually or automatically based on
data read from plant databases or directly from the model taken from the structural
analysis tool. Similarly structural analysis model can be either hand-made or
based on information read from plant databases or simulation model. This paper
concentrates on 2 recent cases that are done at VTT i.e. connecting Apros dy-
namic process simulator to TVO’s Pams piping database and Abaqus commercial
structural analyses tool.

11.2 Introduction

Structural analysis is important tool when analysing the endurance of the process
plant equipment. It can be used to optimize operational procedures to minimize
the load caused or alternatively to try to define how long equipment will last and
when it should be replaced. This is especially important on safety critical systems
like nuclear power plants. This analysis requires time series information concern-

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11. Combined structural analyses and system level simulation – Cases 1) Apros-
TVO PAMS and 2) Apros-Abaqus Co-use

ing the realistic process behaviour that occurs over the years. When measurement
data is available it can be used. However there are also scenarios where meas-
urements are not enough and more data needs to be generated using dynamic
simulation e.g. when testing different operation procedures.
VTT has been integrating structural analysis and system level simulation in 2
recent projects. In both cases simulations has been done using Apros. In the ear-
lier case TVO's (Teollisuuden voima) Pams database was the tool combined to
Apros. In latter just started case Abaqus tool will be combined to Apros. Also few
years back there was a project where Apros simulations were used as a basis for
structural analysis done in Abaqus. This was mainly manual transfer. Now in the
recent project data transfer will be automated.
Pams is not actually a structural analyser code. It is more like a database that
stores plant model in a format that is useful for structural analyses purposes. It can
take advantage of other tools like FPipe to perform structural analysis. It contains
nodes that are coordinates in 3D space and elements that are connections
(straight pipes, valves, bends...) between the nodes. Elements have also cross
section definitions i.e. pipe diameter and wall thicknesses. Database has also
detailed material properties tables for storing pipe materials, including insulation
and plate. It also contains reference transients used for structural analysis. These
transients are typically conservative i.e. describing the worst case scenario. They
are typically done without simulations based on the experts manually defining the
cases. Apros simulations best estimate type, meaning that they try to replicate the
plant behaviour as closely as possible. Both conservative and best estimate tran-
sient still have their uses.
Abaqus is a tool made specifically for structural analysis. It can be used to ana-
lyse micro level cases like welds or alternatively macro level where larger pipeline
system is under inspection. Its database structure closely resembles the Pams
structure. Main components are nodes that are just dots in 3D space and ele-
ments between 2 nodes.
Database structure of Apros is pretty close to these. It has a concept of point
that has very close resemblance for nodes and then there are pipes and valves
that are very close to the elements in both Pams and Abaqus

11.3 Case Apros – TVO-Pams

The goal of the project was to enable using Apros to generate time series data to
be used for structural analysis. TVO’s Pams software stores the plant model and
can initiate other software to do e.g. structural analysis (like FPipe) and run dy-
namic simulation (Apros). One of the key ideas is that plant wide simulation model
is used for running the transients. This way the boundaries of the load area under
investigation behave realistically. If we would just model the area under inspection,
defining realistic behaviour of the boundaries would be much more challenging
task.

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11. Combined structural analyses and system level simulation – Cases 1) Apros-
TVO PAMS and 2) Apros-Abaqus Co-use

Tool called Pamros was developed to do the needed tasks. It gets Pams input
file that contains a detailed description of a subprocess that it wants to be ana-
lysed e.g. nodes and elements, cross sections and materials. It also defines which
initial state and transient should be executed. Project utilised also ready-made
Apros simulation model of the Olkiluoto NPP. The idea is that small part of the
whole plant model is replaced by the automatically generated detailed model.
Automatic generation takes care of many details e.g. loss caused by bends, re-
ducers and expanders is calculated and then used in simulation. The additions to
existing model are based on the input data coming from Pams. Pams input data
also specifies the output variables it expects to be collected during the transient.
After model improvements simulation model is stabilized and then the real sim-
ulation case i.e. transient is started. Pamros stores the predefined variables every
time step while the simulation is running. After the run, results are gone through
and excess data not necessary for structural analysis is removed and then finally
results are given back to Pams that stores them to be used later for further analy-
sis.
Pams is the initiator in this scenario. It generates the needed input file that con-
tains detailed description of nodes and elements and gives it to Pamros. Pamros
then makes the needed changes to the Apros model and calculates the results.
Whole work flow is presented in Figure 1.
Currently couple of test cases has been executed and continuation for the pro-
ject is under planning. It has been found out that using the plant wide simulation
model is in some cases quite time consuming. This means that unless the value of
getting realistic plant response is essential one can use smaller simulation models
that just describe the area of intrest. Further projects will be focused on this ap-
proach.

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11. Combined structural analyses and system level simulation – Cases 1) Apros-
TVO PAMS and 2) Apros-Abaqus Co-use

Figure 1. Pamros work flow.

11.4 Case Abaqus – Apros

This project has just been started. 1st manual excersice from generating input
model from Abaqus and then making manually corresponding Apros model has
been made. Goal has been to replicate the case from few years back where Apros
was used in similar manner to generate input data for Abaqus. The eperiences
gained from manual data transfer will then be basis for requirements analysis of
the tool conencting the software together.
It is likely that the in this case tool is developed from the perspective of the sys-
tem simulator. Here the simulation model is made before structural analysis and
simulation model will be used to generate Abaqus model. Simulation results will be
fed simultaneously to Abaqus.
Figure 2 shows the 1st simple example case that is a short pipeline having 3
corners. One detail from the corresponding hand-made Apros simulation model is
in Figure 3. Also 1st transient has been executed using the model and Abaqus anal-
ysis will be next step. After this all the work phases are gone through manually.

119
11. Combined structural analyses and system level simulation – Cases 1) Apros-
TVO PAMS and 2) Apros-Abaqus Co-use

Figure 2. Abaqus pipeline.

Figure 3. Detail from Apros simulation model.

11.5 Conclusions

Recently several software integration projects have been initiated. VTT has been
implementing Open source integration platform called Simantics that has been
basis when integrating e.g. CFD simulations to other simulation tools as well as
integrating plant databases like Comos and Smartplant Foundation to simulator
tools. Combining also structural analysis and dynamic simulation can be seen as a
continuation to this ongoing trend.
New tools will enable using simulation results as a basis for structural analysis.
Users of both tools can benefit from combination of simulation and structural anal-
ysis. This will give opportunities to analyse e.g. cases where the plant doesn't

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11. Combined structural analyses and system level simulation – Cases 1) Apros-
TVO PAMS and 2) Apros-Abaqus Co-use

even exist yet. Also not all the measurements needed are always available so
simulation can be used to generate more data for analysis purposes. Other poten-
tial approach is that system level simulator has modelled a design he wants to
verify using structural analysis. In this case the simulation model needs to be
converted to a form suitable for structural analysis. It has been found out that all
tools involved have pretty similar structures for storing data.

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12. Optimizing life-cycle environmental performance of a value chain with
MultiDesign approach

12. Optimizing life-cycle environmental


performance of a value chain with
MultiDesign approach
Tuomas Helin

VTT Technical Research Centre of Finland


Tekniikantie 2, P.O. Box 1000, FI-02044 Espoo

12.1 Abstract

To be competitive in today’s society and business environment one needs to focus


on overall acceptability of the activity and not only performance, properties and
cost of the designed product or system. Sustainable business and design manag-
es corporate social responsibility towards stakeholders, including environmental
aspects. It addresses energy and resource efficiency, pollution prevention and air
quality. VTT has the necessary knowhow and simulation platforms to introduce the
modelling of environmental performance into Multiscale design of value chains.
Life cycle assessment (LCA) is an ISO 14040-14044 standardised methodology
that has been developed to gain a better understanding of potential environmental
impacts of product value chains. A life cycle approach ascertains that burden
shifting of environmental impacts of studied value chain or system can be avoided:
Partial optimisation that focuses on minimising environmental impacts of only one
component or processing stage includes a risk that major impacts up or down the
value chain are not identified and total impacts of the system may even increase.
One example is a comparison of climate impacts of two stainless steel grades,
austenitic and duplex, used in tanks for road transport of liquids (Ovaskainen
2011): Although manufacturing of duplex-grade steel causes more greenhouse
gas (GHG) emissions per mass unit than manufacturing of austenitic steel, still the
duplex steel causes less GHG emissions in road transport system due allowing
lighter tanks and thus lower fuel consumption of the vehicle. Thus, it is advisable

122
12. Optimizing life-cycle environmental performance of a value chain with
MultiDesign approach

model the whole system of interest with LCA to avoid burden shifting. VTT pro-
vides the necessary knowledge and software tools for carrying out LCA studies.
LCA method and key integration potentials are presented in figure below.
VTT is active in developing LCA software tools on Simantics platform that will
facilitate integration of LCA modelling with e.g. component, process and system
level design tools. Output data from other modelling tools can be seamlessly inte-
grated to be used as input data in LCA software to allow dynamic modelling of
environmental impacts of different product system designs. The output from LCA
software, environmental impact indicator result, can then be used as an input for
e.g. component design tool as an additional design criteria. A component designer
could get direct feedback on environmental impacts of individual decisions in such
integrated modelling platform.

Figure 1. Structure of LCA method. Red arrows and squares show the potential
data flows to be integrated to other modelling tools in MultiDesign platform.

123
Series title and number
VTT Technology 77

Title Multiscale modelling and design for engineering


application
Author(s) Tarja Laitinen & Kim Wallin (Eds.)
Abstract Utilizing 3D design procedures in manufacturing industry is well ma-
tured in industrial R&D. The shape of the components, design of the
machine or the vehicle, assembly and finally the whole production are
designed virtually through computational methods, which naturally
offer flexibility and speed to the design phase. Simulation and virtual
verification of the designed components is rapidly increasing and can
further shorten R&D phase dramatically.
However, virtual material values or models available for digital de-
sign and simulation are still limited. Due to the lack of digital material
values the huge potential of tailoring performance cannot be fully
exploited. VTT has recognized that for the economic and ecologic use
of materials, digital design tools are a necessity of the digital design
chain covering the whole region from material modelling to functional
design.
Development of new materials and understanding of material and
process behaviour is always a complex equation of crossing interac-
tions. Physical and chemical phenomena are affected from the nano-
and/or molecular level up to macroscopic level. Interactions between
the material performance, properties, microstructure and processing
methods need to be understood more deeply. For this purpose, mod-
elling skills have developed rapidly in recent decades both in industry
and in academia, with the support of increased numerical calculation
capacity and commercial multi-level and multi-physics software devel-
opment.
In this publication we are presenting some highlights from our cur-
rent modelling activities obtained within VTT’s MultiDesign innovation
programme. We hope they will inspire new ideas on what could be
done and obtained via digital approach to design.
ISBN, ISSN ISBN 978-951-38-7913-6 (Soft back ed.)
ISBN 978-951-38-7914-3 (URL: http://www.vtt.fi/publications/index.jsp)
ISSN-L 2242-1211
ISSN 2242-1211 (Print)
ISSN 2242-122X (Online)
Date February 2013
Language English
Pages 122 p.
Keywords Multiscale modelling, design, material performance, simulation
Publisher VTT Technical Research Centre of Finland
P.O. Box 1000, FI-02044 VTT, Finland, Tel. 020 722 111
VTT Technical Research Centre of Finland is a globally networked
multitechnological contract research organization. VTT provides high-end technology
solutions, research and innovation services. We enhance our customers’ competitiveness,
thereby creating prerequisites for society’s sustainable development, employment, and
wellbeing.

Turnover: EUR 300 million


Personnel: 3,200

VTT publications
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own publication series. The VTT publication series are VTT Visions, VTT Science, VTT
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Multiscale modelling and design for engineering HNOLOG

VTT TECHNOLOGY 77
application EC

• SC I E N CE• T

Y•
RE
Utilizing 3D design procedures in manufacturing industry is well matured

SEARCH
in industrial R&D. The shape of the components, design of the machine 77
or the vehicle, assembly and finally the whole production are designed
virtually through computational methods, which naturally offer flexibility

NS

HI
and speed to the design phase. Simulation and virtual verification of the

O
I G
HL
I G H T S• VI S
designed components is rapidly increasing and can further shorten R&D
phase dramatically.
However, virtual material values or models available for digital design
and simulation are still limited. Due to the lack of digital material values
the huge potential of tailoring performance cannot be fully exploited.
VTT has recognized that for the economic and ecologic use of materials,

Multiscale modelling and design for engineering application


digital design tools are a necessity of the digital design chain covering
the whole region from material modelling to functional design.
Development of new materials and understanding of material and
process behaviour is always a complex equation of crossing interactions.
Physical and chemical phenomena are affected from the nano- and/or
molecular level up to macroscopic level. Interactions between the
material performance, properties, microstructure and processing
methods need to be understood more deeply. For this purpose,
modelling skills have developed rapidly in recent decades both in
industry and in academia, with the support of increased numerical
calculation capacity and commercial multi-level and multi-physics
software development.
In this publication we are presenting some highlights from our current
modelling activities obtained within VTT’s MultiDesign innovation
programme. We hope they will inspire new ideas on what could be
done and obtained via digital approach to design.

Multiscale modelling
and design for
engineering application
ISBN 978-951-38-7913-6 (Soft back ed.)
ISBN 978-951-38-7914-3 (URL: http://www.vtt.fi/publications/index.jsp)
ISSN-L 2242-1211
ISSN 2242-1211 (Print)
ISSN 2242-122X (Online)