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'lilnB slasl ;asuodsar aql pa,rordurr ,

a^eq lsolu pFolv\ laa; no,{


rolr#o aql ]eqi sarldrur ]r 'salrurs Iueu;o asn aq] Llll6'pmoii anrssarSSe
pue poroq raqler olll ]o ]uaiualnxa aql pue q8norql luann lueqdela aq1 op 3u1ql a13urs 1eq14 E
{uo8e aql astlenst^ uel lapear aqI'a}!l o} {.ro}s aq} SuUq dlaq q:rqnn ilau uaeqrou e&eq
'slrelap anrldr.r:sap qrns {ueu sureluol a8essed aql 'ia^i a^ pu a>ltl erJalrJf, ssaf,f,ns
r{llq^A x
alluls aq] ur poMol,
ieq] poolq aql ssaullm pue q6ts 4ddoq all] reoll ;asuodsar
{aq1 se pa}eunse} sr rapear aq1 'uaddeq {aq1 se s}ua^a aq} Surssau}rnn srqt q {ro,ry\ },usaop }eq.ry\
{11en1:e sr auo }r se aledr:rUed rapear aql sdlaq pue aSessed aq} o} laa} pu" Ila/vl Dlro^r ]Br{^A x
Sururelrelua oroLU e sanr8 aBenBuel anrlernBr; aq1 ']raJJa poo8 o1 :*l!uJrs :rau1-red B qllrr{ ssnf,slq
pue sroqdelau {ueu sasn roqlne aq1 a8essed aq1 lnoqSnorq_
'uorlrsod pue suo!]le s,eldoed raqlo 3u1uesu1
{q peleart sr ataqdsor-u1e ue '1s.r11 ar,uo: slq8noq} s,JallJJo a:r1od aq}
allLlM 'pMorl palDxo aql seM araql leLll saprsa8 'pa.)aptsufi aq ol JauA o
s,lsDaq aql sem araLll osle pue suDw)ng 6ut4oo1-patuauadxa atattrt sD )o a4tlsesn qrrq,rir sSurql oMl
araql 'Mar^ Jo lurod uosrad-1sr; aLl] otr a^ltladsrad raqloue anrB q:tqnn uoamloq uosuedcuo: e al!uls
'sal;nos oprslno osle are oraql la1'slq8noqt s,rolrgo e:l1od eq1 olur 'urorr / aql sosn
lq8rsur ue sanr8 a1{1s palelrrp {rerp aql 'ra}um aq};o sa{a aqi q8no;q1 JeluM oql qlqM ur uorJereu
s8ulql aas aM pue uos.lad lsJl3 sr a8essed aq]Jo Mat^ jo lurod eq- Jo opoLU eql uoslad ls.rU
"'' pDap'a^llv "' ilaLll'saptsag eser qd
"' lnq'slDwtuo 6ur11t4:asuadsns pue uorsua] alearl o] sproM ureuaf ro proM polelor 'snor^aLd e'o]
Jal+e auor seuuol 'lloJJo lrl?uerp alll ol sppe osle uotlenltund aql Ileq strouuo) ro'uo spuadep
'ssausnonsuof lo [uear]s srq aprs]no uo SutoB uor]le aq] Moqs qlrqM qlrqM oluala1er e rpoqdeue
sproM Jo
sarualuas xalduuo: raBuol aprsBuole pareld are asaq] pue slq8noqi
Suruur3eq oql le spunos Jo spur).j
rauur srq Moqs qrqM salualuas aldurs osle ale araqt'lq8noql rauu!
oLUes oqlJo ro spunos au-res Oql
srq Molls ol alualuas e punole srsaqluared sasn pue leurue aql SurllrI
1o uorlrledet eql uollelalllle
lnoqe arnsun sr e;1 '3ur1urq] sem raf UJo aq] all] Mor.ls osle ol lno
entl [11eta1t1
spuels poap pue a^ro uaaMlaq ]seJluol ^eM
stJctls?ua lsourle aq_
]ou sr qlrqM s8urql onnl uoaMleq
'puil.u ]o alels srq Moqs o] uosueduor llorp e roqdelau
loplo u | )a^au pue Ja^au lo uorlrlada; aql sasn roqlne aqi lell] aql u! e 1e Surlronr {11en1re
lurod uenr8
^eMsaleorl
eapr oues aql jo asuas e sr aroql pue uels aq] le pooru qsreq aql sr purLU s,releeds ro s,lolel-leu e
Lpunq sft! 6u4oaq jo uorpl?1!lla aqy'tro IlLaqlowpuot6 e qllM auoauos qlrqM ur Ae,u eq1 1re1;ar sproM
o1 lueqdala aLll Su!redLuor ur;oqdelau: e sasn roqlne aq1 'qd.er8ered Moq ssausnollsuo),o ueaJls
]srU aq] ur 'alduuexe rol 'slool lerroqdelau pue salrnap fuera1t1 snoueA
sasn ralr;M aqf 'sa)ualuas Suruado aq] ur saull lera^as pasn st I piom
aql qlqM ur ,{e^ 3q} ur uoes eq ue) srql'Mat^ uosred lsrr; e qSnorql uaas
se {;ouuau e oqulsap o} ssglrsnolf slro) ro ilJea.t}s sasn ro}uM oq- euorlelonD v
'ralu1o a:r1od e rol {enn poo8 ealuepr^a aql sr araqM
- uoluasse ue sl sltlf
{ren 1ou e ur Surneqaq pue 3ur1:ear-ra^o sr ag '1utod slq} }e op plnoqs
aq s3urql;o pull leqMarnsun pue ploleq]iou lllls se^ ralt;;o e:t1od
'aBenBuel
aql'learql alqrssod e aq plnol lueqdala aq] pue op plnoqs aq leLlM ro a1{1s uo }ueurtrlof
lnoqe pasn;uol sr oH 'alp o] leurue aql 3ul]1a8 q}!M passasqo Mou sem {ue rego {11ear
1le.reno
ap '{enne sao8 leurrue aq} SurllrI lnoqe {;ronn srq pue {enne oB sSullaa; lou saop'anrl lslqM
]srry srH sv'jlas]rlueqdale pue 'auop st stql Moq
aql lM o1raprnu Surop a1r1 aq pjnom 1 ]q8noql aH 'op o] palro1 sem oq uo luaururol ou sr a.laql
Surqlauos alrl seM lueqdala aql Su;looUS '@
TOISTEmTUTUE 'lnoqe sr e8essed eq1
leqM ueql raqto 3u!ql{ue
sn 11a1 {11ear },usaop srLll
some sort of
t: .:i'i::'3iiry*$Xi ;-, It is important to support your points with evidence and then provide
You will learn more
comment or further explanation of the point you have made.
See page 17 of this unii for of this unit. As a first practice of
about how to use this technique in a later section
more about how to use the of the style
poi nt/quotation/comment this skill, write one or two sentences about the passage with one aspect
technique. mentioned here - the use of metaphor to describe the elephant'
Try to:
s say something about what the use of grandmotherly
conveys about the writer's

o:
: TIP
Get Into the habit of regutartY
a
feelings towards the elePhant
link this with any other way in which the elephant is described later
Thewriter'suseofametaphortoclescribethewaytheelephantbehaveswitha
in the passage'

'grandmolherly air' suggesls that "'


selecting articles or rePorts
from reputable Pubtications
and readingthem with an SumrnarY
'exam head'on - in other Remember these key points from this section:
words, anatYsing them for
styte and language as much as
?
I Non-fiction writing shares many similarities with fiction writing'
for what theY have to saY.
i
E The reading and analysis skills you develop for commentary
will help your own
t

l"'.--*---------*-----,*:*-"'*'-':'-"*'--"; writing.
text is an
Highlighting, listing or annotating key words and phrases in
a

essential Part of commentary.


made with apt' direct
The best responses to texts always support the points
quotations.
on tone, mood or the
These should always be explained in terms of their effect
perspective of the writer.

Ftanming and stq"ucturing a esm?Y?entary


In this section, You will:
r learn how to read and plan your response
response
r select key words to help shape your introduction and
in the text'
n learn how different introductions can focus on different elements
will be
It is important to have a mental or actual plan of how your commentary
aspect and not enough on
organised. Without it, you may spend too long on one
another.

A process for resPonse


guidance.
In order to respond to a passage effectively, you should follow this

Read the passage closely at least twice'


of the
Why? The first reading shoutd be to get the overatl sense
wi[[
purrugu, what happens and how it attfits together' The second
passage works, the specific [anguage
attow you to focus on the way the
style and the mood created.
quite easily
Divide the passage into equa[ sections' This can be done
tength' lf they are not
if the paragraphs are of regutar and fairty equal
equaI sections
of equa[ [ength, then divide the passage into roughly
'aloq,44. e se srsdleue rnod JoJ
Iro^{erue4 aql pue ,4.^.er^Ja^o/uor}tnpor}ur rnod
roJ srseq ar{} uJoJ IIr^\ seapr aseql 'aSesspd aql ot Surp;orte ruaql asl}lJorrd plnoqs
no1 'euo 1sn( ro o^\1 seurrleuos ,(1dde lq8lru seapr asaqlJo rnoJ IIB seurrlauos
;letrrolsrq .ro lerrqde-r3oaB
'fnuouofe 'l€r3os '<lernllnl 'alduexa to; ,(eqt arv ;u^\oqs arB slxaluof, leq^r I
.doya.tap ro a8ueqr daqt
ille le JI op
,\\oq pue paluasa.rd are a8essed eql ul suolllsod leroos rolpue sdrqsuorlelar 1eq,u I
roluM e Jo e,tltadsLad .lo ouol
aua,l.r8 Suraq sr a8essaru;o pur{ leq.ryr ro 8ur,(1drur Jalrrm.ro a8essed aql sl leqm r
rrloads;o lenpt^tpur oql a)!ol
;spJo./r pallelas asaql q8norql pegrldruaxa s1 I
;."1;:rr&;.rri ro acro,t 1eq,n
eluauodxo Jo uostad 'uorlenlrs
:s€opr JnoJ 3ur,,u.o11o3 aql uo snloC P uo spq lalJM oql .a13ue, ro
apalsll aneq nal{ saselqd puB splo,r,r aq} osn nor{ plnsus Mex lurodnrern aql enlgradstad
3ui1ea1'ereqdsoLul? pooru
uorlfnpoJlur rnor( ro; asn uer no,( I
:.1ffi,1].r1 11i,:;,1 i:; i.: ;. ',:i.i':'
lfBJlxe eql uI sreqlo qll.{\ lseJluof, o1 uraas r
lleJlxa aql ur sreqlo orlle 01 uaes I
seapr ro sarlrpnb ureuaf lsaSSns ol uraes r
a8essed eql uI lulod leqt lp JalrJ,{\ arnJo apnlrl}B Jo poo{x relncrl-red e 1sa33ns I 13urq1{rane
uo luoruLUor ol pallooxo
:1eq1 saserqd Jo spJolvrJo lsrl B eIetu pFoqs nol
]ou are no{1eq1 raquaua6
ilsll no^ plnoqs sasejqd ro sploM Jo pull leq,vl
'.raqloue o1 areld ro uosrad '3uru] auo ulolJ Itqs sasn)oJ l oq ureldxe r
otsupql ro oolo^ap sapn]t]le A^oq Moqs r
a8essed aql ulqllm slserluof pue sarlrrelrLurs uo luaLuujo) I
:o1 no{ sMolle
qreoldde srq] pue splolun pue sdolanap ]t aq] st stqf'a8essed
aql Jo uotssa;8o.rd aq] Moqs o] ueld o] ra]]aq^eM
{lqeqord st }t ra^amoH
'r1e '3ur11as eq1{anuo: o} Jo asn all} uo ouo 'Mat^Jo lurod uo
^la8elut
qdelSered auo a]rJM 'aslno:;o 'uef, no1 'Surylnn unno ;no{ loptsuol o}
poau osle no{ 1nq 'e8essed aq} dn paplnlp aneq no{ pue seserqd/spronn
{a1;o 1sr1 e a^eLl no1'asuodsa; lno{;o arn}fnr}s aq} loptsuot o} paou
no{ {11e1ueu 'ue1d e lno o}uM o} auJt} a^eq }ou op no{;r uen3 ;[qry1
'asuodsa; lno{ ue16
'roqlo qlea o] palelar aq o] uraas qrlqM
saserqd pue spJom apol-rnolol o] t.lstnn {eu no1 'punole seepr {a>1 tno{
Sueq o1 saserqd ro splom 1n;Suruear.u ro pt^t^ '1n;lennod {1re1n:r1led
auros poau op no{ 1nq '3urq1{to^o }noqe o}uM }ouuet notr;{qry1
'(sproM
uones ro xrs ueq] ra8uol ou) saserqd pue sprom {a>1 1o lstl e aleli{
'qldop aures aq] ur - uorsnlluol aq] {1lenadse
- a8essed oq] lle q]t/v\ leop no{ }eql ornsua o} paou no{ 1nq }fel}xo ue
;o lred ]srU aq] ]noqe leualeu anrsserdur o]uM saleptpue: 'uegg ifqry1
'odessed
aq1;o lred q)eo o] uotlua]]e lenba enr8 ue: no{ }eq} os 'oo1 'suorltas
lenbe rno;'{ps'o1ut }tel}xa oq} }noqe o}u^ o} eneq no{ aut} aq} apl^l6
'srella>lrous pue sra^Ip roJ dlrl AEp
rq paqsllqelse
p.r, o',q 'equr'>tq!\ p"'ttllliilHliltl IBapr uB 'pue1s1 IUISq!\ InJIlnBaq Punor?
"q, uaaq seq earesaU auIrBIN e 'rln8undy'q-allsl) lV'sJJo
IIErus Jo slslSuos lrlrlslo elB^\) Jo puBlrelulq
alllral aql 'pue1u1 '>luarq da4 mo1 e ro;8uqoo1 dorp pue suapre8 lerol relnreloads qlr,rt 8uI^Ip sselr
sJalla^BJl JoJ IEaPI 'qJBag I^\IJ se qcns s'(e'neta8 plrol{ JeJJo sllt,^ Jaar reuul pue Jelno qlog 'surqdlop
puB salunl Bas 'qsg perrdul 'leJof q]I.&{ a IIB aJB SJeaJ
tarnb rallttus dueu seq osle lseoJ qlnos aql
'auISInJ put afIAJes'uollePouuolf,B aJoqs;Jo aql 'sezaarq eas altua8 qlllY\ urrB'&\ Pue
aslpBrBd IErnlEu slq] ,(ru1eq are stq8ru pue eulqsuns qll^L pellg e-rt sdeq
Jo sprBpuBls lsaq aql qll-,!l 'sralezrr Sutltrrul 'urleJ qll.&{ saqlBaq
dolua puu xBIaJ ol sJoIISIA -tlolle 'qfeag IUeIC punoJe
IBapI pat?arl a^eq sJaar
a.ttlralord aql 'sJaa'r Ierof,
pertuel 'suosar ssBIS plro AJo a8uer aprrlr y 'predoal
sralea astonbrnl
uale pu? sda>1uotu snqolor a:er'suooqeq Surpnput InJllneeq leeu uBalo uBIpuI aqlJo
eqr araq.&\'seqf,eaq pues arrq,l pa8ur'r; urlud;o
aJIIplll'r.Jo .{tarre,t pue aJIIprlq rgrlo:d qlI^{ slsaroJulsr
aql asrpe.red lecrdorl B sI Bssequol/rdJo lllnos auIIlsBof, aql
Ietseol uaarS qsnl dq pa;aproq ere seqreaq
;rsllaq op o1 pa€
nor( op leqa '<louJl :{sB}
las eql Je,v\sue o1 q8noua
tuapguof, 1aa3 nol. aleru
Suruueld rnod pPo11 r
lsaserqd
pue spro,tr, da1 q8noua
llalas ol alqu noI ara14 r
ipapuaruluolaJ
eraa ler{} ssarord aql 3o
syed aqt ge oP nod Prq t
'{sB} aql q}Irv\
qeap nod ilar"t' rnror{ alenlsla
'8utuue1d Pue SulPear
paqslug a,reg nod ueqM
'1sq ar{l ur sa8els
rar{lo aqtr - ssarord Suruueld
eql Jo lsar aql alalduroc
uagl'efl4v uI uolleurlseP
(;uotlJes }s-rg -rno,t e Sursrlra,tpe allsqaa 3 ruor;
r'toq aplla6 I lf€Jlxa ue sI 1I 'e3l/v\l lxe]
uo qder8ered auo allJ,^a noL 1y14) 'asuodsa.r ;nod qceo;dde 1pm nod
'r1a'asnTdll,tPllluls/trseJluoc o1 Sutprolle asaqlJo due >1ut1 Jo aPol-Jnolo3 T Surrvrolo; eqt peag 'ssarord
'sase.rqd ro sp;oru. La>1 -rnod 1sr1 I aql;o ged tsrs ar{t sI sIgI
'(tred qrea uo salnulur g1-71 sdeq'rad 'os) dllenba a'teq noL arull eql apl^lq I
'rno; suorllas pnba olur a8essed eq] apl^l6 r
Jo aatq] sdeqrad -
'allry\l lfEJlxa aq] pBad I
:ssarord slq] o] paau 1pr* nod'Jaqrueruad
^\olloJ
'atruay Jtst^ ol srapaa.t apanstad ol
poryxa 3uruo11o! aql w pasn aw a1trp pua a&an7ual tptt4fti ut stram aql uo luawLuoJ
'1r qceordde PFo'^
aJB nol '8ut1ur* aql
no.( rrroq ]noqe sI slql dreluaruruol eql ellJlvr o] Suro8 1ou
Joc 'asuodsa't
pue ueld aql JoJ salnulur 97 a^BI{ nod'aJl}fe.ld s1qlJo sasod'rnd al{l
rnod ueld o1 paau pue 1se1 8ur,u.o11oJ eql ua^I8 uaaq aABq nod aut8erul
'sploJun
JaMsuB Jnod sB dlrlqrxag auros roJ spro,/vr qlns .lteJlxa aql inoqe eur,&\
^r.olle (pMorl oq] pu? roluM oql aleq
pue dpnls no,( a;otu aql no.( ol rareap auoJaq leq] sgulr{lJo aJB^4,e aq tou deu
- srallereql luoioJJtp uooMloq
no.{'.ra.,usue;nod ur8aq no,( sy 'pasn L11n;aret arc snadda pue sruaas se qrns ro :Jl0SLU q ral lM oql oroq
spro^r - uorlulardralul paxg pu? Ieug auo 3ur-lago;o de:1 aql olul IIBJ lou saop u I ,ollerey) P urrr.llM roqtre) se:e1d
ro srelf?i?ql ut slselluol s?
luaudola,rap Jo ?:c1r.{t.lsJ Jo uos auros JoJ slool ll I qrns'sBur ql uooMloq soluareJJr p
lrerlxa aJllua eql Jo uorlelard;a1ur/^\arlrelo ue raJo ol sarrl
lr r ro soltsoooo lselluotr
dSolourru;ra1 crlsrn8url L.ressarauun ro suorlelonb due asn lou seoplI I
sarlrlrqrssocl rarllo u^4.op
asoll lou saop qcrq,u. dervr 1e;aua8 e ur os saop ll asodrnd lnoqe qlel lr arerlM r
Euol saurl a u ol rnoJ -Jarrq sr 1r r
. :asneJaq IIa^{. s{ro { srql
'la^al leluou.l pue leltlleld e Llloq uo uotlenlts stq q}!M sulal ol auol
o1 se133n.r1s aq'11nsal B sV'pmoll aqllo suotlou:a uotle pue 3ur1se:iuot
aqt lsure8e osle ]nq aluansuof un^o srq lsure8e Surlq8r; aq o1 Iluo 1ou
:eadde lueqdala aql rol s8urlaa; stH 'ut jlasutr.l spulj all plrom ar1] ul
a:e1d;o lno aq o] sweas aq 'lanonnog 'ansua ]eq1 slua^a aql Jo osuas
aleu ol 3urd.r1 uaql pue 3ur11as aql Sulqsllqelse '.rapro 1e:r3o1ouo.rq:
{1peo:q ut }unofle p:enn:o;lq8rel}s '}faltp e sanrB ra}tJM aql
'6 aBed
uo a8essed IIe \rO aql uo paseq d;eluaruruor aql ol uorllnpoJlur srql peeg
^{eu
'uorllnporlur rnod adeqs dlaq uer
pue a8essed aqlJo uorlelard-ra1ur IIeraAo rno,( adeqs dlaq lprn Suruueld ueq,lt lfelas
nod saserqd pue spro,\r aq1 'arard aq]3o srs.{1eue aql sadeqs qfrq,^t uor}lnporlur
sIrD ul peurllno IJo,{\arue4 ar{} sl ll
'paqsrlqe}sa sr Iro^raue{ ro,^4.ar^Ja^o uB
leql os a8essed eql ol uolllnporlurJarJq e qll^{ ur8aq plnoqs asuodsa; rnotr
Jleslr ^Jeluaruurol B qll.4,\
Ieap ol arurJ sr 1r 'drelueruuror rno,( ro3 ueld ol ,tl.oq peraprsuor a,r.eq'nod leql ,,r,t.oN
sa!leluauuol o] suotlf npoJlul
'uorlJas srr{lJo lser
eq] uI slllls ar{} uo pe{ro,4{ a,r.eq noL rage a8essed eq} ol {Jeq aruoc ',(1a,r.r1eura}lv
'pelaldruoc nod ssaoo,rd aql uo paseq d;eluauruJor arll alrJ.tt ,o1 qsr,u nod;1
a)!13ers raElJnj
'lauuBr{3 equad
aqlJo sJale,r\ aql ur Surqsg eue8 8rq roJ eseq luellerxa
pleog 1sunol e{uay
uB osle sr ruourr{S 'sra;o1dxa pue sJolrES.&\oLIC roJ
'roJ qsr,r\ plnor no.{ Sulqtdra,ta a8n;ar B sB pesn 3uo1 a-ra,rt saABJ asaqt 'd11err-rolsr11
sBtI lseoJ qtnos s.eduay 'aceed pug pue purl\un ol 'sa18un{ aql olur daap o1 eas aql ruo4 rlrtarls terll
aJaql\auos 1sn[:o 'uor8at Surteunses srql a:o1dxa selel IEtsBoJ snor.rats,tur 'daap;o sJrJJs E ot euroq sr
,(la,trtce ot aseq e
3ur1oo1 a-re nod :eqtaq11
"rog ruorurr{S Jo a8ellr.L Burqsg IIEnrs eqt (qlnos reqlrnd
x it does not focus on audience - as this is not something referred to in the
You may wish to refer to
original task.
this example as you write The introduction works particurarly well because
rntroductions in response to the introduction 'sets up'what the
commentary might focus on:
other extracts in the book
x the sense of cultural contexts meeting (being out
of place in the worrd the writer
finds himself in)
E his relationships in the extract (with the elephant and
with the crowd).
Write your own introduction
to the commentary on the Different types of introduction
Kenya tourism passage on The focus you choose for your introduction can reflect
the focus ofvour
page 14. You can keep it commentary
and then have another go Read two more introductions to commentaries on
the orwelr passage:
once you have completed
more work on writing
introductions.
A The writer seems to exptore the contrasting attitudes
of the po{ice
officer. Initiaily, the officer seems aware that he has a job
to do,
although there is some reluctance on his part to do so.
However, as
the extract develops, this undertying reluctance seems
to grow in
strength and undeimine his professionar approach to the
situation
and eat away at his very conscience.

ln the extract the writer seems to begin with a negative


and
almost hostile attitude towards the task he has been given.
He
appears to be at war with himself mentally, his instincts
batttine
his conscientious sense of duty as a police officer. As
the purruf"
develops this struggle becomes even more intense and
the officer
views the experience with increasing horror and revulsion,
with a
sense of disbetief at what he has seen and done.

TIP
You can use conjunctions or
Which of these two introductions:
adverbials such as However,
os ... develops, etc. to signal F suggests the shooting an Elephant passage develops
and becomes more and
your use of contrasting or more powerful in terms of the feerings experienced by
the writer?
additionaI ideas. They can
atso guide how you divide
x suggests there is a marked contrast between the writer/oficer's
feelings at
your commentary. For the start and at the end?
example, in Introduction
A, however could signal
the second part ofthe 5ummary
commentary.
Remember these key points from this section:

u Plan your response to the passage in the methodical way


you have learned.
n Select words and phrases from the passage which will help to shape your
response.
a write an introduction which uses its focus to help set the framework for the
commentary.
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$ummary
Remember these key points from this section:

x Highlight or list key words or phrases with a view to the mood, perspective,
tone and changing effects across the text.
r Use the point/quotation/comment approach but in a way that allows for fluent
expression.
a Always comment on the effect of particular words or phrases.
s Use a range of expressions (such as suggest, apPears /o) or modal forms (might,
could, etc.) to make what you say suggestive rather than definitive.

TVPES SF NST{*FICTION TEXT


Reading or encountering a wide variety of different forms and types of text is vital.
Only by familiarising yourself with the individual styles of different writers will
you be able to deal with an unfamiliar text you are encountering for the first time.
As you have already seen, you will come across a range of non-fiction texts,
some of which will share features with aspects of fiction writing.

Des*niptlve writing
In this section, you will:
a consider what descriptive writing is
x read a range of passages which contain descriptive writing
m explore a range of features which are typical of much descriptive writing.

Descriptive writing is a 'catch-all' term that seems to encompass many forms


and types of text. You may see descriptive writing in newspaper reports and in
imaginative narratives, but what are the shared conventions and features you
should look out for? Here are some possibilities:
Descript ive writi ng oft en:

s tries to createvery particular or vivid mood or atmosphere


a

n conveys a strong sense ofindividual settings, people, events or experiences


* focuses in on detail but can also 'zoom out' to over-views or panoramas
x draws on a range ofsensory experiences, such as taste, sight, sound, touch and
smell.

Examples of descriptive writing might include:

u an account ofan incident from an expedition across the Antarctic


s an advert for a city and its key attractions on a tourist website
n a diary entry describing attendance at a World Cup match
x a biographical account of a historical event such as the eruptions at Pompeii.

x a newspaper report of a natural disaster such as a tsunami


u a fictional description of a memorable character.

!ntroducing key aspects of descriptive writing


The following passage exemplifies many of the language techniques and elements
we might expect to see in descriptive writing.