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2012 International Conference on Computing, Electronics and Electrical Technologies [ICCEET]

Generalized Procedure for BLDC Motor

Design and Substantiation in
MagNet 7.1.1 Software
Carunaiselvane.C S.Jeevananthan
Department of Electrical and Electronics Engineering Department of Electrical and Electronics Engineering
Pondicherry Engineering College Pondicherry Engineering College
Puducherry, India-605014 Puducherry, India-605014
Email: Email:

Abstract- In this paper, a generalized procedure for

KjiU- Slot fill factor
designing a Permanent Magnet Brushless DC motor
(PMBLDCM) based on design equations is presented. L - Active length of the motor in mm
The formulated algorithm can provide a design It - Length of a tum in m
solution either dependent variables or independent
variables are available. A step by step procedure of NPh - Number of phases
the design validation and analysis using the MagNet
ns - Total number of turns in a slot
7.1.1 software is illustrated. The main attention is
dedicated to exploit the MagNet 7.1.1 software as a N,- Number of slots
teaching material to enable the fundamental design of
p -Number of pole pairs
PMBLDCM with interactive screen shots. The design
equations and results such as Projected 3D views,
P - Number of poles
Flux patterns and Cogging torque are presented for �()SS cu - Copper loss in Watts
27 slots, 8 pole and O.7SkW PMBLDCM.
�oss core - Core loss in Watts
0rs-Flux in one slot pitch in Wb

Ae - Cross-sectional area of a conductor in mm 0t- Flux in tooth in Wb

Aeu - Area of copper conductor in a slot in m2 Peu - Resistivity of a copper in Ohms-cm
Bg - Air gap flux density in the middle120° of a Rph - Resistance of a phase in Ohms

pole in Wb/m2 Rro - Rotor outer radius in mm

Brnax - Maximum flux density in Wb/m2 �i - Stator inner radius in mm
� - Diameter of a conductor in mm Rso - Stator outer radius in mm
Deu - Density of copper in Kg/m3 � - Resistance of a tum in Ohms
ds -Slot depth in mm spp -Slots/pole/phase

Dsteel - Density of steel in Kg/m3 t'e - Coil pitch

Eb - Back emf of the motor in Volts t's - Slot pitch

V -Linear velocity of the rotor in m/sec
Ee -Emf induced per conductor in Volts
Vcu- Volume of copper in m3
E;-Emf induced in a tum in Volts
v"otor- Volume of rotor in m3
g - Air gap in mm

Ie - Current through a conductor in Amps

v'tator -Volume of stator in m3
Wbi - Back iron length in mm
Iphase - Phase current in Amps

Is - Current from DC source in Amps �u - Weight of copper in Kg

J - Maximum current density in Amps/m2 OJm- Angular velocity of the rotor in mlsec

978-1-4673-021O-4112/$3l.00 ©2012 IEEE 18

2012 International Conference on Computing, Electronics and Electrical Technologies [ICCEET]

Wmotor� Weight of motor in Kg introduced. At last, a numerical solution solved

with MagNet 3D is presented to verity the validity
� tatorlrotor � Weight of stator/rotor in Kg of this method.. In 2008, Kwang-Kyu Han et al
have designed a rotor and notch to improve the
W sbl st � Bottom/top slot width in mm Operation Characteristics in Spoke type BLDCM
[4]. The air gap distance has been changed to
vt; � Tooth width in mm
achieve a sinusoidal wave of the flux density on
air-gap and additionly a notch was installed on
1. INTRODUCTION stator for better operation characteristic. They have
maintained the operating torque as maximum and
Brushed DC motors have been in commercial use the ripple of operating torque has decreased greatly
since 1886. Brushless DC motors, however, have compared the basic model. Using MagNet software
only been commercially possible since 1962. Some the cogging torque analysis have been performed
advantages of this machine can be listed as their and found it was reduced to 0.14 Nm from 0.42
high performance, higher value of torque per Nm. Recently in 2011 R.P. Praveen et al have
volume, capability at high speed applications, proposed a design procedure for an optimal surface
electronic driven commutation etc [1]-[2]. These mounted PMBLDC motor for Spacecraft
advantages, combined with the programmed applications [5]. For a spacecraft application the
control have made them very attractive candidates motor should be highly efficient with small size.
for various domestic and industrial applications [5]. They justified this by achieving zero cogging for
In recent years, Permanent-magnet BLDC motors their model. Performances of two types of machine
(PMBLDCM) have wide usage areas such as home configurations viz Slotted PMBLDC and Slotless
appliance: washers, dryers; in automotive: fans, PMBLDC with Halbach array are compared with
pumps and blowers etc. Increase in their demand the help of analytical and finite element ( FE)
made many manufacturers around world-wide to methods and finally it has been reviewed the
focus on BLDC motor [9-12]. This special motor results using MagNet software [6-8]. Based on the
brands with different design variations, depending insightful investigation of the BLDC machine
upon the specific application and requirements geometry, so far many authors have proposed
unlike its counterparts (Induction motor, various design variations to improve the
synchronous motor etc), which are having standard performance of the motor [5-6].
common design and done in mass production. The
design variations are in terms of silhouette changes The witty solutions archived in literature are
of slots, rotor magnets etc or utilization of different undoubtedly triumph first step in achieving the
magnet grades. The only viable way of goal. While critical evaluation of them through
substantiation of rough design variation is through simulated comparison can bring them to next level
simulation tools like MagNet [6-8], RMxprt™ etc. and further induce newer design suggestions.
Hence this study takes of following objectives of
To design any machine it is necessary to know the providing a clear step by step general design
physical meaning of all the dimensions of that procedure for designing a PMBLDC motor. The
machine. In such way the text book on "Brushless MagNet 7.1.1 is powerful tool where one can
Permanent-Magnet Motor Design" by design a motor and perform 2D and 3D models for
D.Hanselman provides the complete physical magneto static, time harmonic, transient or
meaning about all dimensions of a PMBLDCM and transient with motion analysis with reasonably
"Brushless Permanent-Magnet Motor Design" by good degree of accuracy. A step by step
R.Hendershot Jr. and TJE Miller provides the methodology to use this software for designing a
methodology as well as the constrains to design a PMBLDC motor and how to perform the analysis is
PMBLDCM. Many authors have proposed design also studied in this paper.
procedure for some specialized applications. In the
year 2003, Bin Zhang et al have proposed a design II. STRUCTURE OF BLOC MOTOR
methodology to reduce cogging torque by The construction of modem brushless motors is
combining teeth notching and rotor magnets very similar to the ac motor, known as the
skewing technique in PMBLDC with concentrated permanent magnet synchronous motor. The stator
windings [3]. Skewing technique has been used to windings are similar to those in a polyphase ac
reduce the cogging torque of PMBLDC with motor, and the rotor is composed of one or more
concentrated windings by combining teeth notching permanent magnets. Brushless dc motors are
and rotor magnets skewing. For motors with different from ac synchronous motors in that the
concentrated windings, the method of reducing former incorporates some means to detect the rotor
cogging torque by skewing rotor magnets is not position (or magnetic poles) to produce signals to
quite available because of the large slot pitch. Then control the electronic switches. The most common
the method of teeth notching has also been

2012 International Conference on Computing, Electronics and Electrical Technologies [ICCEET]

position/pole sensor is the Hall element, but some Slot width bottom, wsb : The distance between start
motors use optical sensors.
point and end point of the slot opening at the
A. Dimensions ofBLDC motor
Tooth width, W,t: The total width of the stator
Back iron length, wt : The linear distance between
Stator outer
diameter the stator outer circumference and the stator inner
Slot depth, d, : The maximum distance between the
mid-point of the start point and the mid-point end
point of the slot teeth.


'------+ Gap

In design process, the independent or "input"

Fig. I Key dimensions of BLDC motor variables are usually dimensions, winding turns and
properties of magnet material whereas the
The key dimensions of a BLDC motor are defined dependent variables (output variables) are usually
as follows: performance figures such as torque, current,
Stator outer diameter: The maximum distance efficiency, temperature rise etc. In fact, many more
between the center of the motor and the stator independent variables involved in the design
outer circumference is called the stator outer radius. process and most of them are assigned their values
Twice the stator outer radius is the stator outer by reiteration. That is, the design engineers have to
diameter. make certain assumptions, assigning trial values to
Stator inner diameter: The maximum distance independent variables and calculating the
between the center of the motor and the stator dependent values. If the performance is not
inner circumference is called the stator inner radius. satisfactory, the process continues until the desired
Twice the stator inner radius is the stator inner performance is achieved. Another method to design
diameter. is, the dependent variables are fixed and
Rotor outer diameter: The maximum distance accordingly the independent variables are derived
between the center of the motor and the rotor outer with the help of equations.
circumference is called the rotor outer radius. In this section, a generalized procedure for
Twice the rotor outer radius is the rotor outer designing a PMBLDCM, either having the
diameter. dependent variables or arriving the independent
Rotor inner diameter: The maximum distance variables or vice versa is proposed. Before a BLDC
between the center of the motor and the rotor inner motor design can begin, several important
circumference is called the rotor inner radius. decisions must be made regarding the features of
Twice the rotor inner radius is the rotor inner different types of brushless motors and the
diameter. availability of different magnetic materials .A step
Magnet thickness: The maximum distance between by step procedure is provided as a flow chart in
the mid-point of the top of the magnet and the mid­ Fig.3.
point of the bottom of the magnet.
Air gap: Gap between the rotor outer IV. DESIGN EQUATIONS
circumference and the stator inner circumference.
A. Torque Expression ofBLDC motor
B. Stator slot dimensions Force on a current carrying conductor in a
magnetic field is given by,
F=lLxB (1)
where,L is length of the conductor, B is magnetic
flux density, and I is current through the conductor.
The magnitude of the force is
F=BILsinB (2)
where Bis the angle between L and B.

Fig. 2 Stator slot dimensions

Slot width top, wst: The distance between start

point and end point of the slot opening at the top.

2012 International Conference on Computing, Electronics and Electrical Technologies [ICCEET]

Determine aplication requirements

The 3 phase inverter is operated in 1200
conduction mode i.e. two phase carry current at any
given time. Thus the total torque developed by the
I nterior-rotor, exterior rotor, or axial-gap
motor wiJ] be
Select magnet Grade In this design, the coils of same phase are
connected in series. Also 1200 conduction mode are
Select number of Poles used.

Select number of Stator slots and phases

Perform rough sizing estimate B. Back EMF Expression ofBLDe motor

In the same manner the back emf can be
Select air gap length and determine calculated as torque expression of the motor:
magnetic Loading Emf in one conductor, Ee =Bg Lv
Design rotor and determine flux/pole
Emf in one conductor, Ec = Bg Lwm R.
(12) .'II

Emf in one tum, Et =2Bg Lw R.

Lay out stator lamination dimensions (13) m Sl

Emf in one coil, Eco/., =2Bg Ln.0 wm R..01

Solve for number of conductors and Emf in one phase, E hase = P Bg Lns wm R'i
turn/coil p (15)
Back emf of the motor, Eb =2PBg Ln.0 wm R..01
Calculate wire size, resistance and
inductance/phase Eb is the back emf seen by the DC voltage source.

Calculate the performance C. Stator Winding design

The conductor wire gauge will be decided by
Check temperture rise, current density, flux the maximum current density.
densities, demagnetization of magnet
Ae Ie '. ... De 2 fA:
J V-;-
= =

Modify design and reiterate until-­

oblectives met Actually RMS value i.e. I fi should have been
Fig.3 Flow chart for design procedure

The BLOC motor works on same principle as
used. However, Ie is taken leading to a
a DC motor i.e. armature current and magnetic field conservative design. Now using standard wire
are kept orthogonal to each other in space( B=900 gauge (SWG) table select a gauge with next higher
). Thus the force on one conductor in the BLDC diameter (De *) than what has obtained.
motor is given by,
.A -
... - ns xA -
c ,
- ns xA *
ell ell c

(3) (18)
:. Torque on a conductor is given by, Aeu is area of copper in a slot. Now approximate
r: = B/c LR,;
(4) overhang length is calculated. It is assumed that
A tum consists of 2 conductors, one above winding overhang is equal to coil pitch.
north pole and other above south. Therefore torque 1 1
Ie 2n:(R" +"2d,) p
on one tum is

:. Torque on a coil with turns n s is given by,
D. Stator Slot Design
(6) It is considered that uniform tooth and
Each pole pair has to have all 3 phase coils. approximate the slot area as a trapezoid as shown
Therefore total number of coils per phase is equal in Fig 2.
to no. of pole pairs. A full pitch winding (SPP=I ) The slot area can be calculated as follows
is used to get square mmf wave. Aeu
:. Torque per phase is given by, AS =

2012 International Conference on Computing, Electronics and Electrical Technologies [ICCEET]

The slot fill factor takes care of insulation in �oss = 21s 2 Rph
the slot as well as all the approximations that are
made while choosing slot area as trapezoid. Using Core loss:
this area the various dimensions shown in Fig I and As compared to copper losses, core losses
Fig 2 can be calculated as follows: are very difficult to calculate as they consist of
hysteresis and eddy current losses which vary
(22) nonlinearly with frequency and magnetic flux
2JrRSI . density. Fortunately manufacturers provide
r • S 1 ot PItch (23)
S '
= __

Ns coreloss/kg data of the steel at various values of

Tooth has to carry all the flux in the slot pitch, flux density and frequency which we can use to
approximately calculate the core losses. Core losses
i.e. 0,s =0I =>rsLBg = wLB I max (24) occur only in stator.

. w ---
B, �ossJore =coreloss / kg(fe,Bmax)xw'la,or
t - � r·w - s -wt
s' sb-r
• •

The area of the trapezoid is the slot area.
.'. A, = "2 (WSI + wsb) xd,
(26) MagNet is the most advanced package
2Jr(Rs i + ds) (27) currently available for modeling electromagnetic

,,- NS devices on a personal computer. It provides a
"virtual laboratory" in which the user can create
Substitute Wst in As and solve the quadratic models from magnetic materials and coils, view
equation obtained to get "ds "and "Wst ".The displays in the form of field plots and graphs, and
get numerical values for quantities such as flux
maximum flux that the stator back iron has to carry
linkage and force. A MagNet user needs only an
is half the pole flux.
elementary knowledge of magnetic concepts to
1 2JrR. B JrR
LB =wLB b �wb =_g si model existing devices, modify designs, and test
g l max i B
." ___

2 P P max
new ideas.
MagNet is designed as a full 3D-modeling
(28) tool for solving static magnetic field and eddy­
Actually pole flux density profile is
current problems. Many devices can be represented
trapezoidal in nature. Here it is assumed to be same
very well by 20 models, so MagNet offers the
all along the pole pitch.
option of 20 modeling, with a substantial saving in
(29) computing resources and solution time. With 2D
This fixes all the dimensions of the machine. Now models, MagNet can also handle problems with
the weight of the motor is calculated. automated design optimization and provides
Rotor: thermal simulations and vibration analysis in
- ltL1)�o 2L
Vrotor - (30)
A. Modelingflow chart
w"Olor = D"ee' X Vro1or (31)
Step 1

This includes shaft and PM weight approximately

Step 2
-E Set the space
Oraw the geometry
Sweep the components

W.IJlQlOr = DSleel X V."lalOr (33) Step3

---c ;���: ���._�=��c��.
Apply the "Make Simple Coil"

Windings: Edit the co� propertlllS

�:u = Nphpn,l,Ac (34) Step 4

----c: Oraw and $wetp an iii, bOil that surrounds
the model

'--••..•.••..• � Apply boundary conditions 10 SlJrfaces

WCll = Dcu xVrotor ----c: Modify the mesh edge subdNisions
Step 5
Overall weight: Modify the element edge ren�lh

Wmo1or = Wro1or + w'lalor + �1I

This is an approximate value and weight of the
St.p 6 8 ----c I

Solve defaults
Clloose the sower options (Ot accepllhe

Choose the adaptioll op'ions (opliona�

frame is not considered.
Step 7
-E View field pl ols
VieW and graph glob ! qUilAUiiS
Ind field lnir�ultions

"--"==--� Ir required, you can

rn.nipulal� fields using I� CAlculafor.
Plobe field values.

E. Calculation of losses
Copper losses: Fig.S Flowchart for modeling in MagNet 7.1.1 [ 13]

Rt -
- P _ I • R - pns Rf
cll *' ph- B. Design steps
As 2 phases carry current at any given time,

2012 International Conference on Computing, Electronics and Electrical Technologies [ICCEET]

The BLDC motor with 27 slots and 8 poles which fixed to the component and the necessary materials
is to be designed is shown in Fig.6 with complete are filled in the component as shown in Fig.lD.
dimensions and its design parameters are listed out Similarly all the components are constructed.
in Table.1. All dimensions shown in Fig.6 are in
millimeters (mm).

Table . I·. Parameters of the BLOC

Stator Outer Diameter 62mm
Stator Yoke 2mm
Stator Teeth Height 12.5mm
Rotor Outer Diameter 34.5mm
Rotor Inner Diameter 12mm
Magnet Area IOmm

'" 10

/A:v----+... ,."'"'

12 00 62(0

Fig.6 Complete geometric model of BLOC

J) Open a new model

Clicking open the MagNet 7.1.1 software, go
to File and open a new file as shown in Fig.7.

2) Build the geometry model '" n

For building the geometry, go to Tools and - .-

- ,�

select your input as "keyboard input bar" as shown

in Fig.7 where the units of the dimensions say
millimeter, centimeter, meter, etc. is selected. Now
the required geometry is drawn using the
corresponding tools. For example, using the circle
tool a circle of radius 31mm is drawn as shown in

Fig.IO Filling material

3) Create coils
Coils are then created by using Model tool and
"Make a simple coil" option as shown in Fig. I O.
The parameters of the coil are then set as shown in
Fig. I I .

a geometry

Similarly the entire model is drawn as shown in

Fig.8. Then the geometry is made as different
components as shown in Fig. 9. The parameters are

2012 International Conference on Computing, Electronics and Electrical Technologies [ICCEET]

Fig. I 0 Creating coils Fig.13 Result

C. Various Analysis

Analysis are performed by changing the rotor

positions shown in Fig.14.All the rotating
components selected and rotated to necessary
degree as shown in Fig.l5.

Fig.11 Fixing parameters for coils

4) Solve
The solving adaptation is done automatically
using "Solve" tools and "Static 2D" option as
shown in 12.
Fig.14 Changing rotor position
l" ... c.:at>-___ o...o: __ ,.... ___ ...

Fig.12 Solving option

Fig. 15 Changing the angle of rotor
5) View the solution results
Fig.13 shows the result page where many datas D.Design overview
say Energy, Torque, Flux Linkages, Ohmic loss, The overall view of the constructed
Iron losses can be viewed. PMBLDCM is shown in Fig.23 (a) sand (b).

2012 International Conference on Computing, Electronics and Electrical Technologies [ICCEET]


A generalised procedure for designing a Permanent

Magnet Brushless DC (PMBLDC) motor is
proposed in this paper. The dependent variable and
the arrival of independent variablesor vice versa
arepossible inthe proposed procedure. This paper
gives the combination of both the techniques.
A step by step procedure of designing and
(a) (b) analyzing a PMBLDC motor using the MagNet
7.1.1 software is shown. The possible analysis in
Fig.23 (a) Side view, (b) Coil connected MagNet 7.1.1 has been shown. The result has been
discussed in such a way that it is possible to
VI. RESULTS improve the teaching-learning methods in this field
with interactive screens. The MagNet 7.1.1 models
Fluxflow of basic PMBLDC motor is developed and
The flux flow pattern of the designed performance waveforms are obtained. It is evident
PMBLDCM is shown in Fig.24. that the developed tool will help a UG level of
Shaded Plot
understanding and performance predictions of
PMBLDC motors.

I ;�

[ I] D. Hanselman, Brushless Permanent-Magnet Motor Design.

McGraw-Hill, 1994..
[2] R.Hendershot Jr. and TJE Miller, Design of Brushless
Permanent-Magnet Motor. Magna Physics Publications &
Clarendon Press, 1994, Oxford.
[3] Bin Zhang, Xiuhe Wang, Ran Zhang, Xiaolei Mou*
M. Ehsan 'Cogging Torque Reduction by Combining
Teeth Notching and Rotor Magnets Skewing in PM
BLDC with Concentrated Windings" IEEE
Transaction on Electrical machines and systems,(IC
EMS),03 VoU pp. 3 189 - 3 192 .Feb.2009
[4] Kwang-Kyu Han Dong-Yeup Lee Gyu-Hong Kang Ki-
Fig.24 Flux yattern Bong Jang Heung-Kyo Shin Gyu-Tak Kim
Dept. of Electr. Eng., Changwon Nat. Univ, Changwon
"The design of rotor and notch to improve the operation
B. Cogging Torque characteristics in spoke type BLDC motor" IEEE
The rotor is rotated from 0 to 360 degrees Transaction on Electrical Machines and Systems(ICEMS).

andcogging torque is measured at each position. pp. 3121-3125. Feb. 2009

[5] R.P. Praveen, M.H. Ravichandran, V.T. SadasivanAchari,
Cogging torque of electrical motors is the torque Dr. v.P. Jagathy Raj, Dr. G. Madhu, Dr. G.R. Bindu, and
due to the interaction between the permanent Dr. F. Dubas" Optimal Design of a Surface Mounted
Permanent-Magnet BLDC Motor for Spacecraft
magnets of the rotor and the stator slots of a Applications"IEEE Transaction on Emerging Trends in
Permanent Magnet (PM) machineIt is especially Electrical and Computer Technology (ICETECT). pp 413 -
419. May 2011
prominent at lower speeds, with the symptom of
[6] Y. Diinmezer and L.T. Ergene Informatics Institute, Istanbul
jerkiness. A waveform is plotted between the rotor Technical University, Istanbul, Turkey. "Cogging Torque

position vs cogging torque as shown Fig.25. Analysis of Interior-Type Permanent-Magnet Brushless DC

Motor Used in Washers", ELECTROMOTION 2009 - EPE
Chapter 'Electric Drives' Joint Symposium, 1-3 July 2009,
Cogging Torque Lille, France..
0.6 [7] PiotrBogusz, MariuszKorkosz& Jan Prokop" A Study of
Design Process of BLDC Motor for Aircraft Hybrid Drive"
0.4 IEEE Transaction on Industrial Electronics (ISlE). pp. 508
-513. June 2011
0.2 [8] G. Lacombe I, A. Foggial, Y. Marechall, X. Brunotte2,
and P. Wendling3 USA "From General Finite-Element
o Simulation Software to Engineering-Focused Software:
Example for Brushless Permanent Magnet Motors
43, NO. 4, APRIL 2007.
- 0 .4 [9] URL - http://www.tedmotors.comlbrushless-dc-motor.htm
[ 10] URL -
Fig.25 Rotor position Vs Cogging torque waveform [ 1 1] URL - http://www.gennextcontrol.netlgear-motors.html
[ 12] URL - http://www.anshumantech.netl
[ 13] URL -