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Design and Substantiation in

MagNet 7.1.1 Software

Carunaiselvane.C S.Jeevananthan

Department of Electrical and Electronics Engineering Department of Electrical and Electronics Engineering

Pondicherry Engineering College Pondicherry Engineering College

Puducherry, India-605014 Puducherry, India-605014

Email: carunaiselvane@gmail.com Email: drsLeee@pec.edu

KjiU- Slot fill factor

designing a Permanent Magnet Brushless DC motor

(PMBLDCM) based on design equations is presented. L - Active length of the motor in mm

The formulated algorithm can provide a design It - Length of a tum in m

solution either dependent variables or independent

variables are available. A step by step procedure of NPh - Number of phases

the design validation and analysis using the MagNet

ns - Total number of turns in a slot

7.1.1 software is illustrated. The main attention is

dedicated to exploit the MagNet 7.1.1 software as a N,- Number of slots

teaching material to enable the fundamental design of

p -Number of pole pairs

PMBLDCM with interactive screen shots. The design

equations and results such as Projected 3D views,

P - Number of poles

Flux patterns and Cogging torque are presented for �()SS cu - Copper loss in Watts

27 slots, 8 pole and O.7SkW PMBLDCM.

�oss core - Core loss in Watts

Nomenclature

0rs-Flux in one slot pitch in Wb

Aeu - Area of copper conductor in a slot in m2 Peu - Resistivity of a copper in Ohms-cm

Bg - Air gap flux density in the middle120° of a Rph - Resistance of a phase in Ohms

Brnax - Maximum flux density in Wb/m2 �i - Stator inner radius in mm

� - Diameter of a conductor in mm Rso - Stator outer radius in mm

Deu - Density of copper in Kg/m3 � - Resistance of a tum in Ohms

ds -Slot depth in mm spp -Slots/pole/phase

V -Linear velocity of the rotor in m/sec

Ee -Emf induced per conductor in Volts

Vcu- Volume of copper in m3

E;-Emf induced in a tum in Volts

v"otor- Volume of rotor in m3

g - Air gap in mm

v'tator -Volume of stator in m3

Wbi - Back iron length in mm

Iphase - Phase current in Amps

J - Maximum current density in Amps/m2 OJm- Angular velocity of the rotor in mlsec

2012 International Conference on Computing, Electronics and Electrical Technologies [ICCEET]

with MagNet 3D is presented to verity the validity

� tatorlrotor � Weight of stator/rotor in Kg of this method.. In 2008, Kwang-Kyu Han et al

have designed a rotor and notch to improve the

W sbl st � Bottom/top slot width in mm Operation Characteristics in Spoke type BLDCM

[4]. The air gap distance has been changed to

vt; � Tooth width in mm

achieve a sinusoidal wave of the flux density on

air-gap and additionly a notch was installed on

1. INTRODUCTION stator for better operation characteristic. They have

maintained the operating torque as maximum and

Brushed DC motors have been in commercial use the ripple of operating torque has decreased greatly

since 1886. Brushless DC motors, however, have compared the basic model. Using MagNet software

only been commercially possible since 1962. Some the cogging torque analysis have been performed

advantages of this machine can be listed as their and found it was reduced to 0.14 Nm from 0.42

high performance, higher value of torque per Nm. Recently in 2011 R.P. Praveen et al have

volume, capability at high speed applications, proposed a design procedure for an optimal surface

electronic driven commutation etc [1]-[2]. These mounted PMBLDC motor for Spacecraft

advantages, combined with the programmed applications [5]. For a spacecraft application the

control have made them very attractive candidates motor should be highly efficient with small size.

for various domestic and industrial applications [5]. They justified this by achieving zero cogging for

In recent years, Permanent-magnet BLDC motors their model. Performances of two types of machine

(PMBLDCM) have wide usage areas such as home configurations viz Slotted PMBLDC and Slotless

appliance: washers, dryers; in automotive: fans, PMBLDC with Halbach array are compared with

pumps and blowers etc. Increase in their demand the help of analytical and finite element ( FE)

made many manufacturers around world-wide to methods and finally it has been reviewed the

focus on BLDC motor [9-12]. This special motor results using MagNet software [6-8]. Based on the

brands with different design variations, depending insightful investigation of the BLDC machine

upon the specific application and requirements geometry, so far many authors have proposed

unlike its counterparts (Induction motor, various design variations to improve the

synchronous motor etc), which are having standard performance of the motor [5-6].

common design and done in mass production. The

design variations are in terms of silhouette changes The witty solutions archived in literature are

of slots, rotor magnets etc or utilization of different undoubtedly triumph first step in achieving the

magnet grades. The only viable way of goal. While critical evaluation of them through

substantiation of rough design variation is through simulated comparison can bring them to next level

simulation tools like MagNet [6-8], RMxprt™ etc. and further induce newer design suggestions.

Hence this study takes of following objectives of

To design any machine it is necessary to know the providing a clear step by step general design

physical meaning of all the dimensions of that procedure for designing a PMBLDC motor. The

machine. In such way the text book on "Brushless MagNet 7.1.1 is powerful tool where one can

Permanent-Magnet Motor Design" by design a motor and perform 2D and 3D models for

D.Hanselman provides the complete physical magneto static, time harmonic, transient or

meaning about all dimensions of a PMBLDCM and transient with motion analysis with reasonably

"Brushless Permanent-Magnet Motor Design" by good degree of accuracy. A step by step

R.Hendershot Jr. and TJE Miller provides the methodology to use this software for designing a

methodology as well as the constrains to design a PMBLDC motor and how to perform the analysis is

PMBLDCM. Many authors have proposed design also studied in this paper.

procedure for some specialized applications. In the

year 2003, Bin Zhang et al have proposed a design II. STRUCTURE OF BLOC MOTOR

methodology to reduce cogging torque by The construction of modem brushless motors is

combining teeth notching and rotor magnets very similar to the ac motor, known as the

skewing technique in PMBLDC with concentrated permanent magnet synchronous motor. The stator

windings [3]. Skewing technique has been used to windings are similar to those in a polyphase ac

reduce the cogging torque of PMBLDC with motor, and the rotor is composed of one or more

concentrated windings by combining teeth notching permanent magnets. Brushless dc motors are

and rotor magnets skewing. For motors with different from ac synchronous motors in that the

concentrated windings, the method of reducing former incorporates some means to detect the rotor

cogging torque by skewing rotor magnets is not position (or magnetic poles) to produce signals to

quite available because of the large slot pitch. Then control the electronic switches. The most common

the method of teeth notching has also been

19

2012 International Conference on Computing, Electronics and Electrical Technologies [ICCEET]

position/pole sensor is the Hall element, but some Slot width bottom, wsb : The distance between start

motors use optical sensors.

point and end point of the slot opening at the

bottom.

A. Dimensions ofBLDC motor

Tooth width, W,t: The total width of the stator

teeth.

Back iron length, wt : The linear distance between

Stator outer

diameter the stator outer circumference and the stator inner

circumference.

Slot depth, d, : The maximum distance between the

mid-point of the start point and the mid-point end

point of the slot teeth.

Air

'------+ Gap

Fig. I Key dimensions of BLDC motor variables are usually dimensions, winding turns and

properties of magnet material whereas the

The key dimensions of a BLDC motor are defined dependent variables (output variables) are usually

as follows: performance figures such as torque, current,

Stator outer diameter: The maximum distance efficiency, temperature rise etc. In fact, many more

between the center of the motor and the stator independent variables involved in the design

outer circumference is called the stator outer radius. process and most of them are assigned their values

Twice the stator outer radius is the stator outer by reiteration. That is, the design engineers have to

diameter. make certain assumptions, assigning trial values to

Stator inner diameter: The maximum distance independent variables and calculating the

between the center of the motor and the stator dependent values. If the performance is not

inner circumference is called the stator inner radius. satisfactory, the process continues until the desired

Twice the stator inner radius is the stator inner performance is achieved. Another method to design

diameter. is, the dependent variables are fixed and

Rotor outer diameter: The maximum distance accordingly the independent variables are derived

between the center of the motor and the rotor outer with the help of equations.

circumference is called the rotor outer radius. In this section, a generalized procedure for

Twice the rotor outer radius is the rotor outer designing a PMBLDCM, either having the

diameter. dependent variables or arriving the independent

Rotor inner diameter: The maximum distance variables or vice versa is proposed. Before a BLDC

between the center of the motor and the rotor inner motor design can begin, several important

circumference is called the rotor inner radius. decisions must be made regarding the features of

Twice the rotor inner radius is the rotor inner different types of brushless motors and the

diameter. availability of different magnetic materials .A step

Magnet thickness: The maximum distance between by step procedure is provided as a flow chart in

the mid-point of the top of the magnet and the mid Fig.3.

point of the bottom of the magnet.

Air gap: Gap between the rotor outer IV. DESIGN EQUATIONS

circumference and the stator inner circumference.

A. Torque Expression ofBLDC motor

B. Stator slot dimensions Force on a current carrying conductor in a

magnetic field is given by,

F=lLxB (1)

where,L is length of the conductor, B is magnetic

flux density, and I is current through the conductor.

The magnitude of the force is

F=BILsinB (2)

where Bis the angle between L and B.

point and end point of the slot opening at the top.

20

2012 International Conference on Computing, Electronics and Electrical Technologies [ICCEET]

The 3 phase inverter is operated in 1200

conduction mode i.e. two phase carry current at any

given time. Thus the total torque developed by the

I nterior-rotor, exterior rotor, or axial-gap

motor wiJ] be

configuration

(8)

Select magnet Grade In this design, the coils of same phase are

connected in series. Also 1200 conduction mode are

Select number of Poles used.

(9)

Select number of Stator slots and phases

(10)

In the same manner the back emf can be

Select air gap length and determine calculated as torque expression of the motor:

magnetic Loading Emf in one conductor, Ee =Bg Lv

(11)

Design rotor and determine flux/pole

Emf in one conductor, Ec = Bg Lwm R.

(12) .'II

Lay out stator lamination dimensions (13) m Sl

(14)

Solve for number of conductors and Emf in one phase, E hase = P Bg Lns wm R'i

turn/coil p (15)

Back emf of the motor, Eb =2PBg Ln.0 wm R..01

(16)

Calculate wire size, resistance and

inductance/phase Eb is the back emf seen by the DC voltage source.

The conductor wire gauge will be decided by

Check temperture rise, current density, flux the maximum current density.

densities, demagnetization of magnet

Ae Ie '. ... De 2 fA:

J V-;-

= =

(17)

oblectives met Actually RMS value i.e. I fi should have been

Fig.3 Flow chart for design procedure

e

V3

The BLOC motor works on same principle as

used. However, Ie is taken leading to a

a DC motor i.e. armature current and magnetic field conservative design. Now using standard wire

are kept orthogonal to each other in space( B=900 gauge (SWG) table select a gauge with next higher

). Thus the force on one conductor in the BLDC diameter (De *) than what has obtained.

motor is given by,

A*-�(D*)2

-4

c

.A -

... - ns xA -

c ,

- ns xA *

ell ell c

(3) (18)

:. Torque on a conductor is given by, Aeu is area of copper in a slot. Now approximate

r: = B/c LR,;

(4) overhang length is calculated. It is assumed that

A tum consists of 2 conductors, one above winding overhang is equal to coil pitch.

north pole and other above south. Therefore torque 1 1

Ie 2n:(R" +"2d,) p

on one tum is

=

(19)

(5)

(20)

:. Torque on a coil with turns n s is given by,

D. Stator Slot Design

(6) It is considered that uniform tooth and

Each pole pair has to have all 3 phase coils. approximate the slot area as a trapezoid as shown

Therefore total number of coils per phase is equal in Fig 2.

to no. of pole pairs. A full pitch winding (SPP=I ) The slot area can be calculated as follows

is used to get square mmf wave. Aeu

:. Torque per phase is given by, AS =

Kjil/

(21)

(7)

21

2012 International Conference on Computing, Electronics and Electrical Technologies [ICCEET]

The slot fill factor takes care of insulation in �oss = 21s 2 Rph

the slot as well as all the approximations that are

_CII

(38)

made while choosing slot area as trapezoid. Using Core loss:

this area the various dimensions shown in Fig I and As compared to copper losses, core losses

Fig 2 can be calculated as follows: are very difficult to calculate as they consist of

hysteresis and eddy current losses which vary

(22) nonlinearly with frequency and magnetic flux

2JrRSI . density. Fortunately manufacturers provide

r • S 1 ot PItch (23)

S '

= __

Tooth has to carry all the flux in the slot pitch, flux density and frequency which we can use to

approximately calculate the core losses. Core losses

i.e. 0,s =0I =>rsLBg = wLB I max (24) occur only in stator.

. w ---

B, �ossJore =coreloss / kg(fe,Bmax)xw'la,or

(39)

t - � r·w - s -wt

s' sb-r

Bmax

• •

(25)

v. MAGNET SOFTWARE AND

The area of the trapezoid is the slot area.

DESIGN STEPS

I

.'. A, = "2 (WSI + wsb) xd,

(26) MagNet is the most advanced package

2Jr(Rs i + ds) (27) currently available for modeling electromagnetic

I

_

W W

,,- NS devices on a personal computer. It provides a

"virtual laboratory" in which the user can create

Substitute Wst in As and solve the quadratic models from magnetic materials and coils, view

equation obtained to get "ds "and "Wst ".The displays in the form of field plots and graphs, and

get numerical values for quantities such as flux

maximum flux that the stator back iron has to carry

linkage and force. A MagNet user needs only an

is half the pole flux.

elementary knowledge of magnetic concepts to

1 2JrR. B JrR

LB =wLB b �wb =_g si model existing devices, modify designs, and test

g l max i B

--_

." ___

2 P P max

new ideas.

MagNet is designed as a full 3D-modeling

(28) tool for solving static magnetic field and eddy

Actually pole flux density profile is

current problems. Many devices can be represented

trapezoidal in nature. Here it is assumed to be same

very well by 20 models, so MagNet offers the

all along the pole pitch.

option of 20 modeling, with a substantial saving in

(29) computing resources and solution time. With 2D

This fixes all the dimensions of the machine. Now models, MagNet can also handle problems with

the weight of the motor is calculated. automated design optimization and provides

Rotor: thermal simulations and vibration analysis in

addition.

- ltL1)�o 2L

Vrotor - (30)

A. Modelingflow chart

w"Olor = D"ee' X Vro1or (31)

Step 1

Stator:

Step 2

-E Set the drav.ing space

Oraw the geometry

Sweep the components

'-_'/

---c ;���: ���._�=��c��.

Apply the "Make Simple Coil"

commands

01

'----_--"

Windings: Edit the co� propertlllS

----c: Oraw and $wetp an iii, bOil that surrounds

the model

(35)

WCll = Dcu xVrotor ----c: Modify the mesh edge subdNisions

Step 5

Overall weight: Modify the element edge ren�lh

(36)

This is an approximate value and weight of the

St.p 6 8 ----c I

Solve defaults

Clloose the sower options (Ot accepllhe

I

frame is not considered.

Step 7

-E View field pl ols

..

VieW and graph glob ! qUilAUiiS

Ind field lnir�ultions

rn.nipulal� fields using I� CAlculafor.

Plobe field values.

E. Calculation of losses

Copper losses: Fig.S Flowchart for modeling in MagNet 7.1.1 [ 13]

I

Rt -

- P _ I • R - pns Rf

cll *' ph- B. Design steps

AC

(37)

As 2 phases carry current at any given time,

22

2012 International Conference on Computing, Electronics and Electrical Technologies [ICCEET]

The BLDC motor with 27 slots and 8 poles which fixed to the component and the necessary materials

is to be designed is shown in Fig.6 with complete are filled in the component as shown in Fig.lD.

dimensions and its design parameters are listed out Similarly all the components are constructed.

in Table.1. All dimensions shown in Fig.6 are in

millimeters (mm).

Stator Outer Diameter 62mm

Stator Yoke 2mm

Stator Teeth Height 12.5mm

Rotor Outer Diameter 34.5mm

Rotor Inner Diameter 12mm

Magnet Area IOmm

'" 10

/A:v----+... ,."'"'

12 00 62(0

Clicking open the MagNet 7.1.1 software, go

to File and open a new file as shown in Fig.7.

- ,�

in Fig.7 where the units of the dimensions say

millimeter, centimeter, meter, etc. is selected. Now

the required geometry is drawn using the

corresponding tools. For example, using the circle

tool a circle of radius 31mm is drawn as shown in

Fig.7.

3) Create coils

Coils are then created by using Model tool and

"Make a simple coil" option as shown in Fig. I O.

The parameters of the coil are then set as shown in

Fig. I I .

a geometry

Fig.8. Then the geometry is made as different

components as shown in Fig. 9. The parameters are

23

2012 International Conference on Computing, Electronics and Electrical Technologies [ICCEET]

C. Various Analysis

positions shown in Fig.14.All the rotating

components selected and rotated to necessary

degree as shown in Fig.l5.

4) Solve

The solving adaptation is done automatically

using "Solve" tools and "Static 2D" option as

shown in 12.

Fig.14 Changing rotor position

l" ... c.:at>-___ o...o: __ ,.... ___ ...

Fig. 15 Changing the angle of rotor

5) View the solution results

Fig.13 shows the result page where many datas D.Design overview

say Energy, Torque, Flux Linkages, Ohmic loss, The overall view of the constructed

Iron losses can be viewed. PMBLDCM is shown in Fig.23 (a) sand (b).

24

2012 International Conference on Computing, Electronics and Electrical Technologies [ICCEET]

VII. CONCLUSION

Magnet Brushless DC (PMBLDC) motor is

proposed in this paper. The dependent variable and

the arrival of independent variablesor vice versa

arepossible inthe proposed procedure. This paper

gives the combination of both the techniques.

A step by step procedure of designing and

(a) (b) analyzing a PMBLDC motor using the MagNet

7.1.1 software is shown. The possible analysis in

Fig.23 (a) Side view, (b) Coil connected MagNet 7.1.1 has been shown. The result has been

discussed in such a way that it is possible to

VI. RESULTS improve the teaching-learning methods in this field

with interactive screens. The MagNet 7.1.1 models

A.

Fluxflow of basic PMBLDC motor is developed and

The flux flow pattern of the designed performance waveforms are obtained. It is evident

PMBLDCM is shown in Fig.24. that the developed tool will help a UG level of

Shaded Plot

181

understanding and performance predictions of

1

PMBLDC motors.

I ;�

1.36714

0.911766

0.45639 REFERENCES

0.00101494

McGraw-Hill, 1994..

[2] R.Hendershot Jr. and TJE Miller, Design of Brushless

Permanent-Magnet Motor. Magna Physics Publications &

Clarendon Press, 1994, Oxford.

[3] Bin Zhang, Xiuhe Wang, Ran Zhang, Xiaolei Mou*

M. Ehsan 'Cogging Torque Reduction by Combining

Teeth Notching and Rotor Magnets Skewing in PM

BLDC with Concentrated Windings" IEEE

Transaction on Electrical machines and systems,(IC

EMS),03 VoU pp. 3 189 - 3 192 .Feb.2009

[4] Kwang-Kyu Han Dong-Yeup Lee Gyu-Hong Kang Ki-

Fig.24 Flux yattern Bong Jang Heung-Kyo Shin Gyu-Tak Kim

Dept. of Electr. Eng., Changwon Nat. Univ, Changwon

"The design of rotor and notch to improve the operation

B. Cogging Torque characteristics in spoke type BLDC motor" IEEE

The rotor is rotated from 0 to 360 degrees Transaction on Electrical Machines and Systems(ICEMS).

[5] R.P. Praveen, M.H. Ravichandran, V.T. SadasivanAchari,

Cogging torque of electrical motors is the torque Dr. v.P. Jagathy Raj, Dr. G. Madhu, Dr. G.R. Bindu, and

due to the interaction between the permanent Dr. F. Dubas" Optimal Design of a Surface Mounted

Permanent-Magnet BLDC Motor for Spacecraft

magnets of the rotor and the stator slots of a Applications"IEEE Transaction on Emerging Trends in

Permanent Magnet (PM) machineIt is especially Electrical and Computer Technology (ICETECT). pp 413 -

419. May 2011

prominent at lower speeds, with the symptom of

[6] Y. Diinmezer and L.T. Ergene Informatics Institute, Istanbul

jerkiness. A waveform is plotted between the rotor Technical University, Istanbul, Turkey. "Cogging Torque

Motor Used in Washers", ELECTROMOTION 2009 - EPE

Chapter 'Electric Drives' Joint Symposium, 1-3 July 2009,

Cogging Torque Lille, France..

0.6 [7] PiotrBogusz, MariuszKorkosz& Jan Prokop" A Study of

Design Process of BLDC Motor for Aircraft Hybrid Drive"

0.4 IEEE Transaction on Industrial Electronics (ISlE). pp. 508

-513. June 2011

0.2 [8] G. Lacombe I, A. Foggial, Y. Marechall, X. Brunotte2,

and P. Wendling3 USA "From General Finite-Element

o Simulation Software to Engineering-Focused Software:

Example for Brushless Permanent Magnet Motors

200

-0.2 Design"IEEE TRANSACTIONS ON MAGNETICS, VOL.

43, NO. 4, APRIL 2007.

- 0 .4 [9] URL - http://www.tedmotors.comlbrushless-dc-motor.htm

[ 10] URL - http://www.chennaiplc.com/

Fig.25 Rotor position Vs Cogging torque waveform [ 1 1] URL - http://www.gennextcontrol.netlgear-motors.html

[ 12] URL - http://www.anshumantech.netl

[ 13] URL - http://www.infolytica.com/en/products/magnet

25

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