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Rooting Mangasinoro (Shorea assamica forma philippinensis)

Cuttings Collected from Fertilized Mother Plants

Edgardo D. Magtibay*

Abstract

The study on the rooting of Mangasinoro cuttings was conducted in order to find out
the effect of treating the donor/mother plants with Freegrow foliar fertilizer on the rooting
performance of shoot cuttings. Four (4) foliar fertilizer levels were applied such as: 0, 5, 10,
and 15 ml per liter of water 30 days after the mother plants were topped. The shoot cuttings
collected twenty one (21) days after treatment application were rooted in a rooting chamber
equipped with a mist watering system. Data were collected 150 days after sticking the shoot
cuttings. Results showed that there were significant differences among shoot cuttings
collected from mother plants that were treated with various levels of foliar fertilizer with
regards to mean number of roots per plant, rooting percentage, mean number of shoots per
plant, shooting percentage and % plant survival. Further analysis also revealed that foliar
fertilizer level of 10 ml and 15 ml per liter of water gave the highest rooting performance and
survival for Mangasinoro shoot cuttings.

Keywords: Rooting, Shorea assamica, cuttings, fertilized mother plants

Introduction

Propagation by cuttings is one of the common practices used in the production of


planting materials for most horticultural crops. The reason is that cuttings can develop into
plants having similar characteristics with the mother plants which are not true in plants
developed from seeds. Plants bear fruit earlier than plants grown from seeds. In forestry,
propagation by cuttings now becomes the most recommended way of producing planting
materials especially for tree species that are difficult to propagate by seeds. Several
attempts have been made to propagate forest tree species by cuttings and resulted to a
successful research endeavor. Manipula (2000) was able to root White Lauan (Shorea
contorta) successfully using IBA rooting hormone and coconut coir dust combined with other
rooting media. Namoc (2004) also found out that Teak shoot cuttings can be rooted by
treating with ANAA. Molave shoot cuttings were able to root after treating with ANAA
(Gendive 2005).
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*Associate Professor, University of Southeastern Philippines, Forestry Department, Apokon,


Tagum City, Philippines

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Growth regulators such as foliar fertilizers were found to be effective in improving the
growth of plants. Gumela (2004) recommended that 10 ml per liter of water of Freegrow
foliar fertilizer should be applied in order to improve the growth of Bagras by about 44%.
Roquero (2005) also recommended 2 ml per liter of water of AZ foliar fertilizer in order to
enhance root length (by 146%) and number of leaves (by about 32%). In line with these
findings and recommendations, it was assumed that growth-enhanced mother plants due to
treatment of foliar fertilizer will produce better shoot cuttings for rooting with regards to
shooting and rooting performance and plant survival. This assumption is because of the fact
that more active cells and efficient tissue conversion are present in plant with improved
growth especially in plant shoots. Furthermore, recent techniques did not show the
importance of the physiological and vegetative condition of the mother plants as criteria in
choosing the best source for the collection of shoot cuttings. Since foliar fertilizers enhance
growth as well as the vegetative structure of plants, it is important that mother plants in a
hedge garden be treated with growth enhancers (i.e. foliar fertilizers) before shoot cutting
are collected.

Materials and Methods

Preparation of the Rooting Chamber, Layout


of the Experiment and Experimental Treatment

The experiment was conducted at the clonal nursery of the DENR at Magdum,
Tagum City where propagation chambers are available. One chamber was prepared by
loosening the rooting medium (fine sand), washed and treated with fungicide by flooding.
The surface was leveled and the experiment was laid out in Complete Randomized Design
with four (4) treatment and 10 samples per treatment replicated three times. The four
treatments are as follows: 0, 5, 10 and 15 ml of Freegrow fertilizer per liter of water.

Preparation of the Mother Plants


and Treatment Application

The selected mother plants in a hedge garden established in row were topped. One
(1) month after topping, the mother plants with young vertical shoots were treated with
various level of Freegrow foliar fertilizer (the experimental treatments). This was carefully
done by totally covering the adjacent plants so that they will not be hit by an unwanted
spray. This process continued until the four treatments are applied to the selected mother
plants. Each mother plant was placed with tag (with treatment name) for identification.

Freegrow foliar fertilizer is a type of foliar fertilizer commonly used for orchid
production management as a growth regulator. However, it was also found out that it is also

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useful in enhancing the growth newly planted tree seedlings even better than the ground
fertilizers. Freegrow foliar fertilizer consists of the macro and micro elements such as: 0.10%
nitrogen, 0.20% phosphorous, 1.02% potassium, 0.11% calcium, 0.01% magnesium, 0.13%
sodium, 256 ppm of iron, 11.87 ppm manganese and 15.62% copper.

The ERDS experience revealed that young shoots emerge in 1 month after topping
the mother plants. Thus one month after topping is the best time to apply foliar fertilizer
considering that young shoots are already present and nourishing from the absorbed
elements by the mother plants from foliar fertilizer within a certain period of time.

Collection of Shoot Cuttings

Growth of plants treated with foliar fertilizers is at maximum between 14 to 21 days


after applying foliar fertilizer (Andresan and Pikitan 2006). Thus, twenty one (21) days after
the treatment application, shoot cuttings were collected from the fertilized mother plants
using a pruning shear. They were segregated by treatment names and placed in big
transparent cellophane with bottom filled with water. The cellophane was placed in a
Styrofoam box for safe transport to the DENR clonal nursery early in the morning.

Preparation of Shoot Cuttings


and Sticking in a Rooting Chamber

Using a pruning shear, the shoot cuttings were cut into a three-node length with
leaves trimmed to half of its size and with shoot tips removed. They were sterilized by
soaking into a solution of Dithane for 10 minutes (Manipula 2000). After sterilization,
prepared shoot cuttings were dipped into a 1000 ppm concentration of ANAA for about an
hour (Balmocena 2004). After the application of the rooting hormone, they were stuck in the
rooting chamber following the experimental layout. Regular maintenance was done by
watering (mist system) and spraying of fungicide.

Data Collection and Analysis

One hundred fifty (150) days after sticking, shoot cuttings were uprooted, cleaned
and segregated by treatment and replication. The following data were gathered such as:
mean number of roots per plant, rooting percentage, mean number of shoots per plant,
shooting percentage and plant survival. The data were analyzed using the analysis of
variance, Duncan’s Multiple Range Test, and regression and correlation.

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Results and Discussion

Number of Roots and Shoots

The Mangasinoro cuttings collected from fertilized mother plants with various levels
of Freegrow foliar fertilizer produced roots in 150 days after sticking (Table 1.0, column 2).
The lowest mean number of roots was developed in shoot cuttings collected from untreated
mother plants with a mean value of 0.93. For shoot cuttings from treated mother plants, it
ranges from 1.47 to 4.37 roots per plant. The difference between treated and untreated is
significant except between the shoot cuttings from untreated mother plants and the shoot
cuttings from mother plants treated with 5 ml of Freegrow foliar fertilizer per liter of water.

Among the shoot cuttings from treated mother plants, the differences in the number
of roots per plant are also significant except for the two higher application levels (10 ml and
15 ml per liter of water) which mean that adding 5 ml application of foliar fertilizer per liter of
water to 10 ml per liter of water to the mother plants gave no significant effect to the shoot
cuttings in producing roots. However, increase of application by 5 ml to 5 ml per liter of water
gave significant value difference in mean number of roots per plant.

Similar trend of result was observed in the number of shoots developed due to
treating the mother plants with Freegrow foliar fertilizer before shoot cuttings were collected
(Table 1.0, column 4). There was an average of 0.39 shoots per plant produced in shoot
cuttings collected from an untreated mother plants. For shoot cuttings from treated mother
plants, shoot production ranges from 0.60 shoot per plant (due 5 ml Freegrow foliar fertilizer
application to mother plants) to 1.20 shoots per plant (the effect of 15 ml per liter application
to mother plants).

Treating the mother plants with 5 ml Freegrow foliar fertilizer per liter of water gave
no significant difference in the ability of the shoot cuttings to produce shoots over the shoot
cuttings from untreated mother plants. However, as it increase from 10 ml to 15 ml per liter
of water, difference in shoots production is no longer significant. It can be observed also that
as the application increase from 10 ml to 15 ml per liter of water, there was a reduction in
value of 0.03 though not significant. This could mean that there would be a possibility of
significant reduction in the shoots production if the application is increased above 15 ml per
liter of water.
Correlation analysis revealed that relationship does not exist between shoot
production and foliar fertilizer level.

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Rooting and Shooting Percentage

The result of applying Freegrow foliar fertilizer to mother plants before shoot cuttings
were collected for rooting expressed in the percentage of number of shoot cuttings that
produced roots is presented in Table 1.0 (column 3). Shoot cuttings from untreated mother
plants obtained 20% rooting percentage followed by 30% shoot cuttings from mother treated
plants with 5 ml of Freegrow foliar fertilizer per liter of water. The shoot cuttings from mother
treated plants with 15 ml per liter of water of Freegrow foliar fertilizer gave the highest
rooting percentage of 60%. The DMRT analysis also showed that the rooting percentage of
shoot cuttings from untreated mother plants was not significantly different from the rooting
percentage of shoot cuttings from mother plants treated with 5 ml of Freegrow foliar fertilizer
per liter of water. The result of the analysis also showed that the increased application by 5
ml per liter of water to the mother plants of foliar fertilizer (from 5 ml to 10 ml per liter of
water), shoot cuttings were able to obtain better rooting percentage that is significantly
different from the lower level of application of foliar fertilizer (5ml per liter of water). An
increased in the application of foliar fertilizer from 10 ml to 15 ml per liter of water gained no
significant result.

The shooting percentage of Mangasinoro shoot cuttings was nearly similar to that of
the rooting percentage in value or in trend of shooting percentage value as the application of
foliar fertilizer increases from 0 to 15 ml per liter of water except for 10 and 15 ml per liter of
water. The shooting percentage of shoot cuttings from untreated mother plants obtained
26% lower than shooting percentage (30%, 70% and 60%) of shoot cuttings from mother
plants treated with 5 ml, 10 ml and 15 ml foliar fertilizer per liter of water. The highest
shooting percentage is observed in shoot cuttings from mother plants treated with 10 ml
foliar fertilizer per liter of water.

The differences among shooting percentages is significant except between 0 ml and


5 ml per liter of water application as well as 10 ml and 15 ml per liter of water. However, the
60% rooting percentage of shoot cuttings from mother plants treated with 10 ml per liter of
water was significantly different from the 30% of shoot cuttings from mother plants treated
with 5 ml Freegrow foliar fertilizer per liter of water.
Plant Survival

At the end of 150 days of observation after sticking of Mangasinoro shoots cuttings,
there was 33.3% of the total number of samples stuck survived for shoot cuttings from
untreated mother plants as well as shoot cuttings from mother plants treated with 5 ml per
liter of water of Freegrow foliar fertilizer. Shoot cuttings from mother plants treated with 10
ml and 15 ml of foliar fertilizer per liter of water obtained 70% survival. Analysis showed that
70% value of plant survival of shoot cuttings from mother plants treated with 10 ml and 15

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ml per liter of water is significantly different from 33.3% survival of shoot cuttings of
untreated mother plants and shoot cuttings from mother plants treated with 5 ml of foliar
fertilizer per liter water. This means that higher than 5 ml application of foliar fertilizer per
liter of water will give better outcome with regards to plant survival.

Table 1.0 Shooting and rooting performance (150 days after sticking) of Mangasinoro shoot
cuttings collected from fertilized donor or the mother plants.

Mean
Freegrow Number Rooting Mean Number Shooting Plant
Foliar Fertilizer of Roots per Percentage of Shoots per Percentage Survival
(ml/lit of water) plant (%) Plant (%) (%)
0 0.93b 20.0c 0.39b 26.7b 33.3b
5 1.47b 30.0b 0.60b 30.0b 33.3b
a a
10 3.83 56.7 1.23a 70.0a 70.0a
a a
15 4.37 60.0 1.20a 60.0a 70.0a
Values having different superscript are significant at 0.01 alpha

Summary, Conclusion and Recommendation

About 60 mother or donor plants were treated with various levels of Freegrow foliar
fertilizer per liter of water such as 0 ml, 5 ml, 10 ml and 15 ml one month after topping.
Twenty one (21) days after the application, shoot cuttings were collected and stuck in a
rooting chamber for 150 days. At the end of 150 days observation period, data were
gathered and analyzed. Results showed that shoot cuttings from mother plants treated with
15 ml of foliar fertilizer per liter of water gave the highest number of roots per plant of 4.37
and rooting percentage of 60%. However, the two values are not significantly different from
3.83 roots per plant produced by shoot cuttings from the mother plants treated with 10 ml of
Freegrow foliar fertilizer per liter of water and the 56.7% rooting percentage of shoot cuttings
from the mother plants treated with the same level of foliar fertilizer. The same is true with
shoots production and shooting percentage of shoot cuttings from untreated and treated
mother plants except that the outcome is reversed in 10 ml and 15 ml of Freegrow foliar
fertilizer level per liter of water but not in plant survival where there is equal percentage of
survival for 10 ml and 15 ml of Freegrow foliar fertilizer per liter of water.

Based from the observation made and the generated insights, the following are
concluded:

1. The effect of foliar fertilizer on the growth of out-planted plants may have the
same effect on the growth and development of shoot cuttings.

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2. Mother plants having better growth habit will produce shoot cuttings that could be
rooted efficiently.
3. Applying foliar fertilizer to mother plants could indirectly improve the rooting
performance and survival of shoot cuttings.
4. Higher level of foliar fertilizer application gave the optimum rooting and shooting
performance and plant survival of Mangasinoro shoot cuttings.
5. The effect of treating the mother plants prior to shoot cuttings collection is
significant with respect to shoot production and plant survival but there were no
significant relationship between shoot production and foliar fertilizer application
level as well as survival and foliar fertilizer level.
6. Root production is linearly related with foliar fertilizer level of application.

For better outcome of propagation by cuttings of Mangasinoro, the following are


recommended:

1. Apply 10 ml of Freegrow foliar fertilizer per liter of water one month after topping
the mother plants before shoot cuttings are collected.
2. In applying the foliar fertilizer to mother plants, be sure that both above and
below the foliage are hit by spray of foliar fertilizer.
3. The spray should be done between 9:00 am to 11:00 am in order to be sure that
the foliar fertilizer is efficiently absorb by plants.
4. A study on higher level of foliar fertilizer application is also recommended in order
to find out what would happen if the foliar fertilizer application is increased
beyond the optimum level of 10 ml and 15 ml of Freegrow foliar fertilizer per liter
of water.
5. The use of other rooting hormone (i.e. Indole Butyric Acid) is also recommended
to improve the study especially the gestation period after sticking of Mangasinoro
shoot cuttings.

References

ANDRESAN, M. 2006. Effects of Complete Fertilizer (14-14-14) to Bakauan lalaki Seedlings.


USEP Department of Forestry, Apokon, Tagum City. Unpublished Thesis

GENDIVE, C. B. 2005. Rooting studies of Molave (Vitex parviflora Joss) orthotropic shoot
cuttings as influenced by different levels of ANAA hormone. USEP Department of
Forestry, Apokon, Tagum City. Unpublished Thesis

GUMELA, M. B. 2004. Field performance of out-planted Bagras (Eucalyptus deglupta)


orthotropic shoot cuttings as influenced by various concentrates of Freegrow foliar
fertilizer. USEP Department of Forestry, Apokon, Tagum City. Unpublished Thesis

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MANIPULA, B.M. 2000. Effects of light intensity, rooting media and rooting hormone on the
survival, rooting ability and shoot production of White Lauan (Shorea contorta).
USEP Tagum City. Unpublished Dissertation.

NAMOC, M. A. 2004. Propagation of Teak (Tectona grandis) by cuttings grown in different


rooting media. USEP Department of Forestry, Apokon, Tagum City. Unpublished
Thesis

PIKITAN, A. M. 2006. Effects of Foliar Fertilizer on Out-planted Almon (Shorea almon,


Foxw) Rooted-Shoot Cuttings. USEP Department of Forestry, Apokon, Tagum City.
Unpublished Thesis.

ROQUERO, M. A. 2005. Growth analysis of Bagras (Eucalyptus deglupta Blume) rooted-


shoot cuttings out-planted in grassland site as influenced by various levels of AZ
41 foliar fertilizer. USEP Department of Forestry, Apokon, Tagum city.
Unpublished Undergrad Thesis.

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