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CONFIDENTIAL 1 EM/OCT2018/MEM603

UNIVERSITI TEKNOLOGI MARA


INTERMEDIATE EXAMINATION

COURSE : OCCUPATIONAL SAFETY AND HEALTH


COURSE CODE : MEM603
EXAMINATION : OCTOBER 2018 TEST 1
TIME : 2 HOURS

Student name : _______________________________________________

Student ID

Group No.
ANSWER SCHEME
: _______________________________________________

: _______________________________________________

Lecturer name : _______________________________________________

INSTRUCTIONS TO CANDIDATES

1. This question paper consists of THREE (3) questions.

2. Answer ALL questions in the Answer Sheets. Start each answer on a new page.

3. Write ALL your answers in ENGLISH.

4. Do not bring any material into the examination room unless approved by the invigilator.

5. Switch OFF all mobile phones and any electronic gadgets.

6. Do not take out the question paper and the blank answer sheets from the exam room.

Write your answers in the Answer Sheet in the same sequence following the order of the
7.
questions in the test paper.

Write the number of question answered in the space provided at the top of each page of the
8.
answer sheets.

9. Write your answers neatly, clearly and legibly.

10. All UiTM examination rules and regulations are applicable to this Test.

11. If you do not comply with any of the instructions given above, your marks will be penalized.

DO NOT TURN THIS PAGE UNTIL YOU ARE TOLD TO DO SO


This examination paper consists of 4 printed pages
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CONFIDENTIAL 2 EM/OCT2018/MEM603

(Note: The following table is to be filled up by the lecturer concerned.)

QUESTION
C1/C2 C3/C4 C5/C6
NO.
CO1/PO3/C4
1(a)
(10 marks)
CO1/PO3/C2
1(b)
(10 marks)
CO1/PO3/C2
2(a)
(8 marks)
CO1/PO3/C4
2(b)
(12 marks)
CO1/PO3/C5
2(c)
(10marks)
CO1/PO3/C5
2(d)
[10 marks]
CO1/PO3/C4
3(a)
[10 marks]
CO1/PO3/C6
3(b)
[10 marks]
CO1/PO3/C4
3(c)
[10 marks]
CO1/PO3/C5
3(d)
[10 marks]

TOTAL 18 42 40
OVERALL / 100

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CONFIDENTIAL 3 EM/OCT2018/MEM603

QUESTION 1

a) The Department of Safety and Health (DOSH) is responsible for the enforcement of
Occupational Safety and Health matters in Malaysia. Interpret the responsibility of
DOSH in ensuring the safety, health and welfare of workers and other persons from
hazards.
CO1/PO3/C3 (10 marks)

Answer

The department is responsible for ensuring the safety, health and welfare of people
at work as well as protecting other people from the safety and health hazards arising
from the activities sectors. This includes:
i. Standard Setting
The standards on safety, health, and welfare had to be reviewed, drafted, and
finalized from time to time.
ii. Policy Study
Update OSH policies to ensure that the goals and the practice of self-
regulation among employers and employees were achieved.
iii. Drafting Regulations, Guidelines, and Industrial Codes of Practice
To assist the industry in complying with and fulfilling its responsibilities as an
employer, as required by the Occupational Safety and Health Act 1994.
iv. Enforcement activities aimed at ensuring the safety, health, and welfare of
workers and other persons, as required under the following Acts:
a. Occupational Safety and Health Act 1994 (Act 514)
b. Factories and Machinery Act 1967 (Act 139); and
c. Petroleum (Safety Measures) Act 1984 (Act 302).
v. Enforcement activities including Approval and Authorization, Registration,
Certification, Inspection, Investigation and Litigation

b) Explain briefly the following terms in the context of occupational safety and health:

i. Accident
ii. Incident
iii. Hazard
iv. Risk
v. Safety
CO1/PO3/C2 (10 marks)

i. Accident –Undesired circumstances which give rise to ill-health or injury,


damage to property, plant, products or the environment; production losses or
increased liabilities.
ii. Incident –Undesired circumstances and ‘near misses’ which could cause
accidents.
iii. Hazard
The potential to cause harm including ill health and injury, damage to
property, plant, products or the environment, production losses or increased
liabilities.
iv. Risk

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CONFIDENTIAL 4 EM/OCT2018/MEM603

Likelihood that an undesired event will occur due to the realization of a hazard
during work activities or by the products and services created by work
activities.
v. Safety-
The condition of being protected from harm or other non-desirable outcomes.
Safety can also refer to the control of recognized hazards in order to achieve
an acceptable level of risk

QUESTION 2

a) Clarify the terms used in the Occupational Safety and Health field as listed below:

i. Act
ii. Regulation
iii. Industrial Code of Practice (ICOP)
iv. Guideline
CO1/PO3/C2 (8 marks)

i. Act
A bill which has passed through the various legislative steps required for it
and which has become law.
ii. Regulation
A rule or directive made and maintained by an authority.
iii. Industrial Code Of Practice (ICOP)
A set of professional standards issued by an official body to its members to
help them comply with its standards
iv. Guideline
A general rule, principle, or piece of advice.

b. Differentiate between the Factory and Machinery Act (FMA) 1967 with the
Occupational Safety and Health Act (OSHA) 1994 with regards to their scope
coverage, objectives, and approach taken for each act.
CO1/PO3/C4 (12 marks)
FMA 1967 OSHA 1994
Scope Only cover OSH in the Cover all economic activities &
manufacturing, mining, quarrying, government except armed forces &
works of engineering and construction seafarers
Cover 24 % of the man power Cover 90% of the man power
Objective - focus on control of factories & - to safeguard, health & welfare of
machinery employees & those at the place of
- registration & inspection of work for example visitors,
machines contractors etc
- less provision for health
Approach - Prescriptive - self-regulation
- Too dependent on government - supported by code of practices,
- Concern for inspection by guidelines etc
regulation authorities - tripartite responsibilities
- worker cooperation &
participation

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CONFIDENTIAL 5 EM/OCT2018/MEM603

c) The National Council for Occupational Safety and Health was established under
OSHA 1994. Outline the representative membership of this council. Ascertain their
roles and functions.
CO1/PO3/C5 (10 marks)
Membership of the Council:-
i. 3 persons from organizations representing employers;
ii. 3 persons from organizations representing employees;
iii. 3 or more persons from Ministries or Departments whose responsibility is
related to occupational safety and health;
iv. 3 or more person, of whom at least one woman, from organizations or
professional bodies the activities of whose members are related to
occupational safety and health;

Function of the Council


i. The Council has power to do all things necessary to assist the objects of
OSHA.
ii. Carry out investigations and make report to Minister with regard to any matter
relating to the objects of this Act, in particular, with regard to :-
a. Changes it consider desirable to occupational safety and health
legislation;
b. the improvement of the administration and enforcement of
occupational safety and health legislation;
c. the nurturing of a co-operative consultative relationship between
management and labour on safety, health and welfare of persons at
work;
d. the special problems with respect to occupational safety, health and
welfare of women, handicapped persons and other groups in the
community;

d) Describe the importance of establishing a safety and health committee in an


organization. Determine their roles in the workplace.
CO1/PO3/C4 (10 marks)

i. Safety committees can have a significant impact on a company because they


provide you with the opportunity to sit down with front line workers to discuss
prominent safety concerns. Safety committees set a great example for worker
safety and allow them to hold an important role in keeping not only
themselves, but their coworkers safe.
ii. Every employer shall establish a safety and health committee at the place of
work in accordance with this section if :-
• there are 40 or more persons employed at the place of work; or
• the Director General directs the establishment of such a committee
at the place of work.
iii. Every employer shall consult the safety and health committee to the making
and maintenance of arrangements which will enable him and his employees
to co-operate in promoting and developing measures to ensure the safety
and health at the place of work and in checking the effectiveness of such
measures.

The role of safety and health committee:-


i. shall keep under review the measures taken to ensure the safety and
health of persons at the place of work;
ii. shall investigate any matter at the place of work :-

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CONFIDENTIAL 6 EM/OCT2018/MEM603

a. which a member of the committee or a person employed thereat


considers is not safe or is a risk to health; and
b. which has been brought to the attention of the employer;
iii. shall attempt to resolve any matter referred to above and, if it is
unable to do so, shall request the Director General to undertake an
inspection of the place of work for that purpose;

QUESTION 3

a) Risk anticipation is one of the basic principles in occupational hygiene. Ascertain


what is risk anticipation? Explain briefly how the potential risks could be anticipated.

CO1/PO3/C6 (10 marks)

Risk anticipation is to identify potential health risks that might eventually happen.
Done during design stage of a process/ equipment or formulation of chemicals or
before starting the process or work operations.

Potential health risks can be anticipated by:


i. Process characteristics
ii. Physicochemical properties
iii. Possible health effects
iv. Past experiences
v. Similarity of the chemical structure to a known hazardous chemical

b) Biological hazards is defined as biological substances that pose a threat to the health
of living organisms, primarily that of humans. Elaborate the sources and methods to
control the biological hazards.
CO1/PO3/C4 (10 marks)
Source of biological hazards
i. human bodily matter
blood, tissues, vomit, urine, faeces, saliva and breast milk etc.
ii. animal products
Meat, offal, skins, bones, blood, milk and eggs
iii. live animals
Mammals, birds, fish, invertebrates and their urine or faeces
• biohazard waste, sewerage and rubbish
• laboratory cultures

Method to Control
i. Engineering control.
Ventilation system, vaccination, automated equipment
ii. Administrative
Quarantine procedure, training, policy and procedure
iii. Personal Protective Equipment
Eye protection, face protection, safety gloves, enclosed footwear

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CONFIDENTIAL 7 EM/OCT2018/MEM603

c) Define what is “Confined Space” as stated by the American National Standards


Institute (ANSI)? Illustrate three situations that would require a permit for approving
the workers to work in a confined space. Give two examples of confine spaces.

CO1/PO3/C4 (10 marks)

Confined space is one that meets all 3 criteria listed below:


i. Space large enough to enter and
ii. Limited or restricted entry or exit and
iii. Not designed for continuous occupancy

Confine space that requires a permit if there exist any of the following:
i. Hazardous atmosphere
ii. Engulfment hazard
iii. Configuration hazard
iv. Any recognized serious hazard

Student need to give 2 examples of confine space

d) Describe the “Acceptable Indoor Air” as defined by the American Society of Heating,
Refrigerating and Air-Conditioning Engineers (ASHRAE)? Determine 7 symptoms of
poor indoor air quality.
CO1/PO3/C5 (10 marks)

Acceptable indoor air is defined by ASHRAE: “Air in which there are no known
contaminates at harmful concentrations and which a substantial majority (usually
80%) of the people exposed do not express dissatisfaction”

Symptoms of poor indoor air quality are (any 7 of the following)


i. Headaches
ii. Fatigue
iii. Skin disorders
iv. Fever
v. Loss of memory
vi. Drowsiness
vii. Nausea
viii. Upper and lower respiratory problems

END OF QUESTION PAPER

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